Abstract

In this work, we study the enhancement of simulated prosthetic reading performance through “active photonic sensing” in normally sighted subjects. Three sensing paradigms were implemented: active sensing, in which the subject actively scanned the presented words using the computer mouse, with an option to control text size; passive scanning produced by software-initiated horizontal movements of words; and no scanning. Our findings reveal a 30% increase in word recognition rate with active scanning as compared to no or passive scanning and up to 14-fold increase with zooming. These results highlight the importance of a patient interactive interface and shed light on techniques that can greatly enhance prosthetic vision quality.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2018 (2)

B. Maddox, A. P. Bayliss, P. Fleming, P. E. Engelhardt, S. G. Edwards, and F. Borgonovi, “Observing response processes with eye tracking in international large-scale assessments: evidence from the OECD PIAAC assessment,” Eur. J. Psychol. Educ. 33(3), 543–558 (2018).
[Crossref]

K. Krstić, A. Šoškić, V. Ković, and K. Holmqvist, “All good readers are the same, but every low-skilled reader is different: an eye-tracking study using PISA data,” Eur. J. Psychol. Educ. 33(3), 521–541 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (2)

A. Caspi, A. Roy, J. D. Dorn, and R. J. Greenberg, “Retinotopic to spatiotopic mapping in blind patients implanted with the argus II retinal prosthesis,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 58(1), 119–127 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Ratnam, N. Domdei, W. M. Harmening, and A. Roorda, “Benefits of retinal image motion at the limits of spatial vision,” J. Vis. 17(1), 30 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (4)

G. A. Goetz and D. V. Palanker, “Electronic approaches to restoration of sight,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 79(9), 096701 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. da Cruz, J. D. Dorn, M. S. Humayun, G. Dagnelie, J. Handa, P. O. Barale, J. A. Sahel, P. E. Stanga, F. Hafezi, A. B. Safran, J. Salzmann, A. Santos, D. Birch, R. Spencer, A. V. Cideciyan, E. de Juan, J. L. Duncan, D. Eliott, A. Fawzi, L. C. Olmos de Koo, A. C. Ho, G. Brown, J. Haller, C. Regillo, L. V. Del Priore, A. Arditi, R. J. Greenberg, and Argus II Study Group, “Five-Year Safety and Performance Results from the Argus II Retinal Prosthesis System Clinical Trial,” Ophthalmology 123(10), 2248–2254 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. M. Hafed, K. Stingl, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, F. Gekeler, and E. Zrenner, “Oculomotor behavior of blind patients seeing with a subretinal visual implant,” Vision Res. 118, 119–131 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Krieber, K. D. Bartl-Pokorny, F. B. Pokorny, C. Einspieler, A. Langmann, C. Körner, T. Falck-Ytter, and P. B. Marschik, “The Relation between Reading Skills and Eye Movement Patterns in Adolescent Readers: Evidence from a Regular Orthography,” PLoS One 11(1), e0145934 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (3)

A. C. Ho, M. S. Humayun, J. D. Dorn, L. da Cruz, G. Dagnelie, J. Handa, P.-O. Barale, J.-A. Sahel, P. E. Stanga, F. Hafezi, A. B. Safran, J. Salzmann, A. Santos, D. Birch, R. Spencer, A. V. Cideciyan, E. de Juan, J. L. Duncan, D. Eliott, A. Fawzi, L. C. Olmos de Koo, G. C. Brown, J. A. Haller, C. D. Regillo, L. V. Del Priore, A. Arditi, D. R. Geruschat, R. J. Greenberg, and Argus II Study Group, “Long-Term Results from an Epiretinal Prosthesis to Restore Sight to the Blind,” Ophthalmology 122(8), 1547–1554 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Stingl, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, D. Besch, C. K. Chee, C. L. Cottriall, F. Gekeler, M. Groppe, T. L. Jackson, R. E. MacLaren, A. Koitschev, A. Kusnyerik, J. Neffendorf, J. Nemeth, M. A. N. Naeem, T. Peters, J. D. Ramsden, H. Sachs, A. Simpson, M. S. Singh, B. Wilhelm, D. Wong, and E. Zrenner, “Subretinal Visual Implant Alpha IMS--Clinical trial interim report,” Vision Res. 111(Pt B), 149–160 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Lorach, G. Goetz, R. Smith, X. Lei, Y. Mandel, T. Kamins, K. Mathieson, P. Huie, J. Harris, A. Sher, and D. Palanker, “Photovoltaic restoration of sight with high visual acuity,” Nat. Med. 21(5), 476–482 (2015).
[PubMed]

2014 (2)

H. C. Stronks and G. Dagnelie, “The functional performance of the Argus II retinal prosthesis,” Expert Rev. Med. Devices 11(1), 23–30 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Sabbah, C. N. Authié, N. Sanda, S. Mohand-Said, J. A. Sahel, and A. B. Safran, “Importance of eye position on spatial localization in blind subjects wearing an Argus II retinal prosthesis,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 55(12), 8259–8266 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (3)

N. Parikh, L. Itti, M. Humayun, and J. Weiland, “Performance of visually guided tasks using simulated prosthetic vision and saliency-based cues,” J. Neural Eng. 10(2), 026017 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Sahel, S. Mohand-Said, P. Stanga, A. Caspi, and R. Greenberg, “AcuboostTM: Enhancing the maximum acuity of the Argus II Retinal Prosthesis System,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(15), 1389 (2013).

D. W. Arathorn, S. B. Stevenson, Q. Yang, P. Tiruveedhula, and A. Roorda, “How the unstable eye sees a stable and moving world,” J. Vis. 13(10), 22 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

A. Saig, G. Gordon, E. Assa, A. Arieli, and E. Ahissar, “Motor-sensory confluence in tactile perception,” J. Neurosci. 32(40), 14022–14032 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Ahissar and A. Arieli, “Seeing via miniature eye movements: a dynamic hypothesis for vision,” Front. Comput. Neurosci. 6, 89 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wills, R. Gillett, E. Eastwell, R. Abraham, K. Coffey, A. Webber, and J. Wood, “Effect of simulated astigmatic refractive error on reading performance in the young,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 89(3), 271–276 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (4)

S. Venkatraman and J. M. Carmena, “Active sensing of target location encoded by cortical microstimulation,” IEEE Trans. Neural Syst. Rehabil. Eng. 19(3), 317–324 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. S. Wolffsohn, G. Bhogal, and S. Shah, “Effect of uncorrected astigmatism on vision,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 37(3), 454–460 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Zrenner, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, H. Benav, D. Besch, A. Bruckmann, V.-P. Gabel, F. Gekeler, U. Greppmaier, A. Harscher, S. Kibbel, J. Koch, A. Kusnyerik, T. Peters, K. Stingl, H. Sachs, A. Stett, P. Szurman, B. Wilhelm, and R. Wilke, “Subretinal electronic chips allow blind patients to read letters and combine them to words,” Proc. Biol. Sci. 278(1711), 1489–1497 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. P. Fornos, J. Sommerhalder, and M. Pelizzone, “Reading with a simulated 60-channel implant,” Front. Neurosci. 5, 57 (2011).
[PubMed]

