Abstract

A new, combined, lidar system has been developed that is able to simultaneously measure profiles of ozone and water vapor onboard aircraft. The concurrent measurement of these complementary trace species in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere allows inferring exchange processes in the tropopause region. Whereas an advanced H2O differential absorption lidar at 935 nm has successfully been developed and extensively tested at DLR in the past, we describe here an amendment of this lidar by the addition of an ultraviolet (UV) channel to measure ozone. The transmitter of the ozone differential absorption lidar (DIAL) is based on a near-IR optical parametric oscillator that is frequency-converted into the UV spectral range by intracavity sum frequency mixing. Hereby, a continuous UV tuning range of 297317nm has been achieved. The average output power in this range is higher than 1 W corresponding to more than 10 mJ per pulse at a repetition rate of 100 Hz. The ozone DIAL system has been carefully characterized both on the ground and in flight. The first simultaneously measured two-dimensional cross-sections of ozone and water vapor in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere have been recorded during the Wave-driven Isentropic Exchange (WISE) field campaign in 2017 demonstrating the high potential of this system for studying exchange processes in this region of the atmosphere.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2018 (3)

K. B. Strawbridge, M. S. Travis, B. J. Firanski, J. R. Brook, R. Staebler, and T. Leblanc, “A fully autonomous ozone, aerosol and nighttime water vapor lidar: a synergistic approach to profiling the atmosphere in the Canadian oil sands region,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 11, 6735–6759 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Schäfler, G. Craig, H. Wernli, P. Arbogast, J. D. Doyle, R. McTaggart-Cowan, J. Methven, G. Rivière, F. Ament, M. Boettcher, M. Bramberger, Q. Cazenave, R. Cotton, S. Crewell, J. Delanoë, A. Dörnbrack, A. Ehrlich, F. Ewald, A. Fix, C. M. Grams, S. L. Gray, H. Grob, S. Groß, M. Hagen, B. Harvey, L. Hirsch, M. Jacob, T. Kölling, H. Konow, C. Lemmerz, O. Lux, L. Magnusson, B. Mayer, M. Mech, R. Moore, J. Pelon, J. Quinting, S. Rahm, M. Rapp, M. Rautenhaus, O. Reitebuch, C. A. Reynolds, H. Sodemann, T. Spengler, G. Vaughan, M. Wendisch, M. Wirth, B. Witschas, K. Wolf, and T. Zinner, “The North Atlantic waveguide and downstream impact experiment,” Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 99, 1607–1637 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Voigt, A. Dörnbrack, M. Wirth, S. M. Groß, M. C. Pitts, L. R. Poole, R. Baumann, B. Ehard, B.-M. Sinnhuber, W. Woiwode, and H. Oelhaf, “Widespread polar stratospheric ice clouds in the 2015–2016 Arctic winter–implications for ice nucleation,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 18, 15623–15641 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (3)

R. De Young, W. Carrion, R. Ganoe, D. Pliutau, G. Gronoff, T. Berkoff, and S. Kuang, “Langley mobile ozone lidar: ozone and aerosol atmospheric profiling for air quality research,” Appl. Opt. 56, 721–730 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Voigt, U. Schumann, A. Minikin, A. Abdelmonem, A. Afchine, S. Borrmann, M. Boettcher, B. Buchholz, L. Bugliaro, A. Costa, J. Curtius, M. Dollner, A. Dörnbrack, V. Dreiling, V. Ebert, A. Ehrlich, A. Fix, L. Forster, F. Frank, D. Fütterer, A. Giez, K. Graf, J. Grooß, S. Groß, K. Heimerl, B. Heinold, T. Hüneke, E. Järvinen, T. Jurkat, S. Kaufmann, M. Kenntner, M. Klingebiel, T. Klimach, R. Kohl, M. Krämer, T. C. Krisna, A. Luebke, B. Mayer, S. Mertes, S. Molleker, A. Petzold, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Port, M. Rapp, P. Reutter, C. Rolf, D. Rose, D. Sauer, A. Schäfler, R. Schlage, M. Schnaiter, J. Schneider, N. Spelten, P. Spichtinger, P. Stock, A. Walser, R. Weigel, B. Weinzierl, M. Wendisch, F. Werner, H. Wernli, M. Wirth, A. Zahn, H. Ziereis, and M. Zöger, “ML-CIRRUS: the airborne experiment on natural cirrus and contrail cirrus with the high-altitude long-range research aircraft HALO,” Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 98, 271–288 (2017).
[Crossref]

B. Urbanek, S. Groß, A. Schäfler, and M. Wirth, “Determining stages of cirrus evolution: a cloud classification scheme,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 10, 1653–1664 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (2)

T. Trickl, H. Vogelmann, A. Fix, A. Schäfler, M. Wirth, B. Calpini, G. Levrat, G. Romanens, A. Apituley, K. M. Wilson, R. Begbie, J. Reichardt, H. Vömel, and M. Sprenger, “How stratospheric are deep stratospheric intrusions?–LUAMI 2008,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 16, 8791–8815 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. J. Granados-Muñoz and T. Leblanc, “Tropospheric ozone seasonal and long-term variability as seen by lidar and surface measurements at the JPL-Table Mountain Facility, California,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 16, 9299–9319 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

T. Trickl, H. Vogelmann, H. Flentje, and L. Ries, “Stratospheric ozone in boreal fire plumes–the 2013 smoke season over central Europe,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 15, 9631–9649 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

T. Trickl, H. Vogelmann, H. Giehl, H.-E. Scheel, M. Sprenger, and A. Stohl, “How stratospheric are deep stratospheric intrusions?”Atmos. Chem. Phys. 14, 9941–9961 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Schäfler and F. Harnisch, “Impact of the inflow moisture on the evolution of a warm conveyor belt,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 141, 299–310 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Groß, M. Wirth, A. Schäfler, A. Fix, S. Kaufmann, and C. Voigt, “Potential of airborne lidar measurements for cirrus cloud studies,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 7, 2745–2755 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

C. Kiemle, A. Schäfler, M. Wirth, A. Fix, and S. Rahm, “Detection and analysis of water vapor transport by airborne lidars,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Appl. Earth Observ. Remote Sensing 6, 1189–1193 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Groß, M. Esselborn, F. Abicht, M. Wirth, A. Fix, and A. Minikin, “Airborne high spectral resolution lidar observation of pollution aerosol during EUCAARI-LONGREX,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 13, 2435–2444 (2013).
[Crossref]

2011 (5)

C. Kiemle, M. Wirth, A. Fix, S. Rahm, U. Corsmeier, and P. Di Girolamo, “Latent heat flux measurements over complex terrain by airborne water vapour and wind lidars,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 190–203 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Schäfler, A. Dörnbrack, H. Wernli, C. Kiemle, and S. Pfahl, “Airborne lidar observations in the inflow region of a warm conveyor belt,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 1257–1272 (2011).
[Crossref]

F. Harnisch, M. Weissmann, C. Cardinali, and M. Wirth, “Experimental assimilation of DIAL water vapour observations in the ECMWF global model,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 1532–1546 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. S. Wagner, A. Gohm, A. Dörnbrack, and A. Schäfler, “The mesoscale structure of a polar low: airborne lidar measurements and simulations,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 1516–1531 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. J. Alvarez, C. J. Senff, A. O. Langford, A. M. Weickmann, D. C. Law, J. L. Machol, D. A. Merritt, R. D. Marchbanks, S. P. Sandberg, W. A. Brewer, R. M. Hardesty, and R. M. Banta, “Development and application of a compact, tunable, solid-state airborne ozone lidar system for boundary layer profiling,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 28, 1258–1272 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

A. Schäfler, A. Dörnbrack, C. Kiemle, S. Rahm, and M. Wirth, “Tropospheric water vapor transport as determined from airborne lidar measurements,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 27, 2017–2030 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

M. I. Hegglin, C. D. Boone, G. L. Manney, and K. A. Walker, “A global view of the extratropical tropopause transition layer from atmospheric chemistry experiment Fourier transform spectrometer O3, H2O, and CO,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, D00B11 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Wirth, A. Fix, P. Mahnke, H. Schwarzer, F. Schrandt, and G. Ehret, “The airborne multiwavelength water vapor differential absorption lidar WALES: system design and performance,” Appl. Phys. B 96, 201–213 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

M. I. Hegglin, C. D. Boone, G. L. Manney, T. G. Shepherd, K. A. Walker, P. F. Bernath, W. H. Daffer, P. Hoor, and C. Schiller, “Validation of ACE-FTS satellite data in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (UTLS) using non-coincident measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8, 1483–1499 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. Vogelmann and T. Trickl, “Wide-range sounding of free-tropospheric water vapor with a differential-absorption lidar (DIAL) at a high-altitude station,” Appl. Opt. 47, 2116–2132 (2008).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

A. Papayannis, D. Balis, P. Zanis, E. Galani, H. Wernli, C. Zerefos, A. Stohl, S. Eckhardt, and V. Amiridis, “Sampling of an STT event over the Eastern Mediterranean region by lidar and electrochemical Sonde,” Ann. Geophys. 23, 2039–2050 (2005).
[Crossref]

G. Vaughan, C. Cambridge, L. Dean, and A. W. Phillips, “Water vapour and ozone profiles in the midlatitude upper troposphere,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 963–971 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

P. Hoor, C. Gurk, D. Brunner, M. I. Hegglin, H. Wernli, and H. Fischer, “Seasonality and extent of extratropical TST derived from in-situ CO measurements during SPURT,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 4, 1427–1442 (2004).
[Crossref]

L. L. Pan, W. J. Randel, B. L. Gary, M. J. Mahoney, and E. J. Hintsa, “Definitions and sharpness of the extratropical tropopause: a trace gas perspective,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D23103 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

A. Zahn and C. A. M. Brenninkmeijer, “New directions: a chemical tropopause defined,” Atmos. Environ. 37, 439–440 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (3)

2001 (1)

2000 (1)

H. Fischer, F. G. Wienhold, P. Hoor, O. Bujok, C. Schiller, P. Siegmund, M. H. P. Ambaum, H. A. Scheeren, and J. Lelieveld, “Tracer correlations in the northern high latitude lowermost stratosphere: influence of cross-tropopause mass exchange,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 97–100 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

H. Eisele, H. E. Scheel, R. Sladkovic, and T. Trickl, “High-resolution lidar measurements of stratosphere-troposphere exchange,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 319–330 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (3)

A. Fix and G. Ehret, “Intracavity frequency mixing in pulsed optical parametric oscillators for the efficient generation of continuously tunable ultraviolet radiation,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 331–338 (1998).
[Crossref]

E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, and W. Grant, “Differential absorption lidar (DIAL) measurements from air and space,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 399–410 (1998).
[Crossref]

G. Ancellet and F. Ravetta, “Compact airborne lidar for tropospheric ozone: description and field measurements,” Appl. Opt. 37, 5509–5521 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (2)

1995 (1)

J. Malicet, D. Daumont, J. Charbronnier, C. Parisse, A. Chakir, and J. Brion, “Ozone UV spectroscopy. II. Absorption cross-sections and temperature dependence,” J. Atmos. Chem. 21, 263–273 (1995).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

D. Daumont, J. Brion, J. Charbronnier, and J. Malicet, “Ozone UV spectroscopy I: Absorption cross section at room temperature II: Absorption cross sections and temperature dependence,” J. Atmos. Chem. 15, 145–155 (1992).
[Crossref]

1982 (1)

J. Pelon and G. Mégie, “Ozone monitoring in the troposphere and lower stratosphere: evaluation and operation of a ground-based lidar station,” J. Geophys. Res. 87, 4947–4955 (1982).
[Crossref]

Abalos, M.

A. Maycock and A. Karpechko (lead authors), M. Abalos, H. Akiyoshi, J. M. Arblaster, C. I. Garfinkel, K. H. Rosenlof, and M. Sigmond, “Stratospheric ozone changes and climate,” in Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 2018, Global Ozone Research and Monitoring Project–Report No. 58 (World Meteorological Organization, 2018).

Abdelmonem, A.

C. Voigt, U. Schumann, A. Minikin, A. Abdelmonem, A. Afchine, S. Borrmann, M. Boettcher, B. Buchholz, L. Bugliaro, A. Costa, J. Curtius, M. Dollner, A. Dörnbrack, V. Dreiling, V. Ebert, A. Ehrlich, A. Fix, L. Forster, F. Frank, D. Fütterer, A. Giez, K. Graf, J. Grooß, S. Groß, K. Heimerl, B. Heinold, T. Hüneke, E. Järvinen, T. Jurkat, S. Kaufmann, M. Kenntner, M. Klingebiel, T. Klimach, R. Kohl, M. Krämer, T. C. Krisna, A. Luebke, B. Mayer, S. Mertes, S. Molleker, A. Petzold, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Port, M. Rapp, P. Reutter, C. Rolf, D. Rose, D. Sauer, A. Schäfler, R. Schlage, M. Schnaiter, J. Schneider, N. Spelten, P. Spichtinger, P. Stock, A. Walser, R. Weigel, B. Weinzierl, M. Wendisch, F. Werner, H. Wernli, M. Wirth, A. Zahn, H. Ziereis, and M. Zöger, “ML-CIRRUS: the airborne experiment on natural cirrus and contrail cirrus with the high-altitude long-range research aircraft HALO,” Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 98, 271–288 (2017).
[Crossref]

Abicht, F.

S. Groß, M. Esselborn, F. Abicht, M. Wirth, A. Fix, and A. Minikin, “Airborne high spectral resolution lidar observation of pollution aerosol during EUCAARI-LONGREX,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 13, 2435–2444 (2013).
[Crossref]

Afchine, A.

C. Voigt, U. Schumann, A. Minikin, A. Abdelmonem, A. Afchine, S. Borrmann, M. Boettcher, B. Buchholz, L. Bugliaro, A. Costa, J. Curtius, M. Dollner, A. Dörnbrack, V. Dreiling, V. Ebert, A. Ehrlich, A. Fix, L. Forster, F. Frank, D. Fütterer, A. Giez, K. Graf, J. Grooß, S. Groß, K. Heimerl, B. Heinold, T. Hüneke, E. Järvinen, T. Jurkat, S. Kaufmann, M. Kenntner, M. Klingebiel, T. Klimach, R. Kohl, M. Krämer, T. C. Krisna, A. Luebke, B. Mayer, S. Mertes, S. Molleker, A. Petzold, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Port, M. Rapp, P. Reutter, C. Rolf, D. Rose, D. Sauer, A. Schäfler, R. Schlage, M. Schnaiter, J. Schneider, N. Spelten, P. Spichtinger, P. Stock, A. Walser, R. Weigel, B. Weinzierl, M. Wendisch, F. Werner, H. Wernli, M. Wirth, A. Zahn, H. Ziereis, and M. Zöger, “ML-CIRRUS: the airborne experiment on natural cirrus and contrail cirrus with the high-altitude long-range research aircraft HALO,” Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 98, 271–288 (2017).
[Crossref]

Akiyoshi, H.

A. Maycock and A. Karpechko (lead authors), M. Abalos, H. Akiyoshi, J. M. Arblaster, C. I. Garfinkel, K. H. Rosenlof, and M. Sigmond, “Stratospheric ozone changes and climate,” in Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 2018, Global Ozone Research and Monitoring Project–Report No. 58 (World Meteorological Organization, 2018).

Alvarez, R. J.

R. J. Alvarez, C. J. Senff, A. O. Langford, A. M. Weickmann, D. C. Law, J. L. Machol, D. A. Merritt, R. D. Marchbanks, S. P. Sandberg, W. A. Brewer, R. M. Hardesty, and R. M. Banta, “Development and application of a compact, tunable, solid-state airborne ozone lidar system for boundary layer profiling,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 28, 1258–1272 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ambaum, M. H. P.

H. Fischer, F. G. Wienhold, P. Hoor, O. Bujok, C. Schiller, P. Siegmund, M. H. P. Ambaum, H. A. Scheeren, and J. Lelieveld, “Tracer correlations in the northern high latitude lowermost stratosphere: influence of cross-tropopause mass exchange,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 97–100 (2000).
[Crossref]

Ament, F.

A. Schäfler, G. Craig, H. Wernli, P. Arbogast, J. D. Doyle, R. McTaggart-Cowan, J. Methven, G. Rivière, F. Ament, M. Boettcher, M. Bramberger, Q. Cazenave, R. Cotton, S. Crewell, J. Delanoë, A. Dörnbrack, A. Ehrlich, F. Ewald, A. Fix, C. M. Grams, S. L. Gray, H. Grob, S. Groß, M. Hagen, B. Harvey, L. Hirsch, M. Jacob, T. Kölling, H. Konow, C. Lemmerz, O. Lux, L. Magnusson, B. Mayer, M. Mech, R. Moore, J. Pelon, J. Quinting, S. Rahm, M. Rapp, M. Rautenhaus, O. Reitebuch, C. A. Reynolds, H. Sodemann, T. Spengler, G. Vaughan, M. Wendisch, M. Wirth, B. Witschas, K. Wolf, and T. Zinner, “The North Atlantic waveguide and downstream impact experiment,” Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 99, 1607–1637 (2018).
[Crossref]

Amiridis, V.

A. Papayannis, D. Balis, P. Zanis, E. Galani, H. Wernli, C. Zerefos, A. Stohl, S. Eckhardt, and V. Amiridis, “Sampling of an STT event over the Eastern Mediterranean region by lidar and electrochemical Sonde,” Ann. Geophys. 23, 2039–2050 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ancellet, G.

Apituley, A.

T. Trickl, H. Vogelmann, A. Fix, A. Schäfler, M. Wirth, B. Calpini, G. Levrat, G. Romanens, A. Apituley, K. M. Wilson, R. Begbie, J. Reichardt, H. Vömel, and M. Sprenger, “How stratospheric are deep stratospheric intrusions?–LUAMI 2008,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 16, 8791–8815 (2016).
[Crossref]

Arblaster, J. M.

A. Maycock and A. Karpechko (lead authors), M. Abalos, H. Akiyoshi, J. M. Arblaster, C. I. Garfinkel, K. H. Rosenlof, and M. Sigmond, “Stratospheric ozone changes and climate,” in Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 2018, Global Ozone Research and Monitoring Project–Report No. 58 (World Meteorological Organization, 2018).

Arbogast, P.

A. Schäfler, G. Craig, H. Wernli, P. Arbogast, J. D. Doyle, R. McTaggart-Cowan, J. Methven, G. Rivière, F. Ament, M. Boettcher, M. Bramberger, Q. Cazenave, R. Cotton, S. Crewell, J. Delanoë, A. Dörnbrack, A. Ehrlich, F. Ewald, A. Fix, C. M. Grams, S. L. Gray, H. Grob, S. Groß, M. Hagen, B. Harvey, L. Hirsch, M. Jacob, T. Kölling, H. Konow, C. Lemmerz, O. Lux, L. Magnusson, B. Mayer, M. Mech, R. Moore, J. Pelon, J. Quinting, S. Rahm, M. Rapp, M. Rautenhaus, O. Reitebuch, C. A. Reynolds, H. Sodemann, T. Spengler, G. Vaughan, M. Wendisch, M. Wirth, B. Witschas, K. Wolf, and T. Zinner, “The North Atlantic waveguide and downstream impact experiment,” Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 99, 1607–1637 (2018).
[Crossref]

Balis, D.

A. Papayannis, D. Balis, P. Zanis, E. Galani, H. Wernli, C. Zerefos, A. Stohl, S. Eckhardt, and V. Amiridis, “Sampling of an STT event over the Eastern Mediterranean region by lidar and electrochemical Sonde,” Ann. Geophys. 23, 2039–2050 (2005).
[Crossref]

Banta, R. M.

R. J. Alvarez, C. J. Senff, A. O. Langford, A. M. Weickmann, D. C. Law, J. L. Machol, D. A. Merritt, R. D. Marchbanks, S. P. Sandberg, W. A. Brewer, R. M. Hardesty, and R. M. Banta, “Development and application of a compact, tunable, solid-state airborne ozone lidar system for boundary layer profiling,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 28, 1258–1272 (2011).
[Crossref]

Barnes, J. C.

Baumann, R.

C. Voigt, A. Dörnbrack, M. Wirth, S. M. Groß, M. C. Pitts, L. R. Poole, R. Baumann, B. Ehard, B.-M. Sinnhuber, W. Woiwode, and H. Oelhaf, “Widespread polar stratospheric ice clouds in the 2015–2016 Arctic winter–implications for ice nucleation,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 18, 15623–15641 (2018).
[Crossref]

Begbie, R.

T. Trickl, H. Vogelmann, A. Fix, A. Schäfler, M. Wirth, B. Calpini, G. Levrat, G. Romanens, A. Apituley, K. M. Wilson, R. Begbie, J. Reichardt, H. Vömel, and M. Sprenger, “How stratospheric are deep stratospheric intrusions?–LUAMI 2008,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 16, 8791–8815 (2016).
[Crossref]

Berkoff, T.

Bernath, P. F.

M. I. Hegglin, C. D. Boone, G. L. Manney, T. G. Shepherd, K. A. Walker, P. F. Bernath, W. H. Daffer, P. Hoor, and C. Schiller, “Validation of ACE-FTS satellite data in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (UTLS) using non-coincident measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8, 1483–1499 (2008).
[Crossref]

Boettcher, M.

A. Schäfler, G. Craig, H. Wernli, P. Arbogast, J. D. Doyle, R. McTaggart-Cowan, J. Methven, G. Rivière, F. Ament, M. Boettcher, M. Bramberger, Q. Cazenave, R. Cotton, S. Crewell, J. Delanoë, A. Dörnbrack, A. Ehrlich, F. Ewald, A. Fix, C. M. Grams, S. L. Gray, H. Grob, S. Groß, M. Hagen, B. Harvey, L. Hirsch, M. Jacob, T. Kölling, H. Konow, C. Lemmerz, O. Lux, L. Magnusson, B. Mayer, M. Mech, R. Moore, J. Pelon, J. Quinting, S. Rahm, M. Rapp, M. Rautenhaus, O. Reitebuch, C. A. Reynolds, H. Sodemann, T. Spengler, G. Vaughan, M. Wendisch, M. Wirth, B. Witschas, K. Wolf, and T. Zinner, “The North Atlantic waveguide and downstream impact experiment,” Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 99, 1607–1637 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Voigt, U. Schumann, A. Minikin, A. Abdelmonem, A. Afchine, S. Borrmann, M. Boettcher, B. Buchholz, L. Bugliaro, A. Costa, J. Curtius, M. Dollner, A. Dörnbrack, V. Dreiling, V. Ebert, A. Ehrlich, A. Fix, L. Forster, F. Frank, D. Fütterer, A. Giez, K. Graf, J. Grooß, S. Groß, K. Heimerl, B. Heinold, T. Hüneke, E. Järvinen, T. Jurkat, S. Kaufmann, M. Kenntner, M. Klingebiel, T. Klimach, R. Kohl, M. Krämer, T. C. Krisna, A. Luebke, B. Mayer, S. Mertes, S. Molleker, A. Petzold, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Port, M. Rapp, P. Reutter, C. Rolf, D. Rose, D. Sauer, A. Schäfler, R. Schlage, M. Schnaiter, J. Schneider, N. Spelten, P. Spichtinger, P. Stock, A. Walser, R. Weigel, B. Weinzierl, M. Wendisch, F. Werner, H. Wernli, M. Wirth, A. Zahn, H. Ziereis, and M. Zöger, “ML-CIRRUS: the airborne experiment on natural cirrus and contrail cirrus with the high-altitude long-range research aircraft HALO,” Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 98, 271–288 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bönisch, H.

