Abstract

Optical beam transmittance for a horizontal path of sight through the atmosphere may be measured with transmissometers, which typically are double-ended, with source and a receiver at opposite ends of the path. Determination of the beam transmittance for longer paths is more challenging in some applications, such as monitoring the surround of a ship at sea or an urban environment. Extinction imaging is a new, to the best of our knowledge, method we have developed for determining the beam transmittance and effective path extinction coefficient over extended atmospheric paths in multiple directions with a single-ended system. Our new advances to the classical theory are enabled by use of calibrated imagers operating in visible, near-infrared, or short-wave infrared wave bands. This article presents the theory, hardware, and tests with supporting instrumentation, including transmissometers and point scatter meters.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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  1. H. Koschmeider, “Theorie der horizontalen Sichtweite,” Beitr. z Phys. freien Atm. 12, 33–53 (1924).
  2. S. Q. Duntley, A. R. Boileau, and R. W. Preisendorfer, “Image transmission by the troposphere I*,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 499–506 (1957).
    [Crossref]
  3. S. Q. Duntley, R. W. Johnson, and J. I. Gordon, “Airborne measurements of optical atmospheric properties in Western Washington,” (University of California, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Visibility Laboratory, 1975), https://apps.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA026036 .
  4. J. H. Hood, “A two-cavity long-base mode meteorological range meter,” Appl. Opt. 3, 603–608 (1964).
    [Crossref]
  5. W. C. Malm, G. Persha, R. Tree, R. Stocker, I. Tombach, and H. Iyer, “Comparison of atmospheric extinction measurements made by a transmissometer, integrating nephelometer, and teleradiometer with natural and artificial black target,” presented at the Air Pollution Control Association International Specialty Conference, “Visibility Protection–Research and Policy Aspects,”Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming, 7–10 September1986, https://www.optecinc.com/visibility/pdf/lpv_comparison.pdf .
  6. W. C. Malm, “Considerations in the accuracy of a long-path transmissometer,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 14, 459–471 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  7. F. M. Janeiro, F. Wagner, P. M. Ramos, and A. M. Silva, “Automated atmospheric visibility measurements using a digital camera and image restoration,” presented at the 1st IMEKO TC19 International Symposium on Measurements and Instrumentation for Environmental Monitoring, Iasi, Romania, 2007.
  8. R. W. Johnson, W. S. Hering, and J. E. Shields, “Automated visibility & cloud cover measurements with a solid state imaging system,” (University of California, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Marine Physical Laboratory, 1989), https://apps.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA216906 .
  9. J. E. Shields, R. W. Johnson, and M. E. Karr, “An automated observing system for passive evaluation of cloud cover and visibility,” (University of California, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Marine Physical Laboratory, 1992), https://apps.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA263207 .
  10. J. E. Shields, M. E. Karr, V. W. Mikuls, P. J. Berger, P. A. Frederickson, R. J. Lind, and W. S. Hodgkiss, “Development of extinction imagers for the determination of atmospheric optical extinction,” (2014), https://apps.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA613006 .
  11. J. E. Shields and M. E. Karr, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr. 0701, La Jolla, CA 92093-0701, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Radiometric calibration methods for day/night whole sky imagers and extinction imagers”.
  12. P. J. Berger, S. M. Hammel, P. A. Frederickson, J. E. Shields, S. Siahatgar, D. Tsintikidis, S. Di Cecca, M. E. Karr, D. Merritt, L. Farrar, D. Kichura, K. Gutekunst, R. W. Johnson, A. R. Burden, J. G. Baker, J. H. Glover, and K. Jones, “Navy Atmospheric Measurements at Zuniga Shoal: February 2005–December 2006,” (MIT Lincoln Laboratory Report, 2013). This report is “For Official Use Only,” but can be requested by qualified individuals from the MIT Lincoln Laboratory. The portion related to the EI systems is included as the appendix in Ref. [10].
  13. J. E. Shields, J. G. Baker, M. E. Karr, R. W. Johnson, and A. R. Burden, “Multispectral scattering measurements along extended paths using an imaging system,” Proc. SPIE 6303, 63030E (2006).
    [Crossref]
  14. J. E. Shields, M. E. Karr, R. W. Johnson, and A. R. Burden, “Day/night whole sky imagers for 24-h cloud and sky assessment: history and overview,” Appl. Opt. 52, 1605–1616 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  15. W. Hering, “Analytic techniques for estimating visible image transmission properties of the atmosphere,” (University of California, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Visibility Laboratory, 1983), https://apps.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA142524 .

