Abstract

Medical biophotonic tools provide new sources of diagnostic information regarding the state of human health that are used in managing patient care. In our current study, Raman spectroscopy, together with the chemometric technique, has successfully been demonstrated for the screening of asthma disease. Raman spectra of sera samples from asthmatic patients as well as healthy (control) volunteers have been recorded at 532 nm excitation. In healthy sera, three highly reproducible Raman peaks assigned to β-carotene have been detected. Their sensitive detection is facilitated due to the resonance Raman effect. In contrast, in asthmatic patients sera, the peaks assigned to β-carotene are either diminished or suppressed accompanied by other new Raman peaks. These new peaks most probably arise due to an elevated level of proteins, which could be used to identify/differentiate between asthma and non-asthma samples. Furthermore, a partial least squares discrimination analysis (PLS-DA) model was developed and applied on the Raman spectra of diseased as well as healthy samples, which successfully classified them. The correlation coefficient (r2) of the model was determined as 0.965. Similarly, the root mean square errors in cross-validation (RMSECV) and in the prediction (RMSECP) are 0.09 and 0.25, respectively. PLS-DA has the potential to be incorporated in a microcontroller’s code attached with a hand-held Raman spectrometer for screening purposes in asthma, which is a disease of great concern for the clinicians, especially in children.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2018 (1)

2017 (4)

2016 (1)

2015 (1)

2013 (2)

S. J. Vijverberg, B. Hilvering, J. A. Raaijmakers, J. W. Lammers, A. H. Maitland-van der Zee, and L. Koenderman, “Clinical utility of asthma biomarkers: from bench to bedside,” Biologics 7, 199–210 (2013).
[PubMed]

A. Sahu, K. Dalal, S. Naglot, P. Aggarwal, and C. Murali Krishna, “Serum based diagnosis of asthma using Raman spectroscopy: an early phase pilot study,” PLoS One 8(11), e78921 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

A. Shifren, C. Witt, C. Christie, and M. Castro, “Mechanisms of remodeling in asthmatic airways,” J. Allergy (Cairo) 2012, 316049 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Amelink, S. B. de Nijs, M. Berger, E. J. Weersink, A. ten Brinke, P. J. Sterk, and E. H. Bel, “Non-atopic males with adult onset asthma are at risk of persistent airflow limitation,” Clin. Exp. Allergy 42(5), 769–774 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

J. Lötvall, C. A. Akdis, L. B. Bacharier, L. Bjermer, T. B. Casale, A. Custovic, R. F. Lemanske, A. J. Wardlaw, S. E. Wenzel, and P. A. Greenberger, “Asthma endotypes: a new approach to classification of disease entities within the asthma syndrome,” J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 127(2), 355–360 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Lin, S. Feng, J. Pan, Y. Chen, J. Lin, G. Chen, S. Xie, H. Zeng, and R. Chen, “Colorectal cancer detection by gold nanoparticle based surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of blood serum and statistical analysis,” Opt. Express 19(14), 13565–13577 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (4)

J. Backhaus, R. Mueller, N. Formanski, N. Szlama, H. G. Meerpohl, M. Eidt, and P. Bugert, “Diagnosis of breast cancer with infrared spectroscopy from serum samples,” Vib. Spectrosc. 52(2), 173–177 (2010).
[Crossref]

W. C. Moore, D. A. Meyers, S. E. Wenzel, W. G. Teague, H. Li, X. Li, R. D’Agostino, M. Castro, D. Curran-Everett, A. M. Fitzpatrick, B. Gaston, N. N. Jarjour, R. Sorkness, W. J. Calhoun, K. F. Chung, S. A. Comhair, R. A. Dweik, E. Israel, S. P. Peters, W. W. Busse, S. C. Erzurum, and E. R. Bleecker, “Identification of asthma phenotypes using cluster analysis in the Severe Asthma Research Program,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 181(4), 315–323 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Montuschi and M. L. Peters-Golden, “Leukotriene modifiers for asthma treatment,” Clin. Exp. Allergy 40(12), 1732–1741 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. G. Gibson, V. M. McDonald, and G. B. Marks, “Asthma in older adults,” Lancet 376(9743), 803–813 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

H. K. Reddel, D. R. Taylor, E. D. Bateman, L. P. Boulet, H. A. Boushey, W. W. Busse, T. B. Casale, P. Chanez, P. L. Enright, P. G. Gibson, J. C. de Jongste, H. A. Kerstjens, S. C. Lazarus, M. L. Levy, P. M. O’Byrne, M. R. Partridge, I. D. Pavord, M. R. Sears, P. J. Sterk, S. W. Stoloff, S. D. Sullivan, S. J. Szefler, M. D. Thomas, and S. E. Wenzel, “An Official American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society Statement: Asthma Control and Exacerbations: Standardizing Endpoints for Clinical Asthma Trials and Clinical Practice,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 180(1), 59–99 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. G. Woodruff, B. Modrek, D. F. Choy, G. Jia, A. R. Abbas, A. Ellwanger, L. L. Koth, J. R. Arron, and J. V. Fahy, “T-helper Type 2-driven Inflammation Defines Major Subphenotypes of Asthma,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 180(5), 388–395 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. H. Burns, S. Rosendahl, D. Bandilla, O. C. Maes, H. M. Chertkow, and H. M. Schipper, “Raman spectroscopy of blood serum for Alzheimer’s disease diagnostics: specificity relative to other types of dementia,” J. Alzheimers Dis. 17(2), 584–596 (2009).
[PubMed]

2008 (3)

F. Agostinis, C. Foglia, M. Landi, M. Cottini, C. Lombardi, G. W. Canonica, and G. Passalacqua, “The safety of sublingual immunotherapy with one or multiple pollen allergens in children,” Allergy 63(12), 1637–1639 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. D. Bateman, S. S. Hurd, P. J. Barnes, J. Bousquet, J. M. Drazen, J. M. FitzGerald, P. Gibson, K. Ohta, P. O’Byrne, S. E. Pedersen, E. Pizzichini, S. D. Sullivan, S. E. Wenzel, and H. J. Zar, “Global strategy for asthma management and prevention: GINA executive summary,” Eur. Respir. J. 31(1), 143–178 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Wu, W. D. Dupont, M. R. Griffin, K. N. Carroll, E. F. Mitchel, T. Gebretsadik, and T. V. Hartert, “Evidence of a causal role of winter virus infection during infancy in early childhood asthma,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 178(11), 1123–1129 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

D. M. Good, V. Thongboonkerd, J. Novak, J. L. Bascands, J. P. Schanstra, J. J. Coon, A. Dominiczak, and H. Mischak, “Body Fluid Proteomics for Biomarker Discovery: Lessons from the Past Hold the Key to Success in the Future,” J. Proteome Res. 6(12), 4549–4555 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. C. Denlinger, C. A. Sorkness, V. M. Chinchilli, and R. F. Lemanske, “Guideline-defining asthma clinical trials of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute’s Asthma Clinical Research Network and Childhood Asthma Research and Education Network,” J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 119(1), 3–11 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. De Gelder, K. De Gussem, P. Vandenabeele, and L. Moens, “Reference database of Raman spectra of biological molecules,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 38(9), 1133–1147 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

S. E. Wenzel, “Asthma: defining of the persistent adult phenotypes,” Lancet 368(9537), 804–813 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Accordini, M. Bugiani, W. Arossa, S. Gerzeli, A. Marinoni, M. Olivieri, P. Pirina, L. Carrozzi, R. Dallari, A. De Togni, and R. de Marco, “Poor control increases the economic cost of asthma. A multicentre population-based study,” Int. Arch. Allergy Immunol. 141(2), 189–198 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

M. Masoli, D. Fabian, S. Holt, and R. Beasley, “The global burden of asthma: executive summary of the GINA Dissemination Committee report,” Allergy 59(5), 469–478 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

C. J. Hunter, C. E. Brightling, G. Woltmann, A. J. Wardlaw, and I. D. Pavord, “A comparison of the validity of different diagnostic tests in adults with asthma,” Chest 121(4), 1051–1057 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Arora, V. Kumar, and S. Batra, “Vitamin A status in children with asthma,” Pediatr. Allergy Immunol. 13(3), 223–226 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

J. A. Krishnan, G. B. Diette, E. A. Skinner, B. D. Clark, D. Steinwachs, and A. W. Wu, “Race and sex differences in consistency of care with national asthma guidelines in managed care organizations,” Arch. Intern. Med. 161(13), 1660–1668 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

A. Morabia, M. J. Menkes, G. W. Comstock, and M. S. Tockman, “Serum retinol and airway obstruction,” Am. J. Epidemiol. 132(1), 77–82 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1940 (1)

F. M. Rackemann, “Intrinsic asthma,” J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 11(2), 147–162 (1940).

Abbas, A. R.