H. Oelhaf, B. M. Sinnhuber, W. Woiwode, M. Rapp, A. Dörnbrack, A. Engel, and H. Bönisch, “The polar stratosphere in a changing climate (POLSTRACC): mission overview and first results,” in EGU General Assembly Conference Abstracts (2016), Vol. 18, p. 7743.

H. Oelhaf, B.-M. Sinnhuber, W. Woiwode, H. Bönisch, H. Bozem, A. Engel, A. Fix, F. Friedl-Vallon, J.-U. Grooß, P. Hoor, S. Johansson, T. Jurkat-Witschas, S. Kaufmann, M. Krämer, J. Krause, E. Kretschmer, D. Lörks, A. Marsing, J. Orphal, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Pitss, L. Poole, P. Preusse, M. Rapp, M. Riese, C. Rolf, J. Ungermann, C. Voigt, C. M. Volk, M. Wirth, A. Zahn, and H. Ziereis, “POLSTRACC: airborne experiment for studying the polar stratosphere in a changing climate with the high-altitude long-range research aircraft HALO,” Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., submitted for publication.

Boone, C. D.

M. I. Hegglin, C. D. Boone, G. L. Manney, and K. A. Walker, “A global view of the extratropical tropopause transition layer from atmospheric chemistry experiment Fourier transform spectrometer O3, H2O, and CO,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, D00B11 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. I. Hegglin, C. D. Boone, G. L. Manney, T. G. Shepherd, K. A. Walker, P. F. Bernath, W. H. Daffer, P. Hoor, and C. Schiller, “Validation of ACE-FTS satellite data in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (UTLS) using non-coincident measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8, 1483–1499 (2008).
[Crossref]

Borrmann, S.

C. Voigt, U. Schumann, A. Minikin, A. Abdelmonem, A. Afchine, S. Borrmann, M. Boettcher, B. Buchholz, L. Bugliaro, A. Costa, J. Curtius, M. Dollner, A. Dörnbrack, V. Dreiling, V. Ebert, A. Ehrlich, A. Fix, L. Forster, F. Frank, D. Fütterer, A. Giez, K. Graf, J. Grooß, S. Groß, K. Heimerl, B. Heinold, T. Hüneke, E. Järvinen, T. Jurkat, S. Kaufmann, M. Kenntner, M. Klingebiel, T. Klimach, R. Kohl, M. Krämer, T. C. Krisna, A. Luebke, B. Mayer, S. Mertes, S. Molleker, A. Petzold, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Port, M. Rapp, P. Reutter, C. Rolf, D. Rose, D. Sauer, A. Schäfler, R. Schlage, M. Schnaiter, J. Schneider, N. Spelten, P. Spichtinger, P. Stock, A. Walser, R. Weigel, B. Weinzierl, M. Wendisch, F. Werner, H. Wernli, M. Wirth, A. Zahn, H. Ziereis, and M. Zöger, “ML-CIRRUS: the airborne experiment on natural cirrus and contrail cirrus with the high-altitude long-range research aircraft HALO,” Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 98, 271–288 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bozem, H.

H. Oelhaf, B.-M. Sinnhuber, W. Woiwode, H. Bönisch, H. Bozem, A. Engel, A. Fix, F. Friedl-Vallon, J.-U. Grooß, P. Hoor, S. Johansson, T. Jurkat-Witschas, S. Kaufmann, M. Krämer, J. Krause, E. Kretschmer, D. Lörks, A. Marsing, J. Orphal, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Pitss, L. Poole, P. Preusse, M. Rapp, M. Riese, C. Rolf, J. Ungermann, C. Voigt, C. M. Volk, M. Wirth, A. Zahn, and H. Ziereis, “POLSTRACC: airborne experiment for studying the polar stratosphere in a changing climate with the high-altitude long-range research aircraft HALO,” Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., submitted for publication.

Bramberger, M.

A. Schäfler, G. Craig, H. Wernli, P. Arbogast, J. D. Doyle, R. McTaggart-Cowan, J. Methven, G. Rivière, F. Ament, M. Boettcher, M. Bramberger, Q. Cazenave, R. Cotton, S. Crewell, J. Delanoë, A. Dörnbrack, A. Ehrlich, F. Ewald, A. Fix, C. M. Grams, S. L. Gray, H. Grob, S. Groß, M. Hagen, B. Harvey, L. Hirsch, M. Jacob, T. Kölling, H. Konow, C. Lemmerz, O. Lux, L. Magnusson, B. Mayer, M. Mech, R. Moore, J. Pelon, J. Quinting, S. Rahm, M. Rapp, M. Rautenhaus, O. Reitebuch, C. A. Reynolds, H. Sodemann, T. Spengler, G. Vaughan, M. Wendisch, M. Wirth, B. Witschas, K. Wolf, and T. Zinner, “The North Atlantic waveguide and downstream impact experiment,” Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 99, 1607–1637 (2018).
[Crossref]

Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.

A. Zahn and C. A. M. Brenninkmeijer, “New directions: a chemical tropopause defined,” Atmos. Environ. 37, 439–440 (2003).
[Crossref]

Brewer, W. A.

R. J. Alvarez, C. J. Senff, A. O. Langford, A. M. Weickmann, D. C. Law, J. L. Machol, D. A. Merritt, R. D. Marchbanks, S. P. Sandberg, W. A. Brewer, R. M. Hardesty, and R. M. Banta, “Development and application of a compact, tunable, solid-state airborne ozone lidar system for boundary layer profiling,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 28, 1258–1272 (2011).
[Crossref]

Brion, J.

J. Malicet, D. Daumont, J. Charbronnier, C. Parisse, A. Chakir, and J. Brion, “Ozone UV spectroscopy. II. Absorption cross-sections and temperature dependence,” J. Atmos. Chem. 21, 263–273 (1995).
[Crossref]

D. Daumont, J. Brion, J. Charbronnier, and J. Malicet, “Ozone UV spectroscopy I: Absorption cross section at room temperature II: Absorption cross sections and temperature dependence,” J. Atmos. Chem. 15, 145–155 (1992).
[Crossref]

Brook, J. R.

K. B. Strawbridge, M. S. Travis, B. J. Firanski, J. R. Brook, R. Staebler, and T. Leblanc, “A fully autonomous ozone, aerosol and nighttime water vapor lidar: a synergistic approach to profiling the atmosphere in the Canadian oil sands region,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 11, 6735–6759 (2018).
[Crossref]

Browell, E. V.

E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, and W. Grant, “Differential absorption lidar (DIAL) measurements from air and space,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 399–410 (1998).
[Crossref]

Brunner, D.

P. Hoor, C. Gurk, D. Brunner, M. I. Hegglin, H. Wernli, and H. Fischer, “Seasonality and extent of extratropical TST derived from in-situ CO measurements during SPURT,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 4, 1427–1442 (2004).
[Crossref]

Buchholz, B.

C. Voigt, U. Schumann, A. Minikin, A. Abdelmonem, A. Afchine, S. Borrmann, M. Boettcher, B. Buchholz, L. Bugliaro, A. Costa, J. Curtius, M. Dollner, A. Dörnbrack, V. Dreiling, V. Ebert, A. Ehrlich, A. Fix, L. Forster, F. Frank, D. Fütterer, A. Giez, K. Graf, J. Grooß, S. Groß, K. Heimerl, B. Heinold, T. Hüneke, E. Järvinen, T. Jurkat, S. Kaufmann, M. Kenntner, M. Klingebiel, T. Klimach, R. Kohl, M. Krämer, T. C. Krisna, A. Luebke, B. Mayer, S. Mertes, S. Molleker, A. Petzold, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Port, M. Rapp, P. Reutter, C. Rolf, D. Rose, D. Sauer, A. Schäfler, R. Schlage, M. Schnaiter, J. Schneider, N. Spelten, P. Spichtinger, P. Stock, A. Walser, R. Weigel, B. Weinzierl, M. Wendisch, F. Werner, H. Wernli, M. Wirth, A. Zahn, H. Ziereis, and M. Zöger, “ML-CIRRUS: the airborne experiment on natural cirrus and contrail cirrus with the high-altitude long-range research aircraft HALO,” Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 98, 271–288 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bugliaro, L.

C. Voigt, U. Schumann, A. Minikin, A. Abdelmonem, A. Afchine, S. Borrmann, M. Boettcher, B. Buchholz, L. Bugliaro, A. Costa, J. Curtius, M. Dollner, A. Dörnbrack, V. Dreiling, V. Ebert, A. Ehrlich, A. Fix, L. Forster, F. Frank, D. Fütterer, A. Giez, K. Graf, J. Grooß, S. Groß, K. Heimerl, B. Heinold, T. Hüneke, E. Järvinen, T. Jurkat, S. Kaufmann, M. Kenntner, M. Klingebiel, T. Klimach, R. Kohl, M. Krämer, T. C. Krisna, A. Luebke, B. Mayer, S. Mertes, S. Molleker, A. Petzold, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Port, M. Rapp, P. Reutter, C. Rolf, D. Rose, D. Sauer, A. Schäfler, R. Schlage, M. Schnaiter, J. Schneider, N. Spelten, P. Spichtinger, P. Stock, A. Walser, R. Weigel, B. Weinzierl, M. Wendisch, F. Werner, H. Wernli, M. Wirth, A. Zahn, H. Ziereis, and M. Zöger, “ML-CIRRUS: the airborne experiment on natural cirrus and contrail cirrus with the high-altitude long-range research aircraft HALO,” Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 98, 271–288 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Kiemle, S. Groß, M. Wirth, and L. Bugliaro, “Airborne lidar observations of water vapor variability in tropical shallow convective environment,” in Shallow Clouds, Water Vapor, Circulation, and Climate Sensitivity, R. Pincus, D. Winker, S. Bony, and B. Stevens, eds., Space Sciences Series of ISSI (Springer, 2017), Vol. 65.

Bujok, O.

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Crewell, S.

A. Schäfler, G. Craig, H. Wernli, P. Arbogast, J. D. Doyle, R. McTaggart-Cowan, J. Methven, G. Rivière, F. Ament, M. Boettcher, M. Bramberger, Q. Cazenave, R. Cotton, S. Crewell, J. Delanoë, A. Dörnbrack, A. Ehrlich, F. Ewald, A. Fix, C. M. Grams, S. L. Gray, H. Grob, S. Groß, M. Hagen, B. Harvey, L. Hirsch, M. Jacob, T. Kölling, H. Konow, C. Lemmerz, O. Lux, L. Magnusson, B. Mayer, M. Mech, R. Moore, J. Pelon, J. Quinting, S. Rahm, M. Rapp, M. Rautenhaus, O. Reitebuch, C. A. Reynolds, H. Sodemann, T. Spengler, G. Vaughan, M. Wendisch, M. Wirth, B. Witschas, K. Wolf, and T. Zinner, “The North Atlantic waveguide and downstream impact experiment,” Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 99, 1607–1637 (2018).
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Daffer, W. H.

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Daumont, D.

J. Malicet, D. Daumont, J. Charbronnier, C. Parisse, A. Chakir, and J. Brion, “Ozone UV spectroscopy. II. Absorption cross-sections and temperature dependence,” J. Atmos. Chem. 21, 263–273 (1995).
[Crossref]

D. Daumont, J. Brion, J. Charbronnier, and J. Malicet, “Ozone UV spectroscopy I: Absorption cross section at room temperature II: Absorption cross sections and temperature dependence,” J. Atmos. Chem. 15, 145–155 (1992).
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De Young, R.

Dean, L.

G. Vaughan, C. Cambridge, L. Dean, and A. W. Phillips, “Water vapour and ozone profiles in the midlatitude upper troposphere,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 963–971 (2005).
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Delanoë, J.

A. Schäfler, G. Craig, H. Wernli, P. Arbogast, J. D. Doyle, R. McTaggart-Cowan, J. Methven, G. Rivière, F. Ament, M. Boettcher, M. Bramberger, Q. Cazenave, R. Cotton, S. Crewell, J. Delanoë, A. Dörnbrack, A. Ehrlich, F. Ewald, A. Fix, C. M. Grams, S. L. Gray, H. Grob, S. Groß, M. Hagen, B. Harvey, L. Hirsch, M. Jacob, T. Kölling, H. Konow, C. Lemmerz, O. Lux, L. Magnusson, B. Mayer, M. Mech, R. Moore, J. Pelon, J. Quinting, S. Rahm, M. Rapp, M. Rautenhaus, O. Reitebuch, C. A. Reynolds, H. Sodemann, T. Spengler, G. Vaughan, M. Wendisch, M. Wirth, B. Witschas, K. Wolf, and T. Zinner, “The North Atlantic waveguide and downstream impact experiment,” Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 99, 1607–1637 (2018).
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Di Girolamo, P.

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Dollner, M.

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Dörnbrack, A.

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Doyle, J. D.

A. Schäfler, G. Craig, H. Wernli, P. Arbogast, J. D. Doyle, R. McTaggart-Cowan, J. Methven, G. Rivière, F. Ament, M. Boettcher, M. Bramberger, Q. Cazenave, R. Cotton, S. Crewell, J. Delanoë, A. Dörnbrack, A. Ehrlich, F. Ewald, A. Fix, C. M. Grams, S. L. Gray, H. Grob, S. Groß, M. Hagen, B. Harvey, L. Hirsch, M. Jacob, T. Kölling, H. Konow, C. Lemmerz, O. Lux, L. Magnusson, B. Mayer, M. Mech, R. Moore, J. Pelon, J. Quinting, S. Rahm, M. Rapp, M. Rautenhaus, O. Reitebuch, C. A. Reynolds, H. Sodemann, T. Spengler, G. Vaughan, M. Wendisch, M. Wirth, B. Witschas, K. Wolf, and T. Zinner, “The North Atlantic waveguide and downstream impact experiment,” Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 99, 1607–1637 (2018).
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Dreiling, V.

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Ehrlich, A.

A. Schäfler, G. Craig, H. Wernli, P. Arbogast, J. D. Doyle, R. McTaggart-Cowan, J. Methven, G. Rivière, F. Ament, M. Boettcher, M. Bramberger, Q. Cazenave, R. Cotton, S. Crewell, J. Delanoë, A. Dörnbrack, A. Ehrlich, F. Ewald, A. Fix, C. M. Grams, S. L. Gray, H. Grob, S. Groß, M. Hagen, B. Harvey, L. Hirsch, M. Jacob, T. Kölling, H. Konow, C. Lemmerz, O. Lux, L. Magnusson, B. Mayer, M. Mech, R. Moore, J. Pelon, J. Quinting, S. Rahm, M. Rapp, M. Rautenhaus, O. Reitebuch, C. A. Reynolds, H. Sodemann, T. Spengler, G. Vaughan, M. Wendisch, M. Wirth, B. Witschas, K. Wolf, and T. Zinner, “The North Atlantic waveguide and downstream impact experiment,” Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 99, 1607–1637 (2018).
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Elsayed, K. A.

Engel, A.

H. Oelhaf, B. M. Sinnhuber, W. Woiwode, M. Rapp, A. Dörnbrack, A. Engel, and H. Bönisch, “The polar stratosphere in a changing climate (POLSTRACC): mission overview and first results,” in EGU General Assembly Conference Abstracts (2016), Vol. 18, p. 7743.

H. Oelhaf, B.-M. Sinnhuber, W. Woiwode, H. Bönisch, H. Bozem, A. Engel, A. Fix, F. Friedl-Vallon, J.-U. Grooß, P. Hoor, S. Johansson, T. Jurkat-Witschas, S. Kaufmann, M. Krämer, J. Krause, E. Kretschmer, D. Lörks, A. Marsing, J. Orphal, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Pitss, L. Poole, P. Preusse, M. Rapp, M. Riese, C. Rolf, J. Ungermann, C. Voigt, C. M. Volk, M. Wirth, A. Zahn, and H. Ziereis, “POLSTRACC: airborne experiment for studying the polar stratosphere in a changing climate with the high-altitude long-range research aircraft HALO,” Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., submitted for publication.

Esselborn, M.

S. Groß, M. Esselborn, F. Abicht, M. Wirth, A. Fix, and A. Minikin, “Airborne high spectral resolution lidar observation of pollution aerosol during EUCAARI-LONGREX,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 13, 2435–2444 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ewald, F.

A. Schäfler, G. Craig, H. Wernli, P. Arbogast, J. D. Doyle, R. McTaggart-Cowan, J. Methven, G. Rivière, F. Ament, M. Boettcher, M. Bramberger, Q. Cazenave, R. Cotton, S. Crewell, J. Delanoë, A. Dörnbrack, A. Ehrlich, F. Ewald, A. Fix, C. M. Grams, S. L. Gray, H. Grob, S. Groß, M. Hagen, B. Harvey, L. Hirsch, M. Jacob, T. Kölling, H. Konow, C. Lemmerz, O. Lux, L. Magnusson, B. Mayer, M. Mech, R. Moore, J. Pelon, J. Quinting, S. Rahm, M. Rapp, M. Rautenhaus, O. Reitebuch, C. A. Reynolds, H. Sodemann, T. Spengler, G. Vaughan, M. Wendisch, M. Wirth, B. Witschas, K. Wolf, and T. Zinner, “The North Atlantic waveguide and downstream impact experiment,” Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 99, 1607–1637 (2018).
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Firanski, B. J.

K. B. Strawbridge, M. S. Travis, B. J. Firanski, J. R. Brook, R. Staebler, and T. Leblanc, “A fully autonomous ozone, aerosol and nighttime water vapor lidar: a synergistic approach to profiling the atmosphere in the Canadian oil sands region,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 11, 6735–6759 (2018).
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Fischer, H.

P. Hoor, C. Gurk, D. Brunner, M. I. Hegglin, H. Wernli, and H. Fischer, “Seasonality and extent of extratropical TST derived from in-situ CO measurements during SPURT,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 4, 1427–1442 (2004).
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H. Fischer, F. G. Wienhold, P. Hoor, O. Bujok, C. Schiller, P. Siegmund, M. H. P. Ambaum, H. A. Scheeren, and J. Lelieveld, “Tracer correlations in the northern high latitude lowermost stratosphere: influence of cross-tropopause mass exchange,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 97–100 (2000).
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Fix, A.

A. Schäfler, G. Craig, H. Wernli, P. Arbogast, J. D. Doyle, R. McTaggart-Cowan, J. Methven, G. Rivière, F. Ament, M. Boettcher, M. Bramberger, Q. Cazenave, R. Cotton, S. Crewell, J. Delanoë, A. Dörnbrack, A. Ehrlich, F. Ewald, A. Fix, C. M. Grams, S. L. Gray, H. Grob, S. Groß, M. Hagen, B. Harvey, L. Hirsch, M. Jacob, T. Kölling, H. Konow, C. Lemmerz, O. Lux, L. Magnusson, B. Mayer, M. Mech, R. Moore, J. Pelon, J. Quinting, S. Rahm, M. Rapp, M. Rautenhaus, O. Reitebuch, C. A. Reynolds, H. Sodemann, T. Spengler, G. Vaughan, M. Wendisch, M. Wirth, B. Witschas, K. Wolf, and T. Zinner, “The North Atlantic waveguide and downstream impact experiment,” Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 99, 1607–1637 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Voigt, U. Schumann, A. Minikin, A. Abdelmonem, A. Afchine, S. Borrmann, M. Boettcher, B. Buchholz, L. Bugliaro, A. Costa, J. Curtius, M. Dollner, A. Dörnbrack, V. Dreiling, V. Ebert, A. Ehrlich, A. Fix, L. Forster, F. Frank, D. Fütterer, A. Giez, K. Graf, J. Grooß, S. Groß, K. Heimerl, B. Heinold, T. Hüneke, E. Järvinen, T. Jurkat, S. Kaufmann, M. Kenntner, M. Klingebiel, T. Klimach, R. Kohl, M. Krämer, T. C. Krisna, A. Luebke, B. Mayer, S. Mertes, S. Molleker, A. Petzold, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Port, M. Rapp, P. Reutter, C. Rolf, D. Rose, D. Sauer, A. Schäfler, R. Schlage, M. Schnaiter, J. Schneider, N. Spelten, P. Spichtinger, P. Stock, A. Walser, R. Weigel, B. Weinzierl, M. Wendisch, F. Werner, H. Wernli, M. Wirth, A. Zahn, H. Ziereis, and M. Zöger, “ML-CIRRUS: the airborne experiment on natural cirrus and contrail cirrus with the high-altitude long-range research aircraft HALO,” Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 98, 271–288 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Trickl, H. Vogelmann, A. Fix, A. Schäfler, M. Wirth, B. Calpini, G. Levrat, G. Romanens, A. Apituley, K. M. Wilson, R. Begbie, J. Reichardt, H. Vömel, and M. Sprenger, “How stratospheric are deep stratospheric intrusions?–LUAMI 2008,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 16, 8791–8815 (2016).
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S. Groß, M. Wirth, A. Schäfler, A. Fix, S. Kaufmann, and C. Voigt, “Potential of airborne lidar measurements for cirrus cloud studies,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 7, 2745–2755 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Groß, M. Esselborn, F. Abicht, M. Wirth, A. Fix, and A. Minikin, “Airborne high spectral resolution lidar observation of pollution aerosol during EUCAARI-LONGREX,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 13, 2435–2444 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Kiemle, A. Schäfler, M. Wirth, A. Fix, and S. Rahm, “Detection and analysis of water vapor transport by airborne lidars,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Appl. Earth Observ. Remote Sensing 6, 1189–1193 (2013).
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C. Kiemle, M. Wirth, A. Fix, S. Rahm, U. Corsmeier, and P. Di Girolamo, “Latent heat flux measurements over complex terrain by airborne water vapour and wind lidars,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 190–203 (2011).
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M. Wirth, A. Fix, P. Mahnke, H. Schwarzer, F. Schrandt, and G. Ehret, “The airborne multiwavelength water vapor differential absorption lidar WALES: system design and performance,” Appl. Phys. B 96, 201–213 (2009).
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A. Fix, M. Wirth, A. Meister, G. Ehret, M. Pesch, and D. Weidauer, “Tunable ultraviolet optical parametric oscillator for differential absorption lidar measurements of tropospheric ozone,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 153–163 (2002).
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A. Fix and G. Ehret, “Intracavity frequency mixing in pulsed optical parametric oscillators for the efficient generation of continuously tunable ultraviolet radiation,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 331–338 (1998).
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A. Meister, A. Fix, H. Flentje, M. Wirth, and G. Ehret, “TropOLEX: a new tuneable airborne lidar system for the measurement of tropospheric ozone,” in 6th International Symposium on Tropospheric Profiling, Leipzig, Germany, 14–20 September2003, pp. 233–253.

