Abstract

We present an overview of the different processes that can result from focusing an ultrafast laser light in the femtosecond–nanosecond time regime on a host of materials, e.g., metals, semiconductors, and insulators. We summarize the physical processes and surface and bulk applications and highlight how femtosecond lasers can be used to process various materials. Throughout this paper, we will show the advantages and disadvantages of using ultrafast lasers compared with lasers that operate in other regimes and demonstrate their potential for the ultrafast processing of materials and structures.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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