Abstract

The design of averaging spheres without internal target is described. The performance of such spheres is analyzed theoretically and tested experimentally. In a final design, an efficiency of 40% is achieved for visible and near-uv wavelengths. The averaging effectiveness is characterized by signal variations of the order of 1 part in 104 for beam displacements of several 0.1 mm.

© 1975 Optical Society of America

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