H. Oelhaf, B.-M. Sinnhuber, W. Woiwode, H. Bönisch, H. Bozem, A. Engel, A. Fix, F. Friedl-Vallon, J.-U. Grooß, P. Hoor, S. Johansson, T. Jurkat-Witschas, S. Kaufmann, M. Krämer, J. Krause, E. Kretschmer, D. Lörks, A. Marsing, J. Orphal, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Pitss, L. Poole, P. Preusse, M. Rapp, M. Riese, C. Rolf, J. Ungermann, C. Voigt, C. M. Volk, M. Wirth, A. Zahn, and H. Ziereis, “POLSTRACC: airborne experiment for studying the polar stratosphere in a changing climate with the high-altitude long-range research aircraft HALO,” Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., submitted for publication.

Flentje, H.

T. Trickl, H. Vogelmann, H. Flentje, and L. Ries, “Stratospheric ozone in boreal fire plumes–the 2013 smoke season over central Europe,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 15, 9631–9649 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Meister, A. Fix, H. Flentje, M. Wirth, and G. Ehret, “TropOLEX: a new tuneable airborne lidar system for the measurement of tropospheric ozone,” in 6th International Symposium on Tropospheric Profiling, Leipzig, Germany, 14–20 September2003, pp. 233–253.

Forster, L.

C. Voigt, U. Schumann, A. Minikin, A. Abdelmonem, A. Afchine, S. Borrmann, M. Boettcher, B. Buchholz, L. Bugliaro, A. Costa, J. Curtius, M. Dollner, A. Dörnbrack, V. Dreiling, V. Ebert, A. Ehrlich, A. Fix, L. Forster, F. Frank, D. Fütterer, A. Giez, K. Graf, J. Grooß, S. Groß, K. Heimerl, B. Heinold, T. Hüneke, E. Järvinen, T. Jurkat, S. Kaufmann, M. Kenntner, M. Klingebiel, T. Klimach, R. Kohl, M. Krämer, T. C. Krisna, A. Luebke, B. Mayer, S. Mertes, S. Molleker, A. Petzold, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Port, M. Rapp, P. Reutter, C. Rolf, D. Rose, D. Sauer, A. Schäfler, R. Schlage, M. Schnaiter, J. Schneider, N. Spelten, P. Spichtinger, P. Stock, A. Walser, R. Weigel, B. Weinzierl, M. Wendisch, F. Werner, H. Wernli, M. Wirth, A. Zahn, H. Ziereis, and M. Zöger, “ML-CIRRUS: the airborne experiment on natural cirrus and contrail cirrus with the high-altitude long-range research aircraft HALO,” Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 98, 271–288 (2017).
[Crossref]

Frank, F.

C. Voigt, U. Schumann, A. Minikin, A. Abdelmonem, A. Afchine, S. Borrmann, M. Boettcher, B. Buchholz, L. Bugliaro, A. Costa, J. Curtius, M. Dollner, A. Dörnbrack, V. Dreiling, V. Ebert, A. Ehrlich, A. Fix, L. Forster, F. Frank, D. Fütterer, A. Giez, K. Graf, J. Grooß, S. Groß, K. Heimerl, B. Heinold, T. Hüneke, E. Järvinen, T. Jurkat, S. Kaufmann, M. Kenntner, M. Klingebiel, T. Klimach, R. Kohl, M. Krämer, T. C. Krisna, A. Luebke, B. Mayer, S. Mertes, S. Molleker, A. Petzold, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Port, M. Rapp, P. Reutter, C. Rolf, D. Rose, D. Sauer, A. Schäfler, R. Schlage, M. Schnaiter, J. Schneider, N. Spelten, P. Spichtinger, P. Stock, A. Walser, R. Weigel, B. Weinzierl, M. Wendisch, F. Werner, H. Wernli, M. Wirth, A. Zahn, H. Ziereis, and M. Zöger, “ML-CIRRUS: the airborne experiment on natural cirrus and contrail cirrus with the high-altitude long-range research aircraft HALO,” Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 98, 271–288 (2017).
[Crossref]

Fratello, D.

J. W. Hair, C. Cleckner, K. Murray, D. Fratello, C. Naftel, J. Collins, A. Notari, and W. Welch, “Development of the Global Ozone Lidar Demonstrator (GOLD) for the Global Hawk,” available at https://esto.nasa.gov/conferences/estf2010/papers/Hair_ESTF2010.pdf (NASA Langley Research Center, 2010).

Friedl-Vallon, F.

H. Oelhaf, B.-M. Sinnhuber, W. Woiwode, H. Bönisch, H. Bozem, A. Engel, A. Fix, F. Friedl-Vallon, J.-U. Grooß, P. Hoor, S. Johansson, T. Jurkat-Witschas, S. Kaufmann, M. Krämer, J. Krause, E. Kretschmer, D. Lörks, A. Marsing, J. Orphal, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Pitss, L. Poole, P. Preusse, M. Rapp, M. Riese, C. Rolf, J. Ungermann, C. Voigt, C. M. Volk, M. Wirth, A. Zahn, and H. Ziereis, “POLSTRACC: airborne experiment for studying the polar stratosphere in a changing climate with the high-altitude long-range research aircraft HALO,” Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., submitted for publication.

Fujii, T.

Fukuchi, T.

Fütterer, D.

C. Voigt, U. Schumann, A. Minikin, A. Abdelmonem, A. Afchine, S. Borrmann, M. Boettcher, B. Buchholz, L. Bugliaro, A. Costa, J. Curtius, M. Dollner, A. Dörnbrack, V. Dreiling, V. Ebert, A. Ehrlich, A. Fix, L. Forster, F. Frank, D. Fütterer, A. Giez, K. Graf, J. Grooß, S. Groß, K. Heimerl, B. Heinold, T. Hüneke, E. Järvinen, T. Jurkat, S. Kaufmann, M. Kenntner, M. Klingebiel, T. Klimach, R. Kohl, M. Krämer, T. C. Krisna, A. Luebke, B. Mayer, S. Mertes, S. Molleker, A. Petzold, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Port, M. Rapp, P. Reutter, C. Rolf, D. Rose, D. Sauer, A. Schäfler, R. Schlage, M. Schnaiter, J. Schneider, N. Spelten, P. Spichtinger, P. Stock, A. Walser, R. Weigel, B. Weinzierl, M. Wendisch, F. Werner, H. Wernli, M. Wirth, A. Zahn, H. Ziereis, and M. Zöger, “ML-CIRRUS: the airborne experiment on natural cirrus and contrail cirrus with the high-altitude long-range research aircraft HALO,” Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 98, 271–288 (2017).
[Crossref]

Galani, E.

A. Papayannis, D. Balis, P. Zanis, E. Galani, H. Wernli, C. Zerefos, A. Stohl, S. Eckhardt, and V. Amiridis, “Sampling of an STT event over the Eastern Mediterranean region by lidar and electrochemical Sonde,” Ann. Geophys. 23, 2039–2050 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ganoe, R.

Garfinkel, C. I.

A. Maycock and A. Karpechko (lead authors), M. Abalos, H. Akiyoshi, J. M. Arblaster, C. I. Garfinkel, K. H. Rosenlof, and M. Sigmond, “Stratospheric ozone changes and climate,” in Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 2018, Global Ozone Research and Monitoring Project–Report No. 58 (World Meteorological Organization, 2018).

Gary, B. L.

L. L. Pan, W. J. Randel, B. L. Gary, M. J. Mahoney, and E. J. Hintsa, “Definitions and sharpness of the extratropical tropopause: a trace gas perspective,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D23103 (2004).
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Giehl, H.

T. Trickl, H. Vogelmann, H. Giehl, H.-E. Scheel, M. Sprenger, and A. Stohl, “How stratospheric are deep stratospheric intrusions?”Atmos. Chem. Phys. 14, 9941–9961 (2014).
[Crossref]

Giez, A.

C. Voigt, U. Schumann, A. Minikin, A. Abdelmonem, A. Afchine, S. Borrmann, M. Boettcher, B. Buchholz, L. Bugliaro, A. Costa, J. Curtius, M. Dollner, A. Dörnbrack, V. Dreiling, V. Ebert, A. Ehrlich, A. Fix, L. Forster, F. Frank, D. Fütterer, A. Giez, K. Graf, J. Grooß, S. Groß, K. Heimerl, B. Heinold, T. Hüneke, E. Järvinen, T. Jurkat, S. Kaufmann, M. Kenntner, M. Klingebiel, T. Klimach, R. Kohl, M. Krämer, T. C. Krisna, A. Luebke, B. Mayer, S. Mertes, S. Molleker, A. Petzold, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Port, M. Rapp, P. Reutter, C. Rolf, D. Rose, D. Sauer, A. Schäfler, R. Schlage, M. Schnaiter, J. Schneider, N. Spelten, P. Spichtinger, P. Stock, A. Walser, R. Weigel, B. Weinzierl, M. Wendisch, F. Werner, H. Wernli, M. Wirth, A. Zahn, H. Ziereis, and M. Zöger, “ML-CIRRUS: the airborne experiment on natural cirrus and contrail cirrus with the high-altitude long-range research aircraft HALO,” Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 98, 271–288 (2017).
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M. Krautstrunk and A. Giez, “The transition from FALCON to HALO era airborne atmospheric research,” in Atmospheric Physics, U. Schumann, ed., Research Topics in Aerospace (Springer, 2012).

Gohm, A.

J. S. Wagner, A. Gohm, A. Dörnbrack, and A. Schäfler, “The mesoscale structure of a polar low: airborne lidar measurements and simulations,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 1516–1531 (2011).
[Crossref]

Goto, N.

Graf, K.

C. Voigt, U. Schumann, A. Minikin, A. Abdelmonem, A. Afchine, S. Borrmann, M. Boettcher, B. Buchholz, L. Bugliaro, A. Costa, J. Curtius, M. Dollner, A. Dörnbrack, V. Dreiling, V. Ebert, A. Ehrlich, A. Fix, L. Forster, F. Frank, D. Fütterer, A. Giez, K. Graf, J. Grooß, S. Groß, K. Heimerl, B. Heinold, T. Hüneke, E. Järvinen, T. Jurkat, S. Kaufmann, M. Kenntner, M. Klingebiel, T. Klimach, R. Kohl, M. Krämer, T. C. Krisna, A. Luebke, B. Mayer, S. Mertes, S. Molleker, A. Petzold, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Port, M. Rapp, P. Reutter, C. Rolf, D. Rose, D. Sauer, A. Schäfler, R. Schlage, M. Schnaiter, J. Schneider, N. Spelten, P. Spichtinger, P. Stock, A. Walser, R. Weigel, B. Weinzierl, M. Wendisch, F. Werner, H. Wernli, M. Wirth, A. Zahn, H. Ziereis, and M. Zöger, “ML-CIRRUS: the airborne experiment on natural cirrus and contrail cirrus with the high-altitude long-range research aircraft HALO,” Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 98, 271–288 (2017).
[Crossref]

Grams, C. M.

A. Schäfler, G. Craig, H. Wernli, P. Arbogast, J. D. Doyle, R. McTaggart-Cowan, J. Methven, G. Rivière, F. Ament, M. Boettcher, M. Bramberger, Q. Cazenave, R. Cotton, S. Crewell, J. Delanoë, A. Dörnbrack, A. Ehrlich, F. Ewald, A. Fix, C. M. Grams, S. L. Gray, H. Grob, S. Groß, M. Hagen, B. Harvey, L. Hirsch, M. Jacob, T. Kölling, H. Konow, C. Lemmerz, O. Lux, L. Magnusson, B. Mayer, M. Mech, R. Moore, J. Pelon, J. Quinting, S. Rahm, M. Rapp, M. Rautenhaus, O. Reitebuch, C. A. Reynolds, H. Sodemann, T. Spengler, G. Vaughan, M. Wendisch, M. Wirth, B. Witschas, K. Wolf, and T. Zinner, “The North Atlantic waveguide and downstream impact experiment,” Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 99, 1607–1637 (2018).
[Crossref]

Granados-Muñoz, M. J.

M. J. Granados-Muñoz and T. Leblanc, “Tropospheric ozone seasonal and long-term variability as seen by lidar and surface measurements at the JPL-Table Mountain Facility, California,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 16, 9299–9319 (2016).
[Crossref]

Grant, W.

E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, and W. Grant, “Differential absorption lidar (DIAL) measurements from air and space,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 399–410 (1998).
[Crossref]

Gray, S. L.

A. Schäfler, G. Craig, H. Wernli, P. Arbogast, J. D. Doyle, R. McTaggart-Cowan, J. Methven, G. Rivière, F. Ament, M. Boettcher, M. Bramberger, Q. Cazenave, R. Cotton, S. Crewell, J. Delanoë, A. Dörnbrack, A. Ehrlich, F. Ewald, A. Fix, C. M. Grams, S. L. Gray, H. Grob, S. Groß, M. Hagen, B. Harvey, L. Hirsch, M. Jacob, T. Kölling, H. Konow, C. Lemmerz, O. Lux, L. Magnusson, B. Mayer, M. Mech, R. Moore, J. Pelon, J. Quinting, S. Rahm, M. Rapp, M. Rautenhaus, O. Reitebuch, C. A. Reynolds, H. Sodemann, T. Spengler, G. Vaughan, M. Wendisch, M. Wirth, B. Witschas, K. Wolf, and T. Zinner, “The North Atlantic waveguide and downstream impact experiment,” Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 99, 1607–1637 (2018).
[Crossref]

Grob, H.

A. Schäfler, G. Craig, H. Wernli, P. Arbogast, J. D. Doyle, R. McTaggart-Cowan, J. Methven, G. Rivière, F. Ament, M. Boettcher, M. Bramberger, Q. Cazenave, R. Cotton, S. Crewell, J. Delanoë, A. Dörnbrack, A. Ehrlich, F. Ewald, A. Fix, C. M. Grams, S. L. Gray, H. Grob, S. Groß, M. Hagen, B. Harvey, L. Hirsch, M. Jacob, T. Kölling, H. Konow, C. Lemmerz, O. Lux, L. Magnusson, B. Mayer, M. Mech, R. Moore, J. Pelon, J. Quinting, S. Rahm, M. Rapp, M. Rautenhaus, O. Reitebuch, C. A. Reynolds, H. Sodemann, T. Spengler, G. Vaughan, M. Wendisch, M. Wirth, B. Witschas, K. Wolf, and T. Zinner, “The North Atlantic waveguide and downstream impact experiment,” Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 99, 1607–1637 (2018).
[Crossref]

Gronoff, G.

Grooß, J.

C. Voigt, U. Schumann, A. Minikin, A. Abdelmonem, A. Afchine, S. Borrmann, M. Boettcher, B. Buchholz, L. Bugliaro, A. Costa, J. Curtius, M. Dollner, A. Dörnbrack, V. Dreiling, V. Ebert, A. Ehrlich, A. Fix, L. Forster, F. Frank, D. Fütterer, A. Giez, K. Graf, J. Grooß, S. Groß, K. Heimerl, B. Heinold, T. Hüneke, E. Järvinen, T. Jurkat, S. Kaufmann, M. Kenntner, M. Klingebiel, T. Klimach, R. Kohl, M. Krämer, T. C. Krisna, A. Luebke, B. Mayer, S. Mertes, S. Molleker, A. Petzold, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Port, M. Rapp, P. Reutter, C. Rolf, D. Rose, D. Sauer, A. Schäfler, R. Schlage, M. Schnaiter, J. Schneider, N. Spelten, P. Spichtinger, P. Stock, A. Walser, R. Weigel, B. Weinzierl, M. Wendisch, F. Werner, H. Wernli, M. Wirth, A. Zahn, H. Ziereis, and M. Zöger, “ML-CIRRUS: the airborne experiment on natural cirrus and contrail cirrus with the high-altitude long-range research aircraft HALO,” Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 98, 271–288 (2017).
[Crossref]

Grooß, J.-U.

H. Oelhaf, B.-M. Sinnhuber, W. Woiwode, H. Bönisch, H. Bozem, A. Engel, A. Fix, F. Friedl-Vallon, J.-U. Grooß, P. Hoor, S. Johansson, T. Jurkat-Witschas, S. Kaufmann, M. Krämer, J. Krause, E. Kretschmer, D. Lörks, A. Marsing, J. Orphal, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Pitss, L. Poole, P. Preusse, M. Rapp, M. Riese, C. Rolf, J. Ungermann, C. Voigt, C. M. Volk, M. Wirth, A. Zahn, and H. Ziereis, “POLSTRACC: airborne experiment for studying the polar stratosphere in a changing climate with the high-altitude long-range research aircraft HALO,” Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., submitted for publication.

Groß, S.

A. Schäfler, G. Craig, H. Wernli, P. Arbogast, J. D. Doyle, R. McTaggart-Cowan, J. Methven, G. Rivière, F. Ament, M. Boettcher, M. Bramberger, Q. Cazenave, R. Cotton, S. Crewell, J. Delanoë, A. Dörnbrack, A. Ehrlich, F. Ewald, A. Fix, C. M. Grams, S. L. Gray, H. Grob, S. Groß, M. Hagen, B. Harvey, L. Hirsch, M. Jacob, T. Kölling, H. Konow, C. Lemmerz, O. Lux, L. Magnusson, B. Mayer, M. Mech, R. Moore, J. Pelon, J. Quinting, S. Rahm, M. Rapp, M. Rautenhaus, O. Reitebuch, C. A. Reynolds, H. Sodemann, T. Spengler, G. Vaughan, M. Wendisch, M. Wirth, B. Witschas, K. Wolf, and T. Zinner, “The North Atlantic waveguide and downstream impact experiment,” Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 99, 1607–1637 (2018).
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S. Groß, M. Wirth, A. Schäfler, A. Fix, S. Kaufmann, and C. Voigt, “Potential of airborne lidar measurements for cirrus cloud studies,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 7, 2745–2755 (2014).
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C. Kiemle, S. Groß, M. Wirth, and L. Bugliaro, “Airborne lidar observations of water vapor variability in tropical shallow convective environment,” in Shallow Clouds, Water Vapor, Circulation, and Climate Sensitivity, R. Pincus, D. Winker, S. Bony, and B. Stevens, eds., Space Sciences Series of ISSI (Springer, 2017), Vol. 65.

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Gurk, C.

P. Hoor, C. Gurk, D. Brunner, M. I. Hegglin, H. Wernli, and H. Fischer, “Seasonality and extent of extratropical TST derived from in-situ CO measurements during SPURT,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 4, 1427–1442 (2004).
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Hagen, M.

A. Schäfler, G. Craig, H. Wernli, P. Arbogast, J. D. Doyle, R. McTaggart-Cowan, J. Methven, G. Rivière, F. Ament, M. Boettcher, M. Bramberger, Q. Cazenave, R. Cotton, S. Crewell, J. Delanoë, A. Dörnbrack, A. Ehrlich, F. Ewald, A. Fix, C. M. Grams, S. L. Gray, H. Grob, S. Groß, M. Hagen, B. Harvey, L. Hirsch, M. Jacob, T. Kölling, H. Konow, C. Lemmerz, O. Lux, L. Magnusson, B. Mayer, M. Mech, R. Moore, J. Pelon, J. Quinting, S. Rahm, M. Rapp, M. Rautenhaus, O. Reitebuch, C. A. Reynolds, H. Sodemann, T. Spengler, G. Vaughan, M. Wendisch, M. Wirth, B. Witschas, K. Wolf, and T. Zinner, “The North Atlantic waveguide and downstream impact experiment,” Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 99, 1607–1637 (2018).
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Hair, J. W.

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Hardesty, R. M.

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A. Schäfler and F. Harnisch, “Impact of the inflow moisture on the evolution of a warm conveyor belt,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 141, 299–310 (2014).
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F. Harnisch, M. Weissmann, C. Cardinali, and M. Wirth, “Experimental assimilation of DIAL water vapour observations in the ECMWF global model,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 1532–1546 (2011).
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Harvey, B.

A. Schäfler, G. Craig, H. Wernli, P. Arbogast, J. D. Doyle, R. McTaggart-Cowan, J. Methven, G. Rivière, F. Ament, M. Boettcher, M. Bramberger, Q. Cazenave, R. Cotton, S. Crewell, J. Delanoë, A. Dörnbrack, A. Ehrlich, F. Ewald, A. Fix, C. M. Grams, S. L. Gray, H. Grob, S. Groß, M. Hagen, B. Harvey, L. Hirsch, M. Jacob, T. Kölling, H. Konow, C. Lemmerz, O. Lux, L. Magnusson, B. Mayer, M. Mech, R. Moore, J. Pelon, J. Quinting, S. Rahm, M. Rapp, M. Rautenhaus, O. Reitebuch, C. A. Reynolds, H. Sodemann, T. Spengler, G. Vaughan, M. Wendisch, M. Wirth, B. Witschas, K. Wolf, and T. Zinner, “The North Atlantic waveguide and downstream impact experiment,” Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 99, 1607–1637 (2018).
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Hegglin, M. I.

M. I. Hegglin, C. D. Boone, G. L. Manney, and K. A. Walker, “A global view of the extratropical tropopause transition layer from atmospheric chemistry experiment Fourier transform spectrometer O3, H2O, and CO,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, D00B11 (2009).
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M. I. Hegglin, C. D. Boone, G. L. Manney, T. G. Shepherd, K. A. Walker, P. F. Bernath, W. H. Daffer, P. Hoor, and C. Schiller, “Validation of ACE-FTS satellite data in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (UTLS) using non-coincident measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8, 1483–1499 (2008).
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P. Hoor, C. Gurk, D. Brunner, M. I. Hegglin, H. Wernli, and H. Fischer, “Seasonality and extent of extratropical TST derived from in-situ CO measurements during SPURT,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 4, 1427–1442 (2004).
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Heimerl, K.

