Abstract

We report systematic analysis and comparison of ps-laser microwelding of industry relevant Al6082 parts to SiO2 and BK7. Parameter mapping of pulse energy and focal depth on the weld strength is presented. The welding process was found to be strongly dependent on the focal plane but has a large tolerance to variation in pulse energy. Accelerated lifetime tests by thermal cycling from 50° to +90°C are presented. Welds in Al6082-BK7 parts survive over the full temperature range where the ratio of thermal expansion coefficients is 3.4:1. Welds in Al6082-SiO2 parts (ratio 47.1:1) survive only a limited temperature range.

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References

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    [Crossref]

2016 (3)

I. H. W. Nordin, Y. Okamoto, I. Miyamoto, and A. Okada, “Evaluation of molten area in micro-welding of monocrystalline silicon and glass,” IOP Conf. Ser. 144, 012039 (2016).
[Crossref]

I. H. W. Nordin, Y. Okamoto, A. Okada, H. Jiang, and T. Sakagawa, “Effect of wavelength and pulse duration on laser micro-welding of monocrystalline silicon and glass,” Appl. Phys. A 122, 400 (2016).
[Crossref]

O. P. Ciuca, R. M. Carter, P. B. Prangnell, and D. P. Hand, “Characterisation of weld zone reactions in dissimilar glass-to-aluminium pulsed picosecond laser welds,” Mater. Charact. 120, 53–62, (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

2014 (1)

2012 (5)

H. Huang, L.-M. Yang, and J. Liu, “Ultrashort pulsed fiber laser welding and sealing of transparent materials,” Appl. Opt. 51, 2979–2986 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Richter, S. Döring, F. Zimmermann, L. Lescieux, R. Eberhardt, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Welding of transparent materials with ultrashort laser pulses,” Proc. SPIE 8244, 824402 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. Kongsuwan, G. Satoh, and Y. L. Yao, “Transmission welding of glass by femtosecond laser: mechanism and fracture strength,” J. Manuf. Sci. Eng. 134, 011004 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. Hélie, M. Bégin, F. Lacroix, and R. Vallée, “Reinforced direct bonding of optical materials by femtosecond laser welding,” Appl. Opt. 51, 2098–2106 (2012).
[Crossref]

I. Alexeev, K. Cvecek, C. Schmidt, I. Miyamoto, T. Frick, and M. Schmidt, “Characterization of shear strength and bonding energy of laser produced welding seams in glass,” J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng. 7, 279–283 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (4)

I. Miyamoto, K. Cvecek, and M. Schmidt, “Evaluation of nonlinear absorptivity in internal modification of bulk glass by ultrashort laser pulses,” Opt. Express 19, 10714–10727 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Richter, S. Döring, A. Tünnermann, and S. Nolte, “Bonding of glass with femtosecond laser pulses at high repetition rates,” Appl. Phys. A 103, 257–261 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. Sugioka, M. Iida, H. Takai, and K. Micorikawa, “Efficient microwelding of glass substrates by ultrafast laser irradiation using a double-pulse train,” Opt. Lett. 36, 2734–2736 (2011).
[Crossref]

F. Lacroix, D. Hélie, and R. Vallée, “Optical bonding reinforced by femotosecond laser welding,” Proc. SPIE 8126, 812612 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

I. Miyamoto, K. Cvecek, Y. Okamoto, and M. Schmidt, “Novel fusion welding technology of glass using ultrashort pulse lasers,” Phys. Procedia 5, 483–493 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

Q. Wu, N. Lorenz, and D. Hand, “Localised laser joining of glass to silicon with BCB intermediate layer,” Microsyst. Technol. 15, 1051–1057 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

A. Horn, I. Mingaeev, A. Werth, and M. Kachel, “Joining of thin glass with semiconductors by ultra-fast high-repetition laser welding,” Proc. SPIE 6880, 68800A (2008).
[Crossref]

Y. Ozeki, T. Inoue, T. Tamaki, H. Yamaguchi, S. Onda, W. Watanabe, T. Sano, S. Nishiuchi, A. Hirose, and K. Itoh, “Direct welding between copper and glass substrates with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Express 1, 82601 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Horn, I. Mingareev, A. Werth, M. Kachel, and U. Brenk, “Investigations on ultrafast welding of glass-glass and glass-silicon,” Appl. Phys. A 93, 171–175 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

A. Utsumi, T. Ooie, T. Yano, and M. Katsumura, “Direct bonding of glass and metal using short pulsed laser,” J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng. 2, 133–136 (2007).
[Crossref]

I. Miyamoto, A. Horn, and J. Gottmann, “Local melting of glass material and its application to direct fusion welding by ps-laser pulses,” J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng. 2, 7–14 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (3)

