Abstract

Human retinal pigment epithelium cells under hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress and a ligustrazine-based protective effect were investigated using laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy. Protein and lipid were significantly affected by oxidative damage, along with increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) level within cells. The effects of ligustrazine against the reaction of ROS with protein seemed to be able to inhibit such damages but were limited during the desamidization of amides, along with additional effect on nucleic acid base and DNA phosphoric acid skeleton. This work laid the basis for both understanding the molecular mechanisms of oxidative stress-induced injury and highlighting possible biomarkers in retinal diseases.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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    [PubMed]
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  4. J. Cai, K. C. Nelson, M. Wu, P. Sternberg, and D. P. Jones, “Oxidative damage and protection of the RPE,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 19(2), 205–221 (2000).
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  5. S. Beatty, H. Koh, M. Phil, D. Henson, and M. Boulton, “The role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration,” Surv. Ophthalmol. 45(2), 115–134 (2000).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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  22. S. Ahlawat, A. Chowdhury, A. Uppal, N. Kumar, and P. K. Gupta, “Use of Raman optical tweezers for cell cycle analysis,” Analyst (Lond.) 141(4), 1339–1346 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. S. Y. Li, Y. H. Jia, W. G. Sun, Y. Tang, G. S. An, J. H. Ni, and H. T. Jia, “Stabilization of mitochondrial function by tetramethylpyrazine protects against kainate-induced oxidative lesions in the rat hippocampus,” Free Radic. Biol. Med. 48(4), 597–608 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. X. Xu, L. Hang, B. Huang, Y. Wei, S. Zheng, and W. Li, “Efficacy of ethanol extract of fructus lycii and its constituents lutein/zeaxanthin in protecting retinal pigment epithelium cells against oxidative stress: in vivo and in vitro models of age-related macular degeneration,” J. Ophthalmol. 2013, 862806 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  27. J. G. Pastorino and J. B. Hoek, “Ethanol potentiates tumor necrosis factor-alpha cytotoxicity in hepatoma cells and primary rat hepatocytes by promoting induction of the mitochondrial permeability transition,” Hepatology 31(5), 1141–1152 (2000).
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  32. H. Yao, Z. Tao, M. Ai, L. Peng, G. Wang, B. He, and Y. Li, “Raman spectroscopic analysis of apoptosis of single human gastric cancer cells,” Vib. Spectrosc. 50(2), 193–197 (2009).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2018 (4)

W. Y. Huang, H. Wu, D. J. Li, J. F. Song, Y. D. Xiao, C. Q. Liu, J. Z. Zhou, and Z. Q. Sui, “Protective effects of blueberry anthocyanins against H2O2-induced oxidative injury in human retinal pigment epithelial cells,” J. Agric. Food Chem. 66(7), 1638–1648 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Yan, Y. Ren, X. Li, X. Zhang, H. Guo, Y. Han, and J. Hu, “A polysaccharide from green tea (Camellia sinensis L.) protects human retinal endothelial cells against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative injury and apoptosis,” Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 115, 600–607 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Liu, C. D. Zhang, J. Wang, and W. C. Jia, “Inhibition of the oxidative stress-induced miR-125b protects glucose metabolic disorders of human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells,” Cell. Mol. Biol. 64(4), 1–5 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Zhang, P. T. Winnard, S. Dasari, S. L. Kominsky, M. Doucet, S. Jayaraman, V. Raman, and I. Barman, “Label-free Raman spectroscopy provides early determination and precise localization of breast cancer-colonized bone alterations,” Chem. Sci. (Camb.) 9(3), 743–753 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (1)

2016 (5)

L. Ou, Y. Chen, Y. Su, C. Zou, and Z. Chen, “Detection of genomic DNA damage from radiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells via surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS),” Appl. Spectrosc. 70(11), 1821–1830 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Ahlawat, A. Chowdhury, A. Uppal, N. Kumar, and P. K. Gupta, “Use of Raman optical tweezers for cell cycle analysis,” Analyst (Lond.) 141(4), 1339–1346 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Yu, J. Wang, J. Lin, D. Lin, W. Chen, S. Feng, Z. Huang, Y. Li, H. Huang, H. Shi, and R. Chen, “An optimized electroporation method for delivering nanoparticles into living cells for surface-enhanced Raman scattering imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(15), 153701 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. Smith, K. L. Wright, and L. Ashton, “Raman spectroscopy: an evolving technique for live cell studies,” Analyst (Lond.) 141(12), 3590–3600 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Farnoodian, C. Halbach, C. Slinger, B. R. Pattnaik, C. M. Sorenson, and N. Sheibani, “High glucose promotes the migration of retinal pigment epithelial cells through increased oxidative stress and PEDF expression,” Am. J. Physiol. Cell Physiol. 311(3), C418–C436 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (2)

J. Hanus, C. Anderson, and S. Wang, “RPE necroptosis in response to oxidative stress and in AMD,” Ageing Res. Rev. 24(Pt B), 286–298 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Chen, Y. Su, L. Ou, C. Zou, and Z. Chen, “Classification of nasopharyngeal cell lines (C666-1, CNE2, NP69) via Raman spectroscopy and decision tree,” Vib. Spectrosc. 80, 24–29 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

R. Fu, Y. Zhang, Y. Guo, Y. Zhang, Y. Xu, and F. Chen, “Digital gene expression analysis of the pathogenesis and therapeutic mechanisms of ligustrazine and puerarin in rat atherosclerosis,” Gene 552(1), 75–80 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (2)

J. W. Chan, “Recent advances in laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy (LTRS) for label-free analysis of single cells,” J. Biophotonics 6(1), 36–48 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Xu, L. Hang, B. Huang, Y. Wei, S. Zheng, and W. Li, “Efficacy of ethanol extract of fructus lycii and its constituents lutein/zeaxanthin in protecting retinal pigment epithelium cells against oxidative stress: in vivo and in vitro models of age-related macular degeneration,” J. Ophthalmol. 2013, 862806 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

Z. Tao, G. Wang, X. Xu, Y. Yuan, X. Wang, and Y. Li, “Monitoring and rapid quantification of total carotenoids in Rhodotorula glutinis cells using laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy,” FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 314(1), 42–48 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. L. McManus, A. R. Boyd, G. A. Burke, and B. J. Meenan, “Raman spectroscopy of primary bovine aortic endothelial cells: a comparison of single cell and cell cluster analysis,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Med. 22(8), 1923–1931 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Jiang, J. Qian, S. Chen, W. Zhang, and C. Liu, “Ligustrazine improves atherosclerosis in rat via attenuation of oxidative stress,” Pharm. Biol. 49(8), 856–863 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

S. Y. Li, Y. H. Jia, W. G. Sun, Y. Tang, G. S. An, J. H. Ni, and H. T. Jia, “Stabilization of mitochondrial function by tetramethylpyrazine protects against kainate-induced oxidative lesions in the rat hippocampus,” Free Radic. Biol. Med. 48(4), 597–608 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (5)

A. T. Harris, M. Garg, X. B. Yang, S. E. Fisher, J. Kirkham, D. A. Smith, D. P. Martin-Hirsch, and A. S. High, “Raman spectroscopy and advanced mathematical modelling in the discrimination of human thyroid cell lines,” Head Neck Oncol. 1(1), 38 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Huang, G. Xu, Y. Peng, S. Chen, and Y. Wu, “Photodynamic effects of ZnPcS(4)-BSA in human retinal pigment epithelium cells,” J. Ocul. Pharmacol. Ther. 25(3), 231–238 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. L. Brown, O. Y. Palyvoda, J. S. Thakur, S. L. Nehlsen-Cannarella, O. R. Fagoaga, S. A. Gruber, and G. W. Auner, “Raman spectroscopic differentiation of activated versus non-activated T lymphocytes: an in vitro study of an acute allograft rejection model,” J. Immunol. Methods 340(1), 48–54 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. W. Chan, D. S. Taylor, and D. L. Thompson, “The effect of cell fixation on the discrimination of normal and leukemia cells with laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy,” Biopolymers 91(2), 132–139 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yao, Z. Tao, M. Ai, L. Peng, G. Wang, B. He, and Y. Li, “Raman spectroscopic analysis of apoptosis of single human gastric cancer cells,” Vib. Spectrosc. 50(2), 193–197 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

K. Hamada, K. Fujita, N. I. Smith, M. Kobayashi, Y. Inouye, and S. Kawata, “Raman microscopy for dynamic molecular imaging of living cells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 044027 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. X. Zhang, J. J. Wang, A. Dashti, K. Wilson, M. H. Zou, L. Szweda, J. X. Ma, and T. J. Lyons, “Pigment epithelium-derived factor mitigates inflammation and oxidative stress in retinal pericytes exposed to oxidized low-density lipoprotein,” J. Mol. Endocrinol. 41(3), 135–143 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (4)

P. Pacher, J. S. Beckman, and L. Liaudet, “Nitric oxide and peroxynitrite in health and disease,” Physiol. Rev. 87(1), 315–424 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Valko, D. Leibfritz, J. Moncol, M. T. Cronin, M. Mazur, and J. Telser, “Free radicals and antioxidants in normal physiological functions and human disease,” Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol. 39(1), 44–84 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Drobek-Słowik, D. Karczewicz, and K. Safranow, “[The potential role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of the age-related macular degeneration (AMD)],” Postepy Hig. Med. Dosw. 61, 28–37 (2007).
[PubMed]

J. Zhao, H. Lui, D. I. McLean, and H. Zeng, “Automated autofluorescence background subtraction algorithm for biomedical Raman spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc. 61(11), 1225–1232 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

K. Chen, Y. Qin, F. Zheng, M. Sun, and D. Shi, “Diagnosis of colorectal cancer using Raman spectroscopy of laser-trapped single living epithelial cells,” Opt. Lett. 31(13), 2015–2017 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Yu, E. Gestl, K. Eckert, D. Allara, and J. Irudayaraj, “Characterization of human breast epithelial cells by confocal Raman microspectroscopy,” Cancer Detect. Prev. 30(6), 515–522 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (5)