C. Voigt, U. Schumann, A. Minikin, A. Abdelmonem, A. Afchine, S. Borrmann, M. Boettcher, B. Buchholz, L. Bugliaro, A. Costa, J. Curtius, M. Dollner, A. Dörnbrack, V. Dreiling, V. Ebert, A. Ehrlich, A. Fix, L. Forster, F. Frank, D. Fütterer, A. Giez, K. Graf, J. Grooß, S. Groß, K. Heimerl, B. Heinold, T. Hüneke, E. Järvinen, T. Jurkat, S. Kaufmann, M. Kenntner, M. Klingebiel, T. Klimach, R. Kohl, M. Krämer, T. C. Krisna, A. Luebke, B. Mayer, S. Mertes, S. Molleker, A. Petzold, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Port, M. Rapp, P. Reutter, C. Rolf, D. Rose, D. Sauer, A. Schäfler, R. Schlage, M. Schnaiter, J. Schneider, N. Spelten, P. Spichtinger, P. Stock, A. Walser, R. Weigel, B. Weinzierl, M. Wendisch, F. Werner, H. Wernli, M. Wirth, A. Zahn, H. Ziereis, and M. Zöger, “ML-CIRRUS: the airborne experiment on natural cirrus and contrail cirrus with the high-altitude long-range research aircraft HALO,” Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 98, 271–288 (2017).
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Heinold, B.

C. Voigt, U. Schumann, A. Minikin, A. Abdelmonem, A. Afchine, S. Borrmann, M. Boettcher, B. Buchholz, L. Bugliaro, A. Costa, J. Curtius, M. Dollner, A. Dörnbrack, V. Dreiling, V. Ebert, A. Ehrlich, A. Fix, L. Forster, F. Frank, D. Fütterer, A. Giez, K. Graf, J. Grooß, S. Groß, K. Heimerl, B. Heinold, T. Hüneke, E. Järvinen, T. Jurkat, S. Kaufmann, M. Kenntner, M. Klingebiel, T. Klimach, R. Kohl, M. Krämer, T. C. Krisna, A. Luebke, B. Mayer, S. Mertes, S. Molleker, A. Petzold, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Port, M. Rapp, P. Reutter, C. Rolf, D. Rose, D. Sauer, A. Schäfler, R. Schlage, M. Schnaiter, J. Schneider, N. Spelten, P. Spichtinger, P. Stock, A. Walser, R. Weigel, B. Weinzierl, M. Wendisch, F. Werner, H. Wernli, M. Wirth, A. Zahn, H. Ziereis, and M. Zöger, “ML-CIRRUS: the airborne experiment on natural cirrus and contrail cirrus with the high-altitude long-range research aircraft HALO,” Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 98, 271–288 (2017).
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Hintsa, E. J.

L. L. Pan, W. J. Randel, B. L. Gary, M. J. Mahoney, and E. J. Hintsa, “Definitions and sharpness of the extratropical tropopause: a trace gas perspective,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D23103 (2004).
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Hirsch, L.

A. Schäfler, G. Craig, H. Wernli, P. Arbogast, J. D. Doyle, R. McTaggart-Cowan, J. Methven, G. Rivière, F. Ament, M. Boettcher, M. Bramberger, Q. Cazenave, R. Cotton, S. Crewell, J. Delanoë, A. Dörnbrack, A. Ehrlich, F. Ewald, A. Fix, C. M. Grams, S. L. Gray, H. Grob, S. Groß, M. Hagen, B. Harvey, L. Hirsch, M. Jacob, T. Kölling, H. Konow, C. Lemmerz, O. Lux, L. Magnusson, B. Mayer, M. Mech, R. Moore, J. Pelon, J. Quinting, S. Rahm, M. Rapp, M. Rautenhaus, O. Reitebuch, C. A. Reynolds, H. Sodemann, T. Spengler, G. Vaughan, M. Wendisch, M. Wirth, B. Witschas, K. Wolf, and T. Zinner, “The North Atlantic waveguide and downstream impact experiment,” Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 99, 1607–1637 (2018).
[Crossref]

Hoor, P.

M. I. Hegglin, C. D. Boone, G. L. Manney, T. G. Shepherd, K. A. Walker, P. F. Bernath, W. H. Daffer, P. Hoor, and C. Schiller, “Validation of ACE-FTS satellite data in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (UTLS) using non-coincident measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8, 1483–1499 (2008).
[Crossref]

P. Hoor, C. Gurk, D. Brunner, M. I. Hegglin, H. Wernli, and H. Fischer, “Seasonality and extent of extratropical TST derived from in-situ CO measurements during SPURT,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 4, 1427–1442 (2004).
[Crossref]

H. Fischer, F. G. Wienhold, P. Hoor, O. Bujok, C. Schiller, P. Siegmund, M. H. P. Ambaum, H. A. Scheeren, and J. Lelieveld, “Tracer correlations in the northern high latitude lowermost stratosphere: influence of cross-tropopause mass exchange,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 97–100 (2000).
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M. Riese, P. Hoor, D. Kunkel, and M. Kaufmann, “The wave-driven isentropic exchange (WISE) mission: campaign overview and first results,” in EGU General Assembly Conference Abstracts (2018), Vol. 20, p. 18980.

H. Oelhaf, B.-M. Sinnhuber, W. Woiwode, H. Bönisch, H. Bozem, A. Engel, A. Fix, F. Friedl-Vallon, J.-U. Grooß, P. Hoor, S. Johansson, T. Jurkat-Witschas, S. Kaufmann, M. Krämer, J. Krause, E. Kretschmer, D. Lörks, A. Marsing, J. Orphal, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Pitss, L. Poole, P. Preusse, M. Rapp, M. Riese, C. Rolf, J. Ungermann, C. Voigt, C. M. Volk, M. Wirth, A. Zahn, and H. Ziereis, “POLSTRACC: airborne experiment for studying the polar stratosphere in a changing climate with the high-altitude long-range research aircraft HALO,” Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., submitted for publication.

Hu, H.

Hüneke, T.

C. Voigt, U. Schumann, A. Minikin, A. Abdelmonem, A. Afchine, S. Borrmann, M. Boettcher, B. Buchholz, L. Bugliaro, A. Costa, J. Curtius, M. Dollner, A. Dörnbrack, V. Dreiling, V. Ebert, A. Ehrlich, A. Fix, L. Forster, F. Frank, D. Fütterer, A. Giez, K. Graf, J. Grooß, S. Groß, K. Heimerl, B. Heinold, T. Hüneke, E. Järvinen, T. Jurkat, S. Kaufmann, M. Kenntner, M. Klingebiel, T. Klimach, R. Kohl, M. Krämer, T. C. Krisna, A. Luebke, B. Mayer, S. Mertes, S. Molleker, A. Petzold, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Port, M. Rapp, P. Reutter, C. Rolf, D. Rose, D. Sauer, A. Schäfler, R. Schlage, M. Schnaiter, J. Schneider, N. Spelten, P. Spichtinger, P. Stock, A. Walser, R. Weigel, B. Weinzierl, M. Wendisch, F. Werner, H. Wernli, M. Wirth, A. Zahn, H. Ziereis, and M. Zöger, “ML-CIRRUS: the airborne experiment on natural cirrus and contrail cirrus with the high-altitude long-range research aircraft HALO,” Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 98, 271–288 (2017).
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E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, and W. Grant, “Differential absorption lidar (DIAL) measurements from air and space,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 399–410 (1998).
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Jacob, M.

A. Schäfler, G. Craig, H. Wernli, P. Arbogast, J. D. Doyle, R. McTaggart-Cowan, J. Methven, G. Rivière, F. Ament, M. Boettcher, M. Bramberger, Q. Cazenave, R. Cotton, S. Crewell, J. Delanoë, A. Dörnbrack, A. Ehrlich, F. Ewald, A. Fix, C. M. Grams, S. L. Gray, H. Grob, S. Groß, M. Hagen, B. Harvey, L. Hirsch, M. Jacob, T. Kölling, H. Konow, C. Lemmerz, O. Lux, L. Magnusson, B. Mayer, M. Mech, R. Moore, J. Pelon, J. Quinting, S. Rahm, M. Rapp, M. Rautenhaus, O. Reitebuch, C. A. Reynolds, H. Sodemann, T. Spengler, G. Vaughan, M. Wendisch, M. Wirth, B. Witschas, K. Wolf, and T. Zinner, “The North Atlantic waveguide and downstream impact experiment,” Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 99, 1607–1637 (2018).
[Crossref]

Järvinen, E.

C. Voigt, U. Schumann, A. Minikin, A. Abdelmonem, A. Afchine, S. Borrmann, M. Boettcher, B. Buchholz, L. Bugliaro, A. Costa, J. Curtius, M. Dollner, A. Dörnbrack, V. Dreiling, V. Ebert, A. Ehrlich, A. Fix, L. Forster, F. Frank, D. Fütterer, A. Giez, K. Graf, J. Grooß, S. Groß, K. Heimerl, B. Heinold, T. Hüneke, E. Järvinen, T. Jurkat, S. Kaufmann, M. Kenntner, M. Klingebiel, T. Klimach, R. Kohl, M. Krämer, T. C. Krisna, A. Luebke, B. Mayer, S. Mertes, S. Molleker, A. Petzold, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Port, M. Rapp, P. Reutter, C. Rolf, D. Rose, D. Sauer, A. Schäfler, R. Schlage, M. Schnaiter, J. Schneider, N. Spelten, P. Spichtinger, P. Stock, A. Walser, R. Weigel, B. Weinzierl, M. Wendisch, F. Werner, H. Wernli, M. Wirth, A. Zahn, H. Ziereis, and M. Zöger, “ML-CIRRUS: the airborne experiment on natural cirrus and contrail cirrus with the high-altitude long-range research aircraft HALO,” Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 98, 271–288 (2017).
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Johansson, S.

H. Oelhaf, B.-M. Sinnhuber, W. Woiwode, H. Bönisch, H. Bozem, A. Engel, A. Fix, F. Friedl-Vallon, J.-U. Grooß, P. Hoor, S. Johansson, T. Jurkat-Witschas, S. Kaufmann, M. Krämer, J. Krause, E. Kretschmer, D. Lörks, A. Marsing, J. Orphal, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Pitss, L. Poole, P. Preusse, M. Rapp, M. Riese, C. Rolf, J. Ungermann, C. Voigt, C. M. Volk, M. Wirth, A. Zahn, and H. Ziereis, “POLSTRACC: airborne experiment for studying the polar stratosphere in a changing climate with the high-altitude long-range research aircraft HALO,” Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., submitted for publication.

Jurkat, T.

C. Voigt, U. Schumann, A. Minikin, A. Abdelmonem, A. Afchine, S. Borrmann, M. Boettcher, B. Buchholz, L. Bugliaro, A. Costa, J. Curtius, M. Dollner, A. Dörnbrack, V. Dreiling, V. Ebert, A. Ehrlich, A. Fix, L. Forster, F. Frank, D. Fütterer, A. Giez, K. Graf, J. Grooß, S. Groß, K. Heimerl, B. Heinold, T. Hüneke, E. Järvinen, T. Jurkat, S. Kaufmann, M. Kenntner, M. Klingebiel, T. Klimach, R. Kohl, M. Krämer, T. C. Krisna, A. Luebke, B. Mayer, S. Mertes, S. Molleker, A. Petzold, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Port, M. Rapp, P. Reutter, C. Rolf, D. Rose, D. Sauer, A. Schäfler, R. Schlage, M. Schnaiter, J. Schneider, N. Spelten, P. Spichtinger, P. Stock, A. Walser, R. Weigel, B. Weinzierl, M. Wendisch, F. Werner, H. Wernli, M. Wirth, A. Zahn, H. Ziereis, and M. Zöger, “ML-CIRRUS: the airborne experiment on natural cirrus and contrail cirrus with the high-altitude long-range research aircraft HALO,” Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 98, 271–288 (2017).
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Jurkat-Witschas, T.

H. Oelhaf, B.-M. Sinnhuber, W. Woiwode, H. Bönisch, H. Bozem, A. Engel, A. Fix, F. Friedl-Vallon, J.-U. Grooß, P. Hoor, S. Johansson, T. Jurkat-Witschas, S. Kaufmann, M. Krämer, J. Krause, E. Kretschmer, D. Lörks, A. Marsing, J. Orphal, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Pitss, L. Poole, P. Preusse, M. Rapp, M. Riese, C. Rolf, J. Ungermann, C. Voigt, C. M. Volk, M. Wirth, A. Zahn, and H. Ziereis, “POLSTRACC: airborne experiment for studying the polar stratosphere in a changing climate with the high-altitude long-range research aircraft HALO,” Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., submitted for publication.

Karpechko, A.

A. Maycock and A. Karpechko (lead authors), M. Abalos, H. Akiyoshi, J. M. Arblaster, C. I. Garfinkel, K. H. Rosenlof, and M. Sigmond, “Stratospheric ozone changes and climate,” in Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 2018, Global Ozone Research and Monitoring Project–Report No. 58 (World Meteorological Organization, 2018).

Kaufmann, M.

M. Riese, P. Hoor, D. Kunkel, and M. Kaufmann, “The wave-driven isentropic exchange (WISE) mission: campaign overview and first results,” in EGU General Assembly Conference Abstracts (2018), Vol. 20, p. 18980.

Kaufmann, S.

C. Voigt, U. Schumann, A. Minikin, A. Abdelmonem, A. Afchine, S. Borrmann, M. Boettcher, B. Buchholz, L. Bugliaro, A. Costa, J. Curtius, M. Dollner, A. Dörnbrack, V. Dreiling, V. Ebert, A. Ehrlich, A. Fix, L. Forster, F. Frank, D. Fütterer, A. Giez, K. Graf, J. Grooß, S. Groß, K. Heimerl, B. Heinold, T. Hüneke, E. Järvinen, T. Jurkat, S. Kaufmann, M. Kenntner, M. Klingebiel, T. Klimach, R. Kohl, M. Krämer, T. C. Krisna, A. Luebke, B. Mayer, S. Mertes, S. Molleker, A. Petzold, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Port, M. Rapp, P. Reutter, C. Rolf, D. Rose, D. Sauer, A. Schäfler, R. Schlage, M. Schnaiter, J. Schneider, N. Spelten, P. Spichtinger, P. Stock, A. Walser, R. Weigel, B. Weinzierl, M. Wendisch, F. Werner, H. Wernli, M. Wirth, A. Zahn, H. Ziereis, and M. Zöger, “ML-CIRRUS: the airborne experiment on natural cirrus and contrail cirrus with the high-altitude long-range research aircraft HALO,” Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 98, 271–288 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Groß, M. Wirth, A. Schäfler, A. Fix, S. Kaufmann, and C. Voigt, “Potential of airborne lidar measurements for cirrus cloud studies,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 7, 2745–2755 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Oelhaf, B.-M. Sinnhuber, W. Woiwode, H. Bönisch, H. Bozem, A. Engel, A. Fix, F. Friedl-Vallon, J.-U. Grooß, P. Hoor, S. Johansson, T. Jurkat-Witschas, S. Kaufmann, M. Krämer, J. Krause, E. Kretschmer, D. Lörks, A. Marsing, J. Orphal, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Pitss, L. Poole, P. Preusse, M. Rapp, M. Riese, C. Rolf, J. Ungermann, C. Voigt, C. M. Volk, M. Wirth, A. Zahn, and H. Ziereis, “POLSTRACC: airborne experiment for studying the polar stratosphere in a changing climate with the high-altitude long-range research aircraft HALO,” Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., submitted for publication.

Kenntner, M.

C. Voigt, U. Schumann, A. Minikin, A. Abdelmonem, A. Afchine, S. Borrmann, M. Boettcher, B. Buchholz, L. Bugliaro, A. Costa, J. Curtius, M. Dollner, A. Dörnbrack, V. Dreiling, V. Ebert, A. Ehrlich, A. Fix, L. Forster, F. Frank, D. Fütterer, A. Giez, K. Graf, J. Grooß, S. Groß, K. Heimerl, B. Heinold, T. Hüneke, E. Järvinen, T. Jurkat, S. Kaufmann, M. Kenntner, M. Klingebiel, T. Klimach, R. Kohl, M. Krämer, T. C. Krisna, A. Luebke, B. Mayer, S. Mertes, S. Molleker, A. Petzold, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Port, M. Rapp, P. Reutter, C. Rolf, D. Rose, D. Sauer, A. Schäfler, R. Schlage, M. Schnaiter, J. Schneider, N. Spelten, P. Spichtinger, P. Stock, A. Walser, R. Weigel, B. Weinzierl, M. Wendisch, F. Werner, H. Wernli, M. Wirth, A. Zahn, H. Ziereis, and M. Zöger, “ML-CIRRUS: the airborne experiment on natural cirrus and contrail cirrus with the high-altitude long-range research aircraft HALO,” Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 98, 271–288 (2017).
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Kiemle, C.

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Klimach, T.

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Klingebiel, M.

C. Voigt, U. Schumann, A. Minikin, A. Abdelmonem, A. Afchine, S. Borrmann, M. Boettcher, B. Buchholz, L. Bugliaro, A. Costa, J. Curtius, M. Dollner, A. Dörnbrack, V. Dreiling, V. Ebert, A. Ehrlich, A. Fix, L. Forster, F. Frank, D. Fütterer, A. Giez, K. Graf, J. Grooß, S. Groß, K. Heimerl, B. Heinold, T. Hüneke, E. Järvinen, T. Jurkat, S. Kaufmann, M. Kenntner, M. Klingebiel, T. Klimach, R. Kohl, M. Krämer, T. C. Krisna, A. Luebke, B. Mayer, S. Mertes, S. Molleker, A. Petzold, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Port, M. Rapp, P. Reutter, C. Rolf, D. Rose, D. Sauer, A. Schäfler, R. Schlage, M. Schnaiter, J. Schneider, N. Spelten, P. Spichtinger, P. Stock, A. Walser, R. Weigel, B. Weinzierl, M. Wendisch, F. Werner, H. Wernli, M. Wirth, A. Zahn, H. Ziereis, and M. Zöger, “ML-CIRRUS: the airborne experiment on natural cirrus and contrail cirrus with the high-altitude long-range research aircraft HALO,” Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 98, 271–288 (2017).
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Kölling, T.

A. Schäfler, G. Craig, H. Wernli, P. Arbogast, J. D. Doyle, R. McTaggart-Cowan, J. Methven, G. Rivière, F. Ament, M. Boettcher, M. Bramberger, Q. Cazenave, R. Cotton, S. Crewell, J. Delanoë, A. Dörnbrack, A. Ehrlich, F. Ewald, A. Fix, C. M. Grams, S. L. Gray, H. Grob, S. Groß, M. Hagen, B. Harvey, L. Hirsch, M. Jacob, T. Kölling, H. Konow, C. Lemmerz, O. Lux, L. Magnusson, B. Mayer, M. Mech, R. Moore, J. Pelon, J. Quinting, S. Rahm, M. Rapp, M. Rautenhaus, O. Reitebuch, C. A. Reynolds, H. Sodemann, T. Spengler, G. Vaughan, M. Wendisch, M. Wirth, B. Witschas, K. Wolf, and T. Zinner, “The North Atlantic waveguide and downstream impact experiment,” Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 99, 1607–1637 (2018).
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Konow, H.

A. Schäfler, G. Craig, H. Wernli, P. Arbogast, J. D. Doyle, R. McTaggart-Cowan, J. Methven, G. Rivière, F. Ament, M. Boettcher, M. Bramberger, Q. Cazenave, R. Cotton, S. Crewell, J. Delanoë, A. Dörnbrack, A. Ehrlich, F. Ewald, A. Fix, C. M. Grams, S. L. Gray, H. Grob, S. Groß, M. Hagen, B. Harvey, L. Hirsch, M. Jacob, T. Kölling, H. Konow, C. Lemmerz, O. Lux, L. Magnusson, B. Mayer, M. Mech, R. Moore, J. Pelon, J. Quinting, S. Rahm, M. Rapp, M. Rautenhaus, O. Reitebuch, C. A. Reynolds, H. Sodemann, T. Spengler, G. Vaughan, M. Wendisch, M. Wirth, B. Witschas, K. Wolf, and T. Zinner, “The North Atlantic waveguide and downstream impact experiment,” Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 99, 1607–1637 (2018).
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Krämer, M.

C. Voigt, U. Schumann, A. Minikin, A. Abdelmonem, A. Afchine, S. Borrmann, M. Boettcher, B. Buchholz, L. Bugliaro, A. Costa, J. Curtius, M. Dollner, A. Dörnbrack, V. Dreiling, V. Ebert, A. Ehrlich, A. Fix, L. Forster, F. Frank, D. Fütterer, A. Giez, K. Graf, J. Grooß, S. Groß, K. Heimerl, B. Heinold, T. Hüneke, E. Järvinen, T. Jurkat, S. Kaufmann, M. Kenntner, M. Klingebiel, T. Klimach, R. Kohl, M. Krämer, T. C. Krisna, A. Luebke, B. Mayer, S. Mertes, S. Molleker, A. Petzold, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Port, M. Rapp, P. Reutter, C. Rolf, D. Rose, D. Sauer, A. Schäfler, R. Schlage, M. Schnaiter, J. Schneider, N. Spelten, P. Spichtinger, P. Stock, A. Walser, R. Weigel, B. Weinzierl, M. Wendisch, F. Werner, H. Wernli, M. Wirth, A. Zahn, H. Ziereis, and M. Zöger, “ML-CIRRUS: the airborne experiment on natural cirrus and contrail cirrus with the high-altitude long-range research aircraft HALO,” Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 98, 271–288 (2017).
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H. Oelhaf, B.-M. Sinnhuber, W. Woiwode, H. Bönisch, H. Bozem, A. Engel, A. Fix, F. Friedl-Vallon, J.-U. Grooß, P. Hoor, S. Johansson, T. Jurkat-Witschas, S. Kaufmann, M. Krämer, J. Krause, E. Kretschmer, D. Lörks, A. Marsing, J. Orphal, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Pitss, L. Poole, P. Preusse, M. Rapp, M. Riese, C. Rolf, J. Ungermann, C. Voigt, C. M. Volk, M. Wirth, A. Zahn, and H. Ziereis, “POLSTRACC: airborne experiment for studying the polar stratosphere in a changing climate with the high-altitude long-range research aircraft HALO,” Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., submitted for publication.

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C. Voigt, U. Schumann, A. Minikin, A. Abdelmonem, A. Afchine, S. Borrmann, M. Boettcher, B. Buchholz, L. Bugliaro, A. Costa, J. Curtius, M. Dollner, A. Dörnbrack, V. Dreiling, V. Ebert, A. Ehrlich, A. Fix, L. Forster, F. Frank, D. Fütterer, A. Giez, K. Graf, J. Grooß, S. Groß, K. Heimerl, B. Heinold, T. Hüneke, E. Järvinen, T. Jurkat, S. Kaufmann, M. Kenntner, M. Klingebiel, T. Klimach, R. Kohl, M. Krämer, T. C. Krisna, A. Luebke, B. Mayer, S. Mertes, S. Molleker, A. Petzold, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Port, M. Rapp, P. Reutter, C. Rolf, D. Rose, D. Sauer, A. Schäfler, R. Schlage, M. Schnaiter, J. Schneider, N. Spelten, P. Spichtinger, P. Stock, A. Walser, R. Weigel, B. Weinzierl, M. Wendisch, F. Werner, H. Wernli, M. Wirth, A. Zahn, H. Ziereis, and M. Zöger, “ML-CIRRUS: the airborne experiment on natural cirrus and contrail cirrus with the high-altitude long-range research aircraft HALO,” Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 98, 271–288 (2017).
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Poole, L.