F. Niklaus, G. Stemme, J.-Q. Lu, and R. J. Gutmann, “Adhesive wafer bonding,” J. Appl. Phys. 99, 031101 (2006).
[Crossref]

T. Tamaki, W. Watanabe, and K. Itoh, “Laser micro-welding of transparent materials by a localized heat accumulation effect using a femtosecond fiber laser at 1558  nm,” Opt. Express 14, 10460–10468 (2006).
[Crossref]

W. Watanabe, S. Onda, T. Tamaki, K. Itoh, and J. Nishii, “Space-selective laser joining of dissimilar transparent materials using femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 021106 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

A. W. Y. Tan and F. E. H. Tay, “Localized laser assisted eutectic bonding of quartz and silicon by Nd:YAG pulsed-laser,” Sens. Actuators A, Phys. 120, 550–561 (2005).
[Crossref]

T. Tamaki, W. Watanabe, J. Nishii, and K. Itoh, “Welding of transparent materials using femtosecond laser pulses,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, L687–L689 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

J. Oberhammer, F. Niklaus, and G. Stemme, “Sealing of adhesive bonded devices on wafer level,” Sens. Actuators A 110, 407–412 (2004).
[Crossref]

Alexeev, I.

I. Alexeev, K. Cvecek, C. Schmidt, I. Miyamoto, T. Frick, and M. Schmidt, “Characterization of shear strength and bonding energy of laser produced welding seams in glass,” J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng. 7, 279–283 (2012).
[Crossref]

Amberla, T.

Bégin, M.

Brenk, U.

A. Horn, I. Mingareev, A. Werth, M. Kachel, and U. Brenk, “Investigations on ultrafast welding of glass-glass and glass-silicon,” Appl. Phys. A 93, 171–175 (2008).
[Crossref]

Carter, R. M.

Chen, J.

Cheng, G.

Ciuca, O. P.

O. P. Ciuca, R. M. Carter, P. B. Prangnell, and D. P. Hand, “Characterisation of weld zone reactions in dissimilar glass-to-aluminium pulsed picosecond laser welds,” Mater. Charact. 120, 53–62, (2016).
[Crossref]

Cvecek, K.

I. Alexeev, K. Cvecek, C. Schmidt, I. Miyamoto, T. Frick, and M. Schmidt, “Characterization of shear strength and bonding energy of laser produced welding seams in glass,” J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng. 7, 279–283 (2012).
[Crossref]

I. Miyamoto, K. Cvecek, and M. Schmidt, “Evaluation of nonlinear absorptivity in internal modification of bulk glass by ultrashort laser pulses,” Opt. Express 19, 10714–10727 (2011).
[Crossref]

I. Miyamoto, K. Cvecek, Y. Okamoto, and M. Schmidt, “Novel fusion welding technology of glass using ultrashort pulse lasers,” Phys. Procedia 5, 483–493 (2010).
[Crossref]

Döring, S.

S. Richter, S. Döring, F. Zimmermann, L. Lescieux, R. Eberhardt, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Welding of transparent materials with ultrashort laser pulses,” Proc. SPIE 8244, 824402 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Richter, S. Döring, A. Tünnermann, and S. Nolte, “Bonding of glass with femtosecond laser pulses at high repetition rates,” Appl. Phys. A 103, 257–261 (2011).
[Crossref]

Eberhardt, R.

S. Richter, S. Döring, F. Zimmermann, L. Lescieux, R. Eberhardt, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Welding of transparent materials with ultrashort laser pulses,” Proc. SPIE 8244, 824402 (2012).
[Crossref]

Frick, T.

I. Alexeev, K. Cvecek, C. Schmidt, I. Miyamoto, T. Frick, and M. Schmidt, “Characterization of shear strength and bonding energy of laser produced welding seams in glass,” J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng. 7, 279–283 (2012).
[Crossref]

Gottmann, J.

I. Miyamoto, A. Horn, and J. Gottmann, “Local melting of glass material and its application to direct fusion welding by ps-laser pulses,” J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng. 2, 7–14 (2007).
[Crossref]

Gutmann, R. J.

F. Niklaus, G. Stemme, J.-Q. Lu, and R. J. Gutmann, “Adhesive wafer bonding,” J. Appl. Phys. 99, 031101 (2006).
[Crossref]

Hand, D.

Q. Wu, N. Lorenz, and D. Hand, “Localised laser joining of glass to silicon with BCB intermediate layer,” Microsyst. Technol. 15, 1051–1057 (2009).
[Crossref]

Hand, D. P.

Hansen, A.

Hélie, D.

D. Hélie, M. Bégin, F. Lacroix, and R. Vallée, “Reinforced direct bonding of optical materials by femtosecond laser welding,” Appl. Opt. 51, 2098–2106 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. Lacroix, D. Hélie, and R. Vallée, “Optical bonding reinforced by femotosecond laser welding,” Proc. SPIE 8126, 812612 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hirose, A.

