This paper researches the calculation method of space target optical characteristics to improve performance and sensitivity of the photoelectric detection target. In accordance with the detection principle of the photoelectric detection target and the detection screen thickness geometrical relationship, this paper sets up the space target spectral characteristic model using the surface element mesh analysis method and the bidirectional reflection distribution function. It provides the incident radiation energy calculation function in the optical lens entrance pupil of the photoelectric detection target detection area in order to determine the total spectral radiance intensity calculation function of the space target. The paper also reports on the minimum flux calculation function detected by the photoelectric detection target based on the definition of detection sensitivity and the change curve of the target’s radiation energy when entering the detection area at different incident angles. Lastly, it demonstrates the spectral illuminations of an optical detection system under different radiation wavelengths and reflection radiation angles, as well as change curves of the target’s spectral radiation intensity passing through the detection screen area and at different incident angles from the same distance.
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