M. J. Davies, “The oxidative environment and protein damage,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1703(2), 93–109 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Strauss, “The retinal pigment epithelium in visual function,” Physiol. Rev. 85(3), 845–881 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Crow, B. Barrass, C. Kendall, M. Hart-Prieto, M. Wright, R. Persad, and N. Stone, “The use of Raman spectroscopy to differentiate between different prostatic adenocarcinoma cell lines,” Br. J. Cancer 92(12), 2166–2170 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. G. Shen, Y. Ye, J. W. Zhang, X. H. Wang, J. M. Hu, W. Xie, and J. Shen, “Screening of gastric carcinoma cells in the human malignant gastric mucosa by confocal Raman microspectroscopy,” Vib. Spectrosc. 37(2), 225–231 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. D. Mannie, T. J. McConnell, C. Xie, and Y. Q. Li, “Activation-dependent phases of T cells distinguished by use of optical tweezers and near infrared Raman spectroscopy,” J. Immunol. Methods 297(1-2), 53–60 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

J. Kopitz, F. G. Holz, E. Kaemmerer, and F. Schutt, “Lipids and lipid peroxidation products in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration,” Biochimie 86(11), 825–831 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

R. Kohen and A. Nyska, “Oxidation of biological systems: oxidative stress phenomena, antioxidants, redox reactions, and methods for their quantification,” Toxicol. Pathol. 30(6), 620–650 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

E. R. Stadtman, “Protein oxidation in aging and age-related diseases,” Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 928(1), 22–38 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (4)

R. G. Allen and M. Tresini, “Oxidative stress and gene regulation,” Free Radic. Biol. Med. 28(3), 463–499 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. G. Pastorino and J. B. Hoek, “Ethanol potentiates tumor necrosis factor-alpha cytotoxicity in hepatoma cells and primary rat hepatocytes by promoting induction of the mitochondrial permeability transition,” Hepatology 31(5), 1141–1152 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Cai, K. C. Nelson, M. Wu, P. Sternberg, and D. P. Jones, “Oxidative damage and protection of the RPE,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 19(2), 205–221 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Beatty, H. Koh, M. Phil, D. Henson, and M. Boulton, “The role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration,” Surv. Ophthalmol. 45(2), 115–134 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

A. A. Davis, P. S. Bernstein, D. Bok, J. Turner, M. Nachtigal, and R. C. Hunt, “A human retinal pigment epithelial cell line that retains epithelial characteristics after prolonged culture,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 36(5), 955–964 (1995).
[PubMed]

Ahlawat, S.

S. Ahlawat, A. Chowdhury, A. Uppal, N. Kumar, and P. K. Gupta, “Use of Raman optical tweezers for cell cycle analysis,” Analyst (Lond.) 141(4), 1339–1346 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ai, M.

H. Yao, Z. Tao, M. Ai, L. Peng, G. Wang, B. He, and Y. Li, “Raman spectroscopic analysis of apoptosis of single human gastric cancer cells,” Vib. Spectrosc. 50(2), 193–197 (2009).
[Crossref]

Allara, D.

C. Yu, E. Gestl, K. Eckert, D. Allara, and J. Irudayaraj, “Characterization of human breast epithelial cells by confocal Raman microspectroscopy,” Cancer Detect. Prev. 30(6), 515–522 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Allen, R. G.

R. G. Allen and M. Tresini, “Oxidative stress and gene regulation,” Free Radic. Biol. Med. 28(3), 463–499 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

An, G. S.

S. Y. Li, Y. H. Jia, W. G. Sun, Y. Tang, G. S. An, J. H. Ni, and H. T. Jia, “Stabilization of mitochondrial function by tetramethylpyrazine protects against kainate-induced oxidative lesions in the rat hippocampus,” Free Radic. Biol. Med. 48(4), 597–608 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anderson, C.

J. Hanus, C. Anderson, and S. Wang, “RPE necroptosis in response to oxidative stress and in AMD,” Ageing Res. Rev. 24(Pt B), 286–298 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ashton, L.

R. Smith, K. L. Wright, and L. Ashton, “Raman spectroscopy: an evolving technique for live cell studies,” Analyst (Lond.) 141(12), 3590–3600 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Auner, G. W.

K. L. Brown, O. Y. Palyvoda, J. S. Thakur, S. L. Nehlsen-Cannarella, O. R. Fagoaga, S. A. Gruber, and G. W. Auner, “Raman spectroscopic differentiation of activated versus non-activated T lymphocytes: an in vitro study of an acute allograft rejection model,” J. Immunol. Methods 340(1), 48–54 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barman, I.

C. Zhang, P. T. Winnard, S. Dasari, S. L. Kominsky, M. Doucet, S. Jayaraman, V. Raman, and I. Barman, “Label-free Raman spectroscopy provides early determination and precise localization of breast cancer-colonized bone alterations,” Chem. Sci. (Camb.) 9(3), 743–753 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barrass, B.

P. Crow, B. Barrass, C. Kendall, M. Hart-Prieto, M. Wright, R. Persad, and N. Stone, “The use of Raman spectroscopy to differentiate between different prostatic adenocarcinoma cell lines,” Br. J. Cancer 92(12), 2166–2170 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beatty, S.

S. Beatty, H. Koh, M. Phil, D. Henson, and M. Boulton, “The role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration,” Surv. Ophthalmol. 45(2), 115–134 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beckman, J. S.

P. Pacher, J. S. Beckman, and L. Liaudet, “Nitric oxide and peroxynitrite in health and disease,” Physiol. Rev. 87(1), 315–424 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bernstein, P. S.

A. A. Davis, P. S. Bernstein, D. Bok, J. Turner, M. Nachtigal, and R. C. Hunt, “A human retinal pigment epithelial cell line that retains epithelial characteristics after prolonged culture,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 36(5), 955–964 (1995).
[PubMed]

Bok, D.

A. A. Davis, P. S. Bernstein, D. Bok, J. Turner, M. Nachtigal, and R. C. Hunt, “A human retinal pigment epithelial cell line that retains epithelial characteristics after prolonged culture,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 36(5), 955–964 (1995).
[PubMed]

Boulton, M.

S. Beatty, H. Koh, M. Phil, D. Henson, and M. Boulton, “The role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration,” Surv. Ophthalmol. 45(2), 115–134 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boyd, A. R.

L. L. McManus, A. R. Boyd, G. A. Burke, and B. J. Meenan, “Raman spectroscopy of primary bovine aortic endothelial cells: a comparison of single cell and cell cluster analysis,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Med. 22(8), 1923–1931 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brown, K. L.

K. L. Brown, O. Y. Palyvoda, J. S. Thakur, S. L. Nehlsen-Cannarella, O. R. Fagoaga, S. A. Gruber, and G. W. Auner, “Raman spectroscopic differentiation of activated versus non-activated T lymphocytes: an in vitro study of an acute allograft rejection model,” J. Immunol. Methods 340(1), 48–54 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Burke, G. A.

L. L. McManus, A. R. Boyd, G. A. Burke, and B. J. Meenan, “Raman spectroscopy of primary bovine aortic endothelial cells: a comparison of single cell and cell cluster analysis,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Med. 22(8), 1923–1931 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cai, J.

J. Cai, K. C. Nelson, M. Wu, P. Sternberg, and D. P. Jones, “Oxidative damage and protection of the RPE,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 19(2), 205–221 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chan, J. W.

J. W. Chan, “Recent advances in laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy (LTRS) for label-free analysis of single cells,” J. Biophotonics 6(1), 36–48 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. W. Chan, D. S. Taylor, and D. L. Thompson, “The effect of cell fixation on the discrimination of normal and leukemia cells with laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy,” Biopolymers 91(2), 132–139 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, F.

R. Fu, Y. Zhang, Y. Guo, Y. Zhang, Y. Xu, and F. Chen, “Digital gene expression analysis of the pathogenesis and therapeutic mechanisms of ligustrazine and puerarin in rat atherosclerosis,” Gene 552(1), 75–80 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, K.

Chen, R.

Y. Yu, J. Lin, D. Lin, S. Feng, W. Chen, Z. Huang, H. Huang, and R. Chen, “Leukemia cells detection based on electroporation assisted surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(9), 4108–4121 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Yu, J. Wang, J. Lin, D. Lin, W. Chen, S. Feng, Z. Huang, Y. Li, H. Huang, H. Shi, and R. Chen, “An optimized electroporation method for delivering nanoparticles into living cells for surface-enhanced Raman scattering imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(15), 153701 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chen, S.

F. Jiang, J. Qian, S. Chen, W. Zhang, and C. Liu, “Ligustrazine improves atherosclerosis in rat via attenuation of oxidative stress,” Pharm. Biol. 49(8), 856–863 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Huang, G. Xu, Y. Peng, S. Chen, and Y. Wu, “Photodynamic effects of ZnPcS(4)-BSA in human retinal pigment epithelium cells,” J. Ocul. Pharmacol. Ther. 25(3), 231–238 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, W.

Y. Yu, J. Lin, D. Lin, S. Feng, W. Chen, Z. Huang, H. Huang, and R. Chen, “Leukemia cells detection based on electroporation assisted surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(9), 4108–4121 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Yu, J. Wang, J. Lin, D. Lin, W. Chen, S. Feng, Z. Huang, Y. Li, H. Huang, H. Shi, and R. Chen, “An optimized electroporation method for delivering nanoparticles into living cells for surface-enhanced Raman scattering imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(15), 153701 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

L. Ou, Y. Chen, Y. Su, C. Zou, and Z. Chen, “Detection of genomic DNA damage from radiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells via surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS),” Appl. Spectrosc. 70(11), 1821–1830 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Chen, Y. Su, L. Ou, C. Zou, and Z. Chen, “Classification of nasopharyngeal cell lines (C666-1, CNE2, NP69) via Raman spectroscopy and decision tree,” Vib. Spectrosc. 80, 24–29 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, Z.

L. Ou, Y. Chen, Y. Su, C. Zou, and Z. Chen, “Detection of genomic DNA damage from radiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells via surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS),” Appl. Spectrosc. 70(11), 1821–1830 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Chen, Y. Su, L. Ou, C. Zou, and Z. Chen, “Classification of nasopharyngeal cell lines (C666-1, CNE2, NP69) via Raman spectroscopy and decision tree,” Vib. Spectrosc. 80, 24–29 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chowdhury, A.

S. Ahlawat, A. Chowdhury, A. Uppal, N. Kumar, and P. K. Gupta, “Use of Raman optical tweezers for cell cycle analysis,” Analyst (Lond.) 141(4), 1339–1346 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cronin, M. T.