Y. Ozeki, T. Inoue, T. Tamaki, H. Yamaguchi, S. Onda, W. Watanabe, T. Sano, S. Nishiuchi, A. Hirose, and K. Itoh, “Direct welding between copper and glass substrates with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Express 1, 82601 (2008).
[Crossref]

Horn, A.

A. Horn, I. Mingaeev, A. Werth, and M. Kachel, “Joining of thin glass with semiconductors by ultra-fast high-repetition laser welding,” Proc. SPIE 6880, 68800A (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Horn, I. Mingareev, A. Werth, M. Kachel, and U. Brenk, “Investigations on ultrafast welding of glass-glass and glass-silicon,” Appl. Phys. A 93, 171–175 (2008).
[Crossref]

I. Miyamoto, A. Horn, and J. Gottmann, “Local melting of glass material and its application to direct fusion welding by ps-laser pulses,” J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng. 2, 7–14 (2007).
[Crossref]

Huang, H.

Iida, M.

Inoue, T.

Y. Ozeki, T. Inoue, T. Tamaki, H. Yamaguchi, S. Onda, W. Watanabe, T. Sano, S. Nishiuchi, A. Hirose, and K. Itoh, “Direct welding between copper and glass substrates with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Express 1, 82601 (2008).
[Crossref]

Itoh, K.

Y. Ozeki, T. Inoue, T. Tamaki, H. Yamaguchi, S. Onda, W. Watanabe, T. Sano, S. Nishiuchi, A. Hirose, and K. Itoh, “Direct welding between copper and glass substrates with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Express 1, 82601 (2008).
[Crossref]

T. Tamaki, W. Watanabe, and K. Itoh, “Laser micro-welding of transparent materials by a localized heat accumulation effect using a femtosecond fiber laser at 1558  nm,” Opt. Express 14, 10460–10468 (2006).
[Crossref]

W. Watanabe, S. Onda, T. Tamaki, K. Itoh, and J. Nishii, “Space-selective laser joining of dissimilar transparent materials using femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 021106 (2006).
[Crossref]

T. Tamaki, W. Watanabe, J. Nishii, and K. Itoh, “Welding of transparent materials using femtosecond laser pulses,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, L687–L689 (2005).
[Crossref]

W. Watanabe, T. Tamaki, and K. Itoh, “Ultrashort laser welding and joining,” in Femtosecond Laser Micromachining, O. Roberto, C. Giulio, and R. Roberta, eds. (Springer-Verlag, 2012), pp. 467–477.

Jiang, H.

I. H. W. Nordin, Y. Okamoto, A. Okada, H. Jiang, and T. Sakagawa, “Effect of wavelength and pulse duration on laser micro-welding of monocrystalline silicon and glass,” Appl. Phys. A 122, 400 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kachel, M.

A. Horn, I. Mingaeev, A. Werth, and M. Kachel, “Joining of thin glass with semiconductors by ultra-fast high-repetition laser welding,” Proc. SPIE 6880, 68800A (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Horn, I. Mingareev, A. Werth, M. Kachel, and U. Brenk, “Investigations on ultrafast welding of glass-glass and glass-silicon,” Appl. Phys. A 93, 171–175 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kangastupa, J.

Katsumura, M.

A. Utsumi, T. Ooie, T. Yano, and M. Katsumura, “Direct bonding of glass and metal using short pulsed laser,” J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng. 2, 133–136 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kongsuwan, P.

P. Kongsuwan, G. Satoh, and Y. L. Yao, “Transmission welding of glass by femtosecond laser: mechanism and fracture strength,” J. Manuf. Sci. Eng. 134, 011004 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lacroix, F.

D. Hélie, M. Bégin, F. Lacroix, and R. Vallée, “Reinforced direct bonding of optical materials by femtosecond laser welding,” Appl. Opt. 51, 2098–2106 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. Lacroix, D. Hélie, and R. Vallée, “Optical bonding reinforced by femotosecond laser welding,” Proc. SPIE 8126, 812612 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lescieux, L.

S. Richter, S. Döring, F. Zimmermann, L. Lescieux, R. Eberhardt, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Welding of transparent materials with ultrashort laser pulses,” Proc. SPIE 8244, 824402 (2012).
[Crossref]

Liu, J.

Lorenz, N.

Q. Wu, N. Lorenz, and D. Hand, “Localised laser joining of glass to silicon with BCB intermediate layer,” Microsyst. Technol. 15, 1051–1057 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lu, J.-Q.

F. Niklaus, G. Stemme, J.-Q. Lu, and R. J. Gutmann, “Adhesive wafer bonding,” J. Appl. Phys. 99, 031101 (2006).
[Crossref]

Micorikawa, K.

