Abstract

We present and characterize a simple CO2 laser processing technique for the fabrication of compact all-glass optical fiber cladding light strippers. We investigate the cladding light loss as a function of radiation angle of incidence and demonstrate devices in a 400 μm diameter fiber with cladding losses of greater than 20 dB for a 7 cm device length. The core losses are also measured giving a loss of <0.008±0.006  dB/cm. Finally we demonstrate the successful cladding light stripping of a 300 W laser diode with minimal heating of the fiber coating and packaging adhesives.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
Kilowatt-level cladding light stripper for high-power fiber laser

Ping Yan, Junyi Sun, Yusheng Huang, Dan Li, Xuejiao Wang, Qirong Xiao, and Mali Gong
Appl. Opt. 56(7) 1935-1939 (2017)

Robust cladding light stripper for high-power fiber lasers using soft metals

Amin Babazadeh, Reza Rezaei Nasirabad, Ahmad Norouzey, Kamran Hejaz, Reza Poozesh, Amir Heidariazar, Ali Hamedani Golshan, Ali Roohforouz, S. Naser Tabatabaei Jafari, and Majid Lafouti
Appl. Opt. 53(12) 2611-2615 (2014)

Efficient laser polishing of silica micro-optic components

Krzysztof M. Nowak, Howard J. Baker, and Denis R. Hall
Appl. Opt. 45(1) 162-171 (2006)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. M. Zhang, G. Chen, Y. Zhou, and S. Li, “Direct observation of keyhole characteristics in deep penetration laser welding with a 10  kW fiber laser,” Opt. Express 21, 19997–20004 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  2. M. Naeem, “Laser processing of reflective materials,” Laser Tech. J. 10, 18–20 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  3. W. Wang, J. Leng, J. Cao, S. Guo, X. Xu, and Z. Jiang, “Method for stripping cladding light in the high power fiber laser,” Opt. Commun. 287, 187–191 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  4. A. Wetter, M. Faucher, and B. Sévigny, “High power cladding light strippers,” Proc. SPIE 6873, 687327 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  5. W. Guo, Z. Chen, H. Zhou, J. Li, and J. Hou, “Cascaded cladding light extracting strippers for high power fiber lasers and amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. J. 6, 1–6 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  6. K. C. Hou, D. Kliner, M. H. Muendel, and J. Weston, “Cladding light stripper and method of manufacturing,” U.S. patent14/166,600 (28January2014).
  7. C. Ottenhues, T. Theeg, K. Hausmann, M. Wysmolek, H. Sayinc, J. Neumann, and D. Kracht, “Single-mode monolithic fiber laser with 200  W output power at a wavelength of 1018  nm,” Opt. Lett. 40, 4851–4854 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  8. S. Boehme, K. Hirte, S. Fabian, C. Hupel, T. Schreiber, R. Eberhardt, and A. Tünnermann, “CO2-laser based fiber coating process for high power fiber application,” Proc. SPIE 8968, 89680Z (2014).
    [Crossref]
  9. A. Babazadeh, R. R. Nasirabad, A. Norouzey, K. Hejaz, R. Poozesh, A. Heidariazar, A. H. Golshan, A. Roohforouz, S. Jafari, and M. Lafouti, “Robust cladding light stripper for high-power fiber lasers using soft metals,” Appl. Opt. 53, 2611–2615 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  10. R. Poozesh, A. Norouzy, A. H. Golshan, A. Roohforouz, A. Babazadeh, R. R. Nasirabad, N. T. Jafari, A. Heidariazar, K. Hejaz, and A. Alavian, “A novel method for stripping cladding lights in high power fiber lasers and amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30, 3199–3202 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  11. A. Kliner, K.-C. Hou, M. Plötner, C. Hupel, T. Stelzner, T. Schreiber, R. Eberhardt, and A. Tünnermann, “Fabrication and evaluation of a 500  W cladding-light stripper,” Proc. SPIE 8616, 86160N (2013).
    [Crossref]
  12. T. Li, J. Wu, Y. Sun, Y. Wang, and Y. Ma, “An improved method for stripping cladding light in high power fiber lasers,” Proc. SPIE 9255, 92550M (2015).
    [Crossref]
  13. K. M. Nowak, H. J. Baker, and D. R. Hall, “An analytical model for CO2 laser ablation of fused quartz,” Appl. Opt. 54, 8653–8663 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  14. S. Elhadj, M. J. Matthews, S. T. Yang, and D. J. Cooke, “Evaporation kinetics of laser heated silica in reactive and inert gases based on near-equilibrium dynamics,” Opt. Express 20, 1575–1587 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  15. N. Simakov, A. V. Hemming, A. Carter, K. Farley, A. Davidson, N. Carmody, M. Hughes, J. M. Daniel, L. Corena, and D. Stepanov, “Design and experimental demonstration of a large pedestal thulium-doped fibre,” Opt. Express 23, 3126–3133 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  16. B. Samson, A. Carter, and K. Tankala, “Doped fibres: rare-earth fibres power up,” Nat. Photonics 5, 466–467 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  17. G. Y. Chen, C. A. Codemard, P. M. Gorman, J. S. Chan, and M. N. Zervas, “Angle-resolved characterization and ray-optics modeling of fiber-optic sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33, 5210–5217 (2015).
    [Crossref]