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Poole, L. R.

C. Voigt, A. Dörnbrack, M. Wirth, S. M. Groß, M. C. Pitts, L. R. Poole, R. Baumann, B. Ehard, B.-M. Sinnhuber, W. Woiwode, and H. Oelhaf, “Widespread polar stratospheric ice clouds in the 2015–2016 Arctic winter–implications for ice nucleation,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 18, 15623–15641 (2018).
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H. Oelhaf, B.-M. Sinnhuber, W. Woiwode, H. Bönisch, H. Bozem, A. Engel, A. Fix, F. Friedl-Vallon, J.-U. Grooß, P. Hoor, S. Johansson, T. Jurkat-Witschas, S. Kaufmann, M. Krämer, J. Krause, E. Kretschmer, D. Lörks, A. Marsing, J. Orphal, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Pitss, L. Poole, P. Preusse, M. Rapp, M. Riese, C. Rolf, J. Ungermann, C. Voigt, C. M. Volk, M. Wirth, A. Zahn, and H. Ziereis, “POLSTRACC: airborne experiment for studying the polar stratosphere in a changing climate with the high-altitude long-range research aircraft HALO,” Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., submitted for publication.

Proffitt, M. H.

Quinting, J.

A. Schäfler, G. Craig, H. Wernli, P. Arbogast, J. D. Doyle, R. McTaggart-Cowan, J. Methven, G. Rivière, F. Ament, M. Boettcher, M. Bramberger, Q. Cazenave, R. Cotton, S. Crewell, J. Delanoë, A. Dörnbrack, A. Ehrlich, F. Ewald, A. Fix, C. M. Grams, S. L. Gray, H. Grob, S. Groß, M. Hagen, B. Harvey, L. Hirsch, M. Jacob, T. Kölling, H. Konow, C. Lemmerz, O. Lux, L. Magnusson, B. Mayer, M. Mech, R. Moore, J. Pelon, J. Quinting, S. Rahm, M. Rapp, M. Rautenhaus, O. Reitebuch, C. A. Reynolds, H. Sodemann, T. Spengler, G. Vaughan, M. Wendisch, M. Wirth, B. Witschas, K. Wolf, and T. Zinner, “The North Atlantic waveguide and downstream impact experiment,” Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 99, 1607–1637 (2018).
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Rahm, S.

A. Schäfler, G. Craig, H. Wernli, P. Arbogast, J. D. Doyle, R. McTaggart-Cowan, J. Methven, G. Rivière, F. Ament, M. Boettcher, M. Bramberger, Q. Cazenave, R. Cotton, S. Crewell, J. Delanoë, A. Dörnbrack, A. Ehrlich, F. Ewald, A. Fix, C. M. Grams, S. L. Gray, H. Grob, S. Groß, M. Hagen, B. Harvey, L. Hirsch, M. Jacob, T. Kölling, H. Konow, C. Lemmerz, O. Lux, L. Magnusson, B. Mayer, M. Mech, R. Moore, J. Pelon, J. Quinting, S. Rahm, M. Rapp, M. Rautenhaus, O. Reitebuch, C. A. Reynolds, H. Sodemann, T. Spengler, G. Vaughan, M. Wendisch, M. Wirth, B. Witschas, K. Wolf, and T. Zinner, “The North Atlantic waveguide and downstream impact experiment,” Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 99, 1607–1637 (2018).
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C. Kiemle, A. Schäfler, M. Wirth, A. Fix, and S. Rahm, “Detection and analysis of water vapor transport by airborne lidars,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Appl. Earth Observ. Remote Sensing 6, 1189–1193 (2013).
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C. Kiemle, M. Wirth, A. Fix, S. Rahm, U. Corsmeier, and P. Di Girolamo, “Latent heat flux measurements over complex terrain by airborne water vapour and wind lidars,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 190–203 (2011).
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A. Schäfler, A. Dörnbrack, C. Kiemle, S. Rahm, and M. Wirth, “Tropospheric water vapor transport as determined from airborne lidar measurements,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 27, 2017–2030 (2010).
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Randel, W. J.

L. L. Pan, W. J. Randel, B. L. Gary, M. J. Mahoney, and E. J. Hintsa, “Definitions and sharpness of the extratropical tropopause: a trace gas perspective,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D23103 (2004).
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Rapp, M.

A. Schäfler, G. Craig, H. Wernli, P. Arbogast, J. D. Doyle, R. McTaggart-Cowan, J. Methven, G. Rivière, F. Ament, M. Boettcher, M. Bramberger, Q. Cazenave, R. Cotton, S. Crewell, J. Delanoë, A. Dörnbrack, A. Ehrlich, F. Ewald, A. Fix, C. M. Grams, S. L. Gray, H. Grob, S. Groß, M. Hagen, B. Harvey, L. Hirsch, M. Jacob, T. Kölling, H. Konow, C. Lemmerz, O. Lux, L. Magnusson, B. Mayer, M. Mech, R. Moore, J. Pelon, J. Quinting, S. Rahm, M. Rapp, M. Rautenhaus, O. Reitebuch, C. A. Reynolds, H. Sodemann, T. Spengler, G. Vaughan, M. Wendisch, M. Wirth, B. Witschas, K. Wolf, and T. Zinner, “The North Atlantic waveguide and downstream impact experiment,” Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 99, 1607–1637 (2018).
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H. Oelhaf, B.-M. Sinnhuber, W. Woiwode, H. Bönisch, H. Bozem, A. Engel, A. Fix, F. Friedl-Vallon, J.-U. Grooß, P. Hoor, S. Johansson, T. Jurkat-Witschas, S. Kaufmann, M. Krämer, J. Krause, E. Kretschmer, D. Lörks, A. Marsing, J. Orphal, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Pitss, L. Poole, P. Preusse, M. Rapp, M. Riese, C. Rolf, J. Ungermann, C. Voigt, C. M. Volk, M. Wirth, A. Zahn, and H. Ziereis, “POLSTRACC: airborne experiment for studying the polar stratosphere in a changing climate with the high-altitude long-range research aircraft HALO,” Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., submitted for publication.

H. Oelhaf, B. M. Sinnhuber, W. Woiwode, M. Rapp, A. Dörnbrack, A. Engel, and H. Bönisch, “The polar stratosphere in a changing climate (POLSTRACC): mission overview and first results,” in EGU General Assembly Conference Abstracts (2016), Vol. 18, p. 7743.

Rautenhaus, M.

A. Schäfler, G. Craig, H. Wernli, P. Arbogast, J. D. Doyle, R. McTaggart-Cowan, J. Methven, G. Rivière, F. Ament, M. Boettcher, M. Bramberger, Q. Cazenave, R. Cotton, S. Crewell, J. Delanoë, A. Dörnbrack, A. Ehrlich, F. Ewald, A. Fix, C. M. Grams, S. L. Gray, H. Grob, S. Groß, M. Hagen, B. Harvey, L. Hirsch, M. Jacob, T. Kölling, H. Konow, C. Lemmerz, O. Lux, L. Magnusson, B. Mayer, M. Mech, R. Moore, J. Pelon, J. Quinting, S. Rahm, M. Rapp, M. Rautenhaus, O. Reitebuch, C. A. Reynolds, H. Sodemann, T. Spengler, G. Vaughan, M. Wendisch, M. Wirth, B. Witschas, K. Wolf, and T. Zinner, “The North Atlantic waveguide and downstream impact experiment,” Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 99, 1607–1637 (2018).
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Ravetta, F.

Reichardt, J.

T. Trickl, H. Vogelmann, A. Fix, A. Schäfler, M. Wirth, B. Calpini, G. Levrat, G. Romanens, A. Apituley, K. M. Wilson, R. Begbie, J. Reichardt, H. Vömel, and M. Sprenger, “How stratospheric are deep stratospheric intrusions?–LUAMI 2008,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 16, 8791–8815 (2016).
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Reitebuch, O.

A. Schäfler, G. Craig, H. Wernli, P. Arbogast, J. D. Doyle, R. McTaggart-Cowan, J. Methven, G. Rivière, F. Ament, M. Boettcher, M. Bramberger, Q. Cazenave, R. Cotton, S. Crewell, J. Delanoë, A. Dörnbrack, A. Ehrlich, F. Ewald, A. Fix, C. M. Grams, S. L. Gray, H. Grob, S. Groß, M. Hagen, B. Harvey, L. Hirsch, M. Jacob, T. Kölling, H. Konow, C. Lemmerz, O. Lux, L. Magnusson, B. Mayer, M. Mech, R. Moore, J. Pelon, J. Quinting, S. Rahm, M. Rapp, M. Rautenhaus, O. Reitebuch, C. A. Reynolds, H. Sodemann, T. Spengler, G. Vaughan, M. Wendisch, M. Wirth, B. Witschas, K. Wolf, and T. Zinner, “The North Atlantic waveguide and downstream impact experiment,” Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 99, 1607–1637 (2018).
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Reutter, P.

C. Voigt, U. Schumann, A. Minikin, A. Abdelmonem, A. Afchine, S. Borrmann, M. Boettcher, B. Buchholz, L. Bugliaro, A. Costa, J. Curtius, M. Dollner, A. Dörnbrack, V. Dreiling, V. Ebert, A. Ehrlich, A. Fix, L. Forster, F. Frank, D. Fütterer, A. Giez, K. Graf, J. Grooß, S. Groß, K. Heimerl, B. Heinold, T. Hüneke, E. Järvinen, T. Jurkat, S. Kaufmann, M. Kenntner, M. Klingebiel, T. Klimach, R. Kohl, M. Krämer, T. C. Krisna, A. Luebke, B. Mayer, S. Mertes, S. Molleker, A. Petzold, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Port, M. Rapp, P. Reutter, C. Rolf, D. Rose, D. Sauer, A. Schäfler, R. Schlage, M. Schnaiter, J. Schneider, N. Spelten, P. Spichtinger, P. Stock, A. Walser, R. Weigel, B. Weinzierl, M. Wendisch, F. Werner, H. Wernli, M. Wirth, A. Zahn, H. Ziereis, and M. Zöger, “ML-CIRRUS: the airborne experiment on natural cirrus and contrail cirrus with the high-altitude long-range research aircraft HALO,” Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 98, 271–288 (2017).
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Reynolds, C. A.

A. Schäfler, G. Craig, H. Wernli, P. Arbogast, J. D. Doyle, R. McTaggart-Cowan, J. Methven, G. Rivière, F. Ament, M. Boettcher, M. Bramberger, Q. Cazenave, R. Cotton, S. Crewell, J. Delanoë, A. Dörnbrack, A. Ehrlich, F. Ewald, A. Fix, C. M. Grams, S. L. Gray, H. Grob, S. Groß, M. Hagen, B. Harvey, L. Hirsch, M. Jacob, T. Kölling, H. Konow, C. Lemmerz, O. Lux, L. Magnusson, B. Mayer, M. Mech, R. Moore, J. Pelon, J. Quinting, S. Rahm, M. Rapp, M. Rautenhaus, O. Reitebuch, C. A. Reynolds, H. Sodemann, T. Spengler, G. Vaughan, M. Wendisch, M. Wirth, B. Witschas, K. Wolf, and T. Zinner, “The North Atlantic waveguide and downstream impact experiment,” Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 99, 1607–1637 (2018).
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Ries, L.

T. Trickl, H. Vogelmann, H. Flentje, and L. Ries, “Stratospheric ozone in boreal fire plumes–the 2013 smoke season over central Europe,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 15, 9631–9649 (2015).
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Riese, M.

H. Oelhaf, B.-M. Sinnhuber, W. Woiwode, H. Bönisch, H. Bozem, A. Engel, A. Fix, F. Friedl-Vallon, J.-U. Grooß, P. Hoor, S. Johansson, T. Jurkat-Witschas, S. Kaufmann, M. Krämer, J. Krause, E. Kretschmer, D. Lörks, A. Marsing, J. Orphal, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Pitss, L. Poole, P. Preusse, M. Rapp, M. Riese, C. Rolf, J. Ungermann, C. Voigt, C. M. Volk, M. Wirth, A. Zahn, and H. Ziereis, “POLSTRACC: airborne experiment for studying the polar stratosphere in a changing climate with the high-altitude long-range research aircraft HALO,” Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., submitted for publication.

M. Riese, P. Hoor, D. Kunkel, and M. Kaufmann, “The wave-driven isentropic exchange (WISE) mission: campaign overview and first results,” in EGU General Assembly Conference Abstracts (2018), Vol. 20, p. 18980.

Rivière, G.

A. Schäfler, G. Craig, H. Wernli, P. Arbogast, J. D. Doyle, R. McTaggart-Cowan, J. Methven, G. Rivière, F. Ament, M. Boettcher, M. Bramberger, Q. Cazenave, R. Cotton, S. Crewell, J. Delanoë, A. Dörnbrack, A. Ehrlich, F. Ewald, A. Fix, C. M. Grams, S. L. Gray, H. Grob, S. Groß, M. Hagen, B. Harvey, L. Hirsch, M. Jacob, T. Kölling, H. Konow, C. Lemmerz, O. Lux, L. Magnusson, B. Mayer, M. Mech, R. Moore, J. Pelon, J. Quinting, S. Rahm, M. Rapp, M. Rautenhaus, O. Reitebuch, C. A. Reynolds, H. Sodemann, T. Spengler, G. Vaughan, M. Wendisch, M. Wirth, B. Witschas, K. Wolf, and T. Zinner, “The North Atlantic waveguide and downstream impact experiment,” Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 99, 1607–1637 (2018).
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Rolf, C.

C. Voigt, U. Schumann, A. Minikin, A. Abdelmonem, A. Afchine, S. Borrmann, M. Boettcher, B. Buchholz, L. Bugliaro, A. Costa, J. Curtius, M. Dollner, A. Dörnbrack, V. Dreiling, V. Ebert, A. Ehrlich, A. Fix, L. Forster, F. Frank, D. Fütterer, A. Giez, K. Graf, J. Grooß, S. Groß, K. Heimerl, B. Heinold, T. Hüneke, E. Järvinen, T. Jurkat, S. Kaufmann, M. Kenntner, M. Klingebiel, T. Klimach, R. Kohl, M. Krämer, T. C. Krisna, A. Luebke, B. Mayer, S. Mertes, S. Molleker, A. Petzold, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Port, M. Rapp, P. Reutter, C. Rolf, D. Rose, D. Sauer, A. Schäfler, R. Schlage, M. Schnaiter, J. Schneider, N. Spelten, P. Spichtinger, P. Stock, A. Walser, R. Weigel, B. Weinzierl, M. Wendisch, F. Werner, H. Wernli, M. Wirth, A. Zahn, H. Ziereis, and M. Zöger, “ML-CIRRUS: the airborne experiment on natural cirrus and contrail cirrus with the high-altitude long-range research aircraft HALO,” Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 98, 271–288 (2017).
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H. Oelhaf, B.-M. Sinnhuber, W. Woiwode, H. Bönisch, H. Bozem, A. Engel, A. Fix, F. Friedl-Vallon, J.-U. Grooß, P. Hoor, S. Johansson, T. Jurkat-Witschas, S. Kaufmann, M. Krämer, J. Krause, E. Kretschmer, D. Lörks, A. Marsing, J. Orphal, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Pitss, L. Poole, P. Preusse, M. Rapp, M. Riese, C. Rolf, J. Ungermann, C. Voigt, C. M. Volk, M. Wirth, A. Zahn, and H. Ziereis, “POLSTRACC: airborne experiment for studying the polar stratosphere in a changing climate with the high-altitude long-range research aircraft HALO,” Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., submitted for publication.

Romanens, G.

T. Trickl, H. Vogelmann, A. Fix, A. Schäfler, M. Wirth, B. Calpini, G. Levrat, G. Romanens, A. Apituley, K. M. Wilson, R. Begbie, J. Reichardt, H. Vömel, and M. Sprenger, “How stratospheric are deep stratospheric intrusions?–LUAMI 2008,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 16, 8791–8815 (2016).
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Rose, D.

C. Voigt, U. Schumann, A. Minikin, A. Abdelmonem, A. Afchine, S. Borrmann, M. Boettcher, B. Buchholz, L. Bugliaro, A. Costa, J. Curtius, M. Dollner, A. Dörnbrack, V. Dreiling, V. Ebert, A. Ehrlich, A. Fix, L. Forster, F. Frank, D. Fütterer, A. Giez, K. Graf, J. Grooß, S. Groß, K. Heimerl, B. Heinold, T. Hüneke, E. Järvinen, T. Jurkat, S. Kaufmann, M. Kenntner, M. Klingebiel, T. Klimach, R. Kohl, M. Krämer, T. C. Krisna, A. Luebke, B. Mayer, S. Mertes, S. Molleker, A. Petzold, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Port, M. Rapp, P. Reutter, C. Rolf, D. Rose, D. Sauer, A. Schäfler, R. Schlage, M. Schnaiter, J. Schneider, N. Spelten, P. Spichtinger, P. Stock, A. Walser, R. Weigel, B. Weinzierl, M. Wendisch, F. Werner, H. Wernli, M. Wirth, A. Zahn, H. Ziereis, and M. Zöger, “ML-CIRRUS: the airborne experiment on natural cirrus and contrail cirrus with the high-altitude long-range research aircraft HALO,” Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 98, 271–288 (2017).
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Rosenlof, K. H.

A. Maycock and A. Karpechko (lead authors), M. Abalos, H. Akiyoshi, J. M. Arblaster, C. I. Garfinkel, K. H. Rosenlof, and M. Sigmond, “Stratospheric ozone changes and climate,” in Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 2018, Global Ozone Research and Monitoring Project–Report No. 58 (World Meteorological Organization, 2018).

Sandberg, S. P.

R. J. Alvarez, C. J. Senff, A. O. Langford, A. M. Weickmann, D. C. Law, J. L. Machol, D. A. Merritt, R. D. Marchbanks, S. P. Sandberg, W. A. Brewer, R. M. Hardesty, and R. M. Banta, “Development and application of a compact, tunable, solid-state airborne ozone lidar system for boundary layer profiling,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 28, 1258–1272 (2011).
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Sauer, D.

C. Voigt, U. Schumann, A. Minikin, A. Abdelmonem, A. Afchine, S. Borrmann, M. Boettcher, B. Buchholz, L. Bugliaro, A. Costa, J. Curtius, M. Dollner, A. Dörnbrack, V. Dreiling, V. Ebert, A. Ehrlich, A. Fix, L. Forster, F. Frank, D. Fütterer, A. Giez, K. Graf, J. Grooß, S. Groß, K. Heimerl, B. Heinold, T. Hüneke, E. Järvinen, T. Jurkat, S. Kaufmann, M. Kenntner, M. Klingebiel, T. Klimach, R. Kohl, M. Krämer, T. C. Krisna, A. Luebke, B. Mayer, S. Mertes, S. Molleker, A. Petzold, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Port, M. Rapp, P. Reutter, C. Rolf, D. Rose, D. Sauer, A. Schäfler, R. Schlage, M. Schnaiter, J. Schneider, N. Spelten, P. Spichtinger, P. Stock, A. Walser, R. Weigel, B. Weinzierl, M. Wendisch, F. Werner, H. Wernli, M. Wirth, A. Zahn, H. Ziereis, and M. Zöger, “ML-CIRRUS: the airborne experiment on natural cirrus and contrail cirrus with the high-altitude long-range research aircraft HALO,” Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 98, 271–288 (2017).
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Schäfler, A.

A. Schäfler, G. Craig, H. Wernli, P. Arbogast, J. D. Doyle, R. McTaggart-Cowan, J. Methven, G. Rivière, F. Ament, M. Boettcher, M. Bramberger, Q. Cazenave, R. Cotton, S. Crewell, J. Delanoë, A. Dörnbrack, A. Ehrlich, F. Ewald, A. Fix, C. M. Grams, S. L. Gray, H. Grob, S. Groß, M. Hagen, B. Harvey, L. Hirsch, M. Jacob, T. Kölling, H. Konow, C. Lemmerz, O. Lux, L. Magnusson, B. Mayer, M. Mech, R. Moore, J. Pelon, J. Quinting, S. Rahm, M. Rapp, M. Rautenhaus, O. Reitebuch, C. A. Reynolds, H. Sodemann, T. Spengler, G. Vaughan, M. Wendisch, M. Wirth, B. Witschas, K. Wolf, and T. Zinner, “The North Atlantic waveguide and downstream impact experiment,” Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 99, 1607–1637 (2018).
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B. Urbanek, S. Groß, A. Schäfler, and M. Wirth, “Determining stages of cirrus evolution: a cloud classification scheme,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 10, 1653–1664 (2017).
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C. Voigt, U. Schumann, A. Minikin, A. Abdelmonem, A. Afchine, S. Borrmann, M. Boettcher, B. Buchholz, L. Bugliaro, A. Costa, J. Curtius, M. Dollner, A. Dörnbrack, V. Dreiling, V. Ebert, A. Ehrlich, A. Fix, L. Forster, F. Frank, D. Fütterer, A. Giez, K. Graf, J. Grooß, S. Groß, K. Heimerl, B. Heinold, T. Hüneke, E. Järvinen, T. Jurkat, S. Kaufmann, M. Kenntner, M. Klingebiel, T. Klimach, R. Kohl, M. Krämer, T. C. Krisna, A. Luebke, B. Mayer, S. Mertes, S. Molleker, A. Petzold, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Port, M. Rapp, P. Reutter, C. Rolf, D. Rose, D. Sauer, A. Schäfler, R. Schlage, M. Schnaiter, J. Schneider, N. Spelten, P. Spichtinger, P. Stock, A. Walser, R. Weigel, B. Weinzierl, M. Wendisch, F. Werner, H. Wernli, M. Wirth, A. Zahn, H. Ziereis, and M. Zöger, “ML-CIRRUS: the airborne experiment on natural cirrus and contrail cirrus with the high-altitude long-range research aircraft HALO,” Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 98, 271–288 (2017).
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T. Trickl, H. Vogelmann, A. Fix, A. Schäfler, M. Wirth, B. Calpini, G. Levrat, G. Romanens, A. Apituley, K. M. Wilson, R. Begbie, J. Reichardt, H. Vömel, and M. Sprenger, “How stratospheric are deep stratospheric intrusions?–LUAMI 2008,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 16, 8791–8815 (2016).
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S. Groß, M. Wirth, A. Schäfler, A. Fix, S. Kaufmann, and C. Voigt, “Potential of airborne lidar measurements for cirrus cloud studies,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 7, 2745–2755 (2014).
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A. Schäfler and F. Harnisch, “Impact of the inflow moisture on the evolution of a warm conveyor belt,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 141, 299–310 (2014).
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C. Kiemle, A. Schäfler, M. Wirth, A. Fix, and S. Rahm, “Detection and analysis of water vapor transport by airborne lidars,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Appl. Earth Observ. Remote Sensing 6, 1189–1193 (2013).
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J. S. Wagner, A. Gohm, A. Dörnbrack, and A. Schäfler, “The mesoscale structure of a polar low: airborne lidar measurements and simulations,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 1516–1531 (2011).
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A. Schäfler, A. Dörnbrack, H. Wernli, C. Kiemle, and S. Pfahl, “Airborne lidar observations in the inflow region of a warm conveyor belt,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 1257–1272 (2011).
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A. Schäfler, A. Dörnbrack, C. Kiemle, S. Rahm, and M. Wirth, “Tropospheric water vapor transport as determined from airborne lidar measurements,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 27, 2017–2030 (2010).
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Scheel, H. E.

