A coherent electromagnetic wave traveling in the same direction with a relativistic electron beam in an undulator (buncher) will produce an energy modulation of the beam which is periodic with the same wavelength λ as the wave. The energy modulation is then transformed into a charge density modulation after drifting of the beam through a drift space. This Klystron-type bunching process1 can be thought to consist of the mutual interference of charge density harmonic waves with wavelengths n-1 λ; n=1,2…, which travel with the average speed of the particles V =βc.

© 1982 Optical Society of America

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