2015 (5)

2014 (3)

A. Babazadeh, R. R. Nasirabad, A. Norouzey, K. Hejaz, R. Poozesh, A. Heidariazar, A. H. Golshan, A. Roohforouz, S. Jafari, and M. Lafouti, “Robust cladding light stripper for high-power fiber lasers using soft metals,” Appl. Opt. 53, 2611–2615 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. Guo, Z. Chen, H. Zhou, J. Li, and J. Hou, “Cascaded cladding light extracting strippers for high power fiber lasers and amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. J. 6, 1–6 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Boehme, K. Hirte, S. Fabian, C. Hupel, T. Schreiber, R. Eberhardt, and A. Tünnermann, “CO2-laser based fiber coating process for high power fiber application,” Proc. SPIE 8968, 89680Z (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (4)

A. Kliner, K.-C. Hou, M. Plötner, C. Hupel, T. Stelzner, T. Schreiber, R. Eberhardt, and A. Tünnermann, “Fabrication and evaluation of a 500  W cladding-light stripper,” Proc. SPIE 8616, 86160N (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Naeem, “Laser processing of reflective materials,” Laser Tech. J. 10, 18–20 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. Wang, J. Leng, J. Cao, S. Guo, X. Xu, and Z. Jiang, “Method for stripping cladding light in the high power fiber laser,” Opt. Commun. 287, 187–191 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Zhang, G. Chen, Y. Zhou, and S. Li, “Direct observation of keyhole characteristics in deep penetration laser welding with a 10  kW fiber laser,” Opt. Express 21, 19997–20004 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

2011 (1)

B. Samson, A. Carter, and K. Tankala, “Doped fibres: rare-earth fibres power up,” Nat. Photonics 5, 466–467 (2011).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

A. Wetter, M. Faucher, and B. Sévigny, “High power cladding light strippers,” Proc. SPIE 6873, 687327 (2008).
[Crossref]

Alavian, A.

Babazadeh, A.

Baker, H. J.

Boehme, S.

S. Boehme, K. Hirte, S. Fabian, C. Hupel, T. Schreiber, R. Eberhardt, and A. Tünnermann, “CO2-laser based fiber coating process for high power fiber application,” Proc. SPIE 8968, 89680Z (2014).
[Crossref]

Cao, J.

W. Wang, J. Leng, J. Cao, S. Guo, X. Xu, and Z. Jiang, “Method for stripping cladding light in the high power fiber laser,” Opt. Commun. 287, 187–191 (2013).
[Crossref]

Carmody, N.

Carter, A.

Chan, J. S.

Chen, G.

Chen, G. Y.

Chen, Z.

W. Guo, Z. Chen, H. Zhou, J. Li, and J. Hou, “Cascaded cladding light extracting strippers for high power fiber lasers and amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. J. 6, 1–6 (2014).
[Crossref]

Codemard, C. A.

Cooke, D. J.

Corena, L.

Daniel, J. M.

Davidson, A.

Eberhardt, R.

S. Boehme, K. Hirte, S. Fabian, C. Hupel, T. Schreiber, R. Eberhardt, and A. Tünnermann, “CO2-laser based fiber coating process for high power fiber application,” Proc. SPIE 8968, 89680Z (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Kliner, K.-C. Hou, M. Plötner, C. Hupel, T. Stelzner, T. Schreiber, R. Eberhardt, and A. Tünnermann, “Fabrication and evaluation of a 500  W cladding-light stripper,” Proc. SPIE 8616, 86160N (2013).
[Crossref]

Elhadj, S.

Fabian, S.