Mingaeev, I.

A. Horn, I. Mingaeev, A. Werth, and M. Kachel, “Joining of thin glass with semiconductors by ultra-fast high-repetition laser welding,” Proc. SPIE 6880, 68800A (2008).
[Crossref]

Mingareev, I.

A. Horn, I. Mingareev, A. Werth, M. Kachel, and U. Brenk, “Investigations on ultrafast welding of glass-glass and glass-silicon,” Appl. Phys. A 93, 171–175 (2008).
[Crossref]

Miyamoto, I.

I. H. W. Nordin, Y. Okamoto, I. Miyamoto, and A. Okada, “Evaluation of molten area in micro-welding of monocrystalline silicon and glass,” IOP Conf. Ser. 144, 012039 (2016).
[Crossref]

I. Miyamoto, Y. Okamoto, A. Hansen, J. Vihinen, T. Amberla, and J. Kangastupa, “High speed, high strength microwelding of Si/glass using ps-laser pulses,” Opt. Express 23, 3427–3439 (2015).
[Crossref]

I. Alexeev, K. Cvecek, C. Schmidt, I. Miyamoto, T. Frick, and M. Schmidt, “Characterization of shear strength and bonding energy of laser produced welding seams in glass,” J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng. 7, 279–283 (2012).
[Crossref]

I. Miyamoto, K. Cvecek, and M. Schmidt, “Evaluation of nonlinear absorptivity in internal modification of bulk glass by ultrashort laser pulses,” Opt. Express 19, 10714–10727 (2011).
[Crossref]

I. Miyamoto, K. Cvecek, Y. Okamoto, and M. Schmidt, “Novel fusion welding technology of glass using ultrashort pulse lasers,” Phys. Procedia 5, 483–493 (2010).
[Crossref]

I. Miyamoto, A. Horn, and J. Gottmann, “Local melting of glass material and its application to direct fusion welding by ps-laser pulses,” J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng. 2, 7–14 (2007).
[Crossref]

Niklaus, F.

F. Niklaus, G. Stemme, J.-Q. Lu, and R. J. Gutmann, “Adhesive wafer bonding,” J. Appl. Phys. 99, 031101 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Oberhammer, F. Niklaus, and G. Stemme, “Sealing of adhesive bonded devices on wafer level,” Sens. Actuators A 110, 407–412 (2004).
[Crossref]

Nishii, J.

W. Watanabe, S. Onda, T. Tamaki, K. Itoh, and J. Nishii, “Space-selective laser joining of dissimilar transparent materials using femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 021106 (2006).
[Crossref]

T. Tamaki, W. Watanabe, J. Nishii, and K. Itoh, “Welding of transparent materials using femtosecond laser pulses,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, L687–L689 (2005).
[Crossref]

Nishiuchi, S.

Y. Ozeki, T. Inoue, T. Tamaki, H. Yamaguchi, S. Onda, W. Watanabe, T. Sano, S. Nishiuchi, A. Hirose, and K. Itoh, “Direct welding between copper and glass substrates with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Express 1, 82601 (2008).
[Crossref]

Nolte, S.

S. Richter, S. Döring, F. Zimmermann, L. Lescieux, R. Eberhardt, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Welding of transparent materials with ultrashort laser pulses,” Proc. SPIE 8244, 824402 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Richter, S. Döring, A. Tünnermann, and S. Nolte, “Bonding of glass with femtosecond laser pulses at high repetition rates,” Appl. Phys. A 103, 257–261 (2011).
[Crossref]

Nordin, I. H. W.

I. H. W. Nordin, Y. Okamoto, A. Okada, H. Jiang, and T. Sakagawa, “Effect of wavelength and pulse duration on laser micro-welding of monocrystalline silicon and glass,” Appl. Phys. A 122, 400 (2016).
[Crossref]

I. H. W. Nordin, Y. Okamoto, I. Miyamoto, and A. Okada, “Evaluation of molten area in micro-welding of monocrystalline silicon and glass,” IOP Conf. Ser. 144, 012039 (2016).
[Crossref]

Oberhammer, J.

J. Oberhammer, F. Niklaus, and G. Stemme, “Sealing of adhesive bonded devices on wafer level,” Sens. Actuators A 110, 407–412 (2004).
[Crossref]

Okada, A.

I. H. W. Nordin, Y. Okamoto, I. Miyamoto, and A. Okada, “Evaluation of molten area in micro-welding of monocrystalline silicon and glass,” IOP Conf. Ser. 144, 012039 (2016).
[Crossref]

I. H. W. Nordin, Y. Okamoto, A. Okada, H. Jiang, and T. Sakagawa, “Effect of wavelength and pulse duration on laser micro-welding of monocrystalline silicon and glass,” Appl. Phys. A 122, 400 (2016).
[Crossref]

Okamoto, Y.