H. Eisele, H. E. Scheel, R. Sladkovic, and T. Trickl, “High-resolution lidar measurements of stratosphere-troposphere exchange,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 319–330 (1999).
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Scheel, H.-E.

T. Trickl, H. Vogelmann, H. Giehl, H.-E. Scheel, M. Sprenger, and A. Stohl, “How stratospheric are deep stratospheric intrusions?”Atmos. Chem. Phys. 14, 9941–9961 (2014).
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Scheeren, H. A.

H. Fischer, F. G. Wienhold, P. Hoor, O. Bujok, C. Schiller, P. Siegmund, M. H. P. Ambaum, H. A. Scheeren, and J. Lelieveld, “Tracer correlations in the northern high latitude lowermost stratosphere: influence of cross-tropopause mass exchange,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 97–100 (2000).
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Schiller, C.

M. I. Hegglin, C. D. Boone, G. L. Manney, T. G. Shepherd, K. A. Walker, P. F. Bernath, W. H. Daffer, P. Hoor, and C. Schiller, “Validation of ACE-FTS satellite data in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (UTLS) using non-coincident measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8, 1483–1499 (2008).
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H. Fischer, F. G. Wienhold, P. Hoor, O. Bujok, C. Schiller, P. Siegmund, M. H. P. Ambaum, H. A. Scheeren, and J. Lelieveld, “Tracer correlations in the northern high latitude lowermost stratosphere: influence of cross-tropopause mass exchange,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 97–100 (2000).
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Schlage, R.

C. Voigt, U. Schumann, A. Minikin, A. Abdelmonem, A. Afchine, S. Borrmann, M. Boettcher, B. Buchholz, L. Bugliaro, A. Costa, J. Curtius, M. Dollner, A. Dörnbrack, V. Dreiling, V. Ebert, A. Ehrlich, A. Fix, L. Forster, F. Frank, D. Fütterer, A. Giez, K. Graf, J. Grooß, S. Groß, K. Heimerl, B. Heinold, T. Hüneke, E. Järvinen, T. Jurkat, S. Kaufmann, M. Kenntner, M. Klingebiel, T. Klimach, R. Kohl, M. Krämer, T. C. Krisna, A. Luebke, B. Mayer, S. Mertes, S. Molleker, A. Petzold, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Port, M. Rapp, P. Reutter, C. Rolf, D. Rose, D. Sauer, A. Schäfler, R. Schlage, M. Schnaiter, J. Schneider, N. Spelten, P. Spichtinger, P. Stock, A. Walser, R. Weigel, B. Weinzierl, M. Wendisch, F. Werner, H. Wernli, M. Wirth, A. Zahn, H. Ziereis, and M. Zöger, “ML-CIRRUS: the airborne experiment on natural cirrus and contrail cirrus with the high-altitude long-range research aircraft HALO,” Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 98, 271–288 (2017).
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Schnaiter, M.

C. Voigt, U. Schumann, A. Minikin, A. Abdelmonem, A. Afchine, S. Borrmann, M. Boettcher, B. Buchholz, L. Bugliaro, A. Costa, J. Curtius, M. Dollner, A. Dörnbrack, V. Dreiling, V. Ebert, A. Ehrlich, A. Fix, L. Forster, F. Frank, D. Fütterer, A. Giez, K. Graf, J. Grooß, S. Groß, K. Heimerl, B. Heinold, T. Hüneke, E. Järvinen, T. Jurkat, S. Kaufmann, M. Kenntner, M. Klingebiel, T. Klimach, R. Kohl, M. Krämer, T. C. Krisna, A. Luebke, B. Mayer, S. Mertes, S. Molleker, A. Petzold, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Port, M. Rapp, P. Reutter, C. Rolf, D. Rose, D. Sauer, A. Schäfler, R. Schlage, M. Schnaiter, J. Schneider, N. Spelten, P. Spichtinger, P. Stock, A. Walser, R. Weigel, B. Weinzierl, M. Wendisch, F. Werner, H. Wernli, M. Wirth, A. Zahn, H. Ziereis, and M. Zöger, “ML-CIRRUS: the airborne experiment on natural cirrus and contrail cirrus with the high-altitude long-range research aircraft HALO,” Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 98, 271–288 (2017).
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Schneider, J.

C. Voigt, U. Schumann, A. Minikin, A. Abdelmonem, A. Afchine, S. Borrmann, M. Boettcher, B. Buchholz, L. Bugliaro, A. Costa, J. Curtius, M. Dollner, A. Dörnbrack, V. Dreiling, V. Ebert, A. Ehrlich, A. Fix, L. Forster, F. Frank, D. Fütterer, A. Giez, K. Graf, J. Grooß, S. Groß, K. Heimerl, B. Heinold, T. Hüneke, E. Järvinen, T. Jurkat, S. Kaufmann, M. Kenntner, M. Klingebiel, T. Klimach, R. Kohl, M. Krämer, T. C. Krisna, A. Luebke, B. Mayer, S. Mertes, S. Molleker, A. Petzold, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Port, M. Rapp, P. Reutter, C. Rolf, D. Rose, D. Sauer, A. Schäfler, R. Schlage, M. Schnaiter, J. Schneider, N. Spelten, P. Spichtinger, P. Stock, A. Walser, R. Weigel, B. Weinzierl, M. Wendisch, F. Werner, H. Wernli, M. Wirth, A. Zahn, H. Ziereis, and M. Zöger, “ML-CIRRUS: the airborne experiment on natural cirrus and contrail cirrus with the high-altitude long-range research aircraft HALO,” Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 98, 271–288 (2017).
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Schrandt, F.

M. Wirth, A. Fix, P. Mahnke, H. Schwarzer, F. Schrandt, and G. Ehret, “The airborne multiwavelength water vapor differential absorption lidar WALES: system design and performance,” Appl. Phys. B 96, 201–213 (2009).
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Schumann, U.

C. Voigt, U. Schumann, A. Minikin, A. Abdelmonem, A. Afchine, S. Borrmann, M. Boettcher, B. Buchholz, L. Bugliaro, A. Costa, J. Curtius, M. Dollner, A. Dörnbrack, V. Dreiling, V. Ebert, A. Ehrlich, A. Fix, L. Forster, F. Frank, D. Fütterer, A. Giez, K. Graf, J. Grooß, S. Groß, K. Heimerl, B. Heinold, T. Hüneke, E. Järvinen, T. Jurkat, S. Kaufmann, M. Kenntner, M. Klingebiel, T. Klimach, R. Kohl, M. Krämer, T. C. Krisna, A. Luebke, B. Mayer, S. Mertes, S. Molleker, A. Petzold, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Port, M. Rapp, P. Reutter, C. Rolf, D. Rose, D. Sauer, A. Schäfler, R. Schlage, M. Schnaiter, J. Schneider, N. Spelten, P. Spichtinger, P. Stock, A. Walser, R. Weigel, B. Weinzierl, M. Wendisch, F. Werner, H. Wernli, M. Wirth, A. Zahn, H. Ziereis, and M. Zöger, “ML-CIRRUS: the airborne experiment on natural cirrus and contrail cirrus with the high-altitude long-range research aircraft HALO,” Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 98, 271–288 (2017).
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Schwarzer, H.

M. Wirth, A. Fix, P. Mahnke, H. Schwarzer, F. Schrandt, and G. Ehret, “The airborne multiwavelength water vapor differential absorption lidar WALES: system design and performance,” Appl. Phys. B 96, 201–213 (2009).
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Senff, C. J.

R. J. Alvarez, C. J. Senff, A. O. Langford, A. M. Weickmann, D. C. Law, J. L. Machol, D. A. Merritt, R. D. Marchbanks, S. P. Sandberg, W. A. Brewer, R. M. Hardesty, and R. M. Banta, “Development and application of a compact, tunable, solid-state airborne ozone lidar system for boundary layer profiling,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 28, 1258–1272 (2011).
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Shepherd, T. G.

M. I. Hegglin, C. D. Boone, G. L. Manney, T. G. Shepherd, K. A. Walker, P. F. Bernath, W. H. Daffer, P. Hoor, and C. Schiller, “Validation of ACE-FTS satellite data in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (UTLS) using non-coincident measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8, 1483–1499 (2008).
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Siegmund, P.

H. Fischer, F. G. Wienhold, P. Hoor, O. Bujok, C. Schiller, P. Siegmund, M. H. P. Ambaum, H. A. Scheeren, and J. Lelieveld, “Tracer correlations in the northern high latitude lowermost stratosphere: influence of cross-tropopause mass exchange,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 97–100 (2000).
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Sigmond, M.

A. Maycock and A. Karpechko (lead authors), M. Abalos, H. Akiyoshi, J. M. Arblaster, C. I. Garfinkel, K. H. Rosenlof, and M. Sigmond, “Stratospheric ozone changes and climate,” in Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 2018, Global Ozone Research and Monitoring Project–Report No. 58 (World Meteorological Organization, 2018).

Sinnhuber, B. M.

H. Oelhaf, B. M. Sinnhuber, W. Woiwode, M. Rapp, A. Dörnbrack, A. Engel, and H. Bönisch, “The polar stratosphere in a changing climate (POLSTRACC): mission overview and first results,” in EGU General Assembly Conference Abstracts (2016), Vol. 18, p. 7743.

Sinnhuber, B.-M.

C. Voigt, A. Dörnbrack, M. Wirth, S. M. Groß, M. C. Pitts, L. R. Poole, R. Baumann, B. Ehard, B.-M. Sinnhuber, W. Woiwode, and H. Oelhaf, “Widespread polar stratospheric ice clouds in the 2015–2016 Arctic winter–implications for ice nucleation,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 18, 15623–15641 (2018).
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H. Oelhaf, B.-M. Sinnhuber, W. Woiwode, H. Bönisch, H. Bozem, A. Engel, A. Fix, F. Friedl-Vallon, J.-U. Grooß, P. Hoor, S. Johansson, T. Jurkat-Witschas, S. Kaufmann, M. Krämer, J. Krause, E. Kretschmer, D. Lörks, A. Marsing, J. Orphal, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Pitss, L. Poole, P. Preusse, M. Rapp, M. Riese, C. Rolf, J. Ungermann, C. Voigt, C. M. Volk, M. Wirth, A. Zahn, and H. Ziereis, “POLSTRACC: airborne experiment for studying the polar stratosphere in a changing climate with the high-altitude long-range research aircraft HALO,” Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., submitted for publication.

Sladkovic, R.

H. Eisele, H. E. Scheel, R. Sladkovic, and T. Trickl, “High-resolution lidar measurements of stratosphere-troposphere exchange,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 319–330 (1999).
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Sodemann, H.

A. Schäfler, G. Craig, H. Wernli, P. Arbogast, J. D. Doyle, R. McTaggart-Cowan, J. Methven, G. Rivière, F. Ament, M. Boettcher, M. Bramberger, Q. Cazenave, R. Cotton, S. Crewell, J. Delanoë, A. Dörnbrack, A. Ehrlich, F. Ewald, A. Fix, C. M. Grams, S. L. Gray, H. Grob, S. Groß, M. Hagen, B. Harvey, L. Hirsch, M. Jacob, T. Kölling, H. Konow, C. Lemmerz, O. Lux, L. Magnusson, B. Mayer, M. Mech, R. Moore, J. Pelon, J. Quinting, S. Rahm, M. Rapp, M. Rautenhaus, O. Reitebuch, C. A. Reynolds, H. Sodemann, T. Spengler, G. Vaughan, M. Wendisch, M. Wirth, B. Witschas, K. Wolf, and T. Zinner, “The North Atlantic waveguide and downstream impact experiment,” Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 99, 1607–1637 (2018).
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Spelten, N.

C. Voigt, U. Schumann, A. Minikin, A. Abdelmonem, A. Afchine, S. Borrmann, M. Boettcher, B. Buchholz, L. Bugliaro, A. Costa, J. Curtius, M. Dollner, A. Dörnbrack, V. Dreiling, V. Ebert, A. Ehrlich, A. Fix, L. Forster, F. Frank, D. Fütterer, A. Giez, K. Graf, J. Grooß, S. Groß, K. Heimerl, B. Heinold, T. Hüneke, E. Järvinen, T. Jurkat, S. Kaufmann, M. Kenntner, M. Klingebiel, T. Klimach, R. Kohl, M. Krämer, T. C. Krisna, A. Luebke, B. Mayer, S. Mertes, S. Molleker, A. Petzold, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Port, M. Rapp, P. Reutter, C. Rolf, D. Rose, D. Sauer, A. Schäfler, R. Schlage, M. Schnaiter, J. Schneider, N. Spelten, P. Spichtinger, P. Stock, A. Walser, R. Weigel, B. Weinzierl, M. Wendisch, F. Werner, H. Wernli, M. Wirth, A. Zahn, H. Ziereis, and M. Zöger, “ML-CIRRUS: the airborne experiment on natural cirrus and contrail cirrus with the high-altitude long-range research aircraft HALO,” Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 98, 271–288 (2017).
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Spengler, T.

A. Schäfler, G. Craig, H. Wernli, P. Arbogast, J. D. Doyle, R. McTaggart-Cowan, J. Methven, G. Rivière, F. Ament, M. Boettcher, M. Bramberger, Q. Cazenave, R. Cotton, S. Crewell, J. Delanoë, A. Dörnbrack, A. Ehrlich, F. Ewald, A. Fix, C. M. Grams, S. L. Gray, H. Grob, S. Groß, M. Hagen, B. Harvey, L. Hirsch, M. Jacob, T. Kölling, H. Konow, C. Lemmerz, O. Lux, L. Magnusson, B. Mayer, M. Mech, R. Moore, J. Pelon, J. Quinting, S. Rahm, M. Rapp, M. Rautenhaus, O. Reitebuch, C. A. Reynolds, H. Sodemann, T. Spengler, G. Vaughan, M. Wendisch, M. Wirth, B. Witschas, K. Wolf, and T. Zinner, “The North Atlantic waveguide and downstream impact experiment,” Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 99, 1607–1637 (2018).
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Spichtinger, P.

C. Voigt, U. Schumann, A. Minikin, A. Abdelmonem, A. Afchine, S. Borrmann, M. Boettcher, B. Buchholz, L. Bugliaro, A. Costa, J. Curtius, M. Dollner, A. Dörnbrack, V. Dreiling, V. Ebert, A. Ehrlich, A. Fix, L. Forster, F. Frank, D. Fütterer, A. Giez, K. Graf, J. Grooß, S. Groß, K. Heimerl, B. Heinold, T. Hüneke, E. Järvinen, T. Jurkat, S. Kaufmann, M. Kenntner, M. Klingebiel, T. Klimach, R. Kohl, M. Krämer, T. C. Krisna, A. Luebke, B. Mayer, S. Mertes, S. Molleker, A. Petzold, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Port, M. Rapp, P. Reutter, C. Rolf, D. Rose, D. Sauer, A. Schäfler, R. Schlage, M. Schnaiter, J. Schneider, N. Spelten, P. Spichtinger, P. Stock, A. Walser, R. Weigel, B. Weinzierl, M. Wendisch, F. Werner, H. Wernli, M. Wirth, A. Zahn, H. Ziereis, and M. Zöger, “ML-CIRRUS: the airborne experiment on natural cirrus and contrail cirrus with the high-altitude long-range research aircraft HALO,” Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 98, 271–288 (2017).
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Sprenger, M.

T. Trickl, H. Vogelmann, A. Fix, A. Schäfler, M. Wirth, B. Calpini, G. Levrat, G. Romanens, A. Apituley, K. M. Wilson, R. Begbie, J. Reichardt, H. Vömel, and M. Sprenger, “How stratospheric are deep stratospheric intrusions?–LUAMI 2008,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 16, 8791–8815 (2016).
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T. Trickl, H. Vogelmann, H. Giehl, H.-E. Scheel, M. Sprenger, and A. Stohl, “How stratospheric are deep stratospheric intrusions?”Atmos. Chem. Phys. 14, 9941–9961 (2014).
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Staebler, R.

K. B. Strawbridge, M. S. Travis, B. J. Firanski, J. R. Brook, R. Staebler, and T. Leblanc, “A fully autonomous ozone, aerosol and nighttime water vapor lidar: a synergistic approach to profiling the atmosphere in the Canadian oil sands region,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 11, 6735–6759 (2018).
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Steinebach, F.

F. Steinebach, “Entwicklung, Charakterisierung und Anwendung eines durchstimmbaren Lidartransmitters im ultravioletten Spektralbereich für die Vermessung von Ozon in der Tropopausenregion,” Ph.D. thesis (LMU München, 2012).

Stock, P.

C. Voigt, U. Schumann, A. Minikin, A. Abdelmonem, A. Afchine, S. Borrmann, M. Boettcher, B. Buchholz, L. Bugliaro, A. Costa, J. Curtius, M. Dollner, A. Dörnbrack, V. Dreiling, V. Ebert, A. Ehrlich, A. Fix, L. Forster, F. Frank, D. Fütterer, A. Giez, K. Graf, J. Grooß, S. Groß, K. Heimerl, B. Heinold, T. Hüneke, E. Järvinen, T. Jurkat, S. Kaufmann, M. Kenntner, M. Klingebiel, T. Klimach, R. Kohl, M. Krämer, T. C. Krisna, A. Luebke, B. Mayer, S. Mertes, S. Molleker, A. Petzold, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Port, M. Rapp, P. Reutter, C. Rolf, D. Rose, D. Sauer, A. Schäfler, R. Schlage, M. Schnaiter, J. Schneider, N. Spelten, P. Spichtinger, P. Stock, A. Walser, R. Weigel, B. Weinzierl, M. Wendisch, F. Werner, H. Wernli, M. Wirth, A. Zahn, H. Ziereis, and M. Zöger, “ML-CIRRUS: the airborne experiment on natural cirrus and contrail cirrus with the high-altitude long-range research aircraft HALO,” Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 98, 271–288 (2017).
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Stohl, A.

T. Trickl, H. Vogelmann, H. Giehl, H.-E. Scheel, M. Sprenger, and A. Stohl, “How stratospheric are deep stratospheric intrusions?”Atmos. Chem. Phys. 14, 9941–9961 (2014).
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A. Papayannis, D. Balis, P. Zanis, E. Galani, H. Wernli, C. Zerefos, A. Stohl, S. Eckhardt, and V. Amiridis, “Sampling of an STT event over the Eastern Mediterranean region by lidar and electrochemical Sonde,” Ann. Geophys. 23, 2039–2050 (2005).
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Strawbridge, K. B.

K. B. Strawbridge, M. S. Travis, B. J. Firanski, J. R. Brook, R. Staebler, and T. Leblanc, “A fully autonomous ozone, aerosol and nighttime water vapor lidar: a synergistic approach to profiling the atmosphere in the Canadian oil sands region,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 11, 6735–6759 (2018).
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Takeuchi, N.

Travis, M. S.

K. B. Strawbridge, M. S. Travis, B. J. Firanski, J. R. Brook, R. Staebler, and T. Leblanc, “A fully autonomous ozone, aerosol and nighttime water vapor lidar: a synergistic approach to profiling the atmosphere in the Canadian oil sands region,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 11, 6735–6759 (2018).
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Trickl, T.

T. Trickl, H. Vogelmann, A. Fix, A. Schäfler, M. Wirth, B. Calpini, G. Levrat, G. Romanens, A. Apituley, K. M. Wilson, R. Begbie, J. Reichardt, H. Vömel, and M. Sprenger, “How stratospheric are deep stratospheric intrusions?–LUAMI 2008,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 16, 8791–8815 (2016).
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T. Trickl, H. Vogelmann, H. Flentje, and L. Ries, “Stratospheric ozone in boreal fire plumes–the 2013 smoke season over central Europe,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 15, 9631–9649 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Trickl, H. Vogelmann, H. Giehl, H.-E. Scheel, M. Sprenger, and A. Stohl, “How stratospheric are deep stratospheric intrusions?”Atmos. Chem. Phys. 14, 9941–9961 (2014).
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H. Vogelmann and T. Trickl, “Wide-range sounding of free-tropospheric water vapor with a differential-absorption lidar (DIAL) at a high-altitude station,” Appl. Opt. 47, 2116–2132 (2008).
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H. Eisele, H. E. Scheel, R. Sladkovic, and T. Trickl, “High-resolution lidar measurements of stratosphere-troposphere exchange,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 319–330 (1999).
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Ungermann, J.

H. Oelhaf, B.-M. Sinnhuber, W. Woiwode, H. Bönisch, H. Bozem, A. Engel, A. Fix, F. Friedl-Vallon, J.-U. Grooß, P. Hoor, S. Johansson, T. Jurkat-Witschas, S. Kaufmann, M. Krämer, J. Krause, E. Kretschmer, D. Lörks, A. Marsing, J. Orphal, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Pitss, L. Poole, P. Preusse, M. Rapp, M. Riese, C. Rolf, J. Ungermann, C. Voigt, C. M. Volk, M. Wirth, A. Zahn, and H. Ziereis, “POLSTRACC: airborne experiment for studying the polar stratosphere in a changing climate with the high-altitude long-range research aircraft HALO,” Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., submitted for publication.

Urbanek, B.

B. Urbanek, S. Groß, A. Schäfler, and M. Wirth, “Determining stages of cirrus evolution: a cloud classification scheme,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 10, 1653–1664 (2017).
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Vaughan, G.

A. Schäfler, G. Craig, H. Wernli, P. Arbogast, J. D. Doyle, R. McTaggart-Cowan, J. Methven, G. Rivière, F. Ament, M. Boettcher, M. Bramberger, Q. Cazenave, R. Cotton, S. Crewell, J. Delanoë, A. Dörnbrack, A. Ehrlich, F. Ewald, A. Fix, C. M. Grams, S. L. Gray, H. Grob, S. Groß, M. Hagen, B. Harvey, L. Hirsch, M. Jacob, T. Kölling, H. Konow, C. Lemmerz, O. Lux, L. Magnusson, B. Mayer, M. Mech, R. Moore, J. Pelon, J. Quinting, S. Rahm, M. Rapp, M. Rautenhaus, O. Reitebuch, C. A. Reynolds, H. Sodemann, T. Spengler, G. Vaughan, M. Wendisch, M. Wirth, B. Witschas, K. Wolf, and T. Zinner, “The North Atlantic waveguide and downstream impact experiment,” Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 99, 1607–1637 (2018).
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G. Vaughan, C. Cambridge, L. Dean, and A. W. Phillips, “Water vapour and ozone profiles in the midlatitude upper troposphere,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 963–971 (2005).
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Vogelmann, H.