M. Valko, D. Leibfritz, J. Moncol, M. T. Cronin, M. Mazur, and J. Telser, “Free radicals and antioxidants in normal physiological functions and human disease,” Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol. 39(1), 44–84 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Crow, P.

P. Crow, B. Barrass, C. Kendall, M. Hart-Prieto, M. Wright, R. Persad, and N. Stone, “The use of Raman spectroscopy to differentiate between different prostatic adenocarcinoma cell lines,” Br. J. Cancer 92(12), 2166–2170 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dasari, S.

C. Zhang, P. T. Winnard, S. Dasari, S. L. Kominsky, M. Doucet, S. Jayaraman, V. Raman, and I. Barman, “Label-free Raman spectroscopy provides early determination and precise localization of breast cancer-colonized bone alterations,” Chem. Sci. (Camb.) 9(3), 743–753 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dashti, A.

S. X. Zhang, J. J. Wang, A. Dashti, K. Wilson, M. H. Zou, L. Szweda, J. X. Ma, and T. J. Lyons, “Pigment epithelium-derived factor mitigates inflammation and oxidative stress in retinal pericytes exposed to oxidized low-density lipoprotein,” J. Mol. Endocrinol. 41(3), 135–143 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Davies, M. J.

M. J. Davies, “The oxidative environment and protein damage,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1703(2), 93–109 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Davis, A. A.

A. A. Davis, P. S. Bernstein, D. Bok, J. Turner, M. Nachtigal, and R. C. Hunt, “A human retinal pigment epithelial cell line that retains epithelial characteristics after prolonged culture,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 36(5), 955–964 (1995).
[PubMed]

Doucet, M.

C. Zhang, P. T. Winnard, S. Dasari, S. L. Kominsky, M. Doucet, S. Jayaraman, V. Raman, and I. Barman, “Label-free Raman spectroscopy provides early determination and precise localization of breast cancer-colonized bone alterations,” Chem. Sci. (Camb.) 9(3), 743–753 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Drobek-Slowik, M.

M. Drobek-Słowik, D. Karczewicz, and K. Safranow, “[The potential role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of the age-related macular degeneration (AMD)],” Postepy Hig. Med. Dosw. 61, 28–37 (2007).
[PubMed]

Eckert, K.

C. Yu, E. Gestl, K. Eckert, D. Allara, and J. Irudayaraj, “Characterization of human breast epithelial cells by confocal Raman microspectroscopy,” Cancer Detect. Prev. 30(6), 515–522 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fagoaga, O. R.

K. L. Brown, O. Y. Palyvoda, J. S. Thakur, S. L. Nehlsen-Cannarella, O. R. Fagoaga, S. A. Gruber, and G. W. Auner, “Raman spectroscopic differentiation of activated versus non-activated T lymphocytes: an in vitro study of an acute allograft rejection model,” J. Immunol. Methods 340(1), 48–54 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Farnoodian, M.

M. Farnoodian, C. Halbach, C. Slinger, B. R. Pattnaik, C. M. Sorenson, and N. Sheibani, “High glucose promotes the migration of retinal pigment epithelial cells through increased oxidative stress and PEDF expression,” Am. J. Physiol. Cell Physiol. 311(3), C418–C436 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feng, S.

Y. Yu, J. Lin, D. Lin, S. Feng, W. Chen, Z. Huang, H. Huang, and R. Chen, “Leukemia cells detection based on electroporation assisted surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(9), 4108–4121 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Yu, J. Wang, J. Lin, D. Lin, W. Chen, S. Feng, Z. Huang, Y. Li, H. Huang, H. Shi, and R. Chen, “An optimized electroporation method for delivering nanoparticles into living cells for surface-enhanced Raman scattering imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(15), 153701 (2016).
[Crossref]

Fisher, S. E.

A. T. Harris, M. Garg, X. B. Yang, S. E. Fisher, J. Kirkham, D. A. Smith, D. P. Martin-Hirsch, and A. S. High, “Raman spectroscopy and advanced mathematical modelling in the discrimination of human thyroid cell lines,” Head Neck Oncol. 1(1), 38 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fu, R.

R. Fu, Y. Zhang, Y. Guo, Y. Zhang, Y. Xu, and F. Chen, “Digital gene expression analysis of the pathogenesis and therapeutic mechanisms of ligustrazine and puerarin in rat atherosclerosis,” Gene 552(1), 75–80 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fujita, K.

K. Hamada, K. Fujita, N. I. Smith, M. Kobayashi, Y. Inouye, and S. Kawata, “Raman microscopy for dynamic molecular imaging of living cells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 044027 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Garg, M.

A. T. Harris, M. Garg, X. B. Yang, S. E. Fisher, J. Kirkham, D. A. Smith, D. P. Martin-Hirsch, and A. S. High, “Raman spectroscopy and advanced mathematical modelling in the discrimination of human thyroid cell lines,” Head Neck Oncol. 1(1), 38 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gestl, E.

C. Yu, E. Gestl, K. Eckert, D. Allara, and J. Irudayaraj, “Characterization of human breast epithelial cells by confocal Raman microspectroscopy,” Cancer Detect. Prev. 30(6), 515–522 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gruber, S. A.

K. L. Brown, O. Y. Palyvoda, J. S. Thakur, S. L. Nehlsen-Cannarella, O. R. Fagoaga, S. A. Gruber, and G. W. Auner, “Raman spectroscopic differentiation of activated versus non-activated T lymphocytes: an in vitro study of an acute allograft rejection model,” J. Immunol. Methods 340(1), 48–54 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guo, H.

Y. Yan, Y. Ren, X. Li, X. Zhang, H. Guo, Y. Han, and J. Hu, “A polysaccharide from green tea (Camellia sinensis L.) protects human retinal endothelial cells against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative injury and apoptosis,” Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 115, 600–607 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guo, Y.

R. Fu, Y. Zhang, Y. Guo, Y. Zhang, Y. Xu, and F. Chen, “Digital gene expression analysis of the pathogenesis and therapeutic mechanisms of ligustrazine and puerarin in rat atherosclerosis,” Gene 552(1), 75–80 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gupta, P. K.

S. Ahlawat, A. Chowdhury, A. Uppal, N. Kumar, and P. K. Gupta, “Use of Raman optical tweezers for cell cycle analysis,” Analyst (Lond.) 141(4), 1339–1346 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Halbach, C.

M. Farnoodian, C. Halbach, C. Slinger, B. R. Pattnaik, C. M. Sorenson, and N. Sheibani, “High glucose promotes the migration of retinal pigment epithelial cells through increased oxidative stress and PEDF expression,” Am. J. Physiol. Cell Physiol. 311(3), C418–C436 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hamada, K.

K. Hamada, K. Fujita, N. I. Smith, M. Kobayashi, Y. Inouye, and S. Kawata, “Raman microscopy for dynamic molecular imaging of living cells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 044027 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Han, Y.

Y. Yan, Y. Ren, X. Li, X. Zhang, H. Guo, Y. Han, and J. Hu, “A polysaccharide from green tea (Camellia sinensis L.) protects human retinal endothelial cells against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative injury and apoptosis,” Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 115, 600–607 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hang, L.

X. Xu, L. Hang, B. Huang, Y. Wei, S. Zheng, and W. Li, “Efficacy of ethanol extract of fructus lycii and its constituents lutein/zeaxanthin in protecting retinal pigment epithelium cells against oxidative stress: in vivo and in vitro models of age-related macular degeneration,” J. Ophthalmol. 2013, 862806 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hanus, J.

J. Hanus, C. Anderson, and S. Wang, “RPE necroptosis in response to oxidative stress and in AMD,” Ageing Res. Rev. 24(Pt B), 286–298 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Harris, A. T.

A. T. Harris, M. Garg, X. B. Yang, S. E. Fisher, J. Kirkham, D. A. Smith, D. P. Martin-Hirsch, and A. S. High, “Raman spectroscopy and advanced mathematical modelling in the discrimination of human thyroid cell lines,” Head Neck Oncol. 1(1), 38 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hart-Prieto, M.

P. Crow, B. Barrass, C. Kendall, M. Hart-Prieto, M. Wright, R. Persad, and N. Stone, “The use of Raman spectroscopy to differentiate between different prostatic adenocarcinoma cell lines,” Br. J. Cancer 92(12), 2166–2170 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

He, B.

H. Yao, Z. Tao, M. Ai, L. Peng, G. Wang, B. He, and Y. Li, “Raman spectroscopic analysis of apoptosis of single human gastric cancer cells,” Vib. Spectrosc. 50(2), 193–197 (2009).
[Crossref]

Henson, D.

S. Beatty, H. Koh, M. Phil, D. Henson, and M. Boulton, “The role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration,” Surv. Ophthalmol. 45(2), 115–134 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

High, A. S.

A. T. Harris, M. Garg, X. B. Yang, S. E. Fisher, J. Kirkham, D. A. Smith, D. P. Martin-Hirsch, and A. S. High, “Raman spectroscopy and advanced mathematical modelling in the discrimination of human thyroid cell lines,” Head Neck Oncol. 1(1), 38 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hoek, J. B.

J. G. Pastorino and J. B. Hoek, “Ethanol potentiates tumor necrosis factor-alpha cytotoxicity in hepatoma cells and primary rat hepatocytes by promoting induction of the mitochondrial permeability transition,” Hepatology 31(5), 1141–1152 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Holz, F. G.

J. Kopitz, F. G. Holz, E. Kaemmerer, and F. Schutt, “Lipids and lipid peroxidation products in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration,” Biochimie 86(11), 825–831 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hu, J.

Y. Yan, Y. Ren, X. Li, X. Zhang, H. Guo, Y. Han, and J. Hu, “A polysaccharide from green tea (Camellia sinensis L.) protects human retinal endothelial cells against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative injury and apoptosis,” Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 115, 600–607 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hu, J. M.

A. G. Shen, Y. Ye, J. W. Zhang, X. H. Wang, J. M. Hu, W. Xie, and J. Shen, “Screening of gastric carcinoma cells in the human malignant gastric mucosa by confocal Raman microspectroscopy,” Vib. Spectrosc. 37(2), 225–231 (2005).
[Crossref]

Huang, B.

X. Xu, L. Hang, B. Huang, Y. Wei, S. Zheng, and W. Li, “Efficacy of ethanol extract of fructus lycii and its constituents lutein/zeaxanthin in protecting retinal pigment epithelium cells against oxidative stress: in vivo and in vitro models of age-related macular degeneration,” J. Ophthalmol. 2013, 862806 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, H.