2010 (2)

X. Troncoso, J. Otero-Millan, S. Macknik, I. Serrano-Pedraza, and S. Martinez-Conde, “Saccades and microsaccades during visual fixation, exploration, and search: Foundations for a common saccadic generator,” J. Vis. 9(8), 447 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Parikh, L. Itti, and J. Weiland, “Saliency-based image processing for retinal prostheses,” J. Neural Eng. 7(1), 16006 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (4)

S. C. Chen, G. J. Suaning, J. W. Morley, and N. H. Lovell, “Simulating prosthetic vision: II. Measuring functional capacity,” Vision Res. 49(19), 2329–2343 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Rolfs, “Microsaccades: small steps on a long way,” Vision Res. 49(20), 2415–2441 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. C. Chen, G. J. Suaning, J. W. Morley, and N. H. Lovell, “Simulating prosthetic vision: I. Visual models of phosphenes,” Vision Res. 49(12), 1493–1506 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Visell, “Tactile sensory substitution: Models for enaction in HCI,” Interact. Comput. 21(1–2), 38–53 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

F. Mazzoni, E. Novelli, and E. Strettoi, “Retinal ganglion cells survive and maintain normal dendritic morphology in a mouse model of inherited photoreceptor degeneration,” J. Neurosci. 28(52), 14282–14292 (2008).
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L. E. Hallum, S. L. Cloherty, and N. H. Lovell, “Image analysis for microelectronic retinal prosthesis,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 55(1), 344–346 (2008).
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2007 (2)

M. Rucci, R. Iovin, M. Poletti, and F. Santini, “Miniature eye movements enhance fine spatial detail,” Nature 447(7146), 852–854 (2007).
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J. S. Chan, T. Maucher, J. Schemmel, D. Kilroy, F. N. Newell, and K. Meier, “The virtual haptic display: a device for exploring 2-D virtual shapes in the tactile modality,” Behav. Res. Methods 39(4), 802–810 (2007).
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2006 (3)

G. Dagnelie, D. Barnett, M. S. Humayun, and R. W. Thompson, “Paragraph text reading using a pixelized prosthetic vision simulator: parameter dependence and task learning in free-viewing conditions,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47(3), 1241–1250 (2006).
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L. Fu, S. Cai, H. Zhang, G. Hu, and X. Zhang, “Psychophysics of reading with a limited number of pixels: towards the rehabilitation of reading ability with visual prosthesis,” Vision Res. 46(8-9), 1292–1301 (2006).
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P. Bach-y-Rita, “Tactile sensory substitution studies,” Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1013(1), 83–91 (2006).
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2005 (3)

L. E. Hallum, G. J. Suaning, D. S. Taubman, and N. H. Lovell, “Simulated prosthetic visual fixation, saccade, and smooth pursuit,” Vision Res. 45(6), 775–788 (2005).
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S. C. Chen, L. E. Hallum, N. H. Lovell, and G. J. Suaning, “Learning prosthetic vision: a virtual-reality study,” IEEE Trans. Neural Syst. Rehabil. Eng. 13(3), 249–255 (2005).
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2003 (2)

J. Sommerhalder, E. Oueghlani, M. Bagnoud, U. Leonards, A. B. Safran, and M. Pelizzone, “Simulation of artificial vision: I. Eccentric reading of isolated words, and perceptual learning,” Vision Res. 43(3), 269–283 (2003).
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P. Bach-y-Rita and S. W Kercel, “Sensory substitution and the human-machine interface,” Trends Cogn. Sci. (Regul. Ed.) 7(12), 541–546 (2003).
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2002 (2)

L. H. Snyder, J. L. Calton, A. R. Dickinson, and B. M. Lawrence, “Eye-hand coordination: saccades are faster when accompanied by a coordinated arm movement,” J. Neurophysiol. 87(5), 2279–2286 (2002).
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2001 (4)

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1992 (2)

K. Cha, K. Horch, and R. A. Normann, “Simulation of a phosphene-based visual field: visual acuity in a pixelized vision system,” Ann. Biomed. Eng. 20(4), 439–449 (1992).
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J. L. Stone, W. E. Barlow, M. S. Humayun, E. de Juan, and A. H. Milam, “Morphometric analysis of macular photoreceptors and ganglion cells in retinas with retinitis pigmentosa,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 110(11), 1634–1639 (1992).
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1981 (1)

J. Nachmias, “On the psychometric function for contrast detection,” Vision Res. 21(2), 215–223 (1981).
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1974 (1)

J. M. Loomis, “Tactile letter recognition under different modes of stimulus presentation,” Percept. Psychophys. 16(2), 401–408 (1974).
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1965 (1)

G. B. Wetherill and H. Levitt, “Sequential Estimation of Points on a Pshchometric Function,” Br. J. Math. Stat. Psychol. 18(1), 1–10 (1965).
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1963 (1)

R. Held and A. Hein, “Movement-produced stimulation in the development of visually guided behavior,” J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 56(5), 872–876 (1963).
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1952 (1)

H. B. Barlow, “Eye movements during fixation,” J. Physiol. 116(3), 290–306 (1952).
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Abraham, R.

J. Wills, R. Gillett, E. Eastwell, R. Abraham, K. Coffey, A. Webber, and J. Wood, “Effect of simulated astigmatic refractive error on reading performance in the young,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 89(3), 271–276 (2012).
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Ahissar, E.

A. Saig, G. Gordon, E. Assa, A. Arieli, and E. Ahissar, “Motor-sensory confluence in tactile perception,” J. Neurosci. 32(40), 14022–14032 (2012).
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E. Ahissar and A. Arieli, “Seeing via miniature eye movements: a dynamic hypothesis for vision,” Front. Comput. Neurosci. 6, 89 (2012).
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E. Gamzu and E. Ahissar, “Importance of temporal cues for tactile spatial- frequency discrimination,” J. Neurosci. 21(18), 7416–7427 (2001).
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B. Hsu, C. H. Hsieh, S. N. Yu, E. Ahissar, A. Arieli, and Y. Zilbershtain-Kra, “A tactile vision substitution system for the study of active sensing,” IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc. Annu. Conf. (2013).
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Arathorn, D. W.

D. W. Arathorn, S. B. Stevenson, Q. Yang, P. Tiruveedhula, and A. Roorda, “How the unstable eye sees a stable and moving world,” J. Vis. 13(10), 22 (2013).
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Arditi, A.