P. G. Woodruff, B. Modrek, D. F. Choy, G. Jia, A. R. Abbas, A. Ellwanger, L. L. Koth, J. R. Arron, and J. V. Fahy, “T-helper Type 2-driven Inflammation Defines Major Subphenotypes of Asthma,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 180(5), 388–395 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Accordini, S.

S. Accordini, M. Bugiani, W. Arossa, S. Gerzeli, A. Marinoni, M. Olivieri, P. Pirina, L. Carrozzi, R. Dallari, A. De Togni, and R. de Marco, “Poor control increases the economic cost of asthma. A multicentre population-based study,” Int. Arch. Allergy Immunol. 141(2), 189–198 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aggarwal, P.

A. Sahu, K. Dalal, S. Naglot, P. Aggarwal, and C. Murali Krishna, “Serum based diagnosis of asthma using Raman spectroscopy: an early phase pilot study,” PLoS One 8(11), e78921 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Agostinis, F.

F. Agostinis, C. Foglia, M. Landi, M. Cottini, C. Lombardi, G. W. Canonica, and G. Passalacqua, “The safety of sublingual immunotherapy with one or multiple pollen allergens in children,” Allergy 63(12), 1637–1639 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ahmed, M.

Akdis, C. A.

J. Lötvall, C. A. Akdis, L. B. Bacharier, L. Bjermer, T. B. Casale, A. Custovic, R. F. Lemanske, A. J. Wardlaw, S. E. Wenzel, and P. A. Greenberger, “Asthma endotypes: a new approach to classification of disease entities within the asthma syndrome,” J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 127(2), 355–360 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ali, H.

Amelink, M.

M. Amelink, S. B. de Nijs, M. Berger, E. J. Weersink, A. ten Brinke, P. J. Sterk, and E. H. Bel, “Non-atopic males with adult onset asthma are at risk of persistent airflow limitation,” Clin. Exp. Allergy 42(5), 769–774 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arora, P.

P. Arora, V. Kumar, and S. Batra, “Vitamin A status in children with asthma,” Pediatr. Allergy Immunol. 13(3), 223–226 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arossa, W.

S. Accordini, M. Bugiani, W. Arossa, S. Gerzeli, A. Marinoni, M. Olivieri, P. Pirina, L. Carrozzi, R. Dallari, A. De Togni, and R. de Marco, “Poor control increases the economic cost of asthma. A multicentre population-based study,” Int. Arch. Allergy Immunol. 141(2), 189–198 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arron, J. R.

P. G. Woodruff, B. Modrek, D. F. Choy, G. Jia, A. R. Abbas, A. Ellwanger, L. L. Koth, J. R. Arron, and J. V. Fahy, “T-helper Type 2-driven Inflammation Defines Major Subphenotypes of Asthma,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 180(5), 388–395 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bacharier, L. B.

J. Lötvall, C. A. Akdis, L. B. Bacharier, L. Bjermer, T. B. Casale, A. Custovic, R. F. Lemanske, A. J. Wardlaw, S. E. Wenzel, and P. A. Greenberger, “Asthma endotypes: a new approach to classification of disease entities within the asthma syndrome,” J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 127(2), 355–360 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Backhaus, J.

J. Backhaus, R. Mueller, N. Formanski, N. Szlama, H. G. Meerpohl, M. Eidt, and P. Bugert, “Diagnosis of breast cancer with infrared spectroscopy from serum samples,” Vib. Spectrosc. 52(2), 173–177 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bandilla, D.

D. H. Burns, S. Rosendahl, D. Bandilla, O. C. Maes, H. M. Chertkow, and H. M. Schipper, “Raman spectroscopy of blood serum for Alzheimer’s disease diagnostics: specificity relative to other types of dementia,” J. Alzheimers Dis. 17(2), 584–596 (2009).
[PubMed]

Barnes, P. J.

E. D. Bateman, S. S. Hurd, P. J. Barnes, J. Bousquet, J. M. Drazen, J. M. FitzGerald, P. Gibson, K. Ohta, P. O’Byrne, S. E. Pedersen, E. Pizzichini, S. D. Sullivan, S. E. Wenzel, and H. J. Zar, “Global strategy for asthma management and prevention: GINA executive summary,” Eur. Respir. J. 31(1), 143–178 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bascands, J. L.

D. M. Good, V. Thongboonkerd, J. Novak, J. L. Bascands, J. P. Schanstra, J. J. Coon, A. Dominiczak, and H. Mischak, “Body Fluid Proteomics for Biomarker Discovery: Lessons from the Past Hold the Key to Success in the Future,” J. Proteome Res. 6(12), 4549–4555 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bateman, E. D.

H. K. Reddel, D. R. Taylor, E. D. Bateman, L. P. Boulet, H. A. Boushey, W. W. Busse, T. B. Casale, P. Chanez, P. L. Enright, P. G. Gibson, J. C. de Jongste, H. A. Kerstjens, S. C. Lazarus, M. L. Levy, P. M. O’Byrne, M. R. Partridge, I. D. Pavord, M. R. Sears, P. J. Sterk, S. W. Stoloff, S. D. Sullivan, S. J. Szefler, M. D. Thomas, and S. E. Wenzel, “An Official American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society Statement: Asthma Control and Exacerbations: Standardizing Endpoints for Clinical Asthma Trials and Clinical Practice,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 180(1), 59–99 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. D. Bateman, S. S. Hurd, P. J. Barnes, J. Bousquet, J. M. Drazen, J. M. FitzGerald, P. Gibson, K. Ohta, P. O’Byrne, S. E. Pedersen, E. Pizzichini, S. D. Sullivan, S. E. Wenzel, and H. J. Zar, “Global strategy for asthma management and prevention: GINA executive summary,” Eur. Respir. J. 31(1), 143–178 (2008).
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Batra, S.

P. Arora, V. Kumar, and S. Batra, “Vitamin A status in children with asthma,” Pediatr. Allergy Immunol. 13(3), 223–226 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beasley, R.

M. Masoli, D. Fabian, S. Holt, and R. Beasley, “The global burden of asthma: executive summary of the GINA Dissemination Committee report,” Allergy 59(5), 469–478 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bel, E. H.

M. Amelink, S. B. de Nijs, M. Berger, E. J. Weersink, A. ten Brinke, P. J. Sterk, and E. H. Bel, “Non-atopic males with adult onset asthma are at risk of persistent airflow limitation,” Clin. Exp. Allergy 42(5), 769–774 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Berger, M.

M. Amelink, S. B. de Nijs, M. Berger, E. J. Weersink, A. ten Brinke, P. J. Sterk, and E. H. Bel, “Non-atopic males with adult onset asthma are at risk of persistent airflow limitation,” Clin. Exp. Allergy 42(5), 769–774 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bilal, M.

Bjermer, L.

J. Lötvall, C. A. Akdis, L. B. Bacharier, L. Bjermer, T. B. Casale, A. Custovic, R. F. Lemanske, A. J. Wardlaw, S. E. Wenzel, and P. A. Greenberger, “Asthma endotypes: a new approach to classification of disease entities within the asthma syndrome,” J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 127(2), 355–360 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Blazek, V.

Bleecker, E. R.

W. C. Moore, D. A. Meyers, S. E. Wenzel, W. G. Teague, H. Li, X. Li, R. D’Agostino, M. Castro, D. Curran-Everett, A. M. Fitzpatrick, B. Gaston, N. N. Jarjour, R. Sorkness, W. J. Calhoun, K. F. Chung, S. A. Comhair, R. A. Dweik, E. Israel, S. P. Peters, W. W. Busse, S. C. Erzurum, and E. R. Bleecker, “Identification of asthma phenotypes using cluster analysis in the Severe Asthma Research Program,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 181(4), 315–323 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boulet, L. P.

H. K. Reddel, D. R. Taylor, E. D. Bateman, L. P. Boulet, H. A. Boushey, W. W. Busse, T. B. Casale, P. Chanez, P. L. Enright, P. G. Gibson, J. C. de Jongste, H. A. Kerstjens, S. C. Lazarus, M. L. Levy, P. M. O’Byrne, M. R. Partridge, I. D. Pavord, M. R. Sears, P. J. Sterk, S. W. Stoloff, S. D. Sullivan, S. J. Szefler, M. D. Thomas, and S. E. Wenzel, “An Official American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society Statement: Asthma Control and Exacerbations: Standardizing Endpoints for Clinical Asthma Trials and Clinical Practice,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 180(1), 59–99 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boushey, H. A.