I. H. W. Nordin, Y. Okamoto, A. Okada, H. Jiang, and T. Sakagawa, “Effect of wavelength and pulse duration on laser micro-welding of monocrystalline silicon and glass,” Appl. Phys. A 122, 400 (2016).
[Crossref]

I. H. W. Nordin, Y. Okamoto, I. Miyamoto, and A. Okada, “Evaluation of molten area in micro-welding of monocrystalline silicon and glass,” IOP Conf. Ser. 144, 012039 (2016).
[Crossref]

I. Miyamoto, Y. Okamoto, A. Hansen, J. Vihinen, T. Amberla, and J. Kangastupa, “High speed, high strength microwelding of Si/glass using ps-laser pulses,” Opt. Express 23, 3427–3439 (2015).
[Crossref]

I. Miyamoto, K. Cvecek, Y. Okamoto, and M. Schmidt, “Novel fusion welding technology of glass using ultrashort pulse lasers,” Phys. Procedia 5, 483–493 (2010).
[Crossref]

Onda, S.

Y. Ozeki, T. Inoue, T. Tamaki, H. Yamaguchi, S. Onda, W. Watanabe, T. Sano, S. Nishiuchi, A. Hirose, and K. Itoh, “Direct welding between copper and glass substrates with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Express 1, 82601 (2008).
[Crossref]

W. Watanabe, S. Onda, T. Tamaki, K. Itoh, and J. Nishii, “Space-selective laser joining of dissimilar transparent materials using femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 021106 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ooie, T.

A. Utsumi, T. Ooie, T. Yano, and M. Katsumura, “Direct bonding of glass and metal using short pulsed laser,” J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng. 2, 133–136 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ozeki, Y.

Y. Ozeki, T. Inoue, T. Tamaki, H. Yamaguchi, S. Onda, W. Watanabe, T. Sano, S. Nishiuchi, A. Hirose, and K. Itoh, “Direct welding between copper and glass substrates with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Express 1, 82601 (2008).
[Crossref]

Prangnell, P. B.

O. P. Ciuca, R. M. Carter, P. B. Prangnell, and D. P. Hand, “Characterisation of weld zone reactions in dissimilar glass-to-aluminium pulsed picosecond laser welds,” Mater. Charact. 120, 53–62, (2016).
[Crossref]

Richter, S.

S. Richter, S. Döring, F. Zimmermann, L. Lescieux, R. Eberhardt, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Welding of transparent materials with ultrashort laser pulses,” Proc. SPIE 8244, 824402 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Richter, S. Döring, A. Tünnermann, and S. Nolte, “Bonding of glass with femtosecond laser pulses at high repetition rates,” Appl. Phys. A 103, 257–261 (2011).
[Crossref]

Sakagawa, T.

I. H. W. Nordin, Y. Okamoto, A. Okada, H. Jiang, and T. Sakagawa, “Effect of wavelength and pulse duration on laser micro-welding of monocrystalline silicon and glass,” Appl. Phys. A 122, 400 (2016).
[Crossref]

Sano, T.

Y. Ozeki, T. Inoue, T. Tamaki, H. Yamaguchi, S. Onda, W. Watanabe, T. Sano, S. Nishiuchi, A. Hirose, and K. Itoh, “Direct welding between copper and glass substrates with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Express 1, 82601 (2008).
[Crossref]

Satoh, G.

P. Kongsuwan, G. Satoh, and Y. L. Yao, “Transmission welding of glass by femtosecond laser: mechanism and fracture strength,” J. Manuf. Sci. Eng. 134, 011004 (2012).
[Crossref]

Schmidt, C.

I. Alexeev, K. Cvecek, C. Schmidt, I. Miyamoto, T. Frick, and M. Schmidt, “Characterization of shear strength and bonding energy of laser produced welding seams in glass,” J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng. 7, 279–283 (2012).
[Crossref]

Schmidt, M.

I. Alexeev, K. Cvecek, C. Schmidt, I. Miyamoto, T. Frick, and M. Schmidt, “Characterization of shear strength and bonding energy of laser produced welding seams in glass,” J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng. 7, 279–283 (2012).
[Crossref]

I. Miyamoto, K. Cvecek, and M. Schmidt, “Evaluation of nonlinear absorptivity in internal modification of bulk glass by ultrashort laser pulses,” Opt. Express 19, 10714–10727 (2011).
[Crossref]

I. Miyamoto, K. Cvecek, Y. Okamoto, and M. Schmidt, “Novel fusion welding technology of glass using ultrashort pulse lasers,” Phys. Procedia 5, 483–493 (2010).
[Crossref]

Shephard, J. D.