L. da Cruz, J. D. Dorn, M. S. Humayun, G. Dagnelie, J. Handa, P. O. Barale, J. A. Sahel, P. E. Stanga, F. Hafezi, A. B. Safran, J. Salzmann, A. Santos, D. Birch, R. Spencer, A. V. Cideciyan, E. de Juan, J. L. Duncan, D. Eliott, A. Fawzi, L. C. Olmos de Koo, A. C. Ho, G. Brown, J. Haller, C. Regillo, L. V. Del Priore, A. Arditi, R. J. Greenberg, and Argus II Study Group, “Five-Year Safety and Performance Results from the Argus II Retinal Prosthesis System Clinical Trial,” Ophthalmology 123(10), 2248–2254 (2016).
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A. C. Ho, M. S. Humayun, J. D. Dorn, L. da Cruz, G. Dagnelie, J. Handa, P.-O. Barale, J.-A. Sahel, P. E. Stanga, F. Hafezi, A. B. Safran, J. Salzmann, A. Santos, D. Birch, R. Spencer, A. V. Cideciyan, E. de Juan, J. L. Duncan, D. Eliott, A. Fawzi, L. C. Olmos de Koo, G. C. Brown, J. A. Haller, C. D. Regillo, L. V. Del Priore, A. Arditi, D. R. Geruschat, R. J. Greenberg, and Argus II Study Group, “Long-Term Results from an Epiretinal Prosthesis to Restore Sight to the Blind,” Ophthalmology 122(8), 1547–1554 (2015).
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Arieli, A.

A. Saig, G. Gordon, E. Assa, A. Arieli, and E. Ahissar, “Motor-sensory confluence in tactile perception,” J. Neurosci. 32(40), 14022–14032 (2012).
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E. Ahissar and A. Arieli, “Seeing via miniature eye movements: a dynamic hypothesis for vision,” Front. Comput. Neurosci. 6, 89 (2012).
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B. Hsu, C. H. Hsieh, S. N. Yu, E. Ahissar, A. Arieli, and Y. Zilbershtain-Kra, “A tactile vision substitution system for the study of active sensing,” IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc. Annu. Conf. (2013).
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Assa, E.

A. Saig, G. Gordon, E. Assa, A. Arieli, and E. Ahissar, “Motor-sensory confluence in tactile perception,” J. Neurosci. 32(40), 14022–14032 (2012).
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Authié, C. N.

N. Sabbah, C. N. Authié, N. Sanda, S. Mohand-Said, J. A. Sahel, and A. B. Safran, “Importance of eye position on spatial localization in blind subjects wearing an Argus II retinal prosthesis,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 55(12), 8259–8266 (2014).
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Bach-y-Rita, P.

P. Bach-y-Rita, “Tactile sensory substitution studies,” Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1013(1), 83–91 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Bach-y-Rita and S. W Kercel, “Sensory substitution and the human-machine interface,” Trends Cogn. Sci. (Regul. Ed.) 7(12), 541–546 (2003).
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Bäckström, A.

R. S. Johansson, G. Westling, A. Bäckström, and J. R. Flanagan, “Eye-hand coordination in object manipulation,” J. Neurosci. 21(17), 6917–6932 (2001).
[PubMed]

Bagnoud, M.

J. Sommerhalder, E. Oueghlani, M. Bagnoud, U. Leonards, A. B. Safran, and M. Pelizzone, “Simulation of artificial vision: I. Eccentric reading of isolated words, and perceptual learning,” Vision Res. 43(3), 269–283 (2003).
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Barale, P. O.

L. da Cruz, J. D. Dorn, M. S. Humayun, G. Dagnelie, J. Handa, P. O. Barale, J. A. Sahel, P. E. Stanga, F. Hafezi, A. B. Safran, J. Salzmann, A. Santos, D. Birch, R. Spencer, A. V. Cideciyan, E. de Juan, J. L. Duncan, D. Eliott, A. Fawzi, L. C. Olmos de Koo, A. C. Ho, G. Brown, J. Haller, C. Regillo, L. V. Del Priore, A. Arditi, R. J. Greenberg, and Argus II Study Group, “Five-Year Safety and Performance Results from the Argus II Retinal Prosthesis System Clinical Trial,” Ophthalmology 123(10), 2248–2254 (2016).
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Barale, P.-O.

A. C. Ho, M. S. Humayun, J. D. Dorn, L. da Cruz, G. Dagnelie, J. Handa, P.-O. Barale, J.-A. Sahel, P. E. Stanga, F. Hafezi, A. B. Safran, J. Salzmann, A. Santos, D. Birch, R. Spencer, A. V. Cideciyan, E. de Juan, J. L. Duncan, D. Eliott, A. Fawzi, L. C. Olmos de Koo, G. C. Brown, J. A. Haller, C. D. Regillo, L. V. Del Priore, A. Arditi, D. R. Geruschat, R. J. Greenberg, and Argus II Study Group, “Long-Term Results from an Epiretinal Prosthesis to Restore Sight to the Blind,” Ophthalmology 122(8), 1547–1554 (2015).
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Barlow, H. B.

H. B. Barlow, “Eye movements during fixation,” J. Physiol. 116(3), 290–306 (1952).
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Barlow, W. E.

J. L. Stone, W. E. Barlow, M. S. Humayun, E. de Juan, and A. H. Milam, “Morphometric analysis of macular photoreceptors and ganglion cells in retinas with retinitis pigmentosa,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 110(11), 1634–1639 (1992).
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Barnett, D.

G. Dagnelie, D. Barnett, M. S. Humayun, and R. W. Thompson, “Paragraph text reading using a pixelized prosthetic vision simulator: parameter dependence and task learning in free-viewing conditions,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47(3), 1241–1250 (2006).
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Bartl-Pokorny, K. D.

M. Krieber, K. D. Bartl-Pokorny, F. B. Pokorny, C. Einspieler, A. Langmann, C. Körner, T. Falck-Ytter, and P. B. Marschik, “The Relation between Reading Skills and Eye Movement Patterns in Adolescent Readers: Evidence from a Regular Orthography,” PLoS One 11(1), e0145934 (2016).
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Bartz-Schmidt, K. U.

Z. M. Hafed, K. Stingl, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, F. Gekeler, and E. Zrenner, “Oculomotor behavior of blind patients seeing with a subretinal visual implant,” Vision Res. 118, 119–131 (2016).
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K. Stingl, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, D. Besch, C. K. Chee, C. L. Cottriall, F. Gekeler, M. Groppe, T. L. Jackson, R. E. MacLaren, A. Koitschev, A. Kusnyerik, J. Neffendorf, J. Nemeth, M. A. N. Naeem, T. Peters, J. D. Ramsden, H. Sachs, A. Simpson, M. S. Singh, B. Wilhelm, D. Wong, and E. Zrenner, “Subretinal Visual Implant Alpha IMS--Clinical trial interim report,” Vision Res. 111(Pt B), 149–160 (2015).
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E. Zrenner, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, H. Benav, D. Besch, A. Bruckmann, V.-P. Gabel, F. Gekeler, U. Greppmaier, A. Harscher, S. Kibbel, J. Koch, A. Kusnyerik, T. Peters, K. Stingl, H. Sachs, A. Stett, P. Szurman, B. Wilhelm, and R. Wilke, “Subretinal electronic chips allow blind patients to read letters and combine them to words,” Proc. Biol. Sci. 278(1711), 1489–1497 (2011).
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Bayliss, A. P.

