Abstract

Continuous surface-relief diffractive optical elements for two-dimensional array generation (fan-out) are designed and fabricated. Separable and nonseparable solutions for the two-dimensional element design are compared. The phase-grating microstructures are generated by laser-beam writing lithography in a single exposure step and converted to nickel shims by electroplating, enabling low-cost replicas to be produced by using laboratory and commercial replication processes. Results are presented for a 9 × 9 fan-out diffractive optical element with a measured efficiency of 94% and an overall uniformity within ±8%; replicas in epoxy have the same efficiency and a uniformity of ± 15%.

© 1993 Optical Society of America

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