Y. Yu, J. Lin, D. Lin, S. Feng, W. Chen, Z. Huang, H. Huang, and R. Chen, “Leukemia cells detection based on electroporation assisted surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(9), 4108–4121 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Yu, J. Wang, J. Lin, D. Lin, W. Chen, S. Feng, Z. Huang, Y. Li, H. Huang, H. Shi, and R. Chen, “An optimized electroporation method for delivering nanoparticles into living cells for surface-enhanced Raman scattering imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(15), 153701 (2016).
[Crossref]

Huang, W. Y.

W. Y. Huang, H. Wu, D. J. Li, J. F. Song, Y. D. Xiao, C. Q. Liu, J. Z. Zhou, and Z. Q. Sui, “Protective effects of blueberry anthocyanins against H2O2-induced oxidative injury in human retinal pigment epithelial cells,” J. Agric. Food Chem. 66(7), 1638–1648 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, Y.

Y. Huang, G. Xu, Y. Peng, S. Chen, and Y. Wu, “Photodynamic effects of ZnPcS(4)-BSA in human retinal pigment epithelium cells,” J. Ocul. Pharmacol. Ther. 25(3), 231–238 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, Z.

Y. Yu, J. Lin, D. Lin, S. Feng, W. Chen, Z. Huang, H. Huang, and R. Chen, “Leukemia cells detection based on electroporation assisted surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(9), 4108–4121 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Yu, J. Wang, J. Lin, D. Lin, W. Chen, S. Feng, Z. Huang, Y. Li, H. Huang, H. Shi, and R. Chen, “An optimized electroporation method for delivering nanoparticles into living cells for surface-enhanced Raman scattering imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(15), 153701 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hunt, R. C.

A. A. Davis, P. S. Bernstein, D. Bok, J. Turner, M. Nachtigal, and R. C. Hunt, “A human retinal pigment epithelial cell line that retains epithelial characteristics after prolonged culture,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 36(5), 955–964 (1995).
[PubMed]

Inouye, Y.

K. Hamada, K. Fujita, N. I. Smith, M. Kobayashi, Y. Inouye, and S. Kawata, “Raman microscopy for dynamic molecular imaging of living cells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 044027 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Irudayaraj, J.

C. Yu, E. Gestl, K. Eckert, D. Allara, and J. Irudayaraj, “Characterization of human breast epithelial cells by confocal Raman microspectroscopy,” Cancer Detect. Prev. 30(6), 515–522 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jayaraman, S.

C. Zhang, P. T. Winnard, S. Dasari, S. L. Kominsky, M. Doucet, S. Jayaraman, V. Raman, and I. Barman, “Label-free Raman spectroscopy provides early determination and precise localization of breast cancer-colonized bone alterations,” Chem. Sci. (Camb.) 9(3), 743–753 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jia, H. T.

S. Y. Li, Y. H. Jia, W. G. Sun, Y. Tang, G. S. An, J. H. Ni, and H. T. Jia, “Stabilization of mitochondrial function by tetramethylpyrazine protects against kainate-induced oxidative lesions in the rat hippocampus,” Free Radic. Biol. Med. 48(4), 597–608 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jia, W. C.

G. Liu, C. D. Zhang, J. Wang, and W. C. Jia, “Inhibition of the oxidative stress-induced miR-125b protects glucose metabolic disorders of human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells,” Cell. Mol. Biol. 64(4), 1–5 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jia, Y. H.

S. Y. Li, Y. H. Jia, W. G. Sun, Y. Tang, G. S. An, J. H. Ni, and H. T. Jia, “Stabilization of mitochondrial function by tetramethylpyrazine protects against kainate-induced oxidative lesions in the rat hippocampus,” Free Radic. Biol. Med. 48(4), 597–608 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jiang, F.

F. Jiang, J. Qian, S. Chen, W. Zhang, and C. Liu, “Ligustrazine improves atherosclerosis in rat via attenuation of oxidative stress,” Pharm. Biol. 49(8), 856–863 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jones, D. P.

J. Cai, K. C. Nelson, M. Wu, P. Sternberg, and D. P. Jones, “Oxidative damage and protection of the RPE,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 19(2), 205–221 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kaemmerer, E.

J. Kopitz, F. G. Holz, E. Kaemmerer, and F. Schutt, “Lipids and lipid peroxidation products in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration,” Biochimie 86(11), 825–831 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Karczewicz, D.

M. Drobek-Słowik, D. Karczewicz, and K. Safranow, “[The potential role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of the age-related macular degeneration (AMD)],” Postepy Hig. Med. Dosw. 61, 28–37 (2007).
[PubMed]

Kawata, S.

K. Hamada, K. Fujita, N. I. Smith, M. Kobayashi, Y. Inouye, and S. Kawata, “Raman microscopy for dynamic molecular imaging of living cells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 044027 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kendall, C.

P. Crow, B. Barrass, C. Kendall, M. Hart-Prieto, M. Wright, R. Persad, and N. Stone, “The use of Raman spectroscopy to differentiate between different prostatic adenocarcinoma cell lines,” Br. J. Cancer 92(12), 2166–2170 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kirkham, J.

A. T. Harris, M. Garg, X. B. Yang, S. E. Fisher, J. Kirkham, D. A. Smith, D. P. Martin-Hirsch, and A. S. High, “Raman spectroscopy and advanced mathematical modelling in the discrimination of human thyroid cell lines,” Head Neck Oncol. 1(1), 38 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kobayashi, M.

K. Hamada, K. Fujita, N. I. Smith, M. Kobayashi, Y. Inouye, and S. Kawata, “Raman microscopy for dynamic molecular imaging of living cells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 044027 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Koh, H.

S. Beatty, H. Koh, M. Phil, D. Henson, and M. Boulton, “The role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration,” Surv. Ophthalmol. 45(2), 115–134 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kohen, R.

R. Kohen and A. Nyska, “Oxidation of biological systems: oxidative stress phenomena, antioxidants, redox reactions, and methods for their quantification,” Toxicol. Pathol. 30(6), 620–650 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kominsky, S. L.

C. Zhang, P. T. Winnard, S. Dasari, S. L. Kominsky, M. Doucet, S. Jayaraman, V. Raman, and I. Barman, “Label-free Raman spectroscopy provides early determination and precise localization of breast cancer-colonized bone alterations,” Chem. Sci. (Camb.) 9(3), 743–753 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kopitz, J.

J. Kopitz, F. G. Holz, E. Kaemmerer, and F. Schutt, “Lipids and lipid peroxidation products in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration,” Biochimie 86(11), 825–831 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kumar, N.

S. Ahlawat, A. Chowdhury, A. Uppal, N. Kumar, and P. K. Gupta, “Use of Raman optical tweezers for cell cycle analysis,” Analyst (Lond.) 141(4), 1339–1346 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leibfritz, D.

M. Valko, D. Leibfritz, J. Moncol, M. T. Cronin, M. Mazur, and J. Telser, “Free radicals and antioxidants in normal physiological functions and human disease,” Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol. 39(1), 44–84 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, D. J.

W. Y. Huang, H. Wu, D. J. Li, J. F. Song, Y. D. Xiao, C. Q. Liu, J. Z. Zhou, and Z. Q. Sui, “Protective effects of blueberry anthocyanins against H2O2-induced oxidative injury in human retinal pigment epithelial cells,” J. Agric. Food Chem. 66(7), 1638–1648 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, S. Y.

S. Y. Li, Y. H. Jia, W. G. Sun, Y. Tang, G. S. An, J. H. Ni, and H. T. Jia, “Stabilization of mitochondrial function by tetramethylpyrazine protects against kainate-induced oxidative lesions in the rat hippocampus,” Free Radic. Biol. Med. 48(4), 597–608 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, W.

X. Xu, L. Hang, B. Huang, Y. Wei, S. Zheng, and W. Li, “Efficacy of ethanol extract of fructus lycii and its constituents lutein/zeaxanthin in protecting retinal pigment epithelium cells against oxidative stress: in vivo and in vitro models of age-related macular degeneration,” J. Ophthalmol. 2013, 862806 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, X.

Y. Yan, Y. Ren, X. Li, X. Zhang, H. Guo, Y. Han, and J. Hu, “A polysaccharide from green tea (Camellia sinensis L.) protects human retinal endothelial cells against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative injury and apoptosis,” Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 115, 600–607 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, Y.

Y. Yu, J. Wang, J. Lin, D. Lin, W. Chen, S. Feng, Z. Huang, Y. Li, H. Huang, H. Shi, and R. Chen, “An optimized electroporation method for delivering nanoparticles into living cells for surface-enhanced Raman scattering imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(15), 153701 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. Tao, G. Wang, X. Xu, Y. Yuan, X. Wang, and Y. Li, “Monitoring and rapid quantification of total carotenoids in Rhodotorula glutinis cells using laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy,” FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 314(1), 42–48 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yao, Z. Tao, M. Ai, L. Peng, G. Wang, B. He, and Y. Li, “Raman spectroscopic analysis of apoptosis of single human gastric cancer cells,” Vib. Spectrosc. 50(2), 193–197 (2009).
[Crossref]

Li, Y. Q.

M. D. Mannie, T. J. McConnell, C. Xie, and Y. Q. Li, “Activation-dependent phases of T cells distinguished by use of optical tweezers and near infrared Raman spectroscopy,” J. Immunol. Methods 297(1-2), 53–60 (2005).
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P. Pacher, J. S. Beckman, and L. Liaudet, “Nitric oxide and peroxynitrite in health and disease,” Physiol. Rev. 87(1), 315–424 (2007).
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Y. Yu, J. Lin, D. Lin, S. Feng, W. Chen, Z. Huang, H. Huang, and R. Chen, “Leukemia cells detection based on electroporation assisted surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(9), 4108–4121 (2017).
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Y. Yu, J. Wang, J. Lin, D. Lin, W. Chen, S. Feng, Z. Huang, Y. Li, H. Huang, H. Shi, and R. Chen, “An optimized electroporation method for delivering nanoparticles into living cells for surface-enhanced Raman scattering imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(15), 153701 (2016).
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Y. Yu, J. Lin, D. Lin, S. Feng, W. Chen, Z. Huang, H. Huang, and R. Chen, “Leukemia cells detection based on electroporation assisted surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(9), 4108–4121 (2017).
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Y. Yu, J. Wang, J. Lin, D. Lin, W. Chen, S. Feng, Z. Huang, Y. Li, H. Huang, H. Shi, and R. Chen, “An optimized electroporation method for delivering nanoparticles into living cells for surface-enhanced Raman scattering imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(15), 153701 (2016).
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F. Jiang, J. Qian, S. Chen, W. Zhang, and C. Liu, “Ligustrazine improves atherosclerosis in rat via attenuation of oxidative stress,” Pharm. Biol. 49(8), 856–863 (2011).
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W. Y. Huang, H. Wu, D. J. Li, J. F. Song, Y. D. Xiao, C. Q. Liu, J. Z. Zhou, and Z. Q. Sui, “Protective effects of blueberry anthocyanins against H2O2-induced oxidative injury in human retinal pigment epithelial cells,” J. Agric. Food Chem. 66(7), 1638–1648 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, G.