Stemme, G.

F. Niklaus, G. Stemme, J.-Q. Lu, and R. J. Gutmann, “Adhesive wafer bonding,” J. Appl. Phys. 99, 031101 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Oberhammer, F. Niklaus, and G. Stemme, “Sealing of adhesive bonded devices on wafer level,” Sens. Actuators A 110, 407–412 (2004).
[Crossref]

Sugioka, K.

Takai, H.

Tamaki, T.

Y. Ozeki, T. Inoue, T. Tamaki, H. Yamaguchi, S. Onda, W. Watanabe, T. Sano, S. Nishiuchi, A. Hirose, and K. Itoh, “Direct welding between copper and glass substrates with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Express 1, 82601 (2008).
[Crossref]

T. Tamaki, W. Watanabe, and K. Itoh, “Laser micro-welding of transparent materials by a localized heat accumulation effect using a femtosecond fiber laser at 1558  nm,” Opt. Express 14, 10460–10468 (2006).
[Crossref]

W. Watanabe, S. Onda, T. Tamaki, K. Itoh, and J. Nishii, “Space-selective laser joining of dissimilar transparent materials using femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 021106 (2006).
[Crossref]

T. Tamaki, W. Watanabe, J. Nishii, and K. Itoh, “Welding of transparent materials using femtosecond laser pulses,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, L687–L689 (2005).
[Crossref]

W. Watanabe, T. Tamaki, and K. Itoh, “Ultrashort laser welding and joining,” in Femtosecond Laser Micromachining, O. Roberto, C. Giulio, and R. Roberta, eds. (Springer-Verlag, 2012), pp. 467–477.

Tan, A. W. Y.

A. W. Y. Tan and F. E. H. Tay, “Localized laser assisted eutectic bonding of quartz and silicon by Nd:YAG pulsed-laser,” Sens. Actuators A, Phys. 120, 550–561 (2005).
[Crossref]

Tay, F. E. H.

A. W. Y. Tan and F. E. H. Tay, “Localized laser assisted eutectic bonding of quartz and silicon by Nd:YAG pulsed-laser,” Sens. Actuators A, Phys. 120, 550–561 (2005).
[Crossref]

Thomson, R. R.

Tünnermann, A.

S. Richter, S. Döring, F. Zimmermann, L. Lescieux, R. Eberhardt, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Welding of transparent materials with ultrashort laser pulses,” Proc. SPIE 8244, 824402 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Richter, S. Döring, A. Tünnermann, and S. Nolte, “Bonding of glass with femtosecond laser pulses at high repetition rates,” Appl. Phys. A 103, 257–261 (2011).
[Crossref]

Utsumi, A.

A. Utsumi, T. Ooie, T. Yano, and M. Katsumura, “Direct bonding of glass and metal using short pulsed laser,” J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng. 2, 133–136 (2007).
[Crossref]

Vallée, R.

D. Hélie, M. Bégin, F. Lacroix, and R. Vallée, “Reinforced direct bonding of optical materials by femtosecond laser welding,” Appl. Opt. 51, 2098–2106 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. Lacroix, D. Hélie, and R. Vallée, “Optical bonding reinforced by femotosecond laser welding,” Proc. SPIE 8126, 812612 (2011).
[Crossref]

Vihinen, J.

Watanabe, W.

Y. Ozeki, T. Inoue, T. Tamaki, H. Yamaguchi, S. Onda, W. Watanabe, T. Sano, S. Nishiuchi, A. Hirose, and K. Itoh, “Direct welding between copper and glass substrates with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Express 1, 82601 (2008).
[Crossref]

T. Tamaki, W. Watanabe, and K. Itoh, “Laser micro-welding of transparent materials by a localized heat accumulation effect using a femtosecond fiber laser at 1558  nm,” Opt. Express 14, 10460–10468 (2006).
[Crossref]

W. Watanabe, S. Onda, T. Tamaki, K. Itoh, and J. Nishii, “Space-selective laser joining of dissimilar transparent materials using femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 021106 (2006).
[Crossref]

T. Tamaki, W. Watanabe, J. Nishii, and K. Itoh, “Welding of transparent materials using femtosecond laser pulses,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, L687–L689 (2005).
[Crossref]

W. Watanabe, T. Tamaki, and K. Itoh, “Ultrashort laser welding and joining,” in Femtosecond Laser Micromachining, O. Roberto, C. Giulio, and R. Roberta, eds. (Springer-Verlag, 2012), pp. 467–477.

Werth, A.

A. Horn, I. Mingareev, A. Werth, M. Kachel, and U. Brenk, “Investigations on ultrafast welding of glass-glass and glass-silicon,” Appl. Phys. A 93, 171–175 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Horn, I. Mingaeev, A. Werth, and M. Kachel, “Joining of thin glass with semiconductors by ultra-fast high-repetition laser welding,” Proc. SPIE 6880, 68800A (2008).
[Crossref]

Wu, Q.