T. Trickl, H. Vogelmann, A. Fix, A. Schäfler, M. Wirth, B. Calpini, G. Levrat, G. Romanens, A. Apituley, K. M. Wilson, R. Begbie, J. Reichardt, H. Vömel, and M. Sprenger, “How stratospheric are deep stratospheric intrusions?–LUAMI 2008,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 16, 8791–8815 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Trickl, H. Vogelmann, H. Flentje, and L. Ries, “Stratospheric ozone in boreal fire plumes–the 2013 smoke season over central Europe,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 15, 9631–9649 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Trickl, H. Vogelmann, H. Giehl, H.-E. Scheel, M. Sprenger, and A. Stohl, “How stratospheric are deep stratospheric intrusions?”Atmos. Chem. Phys. 14, 9941–9961 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Vogelmann and T. Trickl, “Wide-range sounding of free-tropospheric water vapor with a differential-absorption lidar (DIAL) at a high-altitude station,” Appl. Opt. 47, 2116–2132 (2008).
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Voigt, C.

C. Voigt, A. Dörnbrack, M. Wirth, S. M. Groß, M. C. Pitts, L. R. Poole, R. Baumann, B. Ehard, B.-M. Sinnhuber, W. Woiwode, and H. Oelhaf, “Widespread polar stratospheric ice clouds in the 2015–2016 Arctic winter–implications for ice nucleation,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 18, 15623–15641 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Voigt, U. Schumann, A. Minikin, A. Abdelmonem, A. Afchine, S. Borrmann, M. Boettcher, B. Buchholz, L. Bugliaro, A. Costa, J. Curtius, M. Dollner, A. Dörnbrack, V. Dreiling, V. Ebert, A. Ehrlich, A. Fix, L. Forster, F. Frank, D. Fütterer, A. Giez, K. Graf, J. Grooß, S. Groß, K. Heimerl, B. Heinold, T. Hüneke, E. Järvinen, T. Jurkat, S. Kaufmann, M. Kenntner, M. Klingebiel, T. Klimach, R. Kohl, M. Krämer, T. C. Krisna, A. Luebke, B. Mayer, S. Mertes, S. Molleker, A. Petzold, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Port, M. Rapp, P. Reutter, C. Rolf, D. Rose, D. Sauer, A. Schäfler, R. Schlage, M. Schnaiter, J. Schneider, N. Spelten, P. Spichtinger, P. Stock, A. Walser, R. Weigel, B. Weinzierl, M. Wendisch, F. Werner, H. Wernli, M. Wirth, A. Zahn, H. Ziereis, and M. Zöger, “ML-CIRRUS: the airborne experiment on natural cirrus and contrail cirrus with the high-altitude long-range research aircraft HALO,” Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 98, 271–288 (2017).
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S. Groß, M. Wirth, A. Schäfler, A. Fix, S. Kaufmann, and C. Voigt, “Potential of airborne lidar measurements for cirrus cloud studies,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 7, 2745–2755 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Oelhaf, B.-M. Sinnhuber, W. Woiwode, H. Bönisch, H. Bozem, A. Engel, A. Fix, F. Friedl-Vallon, J.-U. Grooß, P. Hoor, S. Johansson, T. Jurkat-Witschas, S. Kaufmann, M. Krämer, J. Krause, E. Kretschmer, D. Lörks, A. Marsing, J. Orphal, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Pitss, L. Poole, P. Preusse, M. Rapp, M. Riese, C. Rolf, J. Ungermann, C. Voigt, C. M. Volk, M. Wirth, A. Zahn, and H. Ziereis, “POLSTRACC: airborne experiment for studying the polar stratosphere in a changing climate with the high-altitude long-range research aircraft HALO,” Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., submitted for publication.

Volk, C. M.

H. Oelhaf, B.-M. Sinnhuber, W. Woiwode, H. Bönisch, H. Bozem, A. Engel, A. Fix, F. Friedl-Vallon, J.-U. Grooß, P. Hoor, S. Johansson, T. Jurkat-Witschas, S. Kaufmann, M. Krämer, J. Krause, E. Kretschmer, D. Lörks, A. Marsing, J. Orphal, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Pitss, L. Poole, P. Preusse, M. Rapp, M. Riese, C. Rolf, J. Ungermann, C. Voigt, C. M. Volk, M. Wirth, A. Zahn, and H. Ziereis, “POLSTRACC: airborne experiment for studying the polar stratosphere in a changing climate with the high-altitude long-range research aircraft HALO,” Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., submitted for publication.

Vömel, H.

T. Trickl, H. Vogelmann, A. Fix, A. Schäfler, M. Wirth, B. Calpini, G. Levrat, G. Romanens, A. Apituley, K. M. Wilson, R. Begbie, J. Reichardt, H. Vömel, and M. Sprenger, “How stratospheric are deep stratospheric intrusions?–LUAMI 2008,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 16, 8791–8815 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wagner, J. S.

J. S. Wagner, A. Gohm, A. Dörnbrack, and A. Schäfler, “The mesoscale structure of a polar low: airborne lidar measurements and simulations,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 1516–1531 (2011).
[Crossref]

Walker, K. A.

M. I. Hegglin, C. D. Boone, G. L. Manney, and K. A. Walker, “A global view of the extratropical tropopause transition layer from atmospheric chemistry experiment Fourier transform spectrometer O3, H2O, and CO,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, D00B11 (2009).
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M. I. Hegglin, C. D. Boone, G. L. Manney, T. G. Shepherd, K. A. Walker, P. F. Bernath, W. H. Daffer, P. Hoor, and C. Schiller, “Validation of ACE-FTS satellite data in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (UTLS) using non-coincident measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8, 1483–1499 (2008).
[Crossref]

Walser, A.

C. Voigt, U. Schumann, A. Minikin, A. Abdelmonem, A. Afchine, S. Borrmann, M. Boettcher, B. Buchholz, L. Bugliaro, A. Costa, J. Curtius, M. Dollner, A. Dörnbrack, V. Dreiling, V. Ebert, A. Ehrlich, A. Fix, L. Forster, F. Frank, D. Fütterer, A. Giez, K. Graf, J. Grooß, S. Groß, K. Heimerl, B. Heinold, T. Hüneke, E. Järvinen, T. Jurkat, S. Kaufmann, M. Kenntner, M. Klingebiel, T. Klimach, R. Kohl, M. Krämer, T. C. Krisna, A. Luebke, B. Mayer, S. Mertes, S. Molleker, A. Petzold, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Port, M. Rapp, P. Reutter, C. Rolf, D. Rose, D. Sauer, A. Schäfler, R. Schlage, M. Schnaiter, J. Schneider, N. Spelten, P. Spichtinger, P. Stock, A. Walser, R. Weigel, B. Weinzierl, M. Wendisch, F. Werner, H. Wernli, M. Wirth, A. Zahn, H. Ziereis, and M. Zöger, “ML-CIRRUS: the airborne experiment on natural cirrus and contrail cirrus with the high-altitude long-range research aircraft HALO,” Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 98, 271–288 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wang, Z.

Weickmann, A. M.

R. J. Alvarez, C. J. Senff, A. O. Langford, A. M. Weickmann, D. C. Law, J. L. Machol, D. A. Merritt, R. D. Marchbanks, S. P. Sandberg, W. A. Brewer, R. M. Hardesty, and R. M. Banta, “Development and application of a compact, tunable, solid-state airborne ozone lidar system for boundary layer profiling,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 28, 1258–1272 (2011).
[Crossref]

Weidauer, D.

A. Fix, M. Wirth, A. Meister, G. Ehret, M. Pesch, and D. Weidauer, “Tunable ultraviolet optical parametric oscillator for differential absorption lidar measurements of tropospheric ozone,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 153–163 (2002).
[Crossref]

Weigel, R.

C. Voigt, U. Schumann, A. Minikin, A. Abdelmonem, A. Afchine, S. Borrmann, M. Boettcher, B. Buchholz, L. Bugliaro, A. Costa, J. Curtius, M. Dollner, A. Dörnbrack, V. Dreiling, V. Ebert, A. Ehrlich, A. Fix, L. Forster, F. Frank, D. Fütterer, A. Giez, K. Graf, J. Grooß, S. Groß, K. Heimerl, B. Heinold, T. Hüneke, E. Järvinen, T. Jurkat, S. Kaufmann, M. Kenntner, M. Klingebiel, T. Klimach, R. Kohl, M. Krämer, T. C. Krisna, A. Luebke, B. Mayer, S. Mertes, S. Molleker, A. Petzold, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Port, M. Rapp, P. Reutter, C. Rolf, D. Rose, D. Sauer, A. Schäfler, R. Schlage, M. Schnaiter, J. Schneider, N. Spelten, P. Spichtinger, P. Stock, A. Walser, R. Weigel, B. Weinzierl, M. Wendisch, F. Werner, H. Wernli, M. Wirth, A. Zahn, H. Ziereis, and M. Zöger, “ML-CIRRUS: the airborne experiment on natural cirrus and contrail cirrus with the high-altitude long-range research aircraft HALO,” Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 98, 271–288 (2017).
[Crossref]

Weinzierl, B.

C. Voigt, U. Schumann, A. Minikin, A. Abdelmonem, A. Afchine, S. Borrmann, M. Boettcher, B. Buchholz, L. Bugliaro, A. Costa, J. Curtius, M. Dollner, A. Dörnbrack, V. Dreiling, V. Ebert, A. Ehrlich, A. Fix, L. Forster, F. Frank, D. Fütterer, A. Giez, K. Graf, J. Grooß, S. Groß, K. Heimerl, B. Heinold, T. Hüneke, E. Järvinen, T. Jurkat, S. Kaufmann, M. Kenntner, M. Klingebiel, T. Klimach, R. Kohl, M. Krämer, T. C. Krisna, A. Luebke, B. Mayer, S. Mertes, S. Molleker, A. Petzold, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Port, M. Rapp, P. Reutter, C. Rolf, D. Rose, D. Sauer, A. Schäfler, R. Schlage, M. Schnaiter, J. Schneider, N. Spelten, P. Spichtinger, P. Stock, A. Walser, R. Weigel, B. Weinzierl, M. Wendisch, F. Werner, H. Wernli, M. Wirth, A. Zahn, H. Ziereis, and M. Zöger, “ML-CIRRUS: the airborne experiment on natural cirrus and contrail cirrus with the high-altitude long-range research aircraft HALO,” Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 98, 271–288 (2017).
[Crossref]

Weissmann, M.

F. Harnisch, M. Weissmann, C. Cardinali, and M. Wirth, “Experimental assimilation of DIAL water vapour observations in the ECMWF global model,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 1532–1546 (2011).
[Crossref]

Welch, W.

J. W. Hair, C. Cleckner, K. Murray, D. Fratello, C. Naftel, J. Collins, A. Notari, and W. Welch, “Development of the Global Ozone Lidar Demonstrator (GOLD) for the Global Hawk,” available at https://esto.nasa.gov/conferences/estf2010/papers/Hair_ESTF2010.pdf (NASA Langley Research Center, 2010).

Wendisch, M.

A. Schäfler, G. Craig, H. Wernli, P. Arbogast, J. D. Doyle, R. McTaggart-Cowan, J. Methven, G. Rivière, F. Ament, M. Boettcher, M. Bramberger, Q. Cazenave, R. Cotton, S. Crewell, J. Delanoë, A. Dörnbrack, A. Ehrlich, F. Ewald, A. Fix, C. M. Grams, S. L. Gray, H. Grob, S. Groß, M. Hagen, B. Harvey, L. Hirsch, M. Jacob, T. Kölling, H. Konow, C. Lemmerz, O. Lux, L. Magnusson, B. Mayer, M. Mech, R. Moore, J. Pelon, J. Quinting, S. Rahm, M. Rapp, M. Rautenhaus, O. Reitebuch, C. A. Reynolds, H. Sodemann, T. Spengler, G. Vaughan, M. Wendisch, M. Wirth, B. Witschas, K. Wolf, and T. Zinner, “The North Atlantic waveguide and downstream impact experiment,” Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 99, 1607–1637 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Voigt, U. Schumann, A. Minikin, A. Abdelmonem, A. Afchine, S. Borrmann, M. Boettcher, B. Buchholz, L. Bugliaro, A. Costa, J. Curtius, M. Dollner, A. Dörnbrack, V. Dreiling, V. Ebert, A. Ehrlich, A. Fix, L. Forster, F. Frank, D. Fütterer, A. Giez, K. Graf, J. Grooß, S. Groß, K. Heimerl, B. Heinold, T. Hüneke, E. Järvinen, T. Jurkat, S. Kaufmann, M. Kenntner, M. Klingebiel, T. Klimach, R. Kohl, M. Krämer, T. C. Krisna, A. Luebke, B. Mayer, S. Mertes, S. Molleker, A. Petzold, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Port, M. Rapp, P. Reutter, C. Rolf, D. Rose, D. Sauer, A. Schäfler, R. Schlage, M. Schnaiter, J. Schneider, N. Spelten, P. Spichtinger, P. Stock, A. Walser, R. Weigel, B. Weinzierl, M. Wendisch, F. Werner, H. Wernli, M. Wirth, A. Zahn, H. Ziereis, and M. Zöger, “ML-CIRRUS: the airborne experiment on natural cirrus and contrail cirrus with the high-altitude long-range research aircraft HALO,” Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 98, 271–288 (2017).
[Crossref]

Werner, F.

C. Voigt, U. Schumann, A. Minikin, A. Abdelmonem, A. Afchine, S. Borrmann, M. Boettcher, B. Buchholz, L. Bugliaro, A. Costa, J. Curtius, M. Dollner, A. Dörnbrack, V. Dreiling, V. Ebert, A. Ehrlich, A. Fix, L. Forster, F. Frank, D. Fütterer, A. Giez, K. Graf, J. Grooß, S. Groß, K. Heimerl, B. Heinold, T. Hüneke, E. Järvinen, T. Jurkat, S. Kaufmann, M. Kenntner, M. Klingebiel, T. Klimach, R. Kohl, M. Krämer, T. C. Krisna, A. Luebke, B. Mayer, S. Mertes, S. Molleker, A. Petzold, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Port, M. Rapp, P. Reutter, C. Rolf, D. Rose, D. Sauer, A. Schäfler, R. Schlage, M. Schnaiter, J. Schneider, N. Spelten, P. Spichtinger, P. Stock, A. Walser, R. Weigel, B. Weinzierl, M. Wendisch, F. Werner, H. Wernli, M. Wirth, A. Zahn, H. Ziereis, and M. Zöger, “ML-CIRRUS: the airborne experiment on natural cirrus and contrail cirrus with the high-altitude long-range research aircraft HALO,” Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 98, 271–288 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wernli, H.

A. Schäfler, G. Craig, H. Wernli, P. Arbogast, J. D. Doyle, R. McTaggart-Cowan, J. Methven, G. Rivière, F. Ament, M. Boettcher, M. Bramberger, Q. Cazenave, R. Cotton, S. Crewell, J. Delanoë, A. Dörnbrack, A. Ehrlich, F. Ewald, A. Fix, C. M. Grams, S. L. Gray, H. Grob, S. Groß, M. Hagen, B. Harvey, L. Hirsch, M. Jacob, T. Kölling, H. Konow, C. Lemmerz, O. Lux, L. Magnusson, B. Mayer, M. Mech, R. Moore, J. Pelon, J. Quinting, S. Rahm, M. Rapp, M. Rautenhaus, O. Reitebuch, C. A. Reynolds, H. Sodemann, T. Spengler, G. Vaughan, M. Wendisch, M. Wirth, B. Witschas, K. Wolf, and T. Zinner, “The North Atlantic waveguide and downstream impact experiment,” Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 99, 1607–1637 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Voigt, U. Schumann, A. Minikin, A. Abdelmonem, A. Afchine, S. Borrmann, M. Boettcher, B. Buchholz, L. Bugliaro, A. Costa, J. Curtius, M. Dollner, A. Dörnbrack, V. Dreiling, V. Ebert, A. Ehrlich, A. Fix, L. Forster, F. Frank, D. Fütterer, A. Giez, K. Graf, J. Grooß, S. Groß, K. Heimerl, B. Heinold, T. Hüneke, E. Järvinen, T. Jurkat, S. Kaufmann, M. Kenntner, M. Klingebiel, T. Klimach, R. Kohl, M. Krämer, T. C. Krisna, A. Luebke, B. Mayer, S. Mertes, S. Molleker, A. Petzold, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Port, M. Rapp, P. Reutter, C. Rolf, D. Rose, D. Sauer, A. Schäfler, R. Schlage, M. Schnaiter, J. Schneider, N. Spelten, P. Spichtinger, P. Stock, A. Walser, R. Weigel, B. Weinzierl, M. Wendisch, F. Werner, H. Wernli, M. Wirth, A. Zahn, H. Ziereis, and M. Zöger, “ML-CIRRUS: the airborne experiment on natural cirrus and contrail cirrus with the high-altitude long-range research aircraft HALO,” Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 98, 271–288 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Schäfler, A. Dörnbrack, H. Wernli, C. Kiemle, and S. Pfahl, “Airborne lidar observations in the inflow region of a warm conveyor belt,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 1257–1272 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Papayannis, D. Balis, P. Zanis, E. Galani, H. Wernli, C. Zerefos, A. Stohl, S. Eckhardt, and V. Amiridis, “Sampling of an STT event over the Eastern Mediterranean region by lidar and electrochemical Sonde,” Ann. Geophys. 23, 2039–2050 (2005).
[Crossref]

P. Hoor, C. Gurk, D. Brunner, M. I. Hegglin, H. Wernli, and H. Fischer, “Seasonality and extent of extratropical TST derived from in-situ CO measurements during SPURT,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 4, 1427–1442 (2004).
[Crossref]

Wienhold, F. G.

H. Fischer, F. G. Wienhold, P. Hoor, O. Bujok, C. Schiller, P. Siegmund, M. H. P. Ambaum, H. A. Scheeren, and J. Lelieveld, “Tracer correlations in the northern high latitude lowermost stratosphere: influence of cross-tropopause mass exchange,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 97–100 (2000).
[Crossref]

Wilson, K. M.

T. Trickl, H. Vogelmann, A. Fix, A. Schäfler, M. Wirth, B. Calpini, G. Levrat, G. Romanens, A. Apituley, K. M. Wilson, R. Begbie, J. Reichardt, H. Vömel, and M. Sprenger, “How stratospheric are deep stratospheric intrusions?–LUAMI 2008,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 16, 8791–8815 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wirth, M.

A. Schäfler, G. Craig, H. Wernli, P. Arbogast, J. D. Doyle, R. McTaggart-Cowan, J. Methven, G. Rivière, F. Ament, M. Boettcher, M. Bramberger, Q. Cazenave, R. Cotton, S. Crewell, J. Delanoë, A. Dörnbrack, A. Ehrlich, F. Ewald, A. Fix, C. M. Grams, S. L. Gray, H. Grob, S. Groß, M. Hagen, B. Harvey, L. Hirsch, M. Jacob, T. Kölling, H. Konow, C. Lemmerz, O. Lux, L. Magnusson, B. Mayer, M. Mech, R. Moore, J. Pelon, J. Quinting, S. Rahm, M. Rapp, M. Rautenhaus, O. Reitebuch, C. A. Reynolds, H. Sodemann, T. Spengler, G. Vaughan, M. Wendisch, M. Wirth, B. Witschas, K. Wolf, and T. Zinner, “The North Atlantic waveguide and downstream impact experiment,” Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 99, 1607–1637 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Voigt, A. Dörnbrack, M. Wirth, S. M. Groß, M. C. Pitts, L. R. Poole, R. Baumann, B. Ehard, B.-M. Sinnhuber, W. Woiwode, and H. Oelhaf, “Widespread polar stratospheric ice clouds in the 2015–2016 Arctic winter–implications for ice nucleation,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 18, 15623–15641 (2018).
[Crossref]

B. Urbanek, S. Groß, A. Schäfler, and M. Wirth, “Determining stages of cirrus evolution: a cloud classification scheme,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 10, 1653–1664 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Voigt, U. Schumann, A. Minikin, A. Abdelmonem, A. Afchine, S. Borrmann, M. Boettcher, B. Buchholz, L. Bugliaro, A. Costa, J. Curtius, M. Dollner, A. Dörnbrack, V. Dreiling, V. Ebert, A. Ehrlich, A. Fix, L. Forster, F. Frank, D. Fütterer, A. Giez, K. Graf, J. Grooß, S. Groß, K. Heimerl, B. Heinold, T. Hüneke, E. Järvinen, T. Jurkat, S. Kaufmann, M. Kenntner, M. Klingebiel, T. Klimach, R. Kohl, M. Krämer, T. C. Krisna, A. Luebke, B. Mayer, S. Mertes, S. Molleker, A. Petzold, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Port, M. Rapp, P. Reutter, C. Rolf, D. Rose, D. Sauer, A. Schäfler, R. Schlage, M. Schnaiter, J. Schneider, N. Spelten, P. Spichtinger, P. Stock, A. Walser, R. Weigel, B. Weinzierl, M. Wendisch, F. Werner, H. Wernli, M. Wirth, A. Zahn, H. Ziereis, and M. Zöger, “ML-CIRRUS: the airborne experiment on natural cirrus and contrail cirrus with the high-altitude long-range research aircraft HALO,” Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 98, 271–288 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Trickl, H. Vogelmann, A. Fix, A. Schäfler, M. Wirth, B. Calpini, G. Levrat, G. Romanens, A. Apituley, K. M. Wilson, R. Begbie, J. Reichardt, H. Vömel, and M. Sprenger, “How stratospheric are deep stratospheric intrusions?–LUAMI 2008,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 16, 8791–8815 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Groß, M. Wirth, A. Schäfler, A. Fix, S. Kaufmann, and C. Voigt, “Potential of airborne lidar measurements for cirrus cloud studies,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 7, 2745–2755 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Groß, M. Esselborn, F. Abicht, M. Wirth, A. Fix, and A. Minikin, “Airborne high spectral resolution lidar observation of pollution aerosol during EUCAARI-LONGREX,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 13, 2435–2444 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Kiemle, A. Schäfler, M. Wirth, A. Fix, and S. Rahm, “Detection and analysis of water vapor transport by airborne lidars,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Appl. Earth Observ. Remote Sensing 6, 1189–1193 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Harnisch, M. Weissmann, C. Cardinali, and M. Wirth, “Experimental assimilation of DIAL water vapour observations in the ECMWF global model,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 1532–1546 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Kiemle, M. Wirth, A. Fix, S. Rahm, U. Corsmeier, and P. Di Girolamo, “Latent heat flux measurements over complex terrain by airborne water vapour and wind lidars,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 190–203 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Schäfler, A. Dörnbrack, C. Kiemle, S. Rahm, and M. Wirth, “Tropospheric water vapor transport as determined from airborne lidar measurements,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 27, 2017–2030 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Wirth, A. Fix, P. Mahnke, H. Schwarzer, F. Schrandt, and G. Ehret, “The airborne multiwavelength water vapor differential absorption lidar WALES: system design and performance,” Appl. Phys. B 96, 201–213 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. Fix, M. Wirth, A. Meister, G. Ehret, M. Pesch, and D. Weidauer, “Tunable ultraviolet optical parametric oscillator for differential absorption lidar measurements of tropospheric ozone,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 153–163 (2002).
[Crossref]

A. Meister, A. Fix, H. Flentje, M. Wirth, and G. Ehret, “TropOLEX: a new tuneable airborne lidar system for the measurement of tropospheric ozone,” in 6th International Symposium on Tropospheric Profiling, Leipzig, Germany, 14–20 September2003, pp. 233–253.