B. Maddox, A. P. Bayliss, P. Fleming, P. E. Engelhardt, S. G. Edwards, and F. Borgonovi, “Observing response processes with eye tracking in international large-scale assessments: evidence from the OECD PIAAC assessment,” Eur. J. Psychol. Educ. 33(3), 543–558 (2018).
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Benav, H.

E. Zrenner, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, H. Benav, D. Besch, A. Bruckmann, V.-P. Gabel, F. Gekeler, U. Greppmaier, A. Harscher, S. Kibbel, J. Koch, A. Kusnyerik, T. Peters, K. Stingl, H. Sachs, A. Stett, P. Szurman, B. Wilhelm, and R. Wilke, “Subretinal electronic chips allow blind patients to read letters and combine them to words,” Proc. Biol. Sci. 278(1711), 1489–1497 (2011).
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Besch, D.

K. Stingl, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, D. Besch, C. K. Chee, C. L. Cottriall, F. Gekeler, M. Groppe, T. L. Jackson, R. E. MacLaren, A. Koitschev, A. Kusnyerik, J. Neffendorf, J. Nemeth, M. A. N. Naeem, T. Peters, J. D. Ramsden, H. Sachs, A. Simpson, M. S. Singh, B. Wilhelm, D. Wong, and E. Zrenner, “Subretinal Visual Implant Alpha IMS--Clinical trial interim report,” Vision Res. 111(Pt B), 149–160 (2015).
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E. Zrenner, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, H. Benav, D. Besch, A. Bruckmann, V.-P. Gabel, F. Gekeler, U. Greppmaier, A. Harscher, S. Kibbel, J. Koch, A. Kusnyerik, T. Peters, K. Stingl, H. Sachs, A. Stett, P. Szurman, B. Wilhelm, and R. Wilke, “Subretinal electronic chips allow blind patients to read letters and combine them to words,” Proc. Biol. Sci. 278(1711), 1489–1497 (2011).
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Bhogal, G.

J. S. Wolffsohn, G. Bhogal, and S. Shah, “Effect of uncorrected astigmatism on vision,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 37(3), 454–460 (2011).
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Birch, D.

L. da Cruz, J. D. Dorn, M. S. Humayun, G. Dagnelie, J. Handa, P. O. Barale, J. A. Sahel, P. E. Stanga, F. Hafezi, A. B. Safran, J. Salzmann, A. Santos, D. Birch, R. Spencer, A. V. Cideciyan, E. de Juan, J. L. Duncan, D. Eliott, A. Fawzi, L. C. Olmos de Koo, A. C. Ho, G. Brown, J. Haller, C. Regillo, L. V. Del Priore, A. Arditi, R. J. Greenberg, and Argus II Study Group, “Five-Year Safety and Performance Results from the Argus II Retinal Prosthesis System Clinical Trial,” Ophthalmology 123(10), 2248–2254 (2016).
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A. C. Ho, M. S. Humayun, J. D. Dorn, L. da Cruz, G. Dagnelie, J. Handa, P.-O. Barale, J.-A. Sahel, P. E. Stanga, F. Hafezi, A. B. Safran, J. Salzmann, A. Santos, D. Birch, R. Spencer, A. V. Cideciyan, E. de Juan, J. L. Duncan, D. Eliott, A. Fawzi, L. C. Olmos de Koo, G. C. Brown, J. A. Haller, C. D. Regillo, L. V. Del Priore, A. Arditi, D. R. Geruschat, R. J. Greenberg, and Argus II Study Group, “Long-Term Results from an Epiretinal Prosthesis to Restore Sight to the Blind,” Ophthalmology 122(8), 1547–1554 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Borgonovi, F.

B. Maddox, A. P. Bayliss, P. Fleming, P. E. Engelhardt, S. G. Edwards, and F. Borgonovi, “Observing response processes with eye tracking in international large-scale assessments: evidence from the OECD PIAAC assessment,” Eur. J. Psychol. Educ. 33(3), 543–558 (2018).
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Bovee, J. C.

G. E. Raney, S. J. Campbell, and J. C. Bovee, “Using eye movements to evaluate the cognitive processes involved in text comprehension,” J. Vis. Exp. (83): e50780 (2014).
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Brown, G.

L. da Cruz, J. D. Dorn, M. S. Humayun, G. Dagnelie, J. Handa, P. O. Barale, J. A. Sahel, P. E. Stanga, F. Hafezi, A. B. Safran, J. Salzmann, A. Santos, D. Birch, R. Spencer, A. V. Cideciyan, E. de Juan, J. L. Duncan, D. Eliott, A. Fawzi, L. C. Olmos de Koo, A. C. Ho, G. Brown, J. Haller, C. Regillo, L. V. Del Priore, A. Arditi, R. J. Greenberg, and Argus II Study Group, “Five-Year Safety and Performance Results from the Argus II Retinal Prosthesis System Clinical Trial,” Ophthalmology 123(10), 2248–2254 (2016).
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Brown, G. C.

A. C. Ho, M. S. Humayun, J. D. Dorn, L. da Cruz, G. Dagnelie, J. Handa, P.-O. Barale, J.-A. Sahel, P. E. Stanga, F. Hafezi, A. B. Safran, J. Salzmann, A. Santos, D. Birch, R. Spencer, A. V. Cideciyan, E. de Juan, J. L. Duncan, D. Eliott, A. Fawzi, L. C. Olmos de Koo, G. C. Brown, J. A. Haller, C. D. Regillo, L. V. Del Priore, A. Arditi, D. R. Geruschat, R. J. Greenberg, and Argus II Study Group, “Long-Term Results from an Epiretinal Prosthesis to Restore Sight to the Blind,” Ophthalmology 122(8), 1547–1554 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bruckmann, A.

E. Zrenner, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, H. Benav, D. Besch, A. Bruckmann, V.-P. Gabel, F. Gekeler, U. Greppmaier, A. Harscher, S. Kibbel, J. Koch, A. Kusnyerik, T. Peters, K. Stingl, H. Sachs, A. Stett, P. Szurman, B. Wilhelm, and R. Wilke, “Subretinal electronic chips allow blind patients to read letters and combine them to words,” Proc. Biol. Sci. 278(1711), 1489–1497 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cai, S.

L. Fu, S. Cai, H. Zhang, G. Hu, and X. Zhang, “Psychophysics of reading with a limited number of pixels: towards the rehabilitation of reading ability with visual prosthesis,” Vision Res. 46(8-9), 1292–1301 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Calton, J. L.