2013 (1)

2006 (1)

J. E. Shields, J. G. Baker, M. E. Karr, R. W. Johnson, and A. R. Burden, “Multispectral scattering measurements along extended paths using an imaging system,” Proc. SPIE 6303, 63030E (2006).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

W. C. Malm, “Considerations in the accuracy of a long-path transmissometer,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 14, 459–471 (1991).
[Crossref]

1964 (1)

1957 (1)

1924 (1)

H. Koschmeider, “Theorie der horizontalen Sichtweite,” Beitr. z Phys. freien Atm. 12, 33–53 (1924).

Baker, J. G.

J. E. Shields, J. G. Baker, M. E. Karr, R. W. Johnson, and A. R. Burden, “Multispectral scattering measurements along extended paths using an imaging system,” Proc. SPIE 6303, 63030E (2006).
[Crossref]

P. J. Berger, S. M. Hammel, P. A. Frederickson, J. E. Shields, S. Siahatgar, D. Tsintikidis, S. Di Cecca, M. E. Karr, D. Merritt, L. Farrar, D. Kichura, K. Gutekunst, R. W. Johnson, A. R. Burden, J. G. Baker, J. H. Glover, and K. Jones, “Navy Atmospheric Measurements at Zuniga Shoal: February 2005–December 2006,” (MIT Lincoln Laboratory Report, 2013). This report is “For Official Use Only,” but can be requested by qualified individuals from the MIT Lincoln Laboratory. The portion related to the EI systems is included as the appendix in Ref. [10].

Berger, P. J.

J. E. Shields, M. E. Karr, V. W. Mikuls, P. J. Berger, P. A. Frederickson, R. J. Lind, and W. S. Hodgkiss, “Development of extinction imagers for the determination of atmospheric optical extinction,” (2014), https://apps.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA613006 .

P. J. Berger, S. M. Hammel, P. A. Frederickson, J. E. Shields, S. Siahatgar, D. Tsintikidis, S. Di Cecca, M. E. Karr, D. Merritt, L. Farrar, D. Kichura, K. Gutekunst, R. W. Johnson, A. R. Burden, J. G. Baker, J. H. Glover, and K. Jones, “Navy Atmospheric Measurements at Zuniga Shoal: February 2005–December 2006,” (MIT Lincoln Laboratory Report, 2013). This report is “For Official Use Only,” but can be requested by qualified individuals from the MIT Lincoln Laboratory. The portion related to the EI systems is included as the appendix in Ref. [10].

Boileau, A. R.

Burden, A. R.

J. E. Shields, M. E. Karr, R. W. Johnson, and A. R. Burden, “Day/night whole sky imagers for 24-h cloud and sky assessment: history and overview,” Appl. Opt. 52, 1605–1616 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. E. Shields, J. G. Baker, M. E. Karr, R. W. Johnson, and A. R. Burden, “Multispectral scattering measurements along extended paths using an imaging system,” Proc. SPIE 6303, 63030E (2006).
[Crossref]

P. J. Berger, S. M. Hammel, P. A. Frederickson, J. E. Shields, S. Siahatgar, D. Tsintikidis, S. Di Cecca, M. E. Karr, D. Merritt, L. Farrar, D. Kichura, K. Gutekunst, R. W. Johnson, A. R. Burden, J. G. Baker, J. H. Glover, and K. Jones, “Navy Atmospheric Measurements at Zuniga Shoal: February 2005–December 2006,” (MIT Lincoln Laboratory Report, 2013). This report is “For Official Use Only,” but can be requested by qualified individuals from the MIT Lincoln Laboratory. The portion related to the EI systems is included as the appendix in Ref. [10].

Di Cecca, S.