S. Boehme, K. Hirte, S. Fabian, C. Hupel, T. Schreiber, R. Eberhardt, and A. Tünnermann, “CO2-laser based fiber coating process for high power fiber application,” Proc. SPIE 8968, 89680Z (2014).
[Crossref]

Farley, K.

Faucher, M.

A. Wetter, M. Faucher, and B. Sévigny, “High power cladding light strippers,” Proc. SPIE 6873, 687327 (2008).
[Crossref]

Golshan, A. H.

Gorman, P. M.

Guo, S.

W. Wang, J. Leng, J. Cao, S. Guo, X. Xu, and Z. Jiang, “Method for stripping cladding light in the high power fiber laser,” Opt. Commun. 287, 187–191 (2013).
[Crossref]

Guo, W.

W. Guo, Z. Chen, H. Zhou, J. Li, and J. Hou, “Cascaded cladding light extracting strippers for high power fiber lasers and amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. J. 6, 1–6 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hall, D. R.

Hausmann, K.

Heidariazar, A.

Hejaz, K.

Hemming, A. V.

Hirte, K.

S. Boehme, K. Hirte, S. Fabian, C. Hupel, T. Schreiber, R. Eberhardt, and A. Tünnermann, “CO2-laser based fiber coating process for high power fiber application,” Proc. SPIE 8968, 89680Z (2014).
[Crossref]

Hou, J.

W. Guo, Z. Chen, H. Zhou, J. Li, and J. Hou, “Cascaded cladding light extracting strippers for high power fiber lasers and amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. J. 6, 1–6 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hou, K. C.

K. C. Hou, D. Kliner, M. H. Muendel, and J. Weston, “Cladding light stripper and method of manufacturing,” U.S. patent14/166,600 (28January2014).

Hou, K.-C.

A. Kliner, K.-C. Hou, M. Plötner, C. Hupel, T. Stelzner, T. Schreiber, R. Eberhardt, and A. Tünnermann, “Fabrication and evaluation of a 500  W cladding-light stripper,” Proc. SPIE 8616, 86160N (2013).
[Crossref]

Hughes, M.

Hupel, C.

S. Boehme, K. Hirte, S. Fabian, C. Hupel, T. Schreiber, R. Eberhardt, and A. Tünnermann, “CO2-laser based fiber coating process for high power fiber application,” Proc. SPIE 8968, 89680Z (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Kliner, K.-C. Hou, M. Plötner, C. Hupel, T. Stelzner, T. Schreiber, R. Eberhardt, and A. Tünnermann, “Fabrication and evaluation of a 500  W cladding-light stripper,” Proc. SPIE 8616, 86160N (2013).
[Crossref]

Jafari, N. T.

Jafari, S.

Jiang, Z.

W. Wang, J. Leng, J. Cao, S. Guo, X. Xu, and Z. Jiang, “Method for stripping cladding light in the high power fiber laser,” Opt. Commun. 287, 187–191 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kliner, A.

A. Kliner, K.-C. Hou, M. Plötner, C. Hupel, T. Stelzner, T. Schreiber, R. Eberhardt, and A. Tünnermann, “Fabrication and evaluation of a 500  W cladding-light stripper,” Proc. SPIE 8616, 86160N (2013).
[Crossref]

Kliner, D.

K. C. Hou, D. Kliner, M. H. Muendel, and J. Weston, “Cladding light stripper and method of manufacturing,” U.S. patent14/166,600 (28January2014).

Kracht, D.

Lafouti, M.

Leng, J.

W. Wang, J. Leng, J. Cao, S. Guo, X. Xu, and Z. Jiang, “Method for stripping cladding light in the high power fiber laser,” Opt. Commun. 287, 187–191 (2013).
[Crossref]

Li, J.

W. Guo, Z. Chen, H. Zhou, J. Li, and J. Hou, “Cascaded cladding light extracting strippers for high power fiber lasers and amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. J. 6, 1–6 (2014).
[Crossref]

Li, S.

Li, T.

T. Li, J. Wu, Y. Sun, Y. Wang, and Y. Ma, “An improved method for stripping cladding light in high power fiber lasers,” Proc. SPIE 9255, 92550M (2015).
[Crossref]

Ma, Y.

T. Li, J. Wu, Y. Sun, Y. Wang, and Y. Ma, “An improved method for stripping cladding light in high power fiber lasers,” Proc. SPIE 9255, 92550M (2015).
[Crossref]

Matthews, M. J.