L. H. Snyder, J. L. Calton, A. R. Dickinson, and B. M. Lawrence, “Eye-hand coordination: saccades are faster when accompanied by a coordinated arm movement,” J. Neurophysiol. 87(5), 2279–2286 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Campbell, S. J.

G. E. Raney, S. J. Campbell, and J. C. Bovee, “Using eye movements to evaluate the cognitive processes involved in text comprehension,” J. Vis. Exp. (83): e50780 (2014).
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S. Venkatraman and J. M. Carmena, “Active sensing of target location encoded by cortical microstimulation,” IEEE Trans. Neural Syst. Rehabil. Eng. 19(3), 317–324 (2011).
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Caspi, A.

A. Caspi, A. Roy, J. D. Dorn, and R. J. Greenberg, “Retinotopic to spatiotopic mapping in blind patients implanted with the argus II retinal prosthesis,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 58(1), 119–127 (2017).
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J. Sahel, S. Mohand-Said, P. Stanga, A. Caspi, and R. Greenberg, “AcuboostTM: Enhancing the maximum acuity of the Argus II Retinal Prosthesis System,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(15), 1389 (2013).

Cha, K.

K. Cha, K. Horch, and R. A. Normann, “Simulation of a phosphene-based visual field: visual acuity in a pixelized vision system,” Ann. Biomed. Eng. 20(4), 439–449 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chan, J. S.

J. S. Chan, T. Maucher, J. Schemmel, D. Kilroy, F. N. Newell, and K. Meier, “The virtual haptic display: a device for exploring 2-D virtual shapes in the tactile modality,” Behav. Res. Methods 39(4), 802–810 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chee, C. K.

K. Stingl, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, D. Besch, C. K. Chee, C. L. Cottriall, F. Gekeler, M. Groppe, T. L. Jackson, R. E. MacLaren, A. Koitschev, A. Kusnyerik, J. Neffendorf, J. Nemeth, M. A. N. Naeem, T. Peters, J. D. Ramsden, H. Sachs, A. Simpson, M. S. Singh, B. Wilhelm, D. Wong, and E. Zrenner, “Subretinal Visual Implant Alpha IMS--Clinical trial interim report,” Vision Res. 111(Pt B), 149–160 (2015).
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Chen, F. K.

L. da Cruz, B. F. Coley, J. Dorn, F. Merlini, E. Filley, P. Christopher, F. K. Chen, V. Wuyyuru, J. Sahel, P. Stanga, M. Humayun, R. J. Greenberg, G. Dagnelie, and A. I. S. Argus II Study Group “The Argus II epiretinal prosthesis system allows letter and word reading and long-term function in patients with profound vision loss,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.97(5), 632 (2013).

Chen, S. C.

S. C. Chen, G. J. Suaning, J. W. Morley, and N. H. Lovell, “Simulating prosthetic vision: II. Measuring functional capacity,” Vision Res. 49(19), 2329–2343 (2009).
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S. C. Chen, G. J. Suaning, J. W. Morley, and N. H. Lovell, “Simulating prosthetic vision: I. Visual models of phosphenes,” Vision Res. 49(12), 1493–1506 (2009).
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S. C. Chen, L. E. Hallum, N. H. Lovell, and G. J. Suaning, “Learning prosthetic vision: a virtual-reality study,” IEEE Trans. Neural Syst. Rehabil. Eng. 13(3), 249–255 (2005).
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Christopher, P.

L. da Cruz, B. F. Coley, J. Dorn, F. Merlini, E. Filley, P. Christopher, F. K. Chen, V. Wuyyuru, J. Sahel, P. Stanga, M. Humayun, R. J. Greenberg, G. Dagnelie, and A. I. S. Argus II Study Group “The Argus II epiretinal prosthesis system allows letter and word reading and long-term function in patients with profound vision loss,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.97(5), 632 (2013).

Cideciyan, A. V.

L. da Cruz, J. D. Dorn, M. S. Humayun, G. Dagnelie, J. Handa, P. O. Barale, J. A. Sahel, P. E. Stanga, F. Hafezi, A. B. Safran, J. Salzmann, A. Santos, D. Birch, R. Spencer, A. V. Cideciyan, E. de Juan, J. L. Duncan, D. Eliott, A. Fawzi, L. C. Olmos de Koo, A. C. Ho, G. Brown, J. Haller, C. Regillo, L. V. Del Priore, A. Arditi, R. J. Greenberg, and Argus II Study Group, “Five-Year Safety and Performance Results from the Argus II Retinal Prosthesis System Clinical Trial,” Ophthalmology 123(10), 2248–2254 (2016).
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A. C. Ho, M. S. Humayun, J. D. Dorn, L. da Cruz, G. Dagnelie, J. Handa, P.-O. Barale, J.-A. Sahel, P. E. Stanga, F. Hafezi, A. B. Safran, J. Salzmann, A. Santos, D. Birch, R. Spencer, A. V. Cideciyan, E. de Juan, J. L. Duncan, D. Eliott, A. Fawzi, L. C. Olmos de Koo, G. C. Brown, J. A. Haller, C. D. Regillo, L. V. Del Priore, A. Arditi, D. R. Geruschat, R. J. Greenberg, and Argus II Study Group, “Long-Term Results from an Epiretinal Prosthesis to Restore Sight to the Blind,” Ophthalmology 122(8), 1547–1554 (2015).
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Cloherty, S. L.

L. E. Hallum, S. L. Cloherty, and N. H. Lovell, “Image analysis for microelectronic retinal prosthesis,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 55(1), 344–346 (2008).
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Coffey, K.

J. Wills, R. Gillett, E. Eastwell, R. Abraham, K. Coffey, A. Webber, and J. Wood, “Effect of simulated astigmatic refractive error on reading performance in the young,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 89(3), 271–276 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Coley, B. F.

L. da Cruz, B. F. Coley, J. Dorn, F. Merlini, E. Filley, P. Christopher, F. K. Chen, V. Wuyyuru, J. Sahel, P. Stanga, M. Humayun, R. J. Greenberg, G. Dagnelie, and A. I. S. Argus II Study Group “The Argus II epiretinal prosthesis system allows letter and word reading and long-term function in patients with profound vision loss,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.97(5), 632 (2013).

Cottriall, C. L.

K. Stingl, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, D. Besch, C. K. Chee, C. L. Cottriall, F. Gekeler, M. Groppe, T. L. Jackson, R. E. MacLaren, A. Koitschev, A. Kusnyerik, J. Neffendorf, J. Nemeth, M. A. N. Naeem, T. Peters, J. D. Ramsden, H. Sachs, A. Simpson, M. S. Singh, B. Wilhelm, D. Wong, and E. Zrenner, “Subretinal Visual Implant Alpha IMS--Clinical trial interim report,” Vision Res. 111(Pt B), 149–160 (2015).
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da Cruz, L.

