Abstract

A rigorous numerical model, verified by experimental results, gives an explanation of the particular electromagnetic behaviors observed in x-cut proton-exchanged lithium niobate waveguides. This approach, which allows an exact calculation of the weights of the coupled ordinary and extraordinary waves that make up the hybrid modes, provides deeper insight into the study of the strains induced by the proton-exchange process in the waveguide itself, showing that the optical axis of the exchanged layer is not parallel to the waveguide plane.

© 1995 Optical Society of America

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