P. J. Berger, S. M. Hammel, P. A. Frederickson, J. E. Shields, S. Siahatgar, D. Tsintikidis, S. Di Cecca, M. E. Karr, D. Merritt, L. Farrar, D. Kichura, K. Gutekunst, R. W. Johnson, A. R. Burden, J. G. Baker, J. H. Glover, and K. Jones, “Navy Atmospheric Measurements at Zuniga Shoal: February 2005–December 2006,” (MIT Lincoln Laboratory Report, 2013). This report is “For Official Use Only,” but can be requested by qualified individuals from the MIT Lincoln Laboratory. The portion related to the EI systems is included as the appendix in Ref. [10].

Duntley, S. Q.

S. Q. Duntley, A. R. Boileau, and R. W. Preisendorfer, “Image transmission by the troposphere I*,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 499–506 (1957).
[Crossref]

S. Q. Duntley, R. W. Johnson, and J. I. Gordon, “Airborne measurements of optical atmospheric properties in Western Washington,” (University of California, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Visibility Laboratory, 1975), https://apps.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA026036 .

Farrar, L.

P. J. Berger, S. M. Hammel, P. A. Frederickson, J. E. Shields, S. Siahatgar, D. Tsintikidis, S. Di Cecca, M. E. Karr, D. Merritt, L. Farrar, D. Kichura, K. Gutekunst, R. W. Johnson, A. R. Burden, J. G. Baker, J. H. Glover, and K. Jones, “Navy Atmospheric Measurements at Zuniga Shoal: February 2005–December 2006,” (MIT Lincoln Laboratory Report, 2013). This report is “For Official Use Only,” but can be requested by qualified individuals from the MIT Lincoln Laboratory. The portion related to the EI systems is included as the appendix in Ref. [10].

Frederickson, P. A.

P. J. Berger, S. M. Hammel, P. A. Frederickson, J. E. Shields, S. Siahatgar, D. Tsintikidis, S. Di Cecca, M. E. Karr, D. Merritt, L. Farrar, D. Kichura, K. Gutekunst, R. W. Johnson, A. R. Burden, J. G. Baker, J. H. Glover, and K. Jones, “Navy Atmospheric Measurements at Zuniga Shoal: February 2005–December 2006,” (MIT Lincoln Laboratory Report, 2013). This report is “For Official Use Only,” but can be requested by qualified individuals from the MIT Lincoln Laboratory. The portion related to the EI systems is included as the appendix in Ref. [10].

J. E. Shields, M. E. Karr, V. W. Mikuls, P. J. Berger, P. A. Frederickson, R. J. Lind, and W. S. Hodgkiss, “Development of extinction imagers for the determination of atmospheric optical extinction,” (2014), https://apps.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA613006 .

Glover, J. H.

P. J. Berger, S. M. Hammel, P. A. Frederickson, J. E. Shields, S. Siahatgar, D. Tsintikidis, S. Di Cecca, M. E. Karr, D. Merritt, L. Farrar, D. Kichura, K. Gutekunst, R. W. Johnson, A. R. Burden, J. G. Baker, J. H. Glover, and K. Jones, “Navy Atmospheric Measurements at Zuniga Shoal: February 2005–December 2006,” (MIT Lincoln Laboratory Report, 2013). This report is “For Official Use Only,” but can be requested by qualified individuals from the MIT Lincoln Laboratory. The portion related to the EI systems is included as the appendix in Ref. [10].

Gordon, J. I.

S. Q. Duntley, R. W. Johnson, and J. I. Gordon, “Airborne measurements of optical atmospheric properties in Western Washington,” (University of California, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Visibility Laboratory, 1975), https://apps.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA026036 .

Gutekunst, K.

P. J. Berger, S. M. Hammel, P. A. Frederickson, J. E. Shields, S. Siahatgar, D. Tsintikidis, S. Di Cecca, M. E. Karr, D. Merritt, L. Farrar, D. Kichura, K. Gutekunst, R. W. Johnson, A. R. Burden, J. G. Baker, J. H. Glover, and K. Jones, “Navy Atmospheric Measurements at Zuniga Shoal: February 2005–December 2006,” (MIT Lincoln Laboratory Report, 2013). This report is “For Official Use Only,” but can be requested by qualified individuals from the MIT Lincoln Laboratory. The portion related to the EI systems is included as the appendix in Ref. [10].