L. da Cruz, J. D. Dorn, M. S. Humayun, G. Dagnelie, J. Handa, P. O. Barale, J. A. Sahel, P. E. Stanga, F. Hafezi, A. B. Safran, J. Salzmann, A. Santos, D. Birch, R. Spencer, A. V. Cideciyan, E. de Juan, J. L. Duncan, D. Eliott, A. Fawzi, L. C. Olmos de Koo, A. C. Ho, G. Brown, J. Haller, C. Regillo, L. V. Del Priore, A. Arditi, R. J. Greenberg, and Argus II Study Group, “Five-Year Safety and Performance Results from the Argus II Retinal Prosthesis System Clinical Trial,” Ophthalmology 123(10), 2248–2254 (2016).
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A. C. Ho, M. S. Humayun, J. D. Dorn, L. da Cruz, G. Dagnelie, J. Handa, P.-O. Barale, J.-A. Sahel, P. E. Stanga, F. Hafezi, A. B. Safran, J. Salzmann, A. Santos, D. Birch, R. Spencer, A. V. Cideciyan, E. de Juan, J. L. Duncan, D. Eliott, A. Fawzi, L. C. Olmos de Koo, G. C. Brown, J. A. Haller, C. D. Regillo, L. V. Del Priore, A. Arditi, D. R. Geruschat, R. J. Greenberg, and Argus II Study Group, “Long-Term Results from an Epiretinal Prosthesis to Restore Sight to the Blind,” Ophthalmology 122(8), 1547–1554 (2015).
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L. da Cruz, B. F. Coley, J. Dorn, F. Merlini, E. Filley, P. Christopher, F. K. Chen, V. Wuyyuru, J. Sahel, P. Stanga, M. Humayun, R. J. Greenberg, G. Dagnelie, and A. I. S. Argus II Study Group “The Argus II epiretinal prosthesis system allows letter and word reading and long-term function in patients with profound vision loss,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.97(5), 632 (2013).

Dagnelie, G.

L. da Cruz, J. D. Dorn, M. S. Humayun, G. Dagnelie, J. Handa, P. O. Barale, J. A. Sahel, P. E. Stanga, F. Hafezi, A. B. Safran, J. Salzmann, A. Santos, D. Birch, R. Spencer, A. V. Cideciyan, E. de Juan, J. L. Duncan, D. Eliott, A. Fawzi, L. C. Olmos de Koo, A. C. Ho, G. Brown, J. Haller, C. Regillo, L. V. Del Priore, A. Arditi, R. J. Greenberg, and Argus II Study Group, “Five-Year Safety and Performance Results from the Argus II Retinal Prosthesis System Clinical Trial,” Ophthalmology 123(10), 2248–2254 (2016).
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A. C. Ho, M. S. Humayun, J. D. Dorn, L. da Cruz, G. Dagnelie, J. Handa, P.-O. Barale, J.-A. Sahel, P. E. Stanga, F. Hafezi, A. B. Safran, J. Salzmann, A. Santos, D. Birch, R. Spencer, A. V. Cideciyan, E. de Juan, J. L. Duncan, D. Eliott, A. Fawzi, L. C. Olmos de Koo, G. C. Brown, J. A. Haller, C. D. Regillo, L. V. Del Priore, A. Arditi, D. R. Geruschat, R. J. Greenberg, and Argus II Study Group, “Long-Term Results from an Epiretinal Prosthesis to Restore Sight to the Blind,” Ophthalmology 122(8), 1547–1554 (2015).
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H. C. Stronks and G. Dagnelie, “The functional performance of the Argus II retinal prosthesis,” Expert Rev. Med. Devices 11(1), 23–30 (2014).
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G. Dagnelie, D. Barnett, M. S. Humayun, and R. W. Thompson, “Paragraph text reading using a pixelized prosthetic vision simulator: parameter dependence and task learning in free-viewing conditions,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47(3), 1241–1250 (2006).
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L. da Cruz, B. F. Coley, J. Dorn, F. Merlini, E. Filley, P. Christopher, F. K. Chen, V. Wuyyuru, J. Sahel, P. Stanga, M. Humayun, R. J. Greenberg, G. Dagnelie, and A. I. S. Argus II Study Group “The Argus II epiretinal prosthesis system allows letter and word reading and long-term function in patients with profound vision loss,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.97(5), 632 (2013).

de Juan, E.

L. da Cruz, J. D. Dorn, M. S. Humayun, G. Dagnelie, J. Handa, P. O. Barale, J. A. Sahel, P. E. Stanga, F. Hafezi, A. B. Safran, J. Salzmann, A. Santos, D. Birch, R. Spencer, A. V. Cideciyan, E. de Juan, J. L. Duncan, D. Eliott, A. Fawzi, L. C. Olmos de Koo, A. C. Ho, G. Brown, J. Haller, C. Regillo, L. V. Del Priore, A. Arditi, R. J. Greenberg, and Argus II Study Group, “Five-Year Safety and Performance Results from the Argus II Retinal Prosthesis System Clinical Trial,” Ophthalmology 123(10), 2248–2254 (2016).
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A. C. Ho, M. S. Humayun, J. D. Dorn, L. da Cruz, G. Dagnelie, J. Handa, P.-O. Barale, J.-A. Sahel, P. E. Stanga, F. Hafezi, A. B. Safran, J. Salzmann, A. Santos, D. Birch, R. Spencer, A. V. Cideciyan, E. de Juan, J. L. Duncan, D. Eliott, A. Fawzi, L. C. Olmos de Koo, G. C. Brown, J. A. Haller, C. D. Regillo, L. V. Del Priore, A. Arditi, D. R. Geruschat, R. J. Greenberg, and Argus II Study Group, “Long-Term Results from an Epiretinal Prosthesis to Restore Sight to the Blind,” Ophthalmology 122(8), 1547–1554 (2015).
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S. Y. Kim, S. Sadda, J. Pearlman, M. S. Humayun, E. de Juan, B. M. Melia, and W. R. Green, “Morphometric analysis of the macula in eyes with disciform age-related macular degeneration,” Retina 22(4), 471–477 (2002).
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J. L. Stone, W. E. Barlow, M. S. Humayun, E. de Juan, and A. H. Milam, “Morphometric analysis of macular photoreceptors and ganglion cells in retinas with retinitis pigmentosa,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 110(11), 1634–1639 (1992).
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Del Priore, L. V.

