Abstract

General expressions for the signals in frequency-modulation spectroscopy (FMS) appear in the literature but are often reduced to simple analytical equations following the assumption of a weak modulation index. This is little help to the experimentalist who wants to predict signals for modulation depths of the order of unity or greater, where strong FMS signals reside. Here, we develop general formulas for FMS signals in the case of an absorber with a Voigt line shape and then link these expressions to an example and existing numerical code for the line shape. The resulting computational recipe is easy to implement and exercised here to show where the larger FMS signals are found over the coordinates of modulation index and modulation frequency. One can also estimate from provided curves the in-phase FMS signal over a wide range of modulation parameters at either the Lorentzian-broadening or Doppler-broadening limit, or anywhere in between by interpolation.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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