Q. Wu, N. Lorenz, and D. Hand, “Localised laser joining of glass to silicon with BCB intermediate layer,” Microsyst. Technol. 15, 1051–1057 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yamaguchi, H.

Y. Ozeki, T. Inoue, T. Tamaki, H. Yamaguchi, S. Onda, W. Watanabe, T. Sano, S. Nishiuchi, A. Hirose, and K. Itoh, “Direct welding between copper and glass substrates with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Express 1, 82601 (2008).
[Crossref]

Yang, L.-M.

Yano, T.

A. Utsumi, T. Ooie, T. Yano, and M. Katsumura, “Direct bonding of glass and metal using short pulsed laser,” J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng. 2, 133–136 (2007).
[Crossref]

Yao, Y. L.

P. Kongsuwan, G. Satoh, and Y. L. Yao, “Transmission welding of glass by femtosecond laser: mechanism and fracture strength,” J. Manuf. Sci. Eng. 134, 011004 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhang, G.

Zimmermann, F.

S. Richter, S. Döring, F. Zimmermann, L. Lescieux, R. Eberhardt, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Welding of transparent materials with ultrashort laser pulses,” Proc. SPIE 8244, 824402 (2012).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (4)

Appl. Phys. A (3)

I. H. W. Nordin, Y. Okamoto, A. Okada, H. Jiang, and T. Sakagawa, “Effect of wavelength and pulse duration on laser micro-welding of monocrystalline silicon and glass,” Appl. Phys. A 122, 400 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Horn, I. Mingareev, A. Werth, M. Kachel, and U. Brenk, “Investigations on ultrafast welding of glass-glass and glass-silicon,” Appl. Phys. A 93, 171–175 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. Richter, S. Döring, A. Tünnermann, and S. Nolte, “Bonding of glass with femtosecond laser pulses at high repetition rates,” Appl. Phys. A 103, 257–261 (2011).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Express (1)

Y. Ozeki, T. Inoue, T. Tamaki, H. Yamaguchi, S. Onda, W. Watanabe, T. Sano, S. Nishiuchi, A. Hirose, and K. Itoh, “Direct welding between copper and glass substrates with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Express 1, 82601 (2008).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

W. Watanabe, S. Onda, T. Tamaki, K. Itoh, and J. Nishii, “Space-selective laser joining of dissimilar transparent materials using femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 021106 (2006).
[Crossref]

IOP Conf. Ser. (1)

I. H. W. Nordin, Y. Okamoto, I. Miyamoto, and A. Okada, “Evaluation of molten area in micro-welding of monocrystalline silicon and glass,” IOP Conf. Ser. 144, 012039 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

F. Niklaus, G. Stemme, J.-Q. Lu, and R. J. Gutmann, “Adhesive wafer bonding,” J. Appl. Phys. 99, 031101 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng. (3)

I. Miyamoto, A. Horn, and J. Gottmann, “Local melting of glass material and its application to direct fusion welding by ps-laser pulses,” J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng. 2, 7–14 (2007).
[Crossref]

I. Alexeev, K. Cvecek, C. Schmidt, I. Miyamoto, T. Frick, and M. Schmidt, “Characterization of shear strength and bonding energy of laser produced welding seams in glass,” J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng. 7, 279–283 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Utsumi, T. Ooie, T. Yano, and M. Katsumura, “Direct bonding of glass and metal using short pulsed laser,” J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng. 2, 133–136 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng. (1)

P. Kongsuwan, G. Satoh, and Y. L. Yao, “Transmission welding of glass by femtosecond laser: mechanism and fracture strength,” J. Manuf. Sci. Eng. 134, 011004 (2012).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

T. Tamaki, W. Watanabe, J. Nishii, and K. Itoh, “Welding of transparent materials using femtosecond laser pulses,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, L687–L689 (2005).
[Crossref]

Mater. Charact. (1)

O. P. Ciuca, R. M. Carter, P. B. Prangnell, and D. P. Hand, “Characterisation of weld zone reactions in dissimilar glass-to-aluminium pulsed picosecond laser welds,” Mater. Charact. 120, 53–62, (2016).
[Crossref]

Microsyst. Technol. (1)

Q. Wu, N. Lorenz, and D. Hand, “Localised laser joining of glass to silicon with BCB intermediate layer,” Microsyst. Technol. 15, 1051–1057 (2009).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Procedia (1)

I. Miyamoto, K. Cvecek, Y. Okamoto, and M. Schmidt, “Novel fusion welding technology of glass using ultrashort pulse lasers,” Phys. Procedia 5, 483–493 (2010).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (3)