Hammel, S. M.

P. J. Berger, S. M. Hammel, P. A. Frederickson, J. E. Shields, S. Siahatgar, D. Tsintikidis, S. Di Cecca, M. E. Karr, D. Merritt, L. Farrar, D. Kichura, K. Gutekunst, R. W. Johnson, A. R. Burden, J. G. Baker, J. H. Glover, and K. Jones, “Navy Atmospheric Measurements at Zuniga Shoal: February 2005–December 2006,” (MIT Lincoln Laboratory Report, 2013). This report is “For Official Use Only,” but can be requested by qualified individuals from the MIT Lincoln Laboratory. The portion related to the EI systems is included as the appendix in Ref. [10].

Hering, W.

W. Hering, “Analytic techniques for estimating visible image transmission properties of the atmosphere,” (University of California, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Visibility Laboratory, 1983), https://apps.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA142524 .

Hering, W. S.

R. W. Johnson, W. S. Hering, and J. E. Shields, “Automated visibility & cloud cover measurements with a solid state imaging system,” (University of California, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Marine Physical Laboratory, 1989), https://apps.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA216906 .

Hodgkiss, W. S.

J. E. Shields, M. E. Karr, V. W. Mikuls, P. J. Berger, P. A. Frederickson, R. J. Lind, and W. S. Hodgkiss, “Development of extinction imagers for the determination of atmospheric optical extinction,” (2014), https://apps.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA613006 .

Hood, J. H.

Iyer, H.

W. C. Malm, G. Persha, R. Tree, R. Stocker, I. Tombach, and H. Iyer, “Comparison of atmospheric extinction measurements made by a transmissometer, integrating nephelometer, and teleradiometer with natural and artificial black target,” presented at the Air Pollution Control Association International Specialty Conference, “Visibility Protection–Research and Policy Aspects,”Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming, 7–10 September1986, https://www.optecinc.com/visibility/pdf/lpv_comparison.pdf .

Janeiro, F. M.

F. M. Janeiro, F. Wagner, P. M. Ramos, and A. M. Silva, “Automated atmospheric visibility measurements using a digital camera and image restoration,” presented at the 1st IMEKO TC19 International Symposium on Measurements and Instrumentation for Environmental Monitoring, Iasi, Romania, 2007.

Johnson, R. W.

J. E. Shields, M. E. Karr, R. W. Johnson, and A. R. Burden, “Day/night whole sky imagers for 24-h cloud and sky assessment: history and overview,” Appl. Opt. 52, 1605–1616 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. E. Shields, J. G. Baker, M. E. Karr, R. W. Johnson, and A. R. Burden, “Multispectral scattering measurements along extended paths using an imaging system,” Proc. SPIE 6303, 63030E (2006).
[Crossref]

S. Q. Duntley, R. W. Johnson, and J. I. Gordon, “Airborne measurements of optical atmospheric properties in Western Washington,” (University of California, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Visibility Laboratory, 1975), https://apps.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA026036 .

P. J. Berger, S. M. Hammel, P. A. Frederickson, J. E. Shields, S. Siahatgar, D. Tsintikidis, S. Di Cecca, M. E. Karr, D. Merritt, L. Farrar, D. Kichura, K. Gutekunst, R. W. Johnson, A. R. Burden, J. G. Baker, J. H. Glover, and K. Jones, “Navy Atmospheric Measurements at Zuniga Shoal: February 2005–December 2006,” (MIT Lincoln Laboratory Report, 2013). This report is “For Official Use Only,” but can be requested by qualified individuals from the MIT Lincoln Laboratory. The portion related to the EI systems is included as the appendix in Ref. [10].

J. E. Shields, R. W. Johnson, and M. E. Karr, “An automated observing system for passive evaluation of cloud cover and visibility,” (University of California, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Marine Physical Laboratory, 1992), https://apps.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA263207 .

R. W. Johnson, W. S. Hering, and J. E. Shields, “Automated visibility & cloud cover measurements with a solid state imaging system,” (University of California, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Marine Physical Laboratory, 1989), https://apps.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA216906 .