H. K. Reddel, D. R. Taylor, E. D. Bateman, L. P. Boulet, H. A. Boushey, W. W. Busse, T. B. Casale, P. Chanez, P. L. Enright, P. G. Gibson, J. C. de Jongste, H. A. Kerstjens, S. C. Lazarus, M. L. Levy, P. M. O’Byrne, M. R. Partridge, I. D. Pavord, M. R. Sears, P. J. Sterk, S. W. Stoloff, S. D. Sullivan, S. J. Szefler, M. D. Thomas, and S. E. Wenzel, “An Official American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society Statement: Asthma Control and Exacerbations: Standardizing Endpoints for Clinical Asthma Trials and Clinical Practice,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 180(1), 59–99 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bousquet, J.

E. D. Bateman, S. S. Hurd, P. J. Barnes, J. Bousquet, J. M. Drazen, J. M. FitzGerald, P. Gibson, K. Ohta, P. O’Byrne, S. E. Pedersen, E. Pizzichini, S. D. Sullivan, S. E. Wenzel, and H. J. Zar, “Global strategy for asthma management and prevention: GINA executive summary,” Eur. Respir. J. 31(1), 143–178 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brightling, C. E.

C. J. Hunter, C. E. Brightling, G. Woltmann, A. J. Wardlaw, and I. D. Pavord, “A comparison of the validity of different diagnostic tests in adults with asthma,” Chest 121(4), 1051–1057 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bugert, P.

J. Backhaus, R. Mueller, N. Formanski, N. Szlama, H. G. Meerpohl, M. Eidt, and P. Bugert, “Diagnosis of breast cancer with infrared spectroscopy from serum samples,” Vib. Spectrosc. 52(2), 173–177 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bugiani, M.

S. Accordini, M. Bugiani, W. Arossa, S. Gerzeli, A. Marinoni, M. Olivieri, P. Pirina, L. Carrozzi, R. Dallari, A. De Togni, and R. de Marco, “Poor control increases the economic cost of asthma. A multicentre population-based study,” Int. Arch. Allergy Immunol. 141(2), 189–198 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Burns, D. H.

D. H. Burns, S. Rosendahl, D. Bandilla, O. C. Maes, H. M. Chertkow, and H. M. Schipper, “Raman spectroscopy of blood serum for Alzheimer’s disease diagnostics: specificity relative to other types of dementia,” J. Alzheimers Dis. 17(2), 584–596 (2009).
[PubMed]

Busse, W. W.

W. C. Moore, D. A. Meyers, S. E. Wenzel, W. G. Teague, H. Li, X. Li, R. D’Agostino, M. Castro, D. Curran-Everett, A. M. Fitzpatrick, B. Gaston, N. N. Jarjour, R. Sorkness, W. J. Calhoun, K. F. Chung, S. A. Comhair, R. A. Dweik, E. Israel, S. P. Peters, W. W. Busse, S. C. Erzurum, and E. R. Bleecker, “Identification of asthma phenotypes using cluster analysis in the Severe Asthma Research Program,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 181(4), 315–323 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. K. Reddel, D. R. Taylor, E. D. Bateman, L. P. Boulet, H. A. Boushey, W. W. Busse, T. B. Casale, P. Chanez, P. L. Enright, P. G. Gibson, J. C. de Jongste, H. A. Kerstjens, S. C. Lazarus, M. L. Levy, P. M. O’Byrne, M. R. Partridge, I. D. Pavord, M. R. Sears, P. J. Sterk, S. W. Stoloff, S. D. Sullivan, S. J. Szefler, M. D. Thomas, and S. E. Wenzel, “An Official American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society Statement: Asthma Control and Exacerbations: Standardizing Endpoints for Clinical Asthma Trials and Clinical Practice,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 180(1), 59–99 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Calhoun, W. J.

W. C. Moore, D. A. Meyers, S. E. Wenzel, W. G. Teague, H. Li, X. Li, R. D’Agostino, M. Castro, D. Curran-Everett, A. M. Fitzpatrick, B. Gaston, N. N. Jarjour, R. Sorkness, W. J. Calhoun, K. F. Chung, S. A. Comhair, R. A. Dweik, E. Israel, S. P. Peters, W. W. Busse, S. C. Erzurum, and E. R. Bleecker, “Identification of asthma phenotypes using cluster analysis in the Severe Asthma Research Program,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 181(4), 315–323 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Canonica, G. W.

F. Agostinis, C. Foglia, M. Landi, M. Cottini, C. Lombardi, G. W. Canonica, and G. Passalacqua, “The safety of sublingual immunotherapy with one or multiple pollen allergens in children,” Allergy 63(12), 1637–1639 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carroll, K. N.

P. Wu, W. D. Dupont, M. R. Griffin, K. N. Carroll, E. F. Mitchel, T. Gebretsadik, and T. V. Hartert, “Evidence of a causal role of winter virus infection during infancy in early childhood asthma,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 178(11), 1123–1129 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carrozzi, L.

S. Accordini, M. Bugiani, W. Arossa, S. Gerzeli, A. Marinoni, M. Olivieri, P. Pirina, L. Carrozzi, R. Dallari, A. De Togni, and R. de Marco, “Poor control increases the economic cost of asthma. A multicentre population-based study,” Int. Arch. Allergy Immunol. 141(2), 189–198 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Casale, T. B.

J. Lötvall, C. A. Akdis, L. B. Bacharier, L. Bjermer, T. B. Casale, A. Custovic, R. F. Lemanske, A. J. Wardlaw, S. E. Wenzel, and P. A. Greenberger, “Asthma endotypes: a new approach to classification of disease entities within the asthma syndrome,” J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 127(2), 355–360 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. K. Reddel, D. R. Taylor, E. D. Bateman, L. P. Boulet, H. A. Boushey, W. W. Busse, T. B. Casale, P. Chanez, P. L. Enright, P. G. Gibson, J. C. de Jongste, H. A. Kerstjens, S. C. Lazarus, M. L. Levy, P. M. O’Byrne, M. R. Partridge, I. D. Pavord, M. R. Sears, P. J. Sterk, S. W. Stoloff, S. D. Sullivan, S. J. Szefler, M. D. Thomas, and S. E. Wenzel, “An Official American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society Statement: Asthma Control and Exacerbations: Standardizing Endpoints for Clinical Asthma Trials and Clinical Practice,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 180(1), 59–99 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Castro, M.

A. Shifren, C. Witt, C. Christie, and M. Castro, “Mechanisms of remodeling in asthmatic airways,” J. Allergy (Cairo) 2012, 316049 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. C. Moore, D. A. Meyers, S. E. Wenzel, W. G. Teague, H. Li, X. Li, R. D’Agostino, M. Castro, D. Curran-Everett, A. M. Fitzpatrick, B. Gaston, N. N. Jarjour, R. Sorkness, W. J. Calhoun, K. F. Chung, S. A. Comhair, R. A. Dweik, E. Israel, S. P. Peters, W. W. Busse, S. C. Erzurum, and E. R. Bleecker, “Identification of asthma phenotypes using cluster analysis in the Severe Asthma Research Program,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 181(4), 315–323 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chanez, P.

H. K. Reddel, D. R. Taylor, E. D. Bateman, L. P. Boulet, H. A. Boushey, W. W. Busse, T. B. Casale, P. Chanez, P. L. Enright, P. G. Gibson, J. C. de Jongste, H. A. Kerstjens, S. C. Lazarus, M. L. Levy, P. M. O’Byrne, M. R. Partridge, I. D. Pavord, M. R. Sears, P. J. Sterk, S. W. Stoloff, S. D. Sullivan, S. J. Szefler, M. D. Thomas, and S. E. Wenzel, “An Official American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society Statement: Asthma Control and Exacerbations: Standardizing Endpoints for Clinical Asthma Trials and Clinical Practice,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 180(1), 59–99 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, G.

Chen, R.

Chen, Y.

Chertkow, H. M.

D. H. Burns, S. Rosendahl, D. Bandilla, O. C. Maes, H. M. Chertkow, and H. M. Schipper, “Raman spectroscopy of blood serum for Alzheimer’s disease diagnostics: specificity relative to other types of dementia,” J. Alzheimers Dis. 17(2), 584–596 (2009).
[PubMed]

Chinchilli, V. M.

L. C. Denlinger, C. A. Sorkness, V. M. Chinchilli, and R. F. Lemanske, “Guideline-defining asthma clinical trials of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute’s Asthma Clinical Research Network and Childhood Asthma Research and Education Network,” J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 119(1), 3–11 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choy, D. F.