L. da Cruz, J. D. Dorn, M. S. Humayun, G. Dagnelie, J. Handa, P. O. Barale, J. A. Sahel, P. E. Stanga, F. Hafezi, A. B. Safran, J. Salzmann, A. Santos, D. Birch, R. Spencer, A. V. Cideciyan, E. de Juan, J. L. Duncan, D. Eliott, A. Fawzi, L. C. Olmos de Koo, A. C. Ho, G. Brown, J. Haller, C. Regillo, L. V. Del Priore, A. Arditi, R. J. Greenberg, and Argus II Study Group, “Five-Year Safety and Performance Results from the Argus II Retinal Prosthesis System Clinical Trial,” Ophthalmology 123(10), 2248–2254 (2016).
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A. C. Ho, M. S. Humayun, J. D. Dorn, L. da Cruz, G. Dagnelie, J. Handa, P.-O. Barale, J.-A. Sahel, P. E. Stanga, F. Hafezi, A. B. Safran, J. Salzmann, A. Santos, D. Birch, R. Spencer, A. V. Cideciyan, E. de Juan, J. L. Duncan, D. Eliott, A. Fawzi, L. C. Olmos de Koo, G. C. Brown, J. A. Haller, C. D. Regillo, L. V. Del Priore, A. Arditi, D. R. Geruschat, R. J. Greenberg, and Argus II Study Group, “Long-Term Results from an Epiretinal Prosthesis to Restore Sight to the Blind,” Ophthalmology 122(8), 1547–1554 (2015).
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Dickinson, A. R.

L. H. Snyder, J. L. Calton, A. R. Dickinson, and B. M. Lawrence, “Eye-hand coordination: saccades are faster when accompanied by a coordinated arm movement,” J. Neurophysiol. 87(5), 2279–2286 (2002).
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Domdei, N.

K. Ratnam, N. Domdei, W. M. Harmening, and A. Roorda, “Benefits of retinal image motion at the limits of spatial vision,” J. Vis. 17(1), 30 (2017).
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Dorn, J.

L. da Cruz, B. F. Coley, J. Dorn, F. Merlini, E. Filley, P. Christopher, F. K. Chen, V. Wuyyuru, J. Sahel, P. Stanga, M. Humayun, R. J. Greenberg, G. Dagnelie, and A. I. S. Argus II Study Group “The Argus II epiretinal prosthesis system allows letter and word reading and long-term function in patients with profound vision loss,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.97(5), 632 (2013).

Dorn, J. D.

A. Caspi, A. Roy, J. D. Dorn, and R. J. Greenberg, “Retinotopic to spatiotopic mapping in blind patients implanted with the argus II retinal prosthesis,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 58(1), 119–127 (2017).
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L. da Cruz, J. D. Dorn, M. S. Humayun, G. Dagnelie, J. Handa, P. O. Barale, J. A. Sahel, P. E. Stanga, F. Hafezi, A. B. Safran, J. Salzmann, A. Santos, D. Birch, R. Spencer, A. V. Cideciyan, E. de Juan, J. L. Duncan, D. Eliott, A. Fawzi, L. C. Olmos de Koo, A. C. Ho, G. Brown, J. Haller, C. Regillo, L. V. Del Priore, A. Arditi, R. J. Greenberg, and Argus II Study Group, “Five-Year Safety and Performance Results from the Argus II Retinal Prosthesis System Clinical Trial,” Ophthalmology 123(10), 2248–2254 (2016).
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A. C. Ho, M. S. Humayun, J. D. Dorn, L. da Cruz, G. Dagnelie, J. Handa, P.-O. Barale, J.-A. Sahel, P. E. Stanga, F. Hafezi, A. B. Safran, J. Salzmann, A. Santos, D. Birch, R. Spencer, A. V. Cideciyan, E. de Juan, J. L. Duncan, D. Eliott, A. Fawzi, L. C. Olmos de Koo, G. C. Brown, J. A. Haller, C. D. Regillo, L. V. Del Priore, A. Arditi, D. R. Geruschat, R. J. Greenberg, and Argus II Study Group, “Long-Term Results from an Epiretinal Prosthesis to Restore Sight to the Blind,” Ophthalmology 122(8), 1547–1554 (2015).
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Duncan, J. L.

L. da Cruz, J. D. Dorn, M. S. Humayun, G. Dagnelie, J. Handa, P. O. Barale, J. A. Sahel, P. E. Stanga, F. Hafezi, A. B. Safran, J. Salzmann, A. Santos, D. Birch, R. Spencer, A. V. Cideciyan, E. de Juan, J. L. Duncan, D. Eliott, A. Fawzi, L. C. Olmos de Koo, A. C. Ho, G. Brown, J. Haller, C. Regillo, L. V. Del Priore, A. Arditi, R. J. Greenberg, and Argus II Study Group, “Five-Year Safety and Performance Results from the Argus II Retinal Prosthesis System Clinical Trial,” Ophthalmology 123(10), 2248–2254 (2016).
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A. C. Ho, M. S. Humayun, J. D. Dorn, L. da Cruz, G. Dagnelie, J. Handa, P.-O. Barale, J.-A. Sahel, P. E. Stanga, F. Hafezi, A. B. Safran, J. Salzmann, A. Santos, D. Birch, R. Spencer, A. V. Cideciyan, E. de Juan, J. L. Duncan, D. Eliott, A. Fawzi, L. C. Olmos de Koo, G. C. Brown, J. A. Haller, C. D. Regillo, L. V. Del Priore, A. Arditi, D. R. Geruschat, R. J. Greenberg, and Argus II Study Group, “Long-Term Results from an Epiretinal Prosthesis to Restore Sight to the Blind,” Ophthalmology 122(8), 1547–1554 (2015).
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Eastwell, E.

J. Wills, R. Gillett, E. Eastwell, R. Abraham, K. Coffey, A. Webber, and J. Wood, “Effect of simulated astigmatic refractive error on reading performance in the young,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 89(3), 271–276 (2012).
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Edwards, S. G.

B. Maddox, A. P. Bayliss, P. Fleming, P. E. Engelhardt, S. G. Edwards, and F. Borgonovi, “Observing response processes with eye tracking in international large-scale assessments: evidence from the OECD PIAAC assessment,” Eur. J. Psychol. Educ. 33(3), 543–558 (2018).
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Einspieler, C.

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Eliott, D.

L. da Cruz, J. D. Dorn, M. S. Humayun, G. Dagnelie, J. Handa, P. O. Barale, J. A. Sahel, P. E. Stanga, F. Hafezi, A. B. Safran, J. Salzmann, A. Santos, D. Birch, R. Spencer, A. V. Cideciyan, E. de Juan, J. L. Duncan, D. Eliott, A. Fawzi, L. C. Olmos de Koo, A. C. Ho, G. Brown, J. Haller, C. Regillo, L. V. Del Priore, A. Arditi, R. J. Greenberg, and Argus II Study Group, “Five-Year Safety and Performance Results from the Argus II Retinal Prosthesis System Clinical Trial,” Ophthalmology 123(10), 2248–2254 (2016).
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A. C. Ho, M. S. Humayun, J. D. Dorn, L. da Cruz, G. Dagnelie, J. Handa, P.-O. Barale, J.-A. Sahel, P. E. Stanga, F. Hafezi, A. B. Safran, J. Salzmann, A. Santos, D. Birch, R. Spencer, A. V. Cideciyan, E. de Juan, J. L. Duncan, D. Eliott, A. Fawzi, L. C. Olmos de Koo, G. C. Brown, J. A. Haller, C. D. Regillo, L. V. Del Priore, A. Arditi, D. R. Geruschat, R. J. Greenberg, and Argus II Study Group, “Long-Term Results from an Epiretinal Prosthesis to Restore Sight to the Blind,” Ophthalmology 122(8), 1547–1554 (2015).
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Engbert, R.