G. Liu, C. D. Zhang, J. Wang, and W. C. Jia, “Inhibition of the oxidative stress-induced miR-125b protects glucose metabolic disorders of human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells,” Cell. Mol. Biol. 64(4), 1–5 (2018).
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Lui, H.

Lyons, T. J.

S. X. Zhang, J. J. Wang, A. Dashti, K. Wilson, M. H. Zou, L. Szweda, J. X. Ma, and T. J. Lyons, “Pigment epithelium-derived factor mitigates inflammation and oxidative stress in retinal pericytes exposed to oxidized low-density lipoprotein,” J. Mol. Endocrinol. 41(3), 135–143 (2008).
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S. X. Zhang, J. J. Wang, A. Dashti, K. Wilson, M. H. Zou, L. Szweda, J. X. Ma, and T. J. Lyons, “Pigment epithelium-derived factor mitigates inflammation and oxidative stress in retinal pericytes exposed to oxidized low-density lipoprotein,” J. Mol. Endocrinol. 41(3), 135–143 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mannie, M. D.

M. D. Mannie, T. J. McConnell, C. Xie, and Y. Q. Li, “Activation-dependent phases of T cells distinguished by use of optical tweezers and near infrared Raman spectroscopy,” J. Immunol. Methods 297(1-2), 53–60 (2005).
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A. T. Harris, M. Garg, X. B. Yang, S. E. Fisher, J. Kirkham, D. A. Smith, D. P. Martin-Hirsch, and A. S. High, “Raman spectroscopy and advanced mathematical modelling in the discrimination of human thyroid cell lines,” Head Neck Oncol. 1(1), 38 (2009).
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Mazur, M.

M. Valko, D. Leibfritz, J. Moncol, M. T. Cronin, M. Mazur, and J. Telser, “Free radicals and antioxidants in normal physiological functions and human disease,” Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol. 39(1), 44–84 (2007).
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McConnell, T. J.

M. D. Mannie, T. J. McConnell, C. Xie, and Y. Q. Li, “Activation-dependent phases of T cells distinguished by use of optical tweezers and near infrared Raman spectroscopy,” J. Immunol. Methods 297(1-2), 53–60 (2005).
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McLean, D. I.

McManus, L. L.

L. L. McManus, A. R. Boyd, G. A. Burke, and B. J. Meenan, “Raman spectroscopy of primary bovine aortic endothelial cells: a comparison of single cell and cell cluster analysis,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Med. 22(8), 1923–1931 (2011).
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L. L. McManus, A. R. Boyd, G. A. Burke, and B. J. Meenan, “Raman spectroscopy of primary bovine aortic endothelial cells: a comparison of single cell and cell cluster analysis,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Med. 22(8), 1923–1931 (2011).
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M. Valko, D. Leibfritz, J. Moncol, M. T. Cronin, M. Mazur, and J. Telser, “Free radicals and antioxidants in normal physiological functions and human disease,” Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol. 39(1), 44–84 (2007).
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A. A. Davis, P. S. Bernstein, D. Bok, J. Turner, M. Nachtigal, and R. C. Hunt, “A human retinal pigment epithelial cell line that retains epithelial characteristics after prolonged culture,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 36(5), 955–964 (1995).
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K. L. Brown, O. Y. Palyvoda, J. S. Thakur, S. L. Nehlsen-Cannarella, O. R. Fagoaga, S. A. Gruber, and G. W. Auner, “Raman spectroscopic differentiation of activated versus non-activated T lymphocytes: an in vitro study of an acute allograft rejection model,” J. Immunol. Methods 340(1), 48–54 (2009).
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J. Cai, K. C. Nelson, M. Wu, P. Sternberg, and D. P. Jones, “Oxidative damage and protection of the RPE,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 19(2), 205–221 (2000).
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S. Y. Li, Y. H. Jia, W. G. Sun, Y. Tang, G. S. An, J. H. Ni, and H. T. Jia, “Stabilization of mitochondrial function by tetramethylpyrazine protects against kainate-induced oxidative lesions in the rat hippocampus,” Free Radic. Biol. Med. 48(4), 597–608 (2010).
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R. Kohen and A. Nyska, “Oxidation of biological systems: oxidative stress phenomena, antioxidants, redox reactions, and methods for their quantification,” Toxicol. Pathol. 30(6), 620–650 (2002).
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L. Ou, Y. Chen, Y. Su, C. Zou, and Z. Chen, “Detection of genomic DNA damage from radiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells via surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS),” Appl. Spectrosc. 70(11), 1821–1830 (2016).
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Y. Chen, Y. Su, L. Ou, C. Zou, and Z. Chen, “Classification of nasopharyngeal cell lines (C666-1, CNE2, NP69) via Raman spectroscopy and decision tree,” Vib. Spectrosc. 80, 24–29 (2015).
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P. Pacher, J. S. Beckman, and L. Liaudet, “Nitric oxide and peroxynitrite in health and disease,” Physiol. Rev. 87(1), 315–424 (2007).
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K. L. Brown, O. Y. Palyvoda, J. S. Thakur, S. L. Nehlsen-Cannarella, O. R. Fagoaga, S. A. Gruber, and G. W. Auner, “Raman spectroscopic differentiation of activated versus non-activated T lymphocytes: an in vitro study of an acute allograft rejection model,” J. Immunol. Methods 340(1), 48–54 (2009).
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J. G. Pastorino and J. B. Hoek, “Ethanol potentiates tumor necrosis factor-alpha cytotoxicity in hepatoma cells and primary rat hepatocytes by promoting induction of the mitochondrial permeability transition,” Hepatology 31(5), 1141–1152 (2000).
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M. Farnoodian, C. Halbach, C. Slinger, B. R. Pattnaik, C. M. Sorenson, and N. Sheibani, “High glucose promotes the migration of retinal pigment epithelial cells through increased oxidative stress and PEDF expression,” Am. J. Physiol. Cell Physiol. 311(3), C418–C436 (2016).
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Peng, L.

H. Yao, Z. Tao, M. Ai, L. Peng, G. Wang, B. He, and Y. Li, “Raman spectroscopic analysis of apoptosis of single human gastric cancer cells,” Vib. Spectrosc. 50(2), 193–197 (2009).
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Y. Huang, G. Xu, Y. Peng, S. Chen, and Y. Wu, “Photodynamic effects of ZnPcS(4)-BSA in human retinal pigment epithelium cells,” J. Ocul. Pharmacol. Ther. 25(3), 231–238 (2009).
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P. Crow, B. Barrass, C. Kendall, M. Hart-Prieto, M. Wright, R. Persad, and N. Stone, “The use of Raman spectroscopy to differentiate between different prostatic adenocarcinoma cell lines,” Br. J. Cancer 92(12), 2166–2170 (2005).
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S. Beatty, H. Koh, M. Phil, D. Henson, and M. Boulton, “The role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration,” Surv. Ophthalmol. 45(2), 115–134 (2000).
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F. Jiang, J. Qian, S. Chen, W. Zhang, and C. Liu, “Ligustrazine improves atherosclerosis in rat via attenuation of oxidative stress,” Pharm. Biol. 49(8), 856–863 (2011).
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Qin, Y.

Raman, V.

C. Zhang, P. T. Winnard, S. Dasari, S. L. Kominsky, M. Doucet, S. Jayaraman, V. Raman, and I. Barman, “Label-free Raman spectroscopy provides early determination and precise localization of breast cancer-colonized bone alterations,” Chem. Sci. (Camb.) 9(3), 743–753 (2018).
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Ren, Y.

Y. Yan, Y. Ren, X. Li, X. Zhang, H. Guo, Y. Han, and J. Hu, “A polysaccharide from green tea (Camellia sinensis L.) protects human retinal endothelial cells against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative injury and apoptosis,” Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 115, 600–607 (2018).
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M. Drobek-Słowik, D. Karczewicz, and K. Safranow, “[The potential role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of the age-related macular degeneration (AMD)],” Postepy Hig. Med. Dosw. 61, 28–37 (2007).
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M. Farnoodian, C. Halbach, C. Slinger, B. R. Pattnaik, C. M. Sorenson, and N. Sheibani, “High glucose promotes the migration of retinal pigment epithelial cells through increased oxidative stress and PEDF expression,” Am. J. Physiol. Cell Physiol. 311(3), C418–C436 (2016).
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A. G. Shen, Y. Ye, J. W. Zhang, X. H. Wang, J. M. Hu, W. Xie, and J. Shen, “Screening of gastric carcinoma cells in the human malignant gastric mucosa by confocal Raman microspectroscopy,” Vib. Spectrosc. 37(2), 225–231 (2005).
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A. G. Shen, Y. Ye, J. W. Zhang, X. H. Wang, J. M. Hu, W. Xie, and J. Shen, “Screening of gastric carcinoma cells in the human malignant gastric mucosa by confocal Raman microspectroscopy,” Vib. Spectrosc. 37(2), 225–231 (2005).
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Shi, H.