P. G. Woodruff, B. Modrek, D. F. Choy, G. Jia, A. R. Abbas, A. Ellwanger, L. L. Koth, J. R. Arron, and J. V. Fahy, “T-helper Type 2-driven Inflammation Defines Major Subphenotypes of Asthma,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 180(5), 388–395 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Christie, C.

A. Shifren, C. Witt, C. Christie, and M. Castro, “Mechanisms of remodeling in asthmatic airways,” J. Allergy (Cairo) 2012, 316049 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chung, K. F.

W. C. Moore, D. A. Meyers, S. E. Wenzel, W. G. Teague, H. Li, X. Li, R. D’Agostino, M. Castro, D. Curran-Everett, A. M. Fitzpatrick, B. Gaston, N. N. Jarjour, R. Sorkness, W. J. Calhoun, K. F. Chung, S. A. Comhair, R. A. Dweik, E. Israel, S. P. Peters, W. W. Busse, S. C. Erzurum, and E. R. Bleecker, “Identification of asthma phenotypes using cluster analysis in the Severe Asthma Research Program,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 181(4), 315–323 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Clark, B. D.

J. A. Krishnan, G. B. Diette, E. A. Skinner, B. D. Clark, D. Steinwachs, and A. W. Wu, “Race and sex differences in consistency of care with national asthma guidelines in managed care organizations,” Arch. Intern. Med. 161(13), 1660–1668 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Comhair, S. A.

W. C. Moore, D. A. Meyers, S. E. Wenzel, W. G. Teague, H. Li, X. Li, R. D’Agostino, M. Castro, D. Curran-Everett, A. M. Fitzpatrick, B. Gaston, N. N. Jarjour, R. Sorkness, W. J. Calhoun, K. F. Chung, S. A. Comhair, R. A. Dweik, E. Israel, S. P. Peters, W. W. Busse, S. C. Erzurum, and E. R. Bleecker, “Identification of asthma phenotypes using cluster analysis in the Severe Asthma Research Program,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 181(4), 315–323 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Comstock, G. W.

A. Morabia, M. J. Menkes, G. W. Comstock, and M. S. Tockman, “Serum retinol and airway obstruction,” Am. J. Epidemiol. 132(1), 77–82 (1990).
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Coon, J. J.

D. M. Good, V. Thongboonkerd, J. Novak, J. L. Bascands, J. P. Schanstra, J. J. Coon, A. Dominiczak, and H. Mischak, “Body Fluid Proteomics for Biomarker Discovery: Lessons from the Past Hold the Key to Success in the Future,” J. Proteome Res. 6(12), 4549–4555 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cottini, M.

F. Agostinis, C. Foglia, M. Landi, M. Cottini, C. Lombardi, G. W. Canonica, and G. Passalacqua, “The safety of sublingual immunotherapy with one or multiple pollen allergens in children,” Allergy 63(12), 1637–1639 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Curran-Everett, D.

W. C. Moore, D. A. Meyers, S. E. Wenzel, W. G. Teague, H. Li, X. Li, R. D’Agostino, M. Castro, D. Curran-Everett, A. M. Fitzpatrick, B. Gaston, N. N. Jarjour, R. Sorkness, W. J. Calhoun, K. F. Chung, S. A. Comhair, R. A. Dweik, E. Israel, S. P. Peters, W. W. Busse, S. C. Erzurum, and E. R. Bleecker, “Identification of asthma phenotypes using cluster analysis in the Severe Asthma Research Program,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 181(4), 315–323 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Custovic, A.

J. Lötvall, C. A. Akdis, L. B. Bacharier, L. Bjermer, T. B. Casale, A. Custovic, R. F. Lemanske, A. J. Wardlaw, S. E. Wenzel, and P. A. Greenberger, “Asthma endotypes: a new approach to classification of disease entities within the asthma syndrome,” J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 127(2), 355–360 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Czaplik, M.

D’Agostino, R.

W. C. Moore, D. A. Meyers, S. E. Wenzel, W. G. Teague, H. Li, X. Li, R. D’Agostino, M. Castro, D. Curran-Everett, A. M. Fitzpatrick, B. Gaston, N. N. Jarjour, R. Sorkness, W. J. Calhoun, K. F. Chung, S. A. Comhair, R. A. Dweik, E. Israel, S. P. Peters, W. W. Busse, S. C. Erzurum, and E. R. Bleecker, “Identification of asthma phenotypes using cluster analysis in the Severe Asthma Research Program,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 181(4), 315–323 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dalal, K.

A. Sahu, K. Dalal, S. Naglot, P. Aggarwal, and C. Murali Krishna, “Serum based diagnosis of asthma using Raman spectroscopy: an early phase pilot study,” PLoS One 8(11), e78921 (2013).
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Dallari, R.

S. Accordini, M. Bugiani, W. Arossa, S. Gerzeli, A. Marinoni, M. Olivieri, P. Pirina, L. Carrozzi, R. Dallari, A. De Togni, and R. de Marco, “Poor control increases the economic cost of asthma. A multicentre population-based study,” Int. Arch. Allergy Immunol. 141(2), 189–198 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

De Gelder, J.

J. De Gelder, K. De Gussem, P. Vandenabeele, and L. Moens, “Reference database of Raman spectra of biological molecules,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 38(9), 1133–1147 (2007).
[Crossref]

De Gussem, K.

J. De Gelder, K. De Gussem, P. Vandenabeele, and L. Moens, “Reference database of Raman spectra of biological molecules,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 38(9), 1133–1147 (2007).
[Crossref]

de Jongste, J. C.

H. K. Reddel, D. R. Taylor, E. D. Bateman, L. P. Boulet, H. A. Boushey, W. W. Busse, T. B. Casale, P. Chanez, P. L. Enright, P. G. Gibson, J. C. de Jongste, H. A. Kerstjens, S. C. Lazarus, M. L. Levy, P. M. O’Byrne, M. R. Partridge, I. D. Pavord, M. R. Sears, P. J. Sterk, S. W. Stoloff, S. D. Sullivan, S. J. Szefler, M. D. Thomas, and S. E. Wenzel, “An Official American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society Statement: Asthma Control and Exacerbations: Standardizing Endpoints for Clinical Asthma Trials and Clinical Practice,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 180(1), 59–99 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

de Marco, R.

S. Accordini, M. Bugiani, W. Arossa, S. Gerzeli, A. Marinoni, M. Olivieri, P. Pirina, L. Carrozzi, R. Dallari, A. De Togni, and R. de Marco, “Poor control increases the economic cost of asthma. A multicentre population-based study,” Int. Arch. Allergy Immunol. 141(2), 189–198 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

de Nijs, S. B.

M. Amelink, S. B. de Nijs, M. Berger, E. J. Weersink, A. ten Brinke, P. J. Sterk, and E. H. Bel, “Non-atopic males with adult onset asthma are at risk of persistent airflow limitation,” Clin. Exp. Allergy 42(5), 769–774 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

De Togni, A.

S. Accordini, M. Bugiani, W. Arossa, S. Gerzeli, A. Marinoni, M. Olivieri, P. Pirina, L. Carrozzi, R. Dallari, A. De Togni, and R. de Marco, “Poor control increases the economic cost of asthma. A multicentre population-based study,” Int. Arch. Allergy Immunol. 141(2), 189–198 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Denlinger, L. C.

L. C. Denlinger, C. A. Sorkness, V. M. Chinchilli, and R. F. Lemanske, “Guideline-defining asthma clinical trials of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute’s Asthma Clinical Research Network and Childhood Asthma Research and Education Network,” J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 119(1), 3–11 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Diette, G. B.

J. A. Krishnan, G. B. Diette, E. A. Skinner, B. D. Clark, D. Steinwachs, and A. W. Wu, “Race and sex differences in consistency of care with national asthma guidelines in managed care organizations,” Arch. Intern. Med. 161(13), 1660–1668 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dominiczak, A.

D. M. Good, V. Thongboonkerd, J. Novak, J. L. Bascands, J. P. Schanstra, J. J. Coon, A. Dominiczak, and H. Mischak, “Body Fluid Proteomics for Biomarker Discovery: Lessons from the Past Hold the Key to Success in the Future,” J. Proteome Res. 6(12), 4549–4555 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Drazen, J. M.