Jones, K.

P. J. Berger, S. M. Hammel, P. A. Frederickson, J. E. Shields, S. Siahatgar, D. Tsintikidis, S. Di Cecca, M. E. Karr, D. Merritt, L. Farrar, D. Kichura, K. Gutekunst, R. W. Johnson, A. R. Burden, J. G. Baker, J. H. Glover, and K. Jones, “Navy Atmospheric Measurements at Zuniga Shoal: February 2005–December 2006,” (MIT Lincoln Laboratory Report, 2013). This report is “For Official Use Only,” but can be requested by qualified individuals from the MIT Lincoln Laboratory. The portion related to the EI systems is included as the appendix in Ref. [10].

Karr, M. E.

J. E. Shields, M. E. Karr, R. W. Johnson, and A. R. Burden, “Day/night whole sky imagers for 24-h cloud and sky assessment: history and overview,” Appl. Opt. 52, 1605–1616 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. E. Shields, J. G. Baker, M. E. Karr, R. W. Johnson, and A. R. Burden, “Multispectral scattering measurements along extended paths using an imaging system,” Proc. SPIE 6303, 63030E (2006).
[Crossref]

J. E. Shields and M. E. Karr, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr. 0701, La Jolla, CA 92093-0701, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Radiometric calibration methods for day/night whole sky imagers and extinction imagers”.

P. J. Berger, S. M. Hammel, P. A. Frederickson, J. E. Shields, S. Siahatgar, D. Tsintikidis, S. Di Cecca, M. E. Karr, D. Merritt, L. Farrar, D. Kichura, K. Gutekunst, R. W. Johnson, A. R. Burden, J. G. Baker, J. H. Glover, and K. Jones, “Navy Atmospheric Measurements at Zuniga Shoal: February 2005–December 2006,” (MIT Lincoln Laboratory Report, 2013). This report is “For Official Use Only,” but can be requested by qualified individuals from the MIT Lincoln Laboratory. The portion related to the EI systems is included as the appendix in Ref. [10].

J. E. Shields, R. W. Johnson, and M. E. Karr, “An automated observing system for passive evaluation of cloud cover and visibility,” (University of California, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Marine Physical Laboratory, 1992), https://apps.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA263207 .

J. E. Shields, M. E. Karr, V. W. Mikuls, P. J. Berger, P. A. Frederickson, R. J. Lind, and W. S. Hodgkiss, “Development of extinction imagers for the determination of atmospheric optical extinction,” (2014), https://apps.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA613006 .

Kichura, D.

P. J. Berger, S. M. Hammel, P. A. Frederickson, J. E. Shields, S. Siahatgar, D. Tsintikidis, S. Di Cecca, M. E. Karr, D. Merritt, L. Farrar, D. Kichura, K. Gutekunst, R. W. Johnson, A. R. Burden, J. G. Baker, J. H. Glover, and K. Jones, “Navy Atmospheric Measurements at Zuniga Shoal: February 2005–December 2006,” (MIT Lincoln Laboratory Report, 2013). This report is “For Official Use Only,” but can be requested by qualified individuals from the MIT Lincoln Laboratory. The portion related to the EI systems is included as the appendix in Ref. [10].

Koschmeider, H.

H. Koschmeider, “Theorie der horizontalen Sichtweite,” Beitr. z Phys. freien Atm. 12, 33–53 (1924).

Lind, R. J.

J. E. Shields, M. E. Karr, V. W. Mikuls, P. J. Berger, P. A. Frederickson, R. J. Lind, and W. S. Hodgkiss, “Development of extinction imagers for the determination of atmospheric optical extinction,” (2014), https://apps.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA613006 .

Malm, W. C.

W. C. Malm, “Considerations in the accuracy of a long-path transmissometer,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 14, 459–471 (1991).
[Crossref]

W. C. Malm, G. Persha, R. Tree, R. Stocker, I. Tombach, and H. Iyer, “Comparison of atmospheric extinction measurements made by a transmissometer, integrating nephelometer, and teleradiometer with natural and artificial black target,” presented at the Air Pollution Control Association International Specialty Conference, “Visibility Protection–Research and Policy Aspects,”Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming, 7–10 September1986, https://www.optecinc.com/visibility/pdf/lpv_comparison.pdf .