Y. Yu, J. Wang, J. Lin, D. Lin, W. Chen, S. Feng, Z. Huang, Y. Li, H. Huang, H. Shi, and R. Chen, “An optimized electroporation method for delivering nanoparticles into living cells for surface-enhanced Raman scattering imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(15), 153701 (2016).
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M. Farnoodian, C. Halbach, C. Slinger, B. R. Pattnaik, C. M. Sorenson, and N. Sheibani, “High glucose promotes the migration of retinal pigment epithelial cells through increased oxidative stress and PEDF expression,” Am. J. Physiol. Cell Physiol. 311(3), C418–C436 (2016).
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A. T. Harris, M. Garg, X. B. Yang, S. E. Fisher, J. Kirkham, D. A. Smith, D. P. Martin-Hirsch, and A. S. High, “Raman spectroscopy and advanced mathematical modelling in the discrimination of human thyroid cell lines,” Head Neck Oncol. 1(1), 38 (2009).
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K. Hamada, K. Fujita, N. I. Smith, M. Kobayashi, Y. Inouye, and S. Kawata, “Raman microscopy for dynamic molecular imaging of living cells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 044027 (2008).
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R. Smith, K. L. Wright, and L. Ashton, “Raman spectroscopy: an evolving technique for live cell studies,” Analyst (Lond.) 141(12), 3590–3600 (2016).
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Song, J. F.

W. Y. Huang, H. Wu, D. J. Li, J. F. Song, Y. D. Xiao, C. Q. Liu, J. Z. Zhou, and Z. Q. Sui, “Protective effects of blueberry anthocyanins against H2O2-induced oxidative injury in human retinal pigment epithelial cells,” J. Agric. Food Chem. 66(7), 1638–1648 (2018).
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Sorenson, C. M.

M. Farnoodian, C. Halbach, C. Slinger, B. R. Pattnaik, C. M. Sorenson, and N. Sheibani, “High glucose promotes the migration of retinal pigment epithelial cells through increased oxidative stress and PEDF expression,” Am. J. Physiol. Cell Physiol. 311(3), C418–C436 (2016).
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J. Cai, K. C. Nelson, M. Wu, P. Sternberg, and D. P. Jones, “Oxidative damage and protection of the RPE,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 19(2), 205–221 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stone, N.

P. Crow, B. Barrass, C. Kendall, M. Hart-Prieto, M. Wright, R. Persad, and N. Stone, “The use of Raman spectroscopy to differentiate between different prostatic adenocarcinoma cell lines,” Br. J. Cancer 92(12), 2166–2170 (2005).
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O. Strauss, “The retinal pigment epithelium in visual function,” Physiol. Rev. 85(3), 845–881 (2005).
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L. Ou, Y. Chen, Y. Su, C. Zou, and Z. Chen, “Detection of genomic DNA damage from radiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells via surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS),” Appl. Spectrosc. 70(11), 1821–1830 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Chen, Y. Su, L. Ou, C. Zou, and Z. Chen, “Classification of nasopharyngeal cell lines (C666-1, CNE2, NP69) via Raman spectroscopy and decision tree,” Vib. Spectrosc. 80, 24–29 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sui, Z. Q.

W. Y. Huang, H. Wu, D. J. Li, J. F. Song, Y. D. Xiao, C. Q. Liu, J. Z. Zhou, and Z. Q. Sui, “Protective effects of blueberry anthocyanins against H2O2-induced oxidative injury in human retinal pigment epithelial cells,” J. Agric. Food Chem. 66(7), 1638–1648 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, M.

Sun, W. G.

S. Y. Li, Y. H. Jia, W. G. Sun, Y. Tang, G. S. An, J. H. Ni, and H. T. Jia, “Stabilization of mitochondrial function by tetramethylpyrazine protects against kainate-induced oxidative lesions in the rat hippocampus,” Free Radic. Biol. Med. 48(4), 597–608 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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S. X. Zhang, J. J. Wang, A. Dashti, K. Wilson, M. H. Zou, L. Szweda, J. X. Ma, and T. J. Lyons, “Pigment epithelium-derived factor mitigates inflammation and oxidative stress in retinal pericytes exposed to oxidized low-density lipoprotein,” J. Mol. Endocrinol. 41(3), 135–143 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tang, Y.

S. Y. Li, Y. H. Jia, W. G. Sun, Y. Tang, G. S. An, J. H. Ni, and H. T. Jia, “Stabilization of mitochondrial function by tetramethylpyrazine protects against kainate-induced oxidative lesions in the rat hippocampus,” Free Radic. Biol. Med. 48(4), 597–608 (2010).
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Tao, Z.

Z. Tao, G. Wang, X. Xu, Y. Yuan, X. Wang, and Y. Li, “Monitoring and rapid quantification of total carotenoids in Rhodotorula glutinis cells using laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy,” FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 314(1), 42–48 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yao, Z. Tao, M. Ai, L. Peng, G. Wang, B. He, and Y. Li, “Raman spectroscopic analysis of apoptosis of single human gastric cancer cells,” Vib. Spectrosc. 50(2), 193–197 (2009).
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J. W. Chan, D. S. Taylor, and D. L. Thompson, “The effect of cell fixation on the discrimination of normal and leukemia cells with laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy,” Biopolymers 91(2), 132–139 (2009).
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M. Valko, D. Leibfritz, J. Moncol, M. T. Cronin, M. Mazur, and J. Telser, “Free radicals and antioxidants in normal physiological functions and human disease,” Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol. 39(1), 44–84 (2007).
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K. L. Brown, O. Y. Palyvoda, J. S. Thakur, S. L. Nehlsen-Cannarella, O. R. Fagoaga, S. A. Gruber, and G. W. Auner, “Raman spectroscopic differentiation of activated versus non-activated T lymphocytes: an in vitro study of an acute allograft rejection model,” J. Immunol. Methods 340(1), 48–54 (2009).
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J. W. Chan, D. S. Taylor, and D. L. Thompson, “The effect of cell fixation on the discrimination of normal and leukemia cells with laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy,” Biopolymers 91(2), 132–139 (2009).
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A. A. Davis, P. S. Bernstein, D. Bok, J. Turner, M. Nachtigal, and R. C. Hunt, “A human retinal pigment epithelial cell line that retains epithelial characteristics after prolonged culture,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 36(5), 955–964 (1995).
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S. Ahlawat, A. Chowdhury, A. Uppal, N. Kumar, and P. K. Gupta, “Use of Raman optical tweezers for cell cycle analysis,” Analyst (Lond.) 141(4), 1339–1346 (2016).
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M. Valko, D. Leibfritz, J. Moncol, M. T. Cronin, M. Mazur, and J. Telser, “Free radicals and antioxidants in normal physiological functions and human disease,” Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol. 39(1), 44–84 (2007).
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Z. Tao, G. Wang, X. Xu, Y. Yuan, X. Wang, and Y. Li, “Monitoring and rapid quantification of total carotenoids in Rhodotorula glutinis cells using laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy,” FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 314(1), 42–48 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yao, Z. Tao, M. Ai, L. Peng, G. Wang, B. He, and Y. Li, “Raman spectroscopic analysis of apoptosis of single human gastric cancer cells,” Vib. Spectrosc. 50(2), 193–197 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wang, J.

G. Liu, C. D. Zhang, J. Wang, and W. C. Jia, “Inhibition of the oxidative stress-induced miR-125b protects glucose metabolic disorders of human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells,” Cell. Mol. Biol. 64(4), 1–5 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Yu, J. Wang, J. Lin, D. Lin, W. Chen, S. Feng, Z. Huang, Y. Li, H. Huang, H. Shi, and R. Chen, “An optimized electroporation method for delivering nanoparticles into living cells for surface-enhanced Raman scattering imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(15), 153701 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wang, J. J.

S. X. Zhang, J. J. Wang, A. Dashti, K. Wilson, M. H. Zou, L. Szweda, J. X. Ma, and T. J. Lyons, “Pigment epithelium-derived factor mitigates inflammation and oxidative stress in retinal pericytes exposed to oxidized low-density lipoprotein,” J. Mol. Endocrinol. 41(3), 135–143 (2008).
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Wang, S.

J. Hanus, C. Anderson, and S. Wang, “RPE necroptosis in response to oxidative stress and in AMD,” Ageing Res. Rev. 24(Pt B), 286–298 (2015).
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Wang, X.

Z. Tao, G. Wang, X. Xu, Y. Yuan, X. Wang, and Y. Li, “Monitoring and rapid quantification of total carotenoids in Rhodotorula glutinis cells using laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy,” FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 314(1), 42–48 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, X. H.

A. G. Shen, Y. Ye, J. W. Zhang, X. H. Wang, J. M. Hu, W. Xie, and J. Shen, “Screening of gastric carcinoma cells in the human malignant gastric mucosa by confocal Raman microspectroscopy,” Vib. Spectrosc. 37(2), 225–231 (2005).
[Crossref]

Wei, Y.

X. Xu, L. Hang, B. Huang, Y. Wei, S. Zheng, and W. Li, “Efficacy of ethanol extract of fructus lycii and its constituents lutein/zeaxanthin in protecting retinal pigment epithelium cells against oxidative stress: in vivo and in vitro models of age-related macular degeneration,” J. Ophthalmol. 2013, 862806 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wilson, K.

S. X. Zhang, J. J. Wang, A. Dashti, K. Wilson, M. H. Zou, L. Szweda, J. X. Ma, and T. J. Lyons, “Pigment epithelium-derived factor mitigates inflammation and oxidative stress in retinal pericytes exposed to oxidized low-density lipoprotein,” J. Mol. Endocrinol. 41(3), 135–143 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Winnard, P. T.

C. Zhang, P. T. Winnard, S. Dasari, S. L. Kominsky, M. Doucet, S. Jayaraman, V. Raman, and I. Barman, “Label-free Raman spectroscopy provides early determination and precise localization of breast cancer-colonized bone alterations,” Chem. Sci. (Camb.) 9(3), 743–753 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wright, K. L.

R. Smith, K. L. Wright, and L. Ashton, “Raman spectroscopy: an evolving technique for live cell studies,” Analyst (Lond.) 141(12), 3590–3600 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wright, M.

P. Crow, B. Barrass, C. Kendall, M. Hart-Prieto, M. Wright, R. Persad, and N. Stone, “The use of Raman spectroscopy to differentiate between different prostatic adenocarcinoma cell lines,” Br. J. Cancer 92(12), 2166–2170 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, H.

W. Y. Huang, H. Wu, D. J. Li, J. F. Song, Y. D. Xiao, C. Q. Liu, J. Z. Zhou, and Z. Q. Sui, “Protective effects of blueberry anthocyanins against H2O2-induced oxidative injury in human retinal pigment epithelial cells,” J. Agric. Food Chem. 66(7), 1638–1648 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, M.