E. D. Bateman, S. S. Hurd, P. J. Barnes, J. Bousquet, J. M. Drazen, J. M. FitzGerald, P. Gibson, K. Ohta, P. O’Byrne, S. E. Pedersen, E. Pizzichini, S. D. Sullivan, S. E. Wenzel, and H. J. Zar, “Global strategy for asthma management and prevention: GINA executive summary,” Eur. Respir. J. 31(1), 143–178 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dupont, W. D.

P. Wu, W. D. Dupont, M. R. Griffin, K. N. Carroll, E. F. Mitchel, T. Gebretsadik, and T. V. Hartert, “Evidence of a causal role of winter virus infection during infancy in early childhood asthma,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 178(11), 1123–1129 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dweik, R. A.

W. C. Moore, D. A. Meyers, S. E. Wenzel, W. G. Teague, H. Li, X. Li, R. D’Agostino, M. Castro, D. Curran-Everett, A. M. Fitzpatrick, B. Gaston, N. N. Jarjour, R. Sorkness, W. J. Calhoun, K. F. Chung, S. A. Comhair, R. A. Dweik, E. Israel, S. P. Peters, W. W. Busse, S. C. Erzurum, and E. R. Bleecker, “Identification of asthma phenotypes using cluster analysis in the Severe Asthma Research Program,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 181(4), 315–323 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eidt, M.

J. Backhaus, R. Mueller, N. Formanski, N. Szlama, H. G. Meerpohl, M. Eidt, and P. Bugert, “Diagnosis of breast cancer with infrared spectroscopy from serum samples,” Vib. Spectrosc. 52(2), 173–177 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ellwanger, A.

P. G. Woodruff, B. Modrek, D. F. Choy, G. Jia, A. R. Abbas, A. Ellwanger, L. L. Koth, J. R. Arron, and J. V. Fahy, “T-helper Type 2-driven Inflammation Defines Major Subphenotypes of Asthma,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 180(5), 388–395 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Enright, P. L.

H. K. Reddel, D. R. Taylor, E. D. Bateman, L. P. Boulet, H. A. Boushey, W. W. Busse, T. B. Casale, P. Chanez, P. L. Enright, P. G. Gibson, J. C. de Jongste, H. A. Kerstjens, S. C. Lazarus, M. L. Levy, P. M. O’Byrne, M. R. Partridge, I. D. Pavord, M. R. Sears, P. J. Sterk, S. W. Stoloff, S. D. Sullivan, S. J. Szefler, M. D. Thomas, and S. E. Wenzel, “An Official American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society Statement: Asthma Control and Exacerbations: Standardizing Endpoints for Clinical Asthma Trials and Clinical Practice,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 180(1), 59–99 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eremin, A.

C. Krafft, K. Wilhelm, A. Eremin, S. Nestel, N. von Bubnoff, W. Schultze-Seemann, J. Popp, and I. Nazarenko, “A specific spectral signature of serum and plasma-derived extracellular vesicles for cancer screening,” Nanomedicine (Lond.) 13(3), 835–841 (2017).
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Erzurum, S. C.

W. C. Moore, D. A. Meyers, S. E. Wenzel, W. G. Teague, H. Li, X. Li, R. D’Agostino, M. Castro, D. Curran-Everett, A. M. Fitzpatrick, B. Gaston, N. N. Jarjour, R. Sorkness, W. J. Calhoun, K. F. Chung, S. A. Comhair, R. A. Dweik, E. Israel, S. P. Peters, W. W. Busse, S. C. Erzurum, and E. R. Bleecker, “Identification of asthma phenotypes using cluster analysis in the Severe Asthma Research Program,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 181(4), 315–323 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fabian, D.

M. Masoli, D. Fabian, S. Holt, and R. Beasley, “The global burden of asthma: executive summary of the GINA Dissemination Committee report,” Allergy 59(5), 469–478 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fahy, J. V.

P. G. Woodruff, B. Modrek, D. F. Choy, G. Jia, A. R. Abbas, A. Ellwanger, L. L. Koth, J. R. Arron, and J. V. Fahy, “T-helper Type 2-driven Inflammation Defines Major Subphenotypes of Asthma,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 180(5), 388–395 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feng, S.

FitzGerald, J. M.

E. D. Bateman, S. S. Hurd, P. J. Barnes, J. Bousquet, J. M. Drazen, J. M. FitzGerald, P. Gibson, K. Ohta, P. O’Byrne, S. E. Pedersen, E. Pizzichini, S. D. Sullivan, S. E. Wenzel, and H. J. Zar, “Global strategy for asthma management and prevention: GINA executive summary,” Eur. Respir. J. 31(1), 143–178 (2008).
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Fitzpatrick, A. M.

W. C. Moore, D. A. Meyers, S. E. Wenzel, W. G. Teague, H. Li, X. Li, R. D’Agostino, M. Castro, D. Curran-Everett, A. M. Fitzpatrick, B. Gaston, N. N. Jarjour, R. Sorkness, W. J. Calhoun, K. F. Chung, S. A. Comhair, R. A. Dweik, E. Israel, S. P. Peters, W. W. Busse, S. C. Erzurum, and E. R. Bleecker, “Identification of asthma phenotypes using cluster analysis in the Severe Asthma Research Program,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 181(4), 315–323 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Foglia, C.

F. Agostinis, C. Foglia, M. Landi, M. Cottini, C. Lombardi, G. W. Canonica, and G. Passalacqua, “The safety of sublingual immunotherapy with one or multiple pollen allergens in children,” Allergy 63(12), 1637–1639 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Formanski, N.

J. Backhaus, R. Mueller, N. Formanski, N. Szlama, H. G. Meerpohl, M. Eidt, and P. Bugert, “Diagnosis of breast cancer with infrared spectroscopy from serum samples,” Vib. Spectrosc. 52(2), 173–177 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gaston, B.

W. C. Moore, D. A. Meyers, S. E. Wenzel, W. G. Teague, H. Li, X. Li, R. D’Agostino, M. Castro, D. Curran-Everett, A. M. Fitzpatrick, B. Gaston, N. N. Jarjour, R. Sorkness, W. J. Calhoun, K. F. Chung, S. A. Comhair, R. A. Dweik, E. Israel, S. P. Peters, W. W. Busse, S. C. Erzurum, and E. R. Bleecker, “Identification of asthma phenotypes using cluster analysis in the Severe Asthma Research Program,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 181(4), 315–323 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gebretsadik, T.

P. Wu, W. D. Dupont, M. R. Griffin, K. N. Carroll, E. F. Mitchel, T. Gebretsadik, and T. V. Hartert, “Evidence of a causal role of winter virus infection during infancy in early childhood asthma,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 178(11), 1123–1129 (2008).
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Gerzeli, S.

S. Accordini, M. Bugiani, W. Arossa, S. Gerzeli, A. Marinoni, M. Olivieri, P. Pirina, L. Carrozzi, R. Dallari, A. De Togni, and R. de Marco, “Poor control increases the economic cost of asthma. A multicentre population-based study,” Int. Arch. Allergy Immunol. 141(2), 189–198 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gibson, P.

E. D. Bateman, S. S. Hurd, P. J. Barnes, J. Bousquet, J. M. Drazen, J. M. FitzGerald, P. Gibson, K. Ohta, P. O’Byrne, S. E. Pedersen, E. Pizzichini, S. D. Sullivan, S. E. Wenzel, and H. J. Zar, “Global strategy for asthma management and prevention: GINA executive summary,” Eur. Respir. J. 31(1), 143–178 (2008).
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Gibson, P. G.

P. G. Gibson, V. M. McDonald, and G. B. Marks, “Asthma in older adults,” Lancet 376(9743), 803–813 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. K. Reddel, D. R. Taylor, E. D. Bateman, L. P. Boulet, H. A. Boushey, W. W. Busse, T. B. Casale, P. Chanez, P. L. Enright, P. G. Gibson, J. C. de Jongste, H. A. Kerstjens, S. C. Lazarus, M. L. Levy, P. M. O’Byrne, M. R. Partridge, I. D. Pavord, M. R. Sears, P. J. Sterk, S. W. Stoloff, S. D. Sullivan, S. J. Szefler, M. D. Thomas, and S. E. Wenzel, “An Official American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society Statement: Asthma Control and Exacerbations: Standardizing Endpoints for Clinical Asthma Trials and Clinical Practice,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 180(1), 59–99 (2009).
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Good, D. M.

D. M. Good, V. Thongboonkerd, J. Novak, J. L. Bascands, J. P. Schanstra, J. J. Coon, A. Dominiczak, and H. Mischak, “Body Fluid Proteomics for Biomarker Discovery: Lessons from the Past Hold the Key to Success in the Future,” J. Proteome Res. 6(12), 4549–4555 (2007).
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Greenberger, P. A.

