The reflectivity of the 22 km × 24 km region surrounding Sonnblick Observatory near Salzburg, Austria (3104-m altitude, 47.05 °N, 12.95 °E), was calculated with a three-dimensional albedo model. The average albedo of the region was calculated at 305 and 380 nm for different solar zenith angles, ground reflectances, and solar azimuth angles. To determine geometrical effects, we first carried out the simulations without taking account of the effects of the atmosphere. The ratio to the reflectivity of a corresponding flat surface area (area with the same ground characteristics) was always less than 1 and showed a decrease with increasing solar zenith angle and with diminishing ground reflectance. Even when the ground reflectance was 100%, the average albedo was less than 1. The effect of the atmosphere was then taken into consideration in these calculations and was found to diminish the reflected components. This diminishing effect was compensated for, however, by the scattered irradiance. Finally, simulations of real conditions (nonhomogeneous ground reflectivities) were performed for different snow lines in the Sonnblick region. The average albedos obtained when all the surroundings were covered with snow were 0.32–0.63 with low solar zenith angles and 0.38–0.77 with a 40° solar zenith angle.
© 2000 Optical Society of AmericaFull Article | PDF Article
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