Merritt, D.

P. J. Berger, S. M. Hammel, P. A. Frederickson, J. E. Shields, S. Siahatgar, D. Tsintikidis, S. Di Cecca, M. E. Karr, D. Merritt, L. Farrar, D. Kichura, K. Gutekunst, R. W. Johnson, A. R. Burden, J. G. Baker, J. H. Glover, and K. Jones, “Navy Atmospheric Measurements at Zuniga Shoal: February 2005–December 2006,” (MIT Lincoln Laboratory Report, 2013). This report is “For Official Use Only,” but can be requested by qualified individuals from the MIT Lincoln Laboratory. The portion related to the EI systems is included as the appendix in Ref. [10].

Mikuls, V. W.

J. E. Shields, M. E. Karr, V. W. Mikuls, P. J. Berger, P. A. Frederickson, R. J. Lind, and W. S. Hodgkiss, “Development of extinction imagers for the determination of atmospheric optical extinction,” (2014), https://apps.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA613006 .

Persha, G.

W. C. Malm, G. Persha, R. Tree, R. Stocker, I. Tombach, and H. Iyer, “Comparison of atmospheric extinction measurements made by a transmissometer, integrating nephelometer, and teleradiometer with natural and artificial black target,” presented at the Air Pollution Control Association International Specialty Conference, “Visibility Protection–Research and Policy Aspects,”Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming, 7–10 September1986, https://www.optecinc.com/visibility/pdf/lpv_comparison.pdf .

Preisendorfer, R. W.

Ramos, P. M.

F. M. Janeiro, F. Wagner, P. M. Ramos, and A. M. Silva, “Automated atmospheric visibility measurements using a digital camera and image restoration,” presented at the 1st IMEKO TC19 International Symposium on Measurements and Instrumentation for Environmental Monitoring, Iasi, Romania, 2007.

Shields, J. E.

J. E. Shields, M. E. Karr, R. W. Johnson, and A. R. Burden, “Day/night whole sky imagers for 24-h cloud and sky assessment: history and overview,” Appl. Opt. 52, 1605–1616 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. E. Shields, J. G. Baker, M. E. Karr, R. W. Johnson, and A. R. Burden, “Multispectral scattering measurements along extended paths using an imaging system,” Proc. SPIE 6303, 63030E (2006).
[Crossref]

R. W. Johnson, W. S. Hering, and J. E. Shields, “Automated visibility & cloud cover measurements with a solid state imaging system,” (University of California, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Marine Physical Laboratory, 1989), https://apps.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA216906 .

J. E. Shields, R. W. Johnson, and M. E. Karr, “An automated observing system for passive evaluation of cloud cover and visibility,” (University of California, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Marine Physical Laboratory, 1992), https://apps.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA263207 .

J. E. Shields, M. E. Karr, V. W. Mikuls, P. J. Berger, P. A. Frederickson, R. J. Lind, and W. S. Hodgkiss, “Development of extinction imagers for the determination of atmospheric optical extinction,” (2014), https://apps.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA613006 .

P. J. Berger, S. M. Hammel, P. A. Frederickson, J. E. Shields, S. Siahatgar, D. Tsintikidis, S. Di Cecca, M. E. Karr, D. Merritt, L. Farrar, D. Kichura, K. Gutekunst, R. W. Johnson, A. R. Burden, J. G. Baker, J. H. Glover, and K. Jones, “Navy Atmospheric Measurements at Zuniga Shoal: February 2005–December 2006,” (MIT Lincoln Laboratory Report, 2013). This report is “For Official Use Only,” but can be requested by qualified individuals from the MIT Lincoln Laboratory. The portion related to the EI systems is included as the appendix in Ref. [10].

J. E. Shields and M. E. Karr, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr. 0701, La Jolla, CA 92093-0701, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Radiometric calibration methods for day/night whole sky imagers and extinction imagers”.

Siahatgar, S.