J. Cai, K. C. Nelson, M. Wu, P. Sternberg, and D. P. Jones, “Oxidative damage and protection of the RPE,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 19(2), 205–221 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, Y.

Y. Huang, G. Xu, Y. Peng, S. Chen, and Y. Wu, “Photodynamic effects of ZnPcS(4)-BSA in human retinal pigment epithelium cells,” J. Ocul. Pharmacol. Ther. 25(3), 231–238 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xiao, Y. D.

W. Y. Huang, H. Wu, D. J. Li, J. F. Song, Y. D. Xiao, C. Q. Liu, J. Z. Zhou, and Z. Q. Sui, “Protective effects of blueberry anthocyanins against H2O2-induced oxidative injury in human retinal pigment epithelial cells,” J. Agric. Food Chem. 66(7), 1638–1648 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xie, C.

M. D. Mannie, T. J. McConnell, C. Xie, and Y. Q. Li, “Activation-dependent phases of T cells distinguished by use of optical tweezers and near infrared Raman spectroscopy,” J. Immunol. Methods 297(1-2), 53–60 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xie, W.

A. G. Shen, Y. Ye, J. W. Zhang, X. H. Wang, J. M. Hu, W. Xie, and J. Shen, “Screening of gastric carcinoma cells in the human malignant gastric mucosa by confocal Raman microspectroscopy,” Vib. Spectrosc. 37(2), 225–231 (2005).
[Crossref]

Xu, G.

Y. Huang, G. Xu, Y. Peng, S. Chen, and Y. Wu, “Photodynamic effects of ZnPcS(4)-BSA in human retinal pigment epithelium cells,” J. Ocul. Pharmacol. Ther. 25(3), 231–238 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, X.

X. Xu, L. Hang, B. Huang, Y. Wei, S. Zheng, and W. Li, “Efficacy of ethanol extract of fructus lycii and its constituents lutein/zeaxanthin in protecting retinal pigment epithelium cells against oxidative stress: in vivo and in vitro models of age-related macular degeneration,” J. Ophthalmol. 2013, 862806 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Tao, G. Wang, X. Xu, Y. Yuan, X. Wang, and Y. Li, “Monitoring and rapid quantification of total carotenoids in Rhodotorula glutinis cells using laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy,” FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 314(1), 42–48 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, Y.

R. Fu, Y. Zhang, Y. Guo, Y. Zhang, Y. Xu, and F. Chen, “Digital gene expression analysis of the pathogenesis and therapeutic mechanisms of ligustrazine and puerarin in rat atherosclerosis,” Gene 552(1), 75–80 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yan, Y.

Y. Yan, Y. Ren, X. Li, X. Zhang, H. Guo, Y. Han, and J. Hu, “A polysaccharide from green tea (Camellia sinensis L.) protects human retinal endothelial cells against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative injury and apoptosis,” Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 115, 600–607 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, X. B.

A. T. Harris, M. Garg, X. B. Yang, S. E. Fisher, J. Kirkham, D. A. Smith, D. P. Martin-Hirsch, and A. S. High, “Raman spectroscopy and advanced mathematical modelling in the discrimination of human thyroid cell lines,” Head Neck Oncol. 1(1), 38 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yao, H.

H. Yao, Z. Tao, M. Ai, L. Peng, G. Wang, B. He, and Y. Li, “Raman spectroscopic analysis of apoptosis of single human gastric cancer cells,” Vib. Spectrosc. 50(2), 193–197 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ye, Y.

A. G. Shen, Y. Ye, J. W. Zhang, X. H. Wang, J. M. Hu, W. Xie, and J. Shen, “Screening of gastric carcinoma cells in the human malignant gastric mucosa by confocal Raman microspectroscopy,” Vib. Spectrosc. 37(2), 225–231 (2005).
[Crossref]

Yu, C.

C. Yu, E. Gestl, K. Eckert, D. Allara, and J. Irudayaraj, “Characterization of human breast epithelial cells by confocal Raman microspectroscopy,” Cancer Detect. Prev. 30(6), 515–522 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, Y.

Y. Yu, J. Lin, D. Lin, S. Feng, W. Chen, Z. Huang, H. Huang, and R. Chen, “Leukemia cells detection based on electroporation assisted surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(9), 4108–4121 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Yu, J. Wang, J. Lin, D. Lin, W. Chen, S. Feng, Z. Huang, Y. Li, H. Huang, H. Shi, and R. Chen, “An optimized electroporation method for delivering nanoparticles into living cells for surface-enhanced Raman scattering imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(15), 153701 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yuan, Y.

Z. Tao, G. Wang, X. Xu, Y. Yuan, X. Wang, and Y. Li, “Monitoring and rapid quantification of total carotenoids in Rhodotorula glutinis cells using laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy,” FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 314(1), 42–48 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zeng, H.

Zhang, C.

C. Zhang, P. T. Winnard, S. Dasari, S. L. Kominsky, M. Doucet, S. Jayaraman, V. Raman, and I. Barman, “Label-free Raman spectroscopy provides early determination and precise localization of breast cancer-colonized bone alterations,” Chem. Sci. (Camb.) 9(3), 743–753 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, C. D.

G. Liu, C. D. Zhang, J. Wang, and W. C. Jia, “Inhibition of the oxidative stress-induced miR-125b protects glucose metabolic disorders of human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells,” Cell. Mol. Biol. 64(4), 1–5 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, J. W.

A. G. Shen, Y. Ye, J. W. Zhang, X. H. Wang, J. M. Hu, W. Xie, and J. Shen, “Screening of gastric carcinoma cells in the human malignant gastric mucosa by confocal Raman microspectroscopy,” Vib. Spectrosc. 37(2), 225–231 (2005).
[Crossref]

Zhang, S. X.

S. X. Zhang, J. J. Wang, A. Dashti, K. Wilson, M. H. Zou, L. Szweda, J. X. Ma, and T. J. Lyons, “Pigment epithelium-derived factor mitigates inflammation and oxidative stress in retinal pericytes exposed to oxidized low-density lipoprotein,” J. Mol. Endocrinol. 41(3), 135–143 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, W.

F. Jiang, J. Qian, S. Chen, W. Zhang, and C. Liu, “Ligustrazine improves atherosclerosis in rat via attenuation of oxidative stress,” Pharm. Biol. 49(8), 856–863 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

Y. Yan, Y. Ren, X. Li, X. Zhang, H. Guo, Y. Han, and J. Hu, “A polysaccharide from green tea (Camellia sinensis L.) protects human retinal endothelial cells against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative injury and apoptosis,” Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 115, 600–607 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y.

R. Fu, Y. Zhang, Y. Guo, Y. Zhang, Y. Xu, and F. Chen, “Digital gene expression analysis of the pathogenesis and therapeutic mechanisms of ligustrazine and puerarin in rat atherosclerosis,” Gene 552(1), 75–80 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Fu, Y. Zhang, Y. Guo, Y. Zhang, Y. Xu, and F. Chen, “Digital gene expression analysis of the pathogenesis and therapeutic mechanisms of ligustrazine and puerarin in rat atherosclerosis,” Gene 552(1), 75–80 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, J.

Zheng, F.

Zheng, S.

X. Xu, L. Hang, B. Huang, Y. Wei, S. Zheng, and W. Li, “Efficacy of ethanol extract of fructus lycii and its constituents lutein/zeaxanthin in protecting retinal pigment epithelium cells against oxidative stress: in vivo and in vitro models of age-related macular degeneration,” J. Ophthalmol. 2013, 862806 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, J. Z.

W. Y. Huang, H. Wu, D. J. Li, J. F. Song, Y. D. Xiao, C. Q. Liu, J. Z. Zhou, and Z. Q. Sui, “Protective effects of blueberry anthocyanins against H2O2-induced oxidative injury in human retinal pigment epithelial cells,” J. Agric. Food Chem. 66(7), 1638–1648 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zou, C.

L. Ou, Y. Chen, Y. Su, C. Zou, and Z. Chen, “Detection of genomic DNA damage from radiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells via surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS),” Appl. Spectrosc. 70(11), 1821–1830 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Chen, Y. Su, L. Ou, C. Zou, and Z. Chen, “Classification of nasopharyngeal cell lines (C666-1, CNE2, NP69) via Raman spectroscopy and decision tree,” Vib. Spectrosc. 80, 24–29 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zou, M. H.

S. X. Zhang, J. J. Wang, A. Dashti, K. Wilson, M. H. Zou, L. Szweda, J. X. Ma, and T. J. Lyons, “Pigment epithelium-derived factor mitigates inflammation and oxidative stress in retinal pericytes exposed to oxidized low-density lipoprotein,” J. Mol. Endocrinol. 41(3), 135–143 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ageing Res. Rev. (1)

J. Hanus, C. Anderson, and S. Wang, “RPE necroptosis in response to oxidative stress and in AMD,” Ageing Res. Rev. 24(Pt B), 286–298 (2015).
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Am. J. Physiol. Cell Physiol. (1)

M. Farnoodian, C. Halbach, C. Slinger, B. R. Pattnaik, C. M. Sorenson, and N. Sheibani, “High glucose promotes the migration of retinal pigment epithelial cells through increased oxidative stress and PEDF expression,” Am. J. Physiol. Cell Physiol. 311(3), C418–C436 (2016).
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Analyst (Lond.) (2)

R. Smith, K. L. Wright, and L. Ashton, “Raman spectroscopy: an evolving technique for live cell studies,” Analyst (Lond.) 141(12), 3590–3600 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Ahlawat, A. Chowdhury, A. Uppal, N. Kumar, and P. K. Gupta, “Use of Raman optical tweezers for cell cycle analysis,” Analyst (Lond.) 141(4), 1339–1346 (2016).
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Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. (1)

E. R. Stadtman, “Protein oxidation in aging and age-related diseases,” Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 928(1), 22–38 (2001).
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Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

Y. Yu, J. Wang, J. Lin, D. Lin, W. Chen, S. Feng, Z. Huang, Y. Li, H. Huang, H. Shi, and R. Chen, “An optimized electroporation method for delivering nanoparticles into living cells for surface-enhanced Raman scattering imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(15), 153701 (2016).
[Crossref]

Appl. Spectrosc. (2)

Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1)

M. J. Davies, “The oxidative environment and protein damage,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1703(2), 93–109 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biochimie (1)