J. Lötvall, C. A. Akdis, L. B. Bacharier, L. Bjermer, T. B. Casale, A. Custovic, R. F. Lemanske, A. J. Wardlaw, S. E. Wenzel, and P. A. Greenberger, “Asthma endotypes: a new approach to classification of disease entities within the asthma syndrome,” J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 127(2), 355–360 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Griffin, M. R.

P. Wu, W. D. Dupont, M. R. Griffin, K. N. Carroll, E. F. Mitchel, T. Gebretsadik, and T. V. Hartert, “Evidence of a causal role of winter virus infection during infancy in early childhood asthma,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 178(11), 1123–1129 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hartert, T. V.

P. Wu, W. D. Dupont, M. R. Griffin, K. N. Carroll, E. F. Mitchel, T. Gebretsadik, and T. V. Hartert, “Evidence of a causal role of winter virus infection during infancy in early childhood asthma,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 178(11), 1123–1129 (2008).
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Hilvering, B.

S. J. Vijverberg, B. Hilvering, J. A. Raaijmakers, J. W. Lammers, A. H. Maitland-van der Zee, and L. Koenderman, “Clinical utility of asthma biomarkers: from bench to bedside,” Biologics 7, 199–210 (2013).
[PubMed]

Holt, S.

M. Masoli, D. Fabian, S. Holt, and R. Beasley, “The global burden of asthma: executive summary of the GINA Dissemination Committee report,” Allergy 59(5), 469–478 (2004).
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Hunter, C. J.

C. J. Hunter, C. E. Brightling, G. Woltmann, A. J. Wardlaw, and I. D. Pavord, “A comparison of the validity of different diagnostic tests in adults with asthma,” Chest 121(4), 1051–1057 (2002).
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E. D. Bateman, S. S. Hurd, P. J. Barnes, J. Bousquet, J. M. Drazen, J. M. FitzGerald, P. Gibson, K. Ohta, P. O’Byrne, S. E. Pedersen, E. Pizzichini, S. D. Sullivan, S. E. Wenzel, and H. J. Zar, “Global strategy for asthma management and prevention: GINA executive summary,” Eur. Respir. J. 31(1), 143–178 (2008).
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Israel, E.

W. C. Moore, D. A. Meyers, S. E. Wenzel, W. G. Teague, H. Li, X. Li, R. D’Agostino, M. Castro, D. Curran-Everett, A. M. Fitzpatrick, B. Gaston, N. N. Jarjour, R. Sorkness, W. J. Calhoun, K. F. Chung, S. A. Comhair, R. A. Dweik, E. Israel, S. P. Peters, W. W. Busse, S. C. Erzurum, and E. R. Bleecker, “Identification of asthma phenotypes using cluster analysis in the Severe Asthma Research Program,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 181(4), 315–323 (2010).
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W. C. Moore, D. A. Meyers, S. E. Wenzel, W. G. Teague, H. Li, X. Li, R. D’Agostino, M. Castro, D. Curran-Everett, A. M. Fitzpatrick, B. Gaston, N. N. Jarjour, R. Sorkness, W. J. Calhoun, K. F. Chung, S. A. Comhair, R. A. Dweik, E. Israel, S. P. Peters, W. W. Busse, S. C. Erzurum, and E. R. Bleecker, “Identification of asthma phenotypes using cluster analysis in the Severe Asthma Research Program,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 181(4), 315–323 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Javaid, S.

Jia, G.

P. G. Woodruff, B. Modrek, D. F. Choy, G. Jia, A. R. Abbas, A. Ellwanger, L. L. Koth, J. R. Arron, and J. V. Fahy, “T-helper Type 2-driven Inflammation Defines Major Subphenotypes of Asthma,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 180(5), 388–395 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kerstjens, H. A.

H. K. Reddel, D. R. Taylor, E. D. Bateman, L. P. Boulet, H. A. Boushey, W. W. Busse, T. B. Casale, P. Chanez, P. L. Enright, P. G. Gibson, J. C. de Jongste, H. A. Kerstjens, S. C. Lazarus, M. L. Levy, P. M. O’Byrne, M. R. Partridge, I. D. Pavord, M. R. Sears, P. J. Sterk, S. W. Stoloff, S. D. Sullivan, S. J. Szefler, M. D. Thomas, and S. E. Wenzel, “An Official American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society Statement: Asthma Control and Exacerbations: Standardizing Endpoints for Clinical Asthma Trials and Clinical Practice,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 180(1), 59–99 (2009).
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Khan, A.

Khan, S.

Koenderman, L.

S. J. Vijverberg, B. Hilvering, J. A. Raaijmakers, J. W. Lammers, A. H. Maitland-van der Zee, and L. Koenderman, “Clinical utility of asthma biomarkers: from bench to bedside,” Biologics 7, 199–210 (2013).
[PubMed]

Koth, L. L.

P. G. Woodruff, B. Modrek, D. F. Choy, G. Jia, A. R. Abbas, A. Ellwanger, L. L. Koth, J. R. Arron, and J. V. Fahy, “T-helper Type 2-driven Inflammation Defines Major Subphenotypes of Asthma,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 180(5), 388–395 (2009).
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C. Krafft, K. Wilhelm, A. Eremin, S. Nestel, N. von Bubnoff, W. Schultze-Seemann, J. Popp, and I. Nazarenko, “A specific spectral signature of serum and plasma-derived extracellular vesicles for cancer screening,” Nanomedicine (Lond.) 13(3), 835–841 (2017).
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J. A. Krishnan, G. B. Diette, E. A. Skinner, B. D. Clark, D. Steinwachs, and A. W. Wu, “Race and sex differences in consistency of care with national asthma guidelines in managed care organizations,” Arch. Intern. Med. 161(13), 1660–1668 (2001).
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P. Arora, V. Kumar, and S. Batra, “Vitamin A status in children with asthma,” Pediatr. Allergy Immunol. 13(3), 223–226 (2002).
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Lammers, J. W.

S. J. Vijverberg, B. Hilvering, J. A. Raaijmakers, J. W. Lammers, A. H. Maitland-van der Zee, and L. Koenderman, “Clinical utility of asthma biomarkers: from bench to bedside,” Biologics 7, 199–210 (2013).
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Landi, M.

F. Agostinis, C. Foglia, M. Landi, M. Cottini, C. Lombardi, G. W. Canonica, and G. Passalacqua, “The safety of sublingual immunotherapy with one or multiple pollen allergens in children,” Allergy 63(12), 1637–1639 (2008).
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Lazarus, S. C.

H. K. Reddel, D. R. Taylor, E. D. Bateman, L. P. Boulet, H. A. Boushey, W. W. Busse, T. B. Casale, P. Chanez, P. L. Enright, P. G. Gibson, J. C. de Jongste, H. A. Kerstjens, S. C. Lazarus, M. L. Levy, P. M. O’Byrne, M. R. Partridge, I. D. Pavord, M. R. Sears, P. J. Sterk, S. W. Stoloff, S. D. Sullivan, S. J. Szefler, M. D. Thomas, and S. E. Wenzel, “An Official American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society Statement: Asthma Control and Exacerbations: Standardizing Endpoints for Clinical Asthma Trials and Clinical Practice,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 180(1), 59–99 (2009).
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Lemanske, R. F.

J. Lötvall, C. A. Akdis, L. B. Bacharier, L. Bjermer, T. B. Casale, A. Custovic, R. F. Lemanske, A. J. Wardlaw, S. E. Wenzel, and P. A. Greenberger, “Asthma endotypes: a new approach to classification of disease entities within the asthma syndrome,” J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 127(2), 355–360 (2011).
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L. C. Denlinger, C. A. Sorkness, V. M. Chinchilli, and R. F. Lemanske, “Guideline-defining asthma clinical trials of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute’s Asthma Clinical Research Network and Childhood Asthma Research and Education Network,” J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 119(1), 3–11 (2007).
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Leonhardt, S.

Levy, M. L.

H. K. Reddel, D. R. Taylor, E. D. Bateman, L. P. Boulet, H. A. Boushey, W. W. Busse, T. B. Casale, P. Chanez, P. L. Enright, P. G. Gibson, J. C. de Jongste, H. A. Kerstjens, S. C. Lazarus, M. L. Levy, P. M. O’Byrne, M. R. Partridge, I. D. Pavord, M. R. Sears, P. J. Sterk, S. W. Stoloff, S. D. Sullivan, S. J. Szefler, M. D. Thomas, and S. E. Wenzel, “An Official American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society Statement: Asthma Control and Exacerbations: Standardizing Endpoints for Clinical Asthma Trials and Clinical Practice,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 180(1), 59–99 (2009).
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Li, H.