P. J. Berger, S. M. Hammel, P. A. Frederickson, J. E. Shields, S. Siahatgar, D. Tsintikidis, S. Di Cecca, M. E. Karr, D. Merritt, L. Farrar, D. Kichura, K. Gutekunst, R. W. Johnson, A. R. Burden, J. G. Baker, J. H. Glover, and K. Jones, “Navy Atmospheric Measurements at Zuniga Shoal: February 2005–December 2006,” (MIT Lincoln Laboratory Report, 2013). This report is “For Official Use Only,” but can be requested by qualified individuals from the MIT Lincoln Laboratory. The portion related to the EI systems is included as the appendix in Ref. [10].

Silva, A. M.

F. M. Janeiro, F. Wagner, P. M. Ramos, and A. M. Silva, “Automated atmospheric visibility measurements using a digital camera and image restoration,” presented at the 1st IMEKO TC19 International Symposium on Measurements and Instrumentation for Environmental Monitoring, Iasi, Romania, 2007.

Stocker, R.

W. C. Malm, G. Persha, R. Tree, R. Stocker, I. Tombach, and H. Iyer, “Comparison of atmospheric extinction measurements made by a transmissometer, integrating nephelometer, and teleradiometer with natural and artificial black target,” presented at the Air Pollution Control Association International Specialty Conference, “Visibility Protection–Research and Policy Aspects,”Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming, 7–10 September1986, https://www.optecinc.com/visibility/pdf/lpv_comparison.pdf .

Tombach, I.

W. C. Malm, G. Persha, R. Tree, R. Stocker, I. Tombach, and H. Iyer, “Comparison of atmospheric extinction measurements made by a transmissometer, integrating nephelometer, and teleradiometer with natural and artificial black target,” presented at the Air Pollution Control Association International Specialty Conference, “Visibility Protection–Research and Policy Aspects,”Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming, 7–10 September1986, https://www.optecinc.com/visibility/pdf/lpv_comparison.pdf .

Tree, R.

W. C. Malm, G. Persha, R. Tree, R. Stocker, I. Tombach, and H. Iyer, “Comparison of atmospheric extinction measurements made by a transmissometer, integrating nephelometer, and teleradiometer with natural and artificial black target,” presented at the Air Pollution Control Association International Specialty Conference, “Visibility Protection–Research and Policy Aspects,”Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming, 7–10 September1986, https://www.optecinc.com/visibility/pdf/lpv_comparison.pdf .

Tsintikidis, D.

P. J. Berger, S. M. Hammel, P. A. Frederickson, J. E. Shields, S. Siahatgar, D. Tsintikidis, S. Di Cecca, M. E. Karr, D. Merritt, L. Farrar, D. Kichura, K. Gutekunst, R. W. Johnson, A. R. Burden, J. G. Baker, J. H. Glover, and K. Jones, “Navy Atmospheric Measurements at Zuniga Shoal: February 2005–December 2006,” (MIT Lincoln Laboratory Report, 2013). This report is “For Official Use Only,” but can be requested by qualified individuals from the MIT Lincoln Laboratory. The portion related to the EI systems is included as the appendix in Ref. [10].

Wagner, F.

F. M. Janeiro, F. Wagner, P. M. Ramos, and A. M. Silva, “Automated atmospheric visibility measurements using a digital camera and image restoration,” presented at the 1st IMEKO TC19 International Symposium on Measurements and Instrumentation for Environmental Monitoring, Iasi, Romania, 2007.

Aerosol Sci. Technol. (1)

W. C. Malm, “Considerations in the accuracy of a long-path transmissometer,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 14, 459–471 (1991).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Beitr. z Phys. freien Atm. (1)

H. Koschmeider, “Theorie der horizontalen Sichtweite,” Beitr. z Phys. freien Atm. 12, 33–53 (1924).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Proc. SPIE (1)

J. E. Shields, J. G. Baker, M. E. Karr, R. W. Johnson, and A. R. Burden, “Multispectral scattering measurements along extended paths using an imaging system,” Proc. SPIE 6303, 63030E (2006).
[Crossref]

Other (9)

W. Hering, “Analytic techniques for estimating visible image transmission properties of the atmosphere,” (University of California, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Visibility Laboratory, 1983), https://apps.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA142524 .

