Abstract

Structured illumination using sinusoidal patterns has been used for optical imaging of biological tissues in biomedical research, and of horticultural products in food quality evaluation. Implementation of structured-illumination imaging relies on retrieval of amplitude images, which is conventionally achieved by a phase-shifting technique that requires collecting a minimum of three phase-shifted images. In this study, we have proposed Gram–Schmidt orthonormalization (GSO) to retrieve amplitude component (AC) images using only two phase-shifted images. We have proposed two forms of GSO implementation, and prior to GSO processing, we eliminated the direct component (DC) background by subtracting a DC image we recovered using a spiral phase function (SPF) in the Fourier space. We demonstrated the GSO methods through numerical simulations and application examples of detection of bruise defects in apples by structured-illumination reflectance imaging (SIRI). GSO performed comparably to conventional three-phase-based demodulation. It is simple, fast and effective for amplitude retrieval and requires no prior phase information, which could facilitate fast implementation of structured-illumination imaging.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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