W. C. Moore, D. A. Meyers, S. E. Wenzel, W. G. Teague, H. Li, X. Li, R. D’Agostino, M. Castro, D. Curran-Everett, A. M. Fitzpatrick, B. Gaston, N. N. Jarjour, R. Sorkness, W. J. Calhoun, K. F. Chung, S. A. Comhair, R. A. Dweik, E. Israel, S. P. Peters, W. W. Busse, S. C. Erzurum, and E. R. Bleecker, “Identification of asthma phenotypes using cluster analysis in the Severe Asthma Research Program,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 181(4), 315–323 (2010).
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Li, X.

W. C. Moore, D. A. Meyers, S. E. Wenzel, W. G. Teague, H. Li, X. Li, R. D’Agostino, M. Castro, D. Curran-Everett, A. M. Fitzpatrick, B. Gaston, N. N. Jarjour, R. Sorkness, W. J. Calhoun, K. F. Chung, S. A. Comhair, R. A. Dweik, E. Israel, S. P. Peters, W. W. Busse, S. C. Erzurum, and E. R. Bleecker, “Identification of asthma phenotypes using cluster analysis in the Severe Asthma Research Program,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 181(4), 315–323 (2010).
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Lin, D.

Lin, J.

Lombardi, C.

F. Agostinis, C. Foglia, M. Landi, M. Cottini, C. Lombardi, G. W. Canonica, and G. Passalacqua, “The safety of sublingual immunotherapy with one or multiple pollen allergens in children,” Allergy 63(12), 1637–1639 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lötvall, J.

J. Lötvall, C. A. Akdis, L. B. Bacharier, L. Bjermer, T. B. Casale, A. Custovic, R. F. Lemanske, A. J. Wardlaw, S. E. Wenzel, and P. A. Greenberger, “Asthma endotypes: a new approach to classification of disease entities within the asthma syndrome,” J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 127(2), 355–360 (2011).
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D. H. Burns, S. Rosendahl, D. Bandilla, O. C. Maes, H. M. Chertkow, and H. M. Schipper, “Raman spectroscopy of blood serum for Alzheimer’s disease diagnostics: specificity relative to other types of dementia,” J. Alzheimers Dis. 17(2), 584–596 (2009).
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Maitland-van der Zee, A. H.

S. J. Vijverberg, B. Hilvering, J. A. Raaijmakers, J. W. Lammers, A. H. Maitland-van der Zee, and L. Koenderman, “Clinical utility of asthma biomarkers: from bench to bedside,” Biologics 7, 199–210 (2013).
[PubMed]

Marinoni, A.

S. Accordini, M. Bugiani, W. Arossa, S. Gerzeli, A. Marinoni, M. Olivieri, P. Pirina, L. Carrozzi, R. Dallari, A. De Togni, and R. de Marco, “Poor control increases the economic cost of asthma. A multicentre population-based study,” Int. Arch. Allergy Immunol. 141(2), 189–198 (2006).
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Marks, G. B.

P. G. Gibson, V. M. McDonald, and G. B. Marks, “Asthma in older adults,” Lancet 376(9743), 803–813 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Masoli, M.

M. Masoli, D. Fabian, S. Holt, and R. Beasley, “The global burden of asthma: executive summary of the GINA Dissemination Committee report,” Allergy 59(5), 469–478 (2004).
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McDonald, V. M.

P. G. Gibson, V. M. McDonald, and G. B. Marks, “Asthma in older adults,” Lancet 376(9743), 803–813 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Meerpohl, H. G.

J. Backhaus, R. Mueller, N. Formanski, N. Szlama, H. G. Meerpohl, M. Eidt, and P. Bugert, “Diagnosis of breast cancer with infrared spectroscopy from serum samples,” Vib. Spectrosc. 52(2), 173–177 (2010).
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Menkes, M. J.

A. Morabia, M. J. Menkes, G. W. Comstock, and M. S. Tockman, “Serum retinol and airway obstruction,” Am. J. Epidemiol. 132(1), 77–82 (1990).
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Meyers, D. A.

W. C. Moore, D. A. Meyers, S. E. Wenzel, W. G. Teague, H. Li, X. Li, R. D’Agostino, M. Castro, D. Curran-Everett, A. M. Fitzpatrick, B. Gaston, N. N. Jarjour, R. Sorkness, W. J. Calhoun, K. F. Chung, S. A. Comhair, R. A. Dweik, E. Israel, S. P. Peters, W. W. Busse, S. C. Erzurum, and E. R. Bleecker, “Identification of asthma phenotypes using cluster analysis in the Severe Asthma Research Program,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 181(4), 315–323 (2010).
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Mischak, H.

D. M. Good, V. Thongboonkerd, J. Novak, J. L. Bascands, J. P. Schanstra, J. J. Coon, A. Dominiczak, and H. Mischak, “Body Fluid Proteomics for Biomarker Discovery: Lessons from the Past Hold the Key to Success in the Future,” J. Proteome Res. 6(12), 4549–4555 (2007).
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Mitchel, E. F.

P. Wu, W. D. Dupont, M. R. Griffin, K. N. Carroll, E. F. Mitchel, T. Gebretsadik, and T. V. Hartert, “Evidence of a causal role of winter virus infection during infancy in early childhood asthma,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 178(11), 1123–1129 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Modrek, B.

P. G. Woodruff, B. Modrek, D. F. Choy, G. Jia, A. R. Abbas, A. Ellwanger, L. L. Koth, J. R. Arron, and J. V. Fahy, “T-helper Type 2-driven Inflammation Defines Major Subphenotypes of Asthma,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 180(5), 388–395 (2009).
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J. De Gelder, K. De Gussem, P. Vandenabeele, and L. Moens, “Reference database of Raman spectra of biological molecules,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 38(9), 1133–1147 (2007).
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P. Montuschi and M. L. Peters-Golden, “Leukotriene modifiers for asthma treatment,” Clin. Exp. Allergy 40(12), 1732–1741 (2010).
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W. C. Moore, D. A. Meyers, S. E. Wenzel, W. G. Teague, H. Li, X. Li, R. D’Agostino, M. Castro, D. Curran-Everett, A. M. Fitzpatrick, B. Gaston, N. N. Jarjour, R. Sorkness, W. J. Calhoun, K. F. Chung, S. A. Comhair, R. A. Dweik, E. Israel, S. P. Peters, W. W. Busse, S. C. Erzurum, and E. R. Bleecker, “Identification of asthma phenotypes using cluster analysis in the Severe Asthma Research Program,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 181(4), 315–323 (2010).
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Morabia, A.

A. Morabia, M. J. Menkes, G. W. Comstock, and M. S. Tockman, “Serum retinol and airway obstruction,” Am. J. Epidemiol. 132(1), 77–82 (1990).
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J. Backhaus, R. Mueller, N. Formanski, N. Szlama, H. G. Meerpohl, M. Eidt, and P. Bugert, “Diagnosis of breast cancer with infrared spectroscopy from serum samples,” Vib. Spectrosc. 52(2), 173–177 (2010).
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A. Sahu, K. Dalal, S. Naglot, P. Aggarwal, and C. Murali Krishna, “Serum based diagnosis of asthma using Raman spectroscopy: an early phase pilot study,” PLoS One 8(11), e78921 (2013).
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A. Sahu, K. Dalal, S. Naglot, P. Aggarwal, and C. Murali Krishna, “Serum based diagnosis of asthma using Raman spectroscopy: an early phase pilot study,” PLoS One 8(11), e78921 (2013).
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Nazarenko, I.

C. Krafft, K. Wilhelm, A. Eremin, S. Nestel, N. von Bubnoff, W. Schultze-Seemann, J. Popp, and I. Nazarenko, “A specific spectral signature of serum and plasma-derived extracellular vesicles for cancer screening,” Nanomedicine (Lond.) 13(3), 835–841 (2017).
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C. Krafft, K. Wilhelm, A. Eremin, S. Nestel, N. von Bubnoff, W. Schultze-Seemann, J. Popp, and I. Nazarenko, “A specific spectral signature of serum and plasma-derived extracellular vesicles for cancer screening,” Nanomedicine (Lond.) 13(3), 835–841 (2017).
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Novak, J.