Muendel, M. H.

K. C. Hou, D. Kliner, M. H. Muendel, and J. Weston, “Cladding light stripper and method of manufacturing,” U.S. patent14/166,600 (28January2014).

Naeem, M.

M. Naeem, “Laser processing of reflective materials,” Laser Tech. J. 10, 18–20 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nasirabad, R. R.

Neumann, J.

Norouzey, A.

Norouzy, A.

Nowak, K. M.

Ottenhues, C.

Plötner, M.

A. Kliner, K.-C. Hou, M. Plötner, C. Hupel, T. Stelzner, T. Schreiber, R. Eberhardt, and A. Tünnermann, “Fabrication and evaluation of a 500  W cladding-light stripper,” Proc. SPIE 8616, 86160N (2013).
[Crossref]

Poozesh, R.

Roohforouz, A.

Samson, B.

B. Samson, A. Carter, and K. Tankala, “Doped fibres: rare-earth fibres power up,” Nat. Photonics 5, 466–467 (2011).
[Crossref]

Sayinc, H.

Schreiber, T.

S. Boehme, K. Hirte, S. Fabian, C. Hupel, T. Schreiber, R. Eberhardt, and A. Tünnermann, “CO2-laser based fiber coating process for high power fiber application,” Proc. SPIE 8968, 89680Z (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Kliner, K.-C. Hou, M. Plötner, C. Hupel, T. Stelzner, T. Schreiber, R. Eberhardt, and A. Tünnermann, “Fabrication and evaluation of a 500  W cladding-light stripper,” Proc. SPIE 8616, 86160N (2013).
[Crossref]

Sévigny, B.

A. Wetter, M. Faucher, and B. Sévigny, “High power cladding light strippers,” Proc. SPIE 6873, 687327 (2008).
[Crossref]

Simakov, N.

Stelzner, T.

A. Kliner, K.-C. Hou, M. Plötner, C. Hupel, T. Stelzner, T. Schreiber, R. Eberhardt, and A. Tünnermann, “Fabrication and evaluation of a 500  W cladding-light stripper,” Proc. SPIE 8616, 86160N (2013).
[Crossref]

Stepanov, D.

Sun, Y.

T. Li, J. Wu, Y. Sun, Y. Wang, and Y. Ma, “An improved method for stripping cladding light in high power fiber lasers,” Proc. SPIE 9255, 92550M (2015).
[Crossref]

Tankala, K.

B. Samson, A. Carter, and K. Tankala, “Doped fibres: rare-earth fibres power up,” Nat. Photonics 5, 466–467 (2011).
[Crossref]

Theeg, T.

Tünnermann, A.

S. Boehme, K. Hirte, S. Fabian, C. Hupel, T. Schreiber, R. Eberhardt, and A. Tünnermann, “CO2-laser based fiber coating process for high power fiber application,” Proc. SPIE 8968, 89680Z (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Kliner, K.-C. Hou, M. Plötner, C. Hupel, T. Stelzner, T. Schreiber, R. Eberhardt, and A. Tünnermann, “Fabrication and evaluation of a 500  W cladding-light stripper,” Proc. SPIE 8616, 86160N (2013).
[Crossref]

Wang, W.

W. Wang, J. Leng, J. Cao, S. Guo, X. Xu, and Z. Jiang, “Method for stripping cladding light in the high power fiber laser,” Opt. Commun. 287, 187–191 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

T. Li, J. Wu, Y. Sun, Y. Wang, and Y. Ma, “An improved method for stripping cladding light in high power fiber lasers,” Proc. SPIE 9255, 92550M (2015).
[Crossref]

Weston, J.

K. C. Hou, D. Kliner, M. H. Muendel, and J. Weston, “Cladding light stripper and method of manufacturing,” U.S. patent14/166,600 (28January2014).

Wetter, A.

A. Wetter, M. Faucher, and B. Sévigny, “High power cladding light strippers,” Proc. SPIE 6873, 687327 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wu, J.

T. Li, J. Wu, Y. Sun, Y. Wang, and Y. Ma, “An improved method for stripping cladding light in high power fiber lasers,” Proc. SPIE 9255, 92550M (2015).
[Crossref]

Wysmolek, M.

Xu, X.

W. Wang, J. Leng, J. Cao, S. Guo, X. Xu, and Z. Jiang, “Method for stripping cladding light in the high power fiber laser,” Opt. Commun. 287, 187–191 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yang, S. T.