F. Lacroix, D. Hélie, and R. Vallée, “Optical bonding reinforced by femotosecond laser welding,” Proc. SPIE 8126, 812612 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Richter, S. Döring, F. Zimmermann, L. Lescieux, R. Eberhardt, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Welding of transparent materials with ultrashort laser pulses,” Proc. SPIE 8244, 824402 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Horn, I. Mingaeev, A. Werth, and M. Kachel, “Joining of thin glass with semiconductors by ultra-fast high-repetition laser welding,” Proc. SPIE 6880, 68800A (2008).
[Crossref]

Sens. Actuators A (1)

J. Oberhammer, F. Niklaus, and G. Stemme, “Sealing of adhesive bonded devices on wafer level,” Sens. Actuators A 110, 407–412 (2004).
[Crossref]

Sens. Actuators A, Phys. (1)

A. W. Y. Tan and F. E. H. Tay, “Localized laser assisted eutectic bonding of quartz and silicon by Nd:YAG pulsed-laser,” Sens. Actuators A, Phys. 120, 550–561 (2005).
[Crossref]

Other (4)

W. Watanabe, T. Tamaki, and K. Itoh, “Ultrashort laser welding and joining,” in Femtosecond Laser Micromachining, O. Roberto, C. Giulio, and R. Roberta, eds. (Springer-Verlag, 2012), pp. 467–477.

Heraeus, “Quartz glass for optics data and properties,” https://www.heraeus.com/media/media/hqs/doc_hqs/products_and_solutions_8/optics/Data_and_Properties_Optics_fused_silica_EN.pdf .

SCHOTT, “Optical glass data sheets,” http://www.schott.com/d/advanced_optics/ac85c64c-60a0-4113-a9df-23ee1be20428/1.1/schott-optical-glass-collection-datasheets-english-17012017.pdf , p. 13.

Aalco metals Ltd, “Aluminum alloy 6082– T6–T651 plate datasheet,” http://www.aalco.co.uk/datasheets/Aalco-Metals-Ltd_Aluminium-Alloy-6082-T6T651-Plate_148.pdf.ashx

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Figures (15)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematic of laser welding system. The polarizing beam splitter provides the capability for fine adjustment of the incident pulse energy. Note that for these experiments, a clamp arrangement was used to hold the work pieces together, as outlined in Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Schematic of the pneumatic clamp system, here a 10 mm BK7 cube is clamped to a 15 × 15 × 5 mm Al6082 test piece.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Example of the thermal cycling regime.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Illustration of the double-pass welding technique. (a) First pass and (b) second pass.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Parameter map of (a) Al6082-BK7 and (b)  Al 6082 - SiO 2 welding with 400 kHz, 6 ps pulses translated at 0.8 mm s 1 .
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Weibull shear test results for varying focal plane at a constant 6.55 W average power for Al6082-BK7 welding.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Weibull shear test results for varying incident power with a constant focal plane of 131 μm for Al6082-BK7 welding.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. Weibull shear test results for best parameters at 5 W, 153 μm for Al6082-BK7 welding. Equivalent results were obtained at 7.32 W and 113 μm with the larger spot size produced with the original telescoping system and have been plotted here for comparison.
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. Weibull shear test results for best parameters: 6.13 W, 236.7 μm for Al 6082 - SiO 2 welding.
Fig. 10.
Fig. 10. Example plot of measured force versus extension during shear test for a Al6082-BK7 part.
Fig. 11.
Fig. 11. Microscope images of partly tested examples. (a) Part stopped at start of plateau region and (b) part stopped in plateau region. A crack is clearly visible in the right example. Lower images are transmission micrographs taken normal to the weld plane (note the weld region in the metal is not observable, and the weld in the glass has been reflected from the interface). The backlash due to the use of screw stages is clear from the non-perfect spiral in the images.
Fig. 12.
Fig. 12. Example micrographs of Al 6082 - SiO 2 : (a) poor weld with delamination (colored interference within the welds, dashed arrow) and macro cracking (between welds—solid arrow), and (b) a good weld.
Fig. 13.
Fig. 13. Microscope images of Al6082-BK7 parts before thermal cycling.
Fig. 14.
Fig. 14. Microscope images of surviving Al6082-BK7 thermally cycled and 20 N shear tested parts.
Fig. 15.
Fig. 15. Microscope images Al6082- SiO 2 test parts before thermal cycling.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Comparison of the Ambient Thermal Properties of the Materials Used Within this Study

Tables Icon

Table 2. Observations and Results of Thermal Cycling Tests for 12 Optimized Al6082-BK7 Parts

Tables Icon

Table 3. Observations and Results of Thermal Cycling Tests for 12 Optimized Al 6082 - SiO 2 Parts

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