D. M. Good, V. Thongboonkerd, J. Novak, J. L. Bascands, J. P. Schanstra, J. J. Coon, A. Dominiczak, and H. Mischak, “Body Fluid Proteomics for Biomarker Discovery: Lessons from the Past Hold the Key to Success in the Future,” J. Proteome Res. 6(12), 4549–4555 (2007).
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E. D. Bateman, S. S. Hurd, P. J. Barnes, J. Bousquet, J. M. Drazen, J. M. FitzGerald, P. Gibson, K. Ohta, P. O’Byrne, S. E. Pedersen, E. Pizzichini, S. D. Sullivan, S. E. Wenzel, and H. J. Zar, “Global strategy for asthma management and prevention: GINA executive summary,” Eur. Respir. J. 31(1), 143–178 (2008).
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E. D. Bateman, S. S. Hurd, P. J. Barnes, J. Bousquet, J. M. Drazen, J. M. FitzGerald, P. Gibson, K. Ohta, P. O’Byrne, S. E. Pedersen, E. Pizzichini, S. D. Sullivan, S. E. Wenzel, and H. J. Zar, “Global strategy for asthma management and prevention: GINA executive summary,” Eur. Respir. J. 31(1), 143–178 (2008).
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Zeng, H.

Allergy (2)

F. Agostinis, C. Foglia, M. Landi, M. Cottini, C. Lombardi, G. W. Canonica, and G. Passalacqua, “The safety of sublingual immunotherapy with one or multiple pollen allergens in children,” Allergy 63(12), 1637–1639 (2008).
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M. Masoli, D. Fabian, S. Holt, and R. Beasley, “The global burden of asthma: executive summary of the GINA Dissemination Committee report,” Allergy 59(5), 469–478 (2004).
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Am. J. Epidemiol. (1)

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H. K. Reddel, D. R. Taylor, E. D. Bateman, L. P. Boulet, H. A. Boushey, W. W. Busse, T. B. Casale, P. Chanez, P. L. Enright, P. G. Gibson, J. C. de Jongste, H. A. Kerstjens, S. C. Lazarus, M. L. Levy, P. M. O’Byrne, M. R. Partridge, I. D. Pavord, M. R. Sears, P. J. Sterk, S. W. Stoloff, S. D. Sullivan, S. J. Szefler, M. D. Thomas, and S. E. Wenzel, “An Official American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society Statement: Asthma Control and Exacerbations: Standardizing Endpoints for Clinical Asthma Trials and Clinical Practice,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 180(1), 59–99 (2009).
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P. Wu, W. D. Dupont, M. R. Griffin, K. N. Carroll, E. F. Mitchel, T. Gebretsadik, and T. V. Hartert, “Evidence of a causal role of winter virus infection during infancy in early childhood asthma,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 178(11), 1123–1129 (2008).
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P. G. Woodruff, B. Modrek, D. F. Choy, G. Jia, A. R. Abbas, A. Ellwanger, L. L. Koth, J. R. Arron, and J. V. Fahy, “T-helper Type 2-driven Inflammation Defines Major Subphenotypes of Asthma,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 180(5), 388–395 (2009).
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W. C. Moore, D. A. Meyers, S. E. Wenzel, W. G. Teague, H. Li, X. Li, R. D’Agostino, M. Castro, D. Curran-Everett, A. M. Fitzpatrick, B. Gaston, N. N. Jarjour, R. Sorkness, W. J. Calhoun, K. F. Chung, S. A. Comhair, R. A. Dweik, E. Israel, S. P. Peters, W. W. Busse, S. C. Erzurum, and E. R. Bleecker, “Identification of asthma phenotypes using cluster analysis in the Severe Asthma Research Program,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 181(4), 315–323 (2010).
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Appl. Spectrosc. (2)

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J. A. Krishnan, G. B. Diette, E. A. Skinner, B. D. Clark, D. Steinwachs, and A. W. Wu, “Race and sex differences in consistency of care with national asthma guidelines in managed care organizations,” Arch. Intern. Med. 161(13), 1660–1668 (2001).
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Biologics (1)

S. J. Vijverberg, B. Hilvering, J. A. Raaijmakers, J. W. Lammers, A. H. Maitland-van der Zee, and L. Koenderman, “Clinical utility of asthma biomarkers: from bench to bedside,” Biologics 7, 199–210 (2013).
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C. J. Hunter, C. E. Brightling, G. Woltmann, A. J. Wardlaw, and I. D. Pavord, “A comparison of the validity of different diagnostic tests in adults with asthma,” Chest 121(4), 1051–1057 (2002).
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Clin. Exp. Allergy (2)

M. Amelink, S. B. de Nijs, M. Berger, E. J. Weersink, A. ten Brinke, P. J. Sterk, and E. H. Bel, “Non-atopic males with adult onset asthma are at risk of persistent airflow limitation,” Clin. Exp. Allergy 42(5), 769–774 (2012).
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P. Montuschi and M. L. Peters-Golden, “Leukotriene modifiers for asthma treatment,” Clin. Exp. Allergy 40(12), 1732–1741 (2010).
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Eur. Respir. J. (1)

E. D. Bateman, S. S. Hurd, P. J. Barnes, J. Bousquet, J. M. Drazen, J. M. FitzGerald, P. Gibson, K. Ohta, P. O’Byrne, S. E. Pedersen, E. Pizzichini, S. D. Sullivan, S. E. Wenzel, and H. J. Zar, “Global strategy for asthma management and prevention: GINA executive summary,” Eur. Respir. J. 31(1), 143–178 (2008).
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L. C. Denlinger, C. A. Sorkness, V. M. Chinchilli, and R. F. Lemanske, “Guideline-defining asthma clinical trials of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute’s Asthma Clinical Research Network and Childhood Asthma Research and Education Network,” J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 119(1), 3–11 (2007).
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J. Lötvall, C. A. Akdis, L. B. Bacharier, L. Bjermer, T. B. Casale, A. Custovic, R. F. Lemanske, A. J. Wardlaw, S. E. Wenzel, and P. A. Greenberger, “Asthma endotypes: a new approach to classification of disease entities within the asthma syndrome,” J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 127(2), 355–360 (2011).
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J. Alzheimers Dis. (1)

D. H. Burns, S. Rosendahl, D. Bandilla, O. C. Maes, H. M. Chertkow, and H. M. Schipper, “Raman spectroscopy of blood serum for Alzheimer’s disease diagnostics: specificity relative to other types of dementia,” J. Alzheimers Dis. 17(2), 584–596 (2009).
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J. Proteome Res. (1)

D. M. Good, V. Thongboonkerd, J. Novak, J. L. Bascands, J. P. Schanstra, J. J. Coon, A. Dominiczak, and H. Mischak, “Body Fluid Proteomics for Biomarker Discovery: Lessons from the Past Hold the Key to Success in the Future,” J. Proteome Res. 6(12), 4549–4555 (2007).
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P. G. Gibson, V. M. McDonald, and G. B. Marks, “Asthma in older adults,” Lancet 376(9743), 803–813 (2010).
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S. E. Wenzel, “Asthma: defining of the persistent adult phenotypes,” Lancet 368(9537), 804–813 (2006).
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Nanomedicine (Lond.) (1)

C. Krafft, K. Wilhelm, A. Eremin, S. Nestel, N. von Bubnoff, W. Schultze-Seemann, J. Popp, and I. Nazarenko, “A specific spectral signature of serum and plasma-derived extracellular vesicles for cancer screening,” Nanomedicine (Lond.) 13(3), 835–841 (2017).
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Opt. Express (1)

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P. Arora, V. Kumar, and S. Batra, “Vitamin A status in children with asthma,” Pediatr. Allergy Immunol. 13(3), 223–226 (2002).
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PLoS One (1)

A. Sahu, K. Dalal, S. Naglot, P. Aggarwal, and C. Murali Krishna, “Serum based diagnosis of asthma using Raman spectroscopy: an early phase pilot study,” PLoS One 8(11), e78921 (2013).
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Vib. Spectrosc. (1)

J. Backhaus, R. Mueller, N. Formanski, N. Szlama, H. G. Meerpohl, M. Eidt, and P. Bugert, “Diagnosis of breast cancer with infrared spectroscopy from serum samples,” Vib. Spectrosc. 52(2), 173–177 (2010).
[Crossref]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Raman spectra of overall blood sera samples of (A) healthy and (B) asthmatic patients.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Mean Raman spectra of blood sera of healthy and asthmatic patients.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 PCA scatter plot of healthy and asthmatic blood sera.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 PC loading vectors plot of healthy and asthmatic blood sera.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Calibration curve for training and tested data set of developed PLS-DA.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Age and gender distribution of asthmatic and healthy samples.

Tables Icon

Table 2 Molecular assignment of Raman peaks of normal and asthmatic sera samples.

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