S. Q. Duntley, R. W. Johnson, and J. I. Gordon, “Airborne measurements of optical atmospheric properties in Western Washington,” (University of California, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Visibility Laboratory, 1975), https://apps.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA026036 .

W. C. Malm, G. Persha, R. Tree, R. Stocker, I. Tombach, and H. Iyer, “Comparison of atmospheric extinction measurements made by a transmissometer, integrating nephelometer, and teleradiometer with natural and artificial black target,” presented at the Air Pollution Control Association International Specialty Conference, “Visibility Protection–Research and Policy Aspects,”Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming, 7–10 September1986, https://www.optecinc.com/visibility/pdf/lpv_comparison.pdf .

F. M. Janeiro, F. Wagner, P. M. Ramos, and A. M. Silva, “Automated atmospheric visibility measurements using a digital camera and image restoration,” presented at the 1st IMEKO TC19 International Symposium on Measurements and Instrumentation for Environmental Monitoring, Iasi, Romania, 2007.

R. W. Johnson, W. S. Hering, and J. E. Shields, “Automated visibility & cloud cover measurements with a solid state imaging system,” (University of California, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Marine Physical Laboratory, 1989), https://apps.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA216906 .

J. E. Shields, R. W. Johnson, and M. E. Karr, “An automated observing system for passive evaluation of cloud cover and visibility,” (University of California, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Marine Physical Laboratory, 1992), https://apps.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA263207 .

J. E. Shields, M. E. Karr, V. W. Mikuls, P. J. Berger, P. A. Frederickson, R. J. Lind, and W. S. Hodgkiss, “Development of extinction imagers for the determination of atmospheric optical extinction,” (2014), https://apps.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA613006 .

J. E. Shields and M. E. Karr, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr. 0701, La Jolla, CA 92093-0701, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Radiometric calibration methods for day/night whole sky imagers and extinction imagers”.

P. J. Berger, S. M. Hammel, P. A. Frederickson, J. E. Shields, S. Siahatgar, D. Tsintikidis, S. Di Cecca, M. E. Karr, D. Merritt, L. Farrar, D. Kichura, K. Gutekunst, R. W. Johnson, A. R. Burden, J. G. Baker, J. H. Glover, and K. Jones, “Navy Atmospheric Measurements at Zuniga Shoal: February 2005–December 2006,” (MIT Lincoln Laboratory Report, 2013). This report is “For Official Use Only,” but can be requested by qualified individuals from the MIT Lincoln Laboratory. The portion related to the EI systems is included as the appendix in Ref. [10].

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. MSI sensor and target as used in initial research.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. MSI imagery under light haze.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. MSI versus transmissometer path extinction coefficients for 28 November–11 December 2006.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Time series comparing MSI and transmissometer extinction coefficients for 28 November–5 December 2006.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. SRI mounted on rotary table (placed on top of environmental housing for picture).
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Experimental site with EI systems and supporting instrumentation.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Typical MSI Image at 650 nm showing typical ROIs, 4 March 2008; uncalibrated image.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. Typical SWIR image with scattered clouds, 18 February 2010; calibrated image.
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. MSI images at 650 nm, 21 February 2010, 1700 GMT and 1820 GMT, illustrating very dynamic situation.
Fig. 10.
Fig. 10. Extinction and scattering coefficients, 19–26 February 2010.
Fig. 11.
Fig. 11. Two sample images for evaluation of instrument comparisons. (a) MSI, 25 February 2010, 1900 GMT; (b) SRI, 14 February 2010 2300 GMT.

Equations (12)

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d L / d r = r ( r ) * L .
T r ( r ) = 0 r e r ( r ) r d r .
T r ( r ) = e r ( r ) r .
L r * p = L * T r i d r .
L r = L 0 T r + L r * p .
C r = L r t L r b L r b .
C 0 = L 0 t L 0 b L 0 b .
C r = T r L 0 b L r b C 0 .
C r = T r C 0 .
T r = C r / C 0 ,
r = 1 r ln C r C 0 .
V = 3 / r ( 550 ) .

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