C. Kiemle, S. Groß, M. Wirth, and L. Bugliaro, “Airborne lidar observations of water vapor variability in tropical shallow convective environment,” in Shallow Clouds, Water Vapor, Circulation, and Climate Sensitivity, R. Pincus, D. Winker, S. Bony, and B. Stevens, eds., Space Sciences Series of ISSI (Springer, 2017), Vol. 65.

M. Wirth, “Measuring water vapor with differential absorption lidar,” in Atmospheric Physics, U. Schumann, ed., Research Topics in Aerospace (Springer, 2012).

H. Oelhaf, B.-M. Sinnhuber, W. Woiwode, H. Bönisch, H. Bozem, A. Engel, A. Fix, F. Friedl-Vallon, J.-U. Grooß, P. Hoor, S. Johansson, T. Jurkat-Witschas, S. Kaufmann, M. Krämer, J. Krause, E. Kretschmer, D. Lörks, A. Marsing, J. Orphal, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Pitss, L. Poole, P. Preusse, M. Rapp, M. Riese, C. Rolf, J. Ungermann, C. Voigt, C. M. Volk, M. Wirth, A. Zahn, and H. Ziereis, “POLSTRACC: airborne experiment for studying the polar stratosphere in a changing climate with the high-altitude long-range research aircraft HALO,” Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., submitted for publication.

Witschas, B.

A. Schäfler, G. Craig, H. Wernli, P. Arbogast, J. D. Doyle, R. McTaggart-Cowan, J. Methven, G. Rivière, F. Ament, M. Boettcher, M. Bramberger, Q. Cazenave, R. Cotton, S. Crewell, J. Delanoë, A. Dörnbrack, A. Ehrlich, F. Ewald, A. Fix, C. M. Grams, S. L. Gray, H. Grob, S. Groß, M. Hagen, B. Harvey, L. Hirsch, M. Jacob, T. Kölling, H. Konow, C. Lemmerz, O. Lux, L. Magnusson, B. Mayer, M. Mech, R. Moore, J. Pelon, J. Quinting, S. Rahm, M. Rapp, M. Rautenhaus, O. Reitebuch, C. A. Reynolds, H. Sodemann, T. Spengler, G. Vaughan, M. Wendisch, M. Wirth, B. Witschas, K. Wolf, and T. Zinner, “The North Atlantic waveguide and downstream impact experiment,” Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 99, 1607–1637 (2018).
[Crossref]

Woiwode, W.

C. Voigt, A. Dörnbrack, M. Wirth, S. M. Groß, M. C. Pitts, L. R. Poole, R. Baumann, B. Ehard, B.-M. Sinnhuber, W. Woiwode, and H. Oelhaf, “Widespread polar stratospheric ice clouds in the 2015–2016 Arctic winter–implications for ice nucleation,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 18, 15623–15641 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. Oelhaf, B.-M. Sinnhuber, W. Woiwode, H. Bönisch, H. Bozem, A. Engel, A. Fix, F. Friedl-Vallon, J.-U. Grooß, P. Hoor, S. Johansson, T. Jurkat-Witschas, S. Kaufmann, M. Krämer, J. Krause, E. Kretschmer, D. Lörks, A. Marsing, J. Orphal, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Pitss, L. Poole, P. Preusse, M. Rapp, M. Riese, C. Rolf, J. Ungermann, C. Voigt, C. M. Volk, M. Wirth, A. Zahn, and H. Ziereis, “POLSTRACC: airborne experiment for studying the polar stratosphere in a changing climate with the high-altitude long-range research aircraft HALO,” Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., submitted for publication.

H. Oelhaf, B. M. Sinnhuber, W. Woiwode, M. Rapp, A. Dörnbrack, A. Engel, and H. Bönisch, “The polar stratosphere in a changing climate (POLSTRACC): mission overview and first results,” in EGU General Assembly Conference Abstracts (2016), Vol. 18, p. 7743.

Wolf, K.

A. Schäfler, G. Craig, H. Wernli, P. Arbogast, J. D. Doyle, R. McTaggart-Cowan, J. Methven, G. Rivière, F. Ament, M. Boettcher, M. Bramberger, Q. Cazenave, R. Cotton, S. Crewell, J. Delanoë, A. Dörnbrack, A. Ehrlich, F. Ewald, A. Fix, C. M. Grams, S. L. Gray, H. Grob, S. Groß, M. Hagen, B. Harvey, L. Hirsch, M. Jacob, T. Kölling, H. Konow, C. Lemmerz, O. Lux, L. Magnusson, B. Mayer, M. Mech, R. Moore, J. Pelon, J. Quinting, S. Rahm, M. Rapp, M. Rautenhaus, O. Reitebuch, C. A. Reynolds, H. Sodemann, T. Spengler, G. Vaughan, M. Wendisch, M. Wirth, B. Witschas, K. Wolf, and T. Zinner, “The North Atlantic waveguide and downstream impact experiment,” Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 99, 1607–1637 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zahn, A.

C. Voigt, U. Schumann, A. Minikin, A. Abdelmonem, A. Afchine, S. Borrmann, M. Boettcher, B. Buchholz, L. Bugliaro, A. Costa, J. Curtius, M. Dollner, A. Dörnbrack, V. Dreiling, V. Ebert, A. Ehrlich, A. Fix, L. Forster, F. Frank, D. Fütterer, A. Giez, K. Graf, J. Grooß, S. Groß, K. Heimerl, B. Heinold, T. Hüneke, E. Järvinen, T. Jurkat, S. Kaufmann, M. Kenntner, M. Klingebiel, T. Klimach, R. Kohl, M. Krämer, T. C. Krisna, A. Luebke, B. Mayer, S. Mertes, S. Molleker, A. Petzold, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Port, M. Rapp, P. Reutter, C. Rolf, D. Rose, D. Sauer, A. Schäfler, R. Schlage, M. Schnaiter, J. Schneider, N. Spelten, P. Spichtinger, P. Stock, A. Walser, R. Weigel, B. Weinzierl, M. Wendisch, F. Werner, H. Wernli, M. Wirth, A. Zahn, H. Ziereis, and M. Zöger, “ML-CIRRUS: the airborne experiment on natural cirrus and contrail cirrus with the high-altitude long-range research aircraft HALO,” Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 98, 271–288 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Zahn and C. A. M. Brenninkmeijer, “New directions: a chemical tropopause defined,” Atmos. Environ. 37, 439–440 (2003).
[Crossref]

H. Oelhaf, B.-M. Sinnhuber, W. Woiwode, H. Bönisch, H. Bozem, A. Engel, A. Fix, F. Friedl-Vallon, J.-U. Grooß, P. Hoor, S. Johansson, T. Jurkat-Witschas, S. Kaufmann, M. Krämer, J. Krause, E. Kretschmer, D. Lörks, A. Marsing, J. Orphal, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Pitss, L. Poole, P. Preusse, M. Rapp, M. Riese, C. Rolf, J. Ungermann, C. Voigt, C. M. Volk, M. Wirth, A. Zahn, and H. Ziereis, “POLSTRACC: airborne experiment for studying the polar stratosphere in a changing climate with the high-altitude long-range research aircraft HALO,” Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., submitted for publication.

Zanis, P.

A. Papayannis, D. Balis, P. Zanis, E. Galani, H. Wernli, C. Zerefos, A. Stohl, S. Eckhardt, and V. Amiridis, “Sampling of an STT event over the Eastern Mediterranean region by lidar and electrochemical Sonde,” Ann. Geophys. 23, 2039–2050 (2005).
[Crossref]

Zerefos, C.

A. Papayannis, D. Balis, P. Zanis, E. Galani, H. Wernli, C. Zerefos, A. Stohl, S. Eckhardt, and V. Amiridis, “Sampling of an STT event over the Eastern Mediterranean region by lidar and electrochemical Sonde,” Ann. Geophys. 23, 2039–2050 (2005).
[Crossref]

Zhou, J.

Ziereis, H.

C. Voigt, U. Schumann, A. Minikin, A. Abdelmonem, A. Afchine, S. Borrmann, M. Boettcher, B. Buchholz, L. Bugliaro, A. Costa, J. Curtius, M. Dollner, A. Dörnbrack, V. Dreiling, V. Ebert, A. Ehrlich, A. Fix, L. Forster, F. Frank, D. Fütterer, A. Giez, K. Graf, J. Grooß, S. Groß, K. Heimerl, B. Heinold, T. Hüneke, E. Järvinen, T. Jurkat, S. Kaufmann, M. Kenntner, M. Klingebiel, T. Klimach, R. Kohl, M. Krämer, T. C. Krisna, A. Luebke, B. Mayer, S. Mertes, S. Molleker, A. Petzold, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Port, M. Rapp, P. Reutter, C. Rolf, D. Rose, D. Sauer, A. Schäfler, R. Schlage, M. Schnaiter, J. Schneider, N. Spelten, P. Spichtinger, P. Stock, A. Walser, R. Weigel, B. Weinzierl, M. Wendisch, F. Werner, H. Wernli, M. Wirth, A. Zahn, H. Ziereis, and M. Zöger, “ML-CIRRUS: the airborne experiment on natural cirrus and contrail cirrus with the high-altitude long-range research aircraft HALO,” Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 98, 271–288 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Oelhaf, B.-M. Sinnhuber, W. Woiwode, H. Bönisch, H. Bozem, A. Engel, A. Fix, F. Friedl-Vallon, J.-U. Grooß, P. Hoor, S. Johansson, T. Jurkat-Witschas, S. Kaufmann, M. Krämer, J. Krause, E. Kretschmer, D. Lörks, A. Marsing, J. Orphal, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Pitss, L. Poole, P. Preusse, M. Rapp, M. Riese, C. Rolf, J. Ungermann, C. Voigt, C. M. Volk, M. Wirth, A. Zahn, and H. Ziereis, “POLSTRACC: airborne experiment for studying the polar stratosphere in a changing climate with the high-altitude long-range research aircraft HALO,” Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., submitted for publication.

Zinner, T.

A. Schäfler, G. Craig, H. Wernli, P. Arbogast, J. D. Doyle, R. McTaggart-Cowan, J. Methven, G. Rivière, F. Ament, M. Boettcher, M. Bramberger, Q. Cazenave, R. Cotton, S. Crewell, J. Delanoë, A. Dörnbrack, A. Ehrlich, F. Ewald, A. Fix, C. M. Grams, S. L. Gray, H. Grob, S. Groß, M. Hagen, B. Harvey, L. Hirsch, M. Jacob, T. Kölling, H. Konow, C. Lemmerz, O. Lux, L. Magnusson, B. Mayer, M. Mech, R. Moore, J. Pelon, J. Quinting, S. Rahm, M. Rapp, M. Rautenhaus, O. Reitebuch, C. A. Reynolds, H. Sodemann, T. Spengler, G. Vaughan, M. Wendisch, M. Wirth, B. Witschas, K. Wolf, and T. Zinner, “The North Atlantic waveguide and downstream impact experiment,” Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 99, 1607–1637 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zöger, M.

C. Voigt, U. Schumann, A. Minikin, A. Abdelmonem, A. Afchine, S. Borrmann, M. Boettcher, B. Buchholz, L. Bugliaro, A. Costa, J. Curtius, M. Dollner, A. Dörnbrack, V. Dreiling, V. Ebert, A. Ehrlich, A. Fix, L. Forster, F. Frank, D. Fütterer, A. Giez, K. Graf, J. Grooß, S. Groß, K. Heimerl, B. Heinold, T. Hüneke, E. Järvinen, T. Jurkat, S. Kaufmann, M. Kenntner, M. Klingebiel, T. Klimach, R. Kohl, M. Krämer, T. C. Krisna, A. Luebke, B. Mayer, S. Mertes, S. Molleker, A. Petzold, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Port, M. Rapp, P. Reutter, C. Rolf, D. Rose, D. Sauer, A. Schäfler, R. Schlage, M. Schnaiter, J. Schneider, N. Spelten, P. Spichtinger, P. Stock, A. Walser, R. Weigel, B. Weinzierl, M. Wendisch, F. Werner, H. Wernli, M. Wirth, A. Zahn, H. Ziereis, and M. Zöger, “ML-CIRRUS: the airborne experiment on natural cirrus and contrail cirrus with the high-altitude long-range research aircraft HALO,” Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 98, 271–288 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ann. Geophys. (1)

A. Papayannis, D. Balis, P. Zanis, E. Galani, H. Wernli, C. Zerefos, A. Stohl, S. Eckhardt, and V. Amiridis, “Sampling of an STT event over the Eastern Mediterranean region by lidar and electrochemical Sonde,” Ann. Geophys. 23, 2039–2050 (2005).
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T. Trickl, H. Vogelmann, A. Fix, A. Schäfler, M. Wirth, B. Calpini, G. Levrat, G. Romanens, A. Apituley, K. M. Wilson, R. Begbie, J. Reichardt, H. Vömel, and M. Sprenger, “How stratospheric are deep stratospheric intrusions?–LUAMI 2008,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 16, 8791–8815 (2016).
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T. Trickl, H. Vogelmann, H. Flentje, and L. Ries, “Stratospheric ozone in boreal fire plumes–the 2013 smoke season over central Europe,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 15, 9631–9649 (2015).
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T. Trickl, H. Vogelmann, H. Giehl, H.-E. Scheel, M. Sprenger, and A. Stohl, “How stratospheric are deep stratospheric intrusions?”Atmos. Chem. Phys. 14, 9941–9961 (2014).
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P. Hoor, C. Gurk, D. Brunner, M. I. Hegglin, H. Wernli, and H. Fischer, “Seasonality and extent of extratropical TST derived from in-situ CO measurements during SPURT,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 4, 1427–1442 (2004).
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S. Groß, M. Wirth, A. Schäfler, A. Fix, S. Kaufmann, and C. Voigt, “Potential of airborne lidar measurements for cirrus cloud studies,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 7, 2745–2755 (2014).
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B. Urbanek, S. Groß, A. Schäfler, and M. Wirth, “Determining stages of cirrus evolution: a cloud classification scheme,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 10, 1653–1664 (2017).
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A. Schäfler, G. Craig, H. Wernli, P. Arbogast, J. D. Doyle, R. McTaggart-Cowan, J. Methven, G. Rivière, F. Ament, M. Boettcher, M. Bramberger, Q. Cazenave, R. Cotton, S. Crewell, J. Delanoë, A. Dörnbrack, A. Ehrlich, F. Ewald, A. Fix, C. M. Grams, S. L. Gray, H. Grob, S. Groß, M. Hagen, B. Harvey, L. Hirsch, M. Jacob, T. Kölling, H. Konow, C. Lemmerz, O. Lux, L. Magnusson, B. Mayer, M. Mech, R. Moore, J. Pelon, J. Quinting, S. Rahm, M. Rapp, M. Rautenhaus, O. Reitebuch, C. A. Reynolds, H. Sodemann, T. Spengler, G. Vaughan, M. Wendisch, M. Wirth, B. Witschas, K. Wolf, and T. Zinner, “The North Atlantic waveguide and downstream impact experiment,” Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 99, 1607–1637 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Voigt, U. Schumann, A. Minikin, A. Abdelmonem, A. Afchine, S. Borrmann, M. Boettcher, B. Buchholz, L. Bugliaro, A. Costa, J. Curtius, M. Dollner, A. Dörnbrack, V. Dreiling, V. Ebert, A. Ehrlich, A. Fix, L. Forster, F. Frank, D. Fütterer, A. Giez, K. Graf, J. Grooß, S. Groß, K. Heimerl, B. Heinold, T. Hüneke, E. Järvinen, T. Jurkat, S. Kaufmann, M. Kenntner, M. Klingebiel, T. Klimach, R. Kohl, M. Krämer, T. C. Krisna, A. Luebke, B. Mayer, S. Mertes, S. Molleker, A. Petzold, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Port, M. Rapp, P. Reutter, C. Rolf, D. Rose, D. Sauer, A. Schäfler, R. Schlage, M. Schnaiter, J. Schneider, N. Spelten, P. Spichtinger, P. Stock, A. Walser, R. Weigel, B. Weinzierl, M. Wendisch, F. Werner, H. Wernli, M. Wirth, A. Zahn, H. Ziereis, and M. Zöger, “ML-CIRRUS: the airborne experiment on natural cirrus and contrail cirrus with the high-altitude long-range research aircraft HALO,” Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 98, 271–288 (2017).
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C. Kiemle, S. Groß, M. Wirth, and L. Bugliaro, “Airborne lidar observations of water vapor variability in tropical shallow convective environment,” in Shallow Clouds, Water Vapor, Circulation, and Climate Sensitivity, R. Pincus, D. Winker, S. Bony, and B. Stevens, eds., Space Sciences Series of ISSI (Springer, 2017), Vol. 65.

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H. Oelhaf, B. M. Sinnhuber, W. Woiwode, M. Rapp, A. Dörnbrack, A. Engel, and H. Bönisch, “The polar stratosphere in a changing climate (POLSTRACC): mission overview and first results,” in EGU General Assembly Conference Abstracts (2016), Vol. 18, p. 7743.

H. Oelhaf, B.-M. Sinnhuber, W. Woiwode, H. Bönisch, H. Bozem, A. Engel, A. Fix, F. Friedl-Vallon, J.-U. Grooß, P. Hoor, S. Johansson, T. Jurkat-Witschas, S. Kaufmann, M. Krämer, J. Krause, E. Kretschmer, D. Lörks, A. Marsing, J. Orphal, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Pitss, L. Poole, P. Preusse, M. Rapp, M. Riese, C. Rolf, J. Ungermann, C. Voigt, C. M. Volk, M. Wirth, A. Zahn, and H. Ziereis, “POLSTRACC: airborne experiment for studying the polar stratosphere in a changing climate with the high-altitude long-range research aircraft HALO,” Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., submitted for publication.

M. Riese, P. Hoor, D. Kunkel, and M. Kaufmann, “The wave-driven isentropic exchange (WISE) mission: campaign overview and first results,” in EGU General Assembly Conference Abstracts (2018), Vol. 20, p. 18980.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Conceptual depiction of water vapor to ozone correlation in the tropopause region. Both tracers show opposite behavior (see inset) since stratosphere and troposphere exhibit significant contrast in abundance of ozone (high in the former, and low in the latter) and water vapor (vice versa). The mixing ratio of these tracers exhibits a strong gradient across the tropopause because it acts as a transport barrier. In tracer space an L-shaped correlation is derived from these profiles (black line). When mixing occurs, the correlation will deviate from the L-shaped correlation, and the resulting “mixing lines” thus feature intermediate chemical characteristics and thus are an indication of STE.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Mechanical design of the WALES lidar. For the combined measurement of water vapor and ozone, one of the near-infrared frequency converters at the front end of the pump laser is exchanged against a UV frequency converter to generate the wavelengths relevant for ozone DIAL measurements.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Photograph of the UV frequency converter module with open cover. The upper level contains all the optics (SHG module, beam steering and conditioning, and the UV-OPO), and the lower level (obscured) comprises the temperature control for the second harmonic crystal, galvo scanner electronics, and spectrometer for wavelength control. The volume is 300 × 412 × 256 mm 3 , and the weight is 25 kg .
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Schematic set-up of the UV-OPO: M1-4, OPO cavity mirrors; PR, partial reflector; OC, outcoupling mirror; HWP, half-wave plate.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Measured energy per pulse as function of wavelength in the ultraviolet spectral range and the average power (right scale), respectively. The top scale shows the corresponding OPO signal wavelength.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Receiver layout of the combined H 2 O and O 3 DIAL. The outgoing beams are transmitted behind the secondary mirror of the receiving telescope with a separation of 40 mm. The aircraft window consists of an uncoated quartz plane with a central aluminum insert that holds an antireflection coated (300–1064 nm) output window for the transmitted beams. The received beams are separated by dielectric mirrors according to their wavelength. The 532-nm channel features a depolarization channel and an iodine filter for HSRL capacity. The various channels either use photomultiplier tubes (PMT), avalanche photodiodes (APD) with suitable bandpass (F), or solar blind filters (SBF).
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Comparison of the ozone profiles measured with the UV ozone lidar to the Brewer-Mast ozonesonde and the NDACC lidar at the meteorological observatory Hohenpeissenberg (MOHp) on 20 April 2011. The tropopause level was at 10.4 km. The error bars give the statistical error of the UV DIAL measurement.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. Comparison of the ozone profiles measured with the UV ozone lidar to an ECC ozonesonde launched at the NDACC site of Ny Ålesund, Spitsbergen, at 11:31 UT on 21 December 2015. The black curve shows the mean of 25 profiles recorded within a circle of 200 km radius around Ny Ålesund and the error bars display the respective standard deviation. The lidar data are averaged over 80 s. The vertical range resolution is 500 m (up to 9 km above flight level), 750 m (up to 13.5 km above flight level), and 1500 m beyond. The inset shows the flight track around Svalbard and the part that was used for the comparison (thick black line).
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. DIAL observations of H 2 O (top) and O 3 (bottom) mixing ratios on 28 September 2017. This 1.5 h flight leg (see thick black line in the inset map) covered a distance of almost 1500 km and was designed to cross a stratospheric intrusion that is clearly seen around 19:30 UT. The black curve shows the tropopause height as the 2 PVU isoline derived from ECWMF analysis. The gray line shows the flight altitude of the HALO aircraft.
Fig. 10.
Fig. 10. Collocated DIAL observations of H 2 O and O 3 in tracer-tracer space. The data are color-coded representing the frequency, giving an indication along which mixing lines the majority of the transport takes place.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Instrument Parameters of the Airborne Lidar

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