J. Kopitz, F. G. Holz, E. Kaemmerer, and F. Schutt, “Lipids and lipid peroxidation products in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration,” Biochimie 86(11), 825–831 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

Biopolymers (1)

J. W. Chan, D. S. Taylor, and D. L. Thompson, “The effect of cell fixation on the discrimination of normal and leukemia cells with laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy,” Biopolymers 91(2), 132–139 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Br. J. Cancer (1)

P. Crow, B. Barrass, C. Kendall, M. Hart-Prieto, M. Wright, R. Persad, and N. Stone, “The use of Raman spectroscopy to differentiate between different prostatic adenocarcinoma cell lines,” Br. J. Cancer 92(12), 2166–2170 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cancer Detect. Prev. (1)

C. Yu, E. Gestl, K. Eckert, D. Allara, and J. Irudayaraj, “Characterization of human breast epithelial cells by confocal Raman microspectroscopy,” Cancer Detect. Prev. 30(6), 515–522 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cell. Mol. Biol. (1)

G. Liu, C. D. Zhang, J. Wang, and W. C. Jia, “Inhibition of the oxidative stress-induced miR-125b protects glucose metabolic disorders of human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells,” Cell. Mol. Biol. 64(4), 1–5 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chem. Sci. (Camb.) (1)

C. Zhang, P. T. Winnard, S. Dasari, S. L. Kominsky, M. Doucet, S. Jayaraman, V. Raman, and I. Barman, “Label-free Raman spectroscopy provides early determination and precise localization of breast cancer-colonized bone alterations,” Chem. Sci. (Camb.) 9(3), 743–753 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

FEMS Microbiol. Lett. (1)

Z. Tao, G. Wang, X. Xu, Y. Yuan, X. Wang, and Y. Li, “Monitoring and rapid quantification of total carotenoids in Rhodotorula glutinis cells using laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy,” FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 314(1), 42–48 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Free Radic. Biol. Med. (2)

R. G. Allen and M. Tresini, “Oxidative stress and gene regulation,” Free Radic. Biol. Med. 28(3), 463–499 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Y. Li, Y. H. Jia, W. G. Sun, Y. Tang, G. S. An, J. H. Ni, and H. T. Jia, “Stabilization of mitochondrial function by tetramethylpyrazine protects against kainate-induced oxidative lesions in the rat hippocampus,” Free Radic. Biol. Med. 48(4), 597–608 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gene (1)

R. Fu, Y. Zhang, Y. Guo, Y. Zhang, Y. Xu, and F. Chen, “Digital gene expression analysis of the pathogenesis and therapeutic mechanisms of ligustrazine and puerarin in rat atherosclerosis,” Gene 552(1), 75–80 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Head Neck Oncol. (1)

A. T. Harris, M. Garg, X. B. Yang, S. E. Fisher, J. Kirkham, D. A. Smith, D. P. Martin-Hirsch, and A. S. High, “Raman spectroscopy and advanced mathematical modelling in the discrimination of human thyroid cell lines,” Head Neck Oncol. 1(1), 38 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hepatology (1)

J. G. Pastorino and J. B. Hoek, “Ethanol potentiates tumor necrosis factor-alpha cytotoxicity in hepatoma cells and primary rat hepatocytes by promoting induction of the mitochondrial permeability transition,” Hepatology 31(5), 1141–1152 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol. (1)

M. Valko, D. Leibfritz, J. Moncol, M. T. Cronin, M. Mazur, and J. Telser, “Free radicals and antioxidants in normal physiological functions and human disease,” Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol. 39(1), 44–84 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Int. J. Biol. Macromol. (1)

Y. Yan, Y. Ren, X. Li, X. Zhang, H. Guo, Y. Han, and J. Hu, “A polysaccharide from green tea (Camellia sinensis L.) protects human retinal endothelial cells against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative injury and apoptosis,” Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 115, 600–607 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1)

A. A. Davis, P. S. Bernstein, D. Bok, J. Turner, M. Nachtigal, and R. C. Hunt, “A human retinal pigment epithelial cell line that retains epithelial characteristics after prolonged culture,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 36(5), 955–964 (1995).
[PubMed]

J. Agric. Food Chem. (1)

W. Y. Huang, H. Wu, D. J. Li, J. F. Song, Y. D. Xiao, C. Q. Liu, J. Z. Zhou, and Z. Q. Sui, “Protective effects of blueberry anthocyanins against H2O2-induced oxidative injury in human retinal pigment epithelial cells,” J. Agric. Food Chem. 66(7), 1638–1648 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

K. Hamada, K. Fujita, N. I. Smith, M. Kobayashi, Y. Inouye, and S. Kawata, “Raman microscopy for dynamic molecular imaging of living cells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 044027 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Biophotonics (1)

J. W. Chan, “Recent advances in laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy (LTRS) for label-free analysis of single cells,” J. Biophotonics 6(1), 36–48 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Immunol. Methods (2)

K. L. Brown, O. Y. Palyvoda, J. S. Thakur, S. L. Nehlsen-Cannarella, O. R. Fagoaga, S. A. Gruber, and G. W. Auner, “Raman spectroscopic differentiation of activated versus non-activated T lymphocytes: an in vitro study of an acute allograft rejection model,” J. Immunol. Methods 340(1), 48–54 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. D. Mannie, T. J. McConnell, C. Xie, and Y. Q. Li, “Activation-dependent phases of T cells distinguished by use of optical tweezers and near infrared Raman spectroscopy,” J. Immunol. Methods 297(1-2), 53–60 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Med. (1)

L. L. McManus, A. R. Boyd, G. A. Burke, and B. J. Meenan, “Raman spectroscopy of primary bovine aortic endothelial cells: a comparison of single cell and cell cluster analysis,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Med. 22(8), 1923–1931 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Mol. Endocrinol. (1)

S. X. Zhang, J. J. Wang, A. Dashti, K. Wilson, M. H. Zou, L. Szweda, J. X. Ma, and T. J. Lyons, “Pigment epithelium-derived factor mitigates inflammation and oxidative stress in retinal pericytes exposed to oxidized low-density lipoprotein,” J. Mol. Endocrinol. 41(3), 135–143 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Ocul. Pharmacol. Ther. (1)

Y. Huang, G. Xu, Y. Peng, S. Chen, and Y. Wu, “Photodynamic effects of ZnPcS(4)-BSA in human retinal pigment epithelium cells,” J. Ocul. Pharmacol. Ther. 25(3), 231–238 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Ophthalmol. (1)

X. Xu, L. Hang, B. Huang, Y. Wei, S. Zheng, and W. Li, “Efficacy of ethanol extract of fructus lycii and its constituents lutein/zeaxanthin in protecting retinal pigment epithelium cells against oxidative stress: in vivo and in vitro models of age-related macular degeneration,” J. Ophthalmol. 2013, 862806 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Pharm. Biol. (1)

F. Jiang, J. Qian, S. Chen, W. Zhang, and C. Liu, “Ligustrazine improves atherosclerosis in rat via attenuation of oxidative stress,” Pharm. Biol. 49(8), 856–863 (2011).
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O. Strauss, “The retinal pigment epithelium in visual function,” Physiol. Rev. 85(3), 845–881 (2005).
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M. Drobek-Słowik, D. Karczewicz, and K. Safranow, “[The potential role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of the age-related macular degeneration (AMD)],” Postepy Hig. Med. Dosw. 61, 28–37 (2007).
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J. Cai, K. C. Nelson, M. Wu, P. Sternberg, and D. P. Jones, “Oxidative damage and protection of the RPE,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 19(2), 205–221 (2000).
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S. Beatty, H. Koh, M. Phil, D. Henson, and M. Boulton, “The role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration,” Surv. Ophthalmol. 45(2), 115–134 (2000).
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R. Kohen and A. Nyska, “Oxidation of biological systems: oxidative stress phenomena, antioxidants, redox reactions, and methods for their quantification,” Toxicol. Pathol. 30(6), 620–650 (2002).
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Vib. Spectrosc. (3)

A. G. Shen, Y. Ye, J. W. Zhang, X. H. Wang, J. M. Hu, W. Xie, and J. Shen, “Screening of gastric carcinoma cells in the human malignant gastric mucosa by confocal Raman microspectroscopy,” Vib. Spectrosc. 37(2), 225–231 (2005).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, Y. Su, L. Ou, C. Zou, and Z. Chen, “Classification of nasopharyngeal cell lines (C666-1, CNE2, NP69) via Raman spectroscopy and decision tree,” Vib. Spectrosc. 80, 24–29 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Yao, Z. Tao, M. Ai, L. Peng, G. Wang, B. He, and Y. Li, “Raman spectroscopic analysis of apoptosis of single human gastric cancer cells,” Vib. Spectrosc. 50(2), 193–197 (2009).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic of the home-made laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy (LTRS) system. Diode laser beam of 785 nm was delivered to an inverted microscope for both trapping RPE cells and generating Raman signals from cells. Backwards Raman scattering light was recorded by a back-illuminated and deep-depletion near-infrared intensified CCD. M: mirror; L: lens; PH: pinhole; BF: band-pass filter; DM: dichroic mirror; NF: notch filter.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Measurement of ROS production by fluorescence microscopy. (A) Visualization and (B) Integral optical density (IOD) value of fluorescent product for different groups.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Pair-comparison of normalized mean Raman spectra from (A) the control group and the oxidative stress challenge group, (B) the control and ligustrazine group, (C) the oxidative stress challenge group and the ligustrazine group. The shaded areas (grey and green) represent the standard deviations of the means. Also shown at the bottom is the difference spectrum.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Score plots of the first two principal components by analysis of (A) whole Raman data and (B) bands data, along with the loading plots for (C) PC1 and (D) PC2.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Importance of independent Raman bands in the CRT models executed for (A) all three groups, (B) control vs. high oxidative stress, (C) control vs. ligustrazine, (D) high oxidative stress vs. ligustrazine. The band importance means a contribution of each band to the establishment of the model as a variable.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Relative quantitation of three cellular macromolecules that comes from (A) protein, (B) nucleic acid, and (C) lipid, respectively. X-axis: ratio of Raman bands; *: p<0.05: **: p<0.01.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Band positions and assignments of RPE cells from control and oxidative groups

Tables Icon

Table 2 Classification by growing method of CRT algorithm based on whole cell Raman data and bands data

Metrics