Zervas, M. N.

Zhang, M.

Zhou, H.

W. Guo, Z. Chen, H. Zhou, J. Li, and J. Hou, “Cascaded cladding light extracting strippers for high power fiber lasers and amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. J. 6, 1–6 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhou, Y.

Appl. Opt. (2)

IEEE Photon. J. (1)

W. Guo, Z. Chen, H. Zhou, J. Li, and J. Hou, “Cascaded cladding light extracting strippers for high power fiber lasers and amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. J. 6, 1–6 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

Laser Tech. J. (1)

M. Naeem, “Laser processing of reflective materials,” Laser Tech. J. 10, 18–20 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (1)

B. Samson, A. Carter, and K. Tankala, “Doped fibres: rare-earth fibres power up,” Nat. Photonics 5, 466–467 (2011).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

W. Wang, J. Leng, J. Cao, S. Guo, X. Xu, and Z. Jiang, “Method for stripping cladding light in the high power fiber laser,” Opt. Commun. 287, 187–191 (2013).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (4)

S. Boehme, K. Hirte, S. Fabian, C. Hupel, T. Schreiber, R. Eberhardt, and A. Tünnermann, “CO2-laser based fiber coating process for high power fiber application,” Proc. SPIE 8968, 89680Z (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Wetter, M. Faucher, and B. Sévigny, “High power cladding light strippers,” Proc. SPIE 6873, 687327 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Kliner, K.-C. Hou, M. Plötner, C. Hupel, T. Stelzner, T. Schreiber, R. Eberhardt, and A. Tünnermann, “Fabrication and evaluation of a 500  W cladding-light stripper,” Proc. SPIE 8616, 86160N (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Li, J. Wu, Y. Sun, Y. Wang, and Y. Ma, “An improved method for stripping cladding light in high power fiber lasers,” Proc. SPIE 9255, 92550M (2015).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

K. C. Hou, D. Kliner, M. H. Muendel, and J. Weston, “Cladding light stripper and method of manufacturing,” U.S. patent14/166,600 (28January2014).

Supplementary Material (2)

NameDescription
» Visualization 1: MP4 (464 KB)      CLS fabrication with scanning beam.
» Visualization 2: MP4 (854 KB)      CLS fabricated with rotating fibre.

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Mechanisms for unwanted cladding light: (a) unabsorbed pump light and ASE in an active fiber, (b) splice loss coupling light (signal and ASE) from the core into the cladding, (c) reflected light entering the cladding during materials processing.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Experimental setup for the fabrication of a CLS. The laser beam was focused onto a vertically mounted fiber using a 50 mm focal length ZnSe lens which was scanned across the static CO 2 laser beam. The fiber was mounted in v-groove clamps, and the tension is monitored with a strain gauge. A 2X telecentric lens orientated at 90 deg to the CO 2 laser beam monitored the process and was used to measure the maximum cut depth. (b) Ablation of an optical fiber by scanning the focused CO 2 laser beam across a 400 μm fiber as it was translated vertically, (c) viewed at 90° to beam after fabrication.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Maximum ablation depth achieved on the surface of 250 and 400 μm OD optical fibers as a function of CO 2 laser pulse duration. The laser output ranges from 7.8 μs at an average power of 170 mW, to 15.68 μs at 920 mW. The pulse interval was constant at 1.31 ms. The feature depth was measured using a telecentric lens at 90° to the incident CO 2 laser beam.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Experimental setup for in situ measurement of CLS loss as a function of incidence.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Diagram of the experimental setup for the measurement of core loss during CO 2 laser fabrication of a CLS.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Measured losses for radiation launched at different angles into the optical fiber for devices with ablation depths of (a) 15 μm, (b) 20 μm, and (c) 35 μm as a function of device length for a 620 μm pitch.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Core loss measurements for devices fabricated by different processes. The loss measurement was limited by the stability of our laser sources used for the characterization.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. (a) Thermal camera image of a water-cooled packaged CLS device stripping 300    W of pump light. The maximum recorded temperature was 80°C. (b) Same device viewed with a normal camera.
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. CLS fabricated through the rotation of a 400 μm optical fiber while it is translated longitudinally through a CO 2 laser beam of 100    μm diameter.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. CLS Loss for Different Fabrication Techniques

Tables Icon

Table 2. Loss of CLS Devices of 620  μm Pitch for Various Ablation Depths and Launch Angles for Incident Radiation

Metrics