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Engelhardt, P. E.

B. Maddox, A. P. Bayliss, P. Fleming, P. E. Engelhardt, S. G. Edwards, and F. Borgonovi, “Observing response processes with eye tracking in international large-scale assessments: evidence from the OECD PIAAC assessment,” Eur. J. Psychol. Educ. 33(3), 543–558 (2018).
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Falck-Ytter, T.

M. Krieber, K. D. Bartl-Pokorny, F. B. Pokorny, C. Einspieler, A. Langmann, C. Körner, T. Falck-Ytter, and P. B. Marschik, “The Relation between Reading Skills and Eye Movement Patterns in Adolescent Readers: Evidence from a Regular Orthography,” PLoS One 11(1), e0145934 (2016).
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Fawzi, A.

L. da Cruz, J. D. Dorn, M. S. Humayun, G. Dagnelie, J. Handa, P. O. Barale, J. A. Sahel, P. E. Stanga, F. Hafezi, A. B. Safran, J. Salzmann, A. Santos, D. Birch, R. Spencer, A. V. Cideciyan, E. de Juan, J. L. Duncan, D. Eliott, A. Fawzi, L. C. Olmos de Koo, A. C. Ho, G. Brown, J. Haller, C. Regillo, L. V. Del Priore, A. Arditi, R. J. Greenberg, and Argus II Study Group, “Five-Year Safety and Performance Results from the Argus II Retinal Prosthesis System Clinical Trial,” Ophthalmology 123(10), 2248–2254 (2016).
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A. C. Ho, M. S. Humayun, J. D. Dorn, L. da Cruz, G. Dagnelie, J. Handa, P.-O. Barale, J.-A. Sahel, P. E. Stanga, F. Hafezi, A. B. Safran, J. Salzmann, A. Santos, D. Birch, R. Spencer, A. V. Cideciyan, E. de Juan, J. L. Duncan, D. Eliott, A. Fawzi, L. C. Olmos de Koo, G. C. Brown, J. A. Haller, C. D. Regillo, L. V. Del Priore, A. Arditi, D. R. Geruschat, R. J. Greenberg, and Argus II Study Group, “Long-Term Results from an Epiretinal Prosthesis to Restore Sight to the Blind,” Ophthalmology 122(8), 1547–1554 (2015).
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Filley, E.

L. da Cruz, B. F. Coley, J. Dorn, F. Merlini, E. Filley, P. Christopher, F. K. Chen, V. Wuyyuru, J. Sahel, P. Stanga, M. Humayun, R. J. Greenberg, G. Dagnelie, and A. I. S. Argus II Study Group “The Argus II epiretinal prosthesis system allows letter and word reading and long-term function in patients with profound vision loss,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.97(5), 632 (2013).

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Z. M. Hafed, K. Stingl, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, F. Gekeler, and E. Zrenner, “Oculomotor behavior of blind patients seeing with a subretinal visual implant,” Vision Res. 118, 119–131 (2016).
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Geruschat, D. R.

A. C. Ho, M. S. Humayun, J. D. Dorn, L. da Cruz, G. Dagnelie, J. Handa, P.-O. Barale, J.-A. Sahel, P. E. Stanga, F. Hafezi, A. B. Safran, J. Salzmann, A. Santos, D. Birch, R. Spencer, A. V. Cideciyan, E. de Juan, J. L. Duncan, D. Eliott, A. Fawzi, L. C. Olmos de Koo, G. C. Brown, J. A. Haller, C. D. Regillo, L. V. Del Priore, A. Arditi, D. R. Geruschat, R. J. Greenberg, and Argus II Study Group, “Long-Term Results from an Epiretinal Prosthesis to Restore Sight to the Blind,” Ophthalmology 122(8), 1547–1554 (2015).
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J. Wills, R. Gillett, E. Eastwell, R. Abraham, K. Coffey, A. Webber, and J. Wood, “Effect of simulated astigmatic refractive error on reading performance in the young,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 89(3), 271–276 (2012).
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[Crossref] [PubMed]

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[Crossref] [PubMed]

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[Crossref] [PubMed]

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[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Sommerhalder, E. Oueghlani, M. Bagnoud, U. Leonards, A. B. Safran, and M. Pelizzone, “Simulation of artificial vision: I. Eccentric reading of isolated words, and perceptual learning,” Vision Res. 43(3), 269–283 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sahel, J.

J. Sahel, S. Mohand-Said, P. Stanga, A. Caspi, and R. Greenberg, “AcuboostTM: Enhancing the maximum acuity of the Argus II Retinal Prosthesis System,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(15), 1389 (2013).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Block diagram of the prosthetic vision simulation process. (a) Block diagram of the pixilation process. (b) The zoom implementation algorithm.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Prosthetic vision simulation. (a)&(b) Phosphene concept demonstration. The word “sun” generated at two phosphene densities of 0.75 CPD (a) and 1.5 CPD (b). (c)&(d) Zoom effect demonstration for the word “sun” at CPD 0f 0.75 with zoom factor of 1 (c) and 2.5 (d). (e)&(f) Contrast effect demonstration for the word “sun” at CPD of 0.75 and contrasts of 25% (e) and 50% (f).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Raw scanning data with the “hand-saccades clearly marked.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Contrast effect on reading recognition rate. The recognition rate as a function of CPD for various contrast levels of 94% (red dots), 50% (blue dots), and 25% (black dots). All solid lines represent a sigmoidal fit. Error bars represent standard error.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Active Sensing effect on reading recognition rate. a) Word recognition rate as a function of CPD for the various sensing paradigms namely: no scanning (black dots), Passive scanning (blue dots) and Active sensing (red dots). All solid lines represent a sigmoidal fit. b) Comparison of the recognitions rate, at the linear range of the psychometric curve, for the no scanning (black dots) and passive scanning (red dots) experimental paradigms. solid lines represent a linear fit. c) Comparison of the recognitions rate, at the linear range of the psychometric curve, for the passive scanning (blue dots) and active scanning (red dots). Solid lines represent a linear fit. d) Average word recognition rates for all phosphene densities for the various sensing paradigms. Error bars represent standard error.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Zoom factor effect on reading recognition rate. a) Recognition rate as a function of phosphene density for the different experimental paradigms, No zoom (red dots) and enabled zoom (blue dots). Solid lines represent a sigmoidal fit. b) Average employed zoom value as a function of phosphene density (blue dots). Solid line represents a fit to and an exponential decay. c) Phosphenes per letter density as a function of CPDs (blue dots), solid line represents a linear fit. d) Reading speed (words per minute) as a function of phosphene density for the different experimental paradigms, No zoom (red dots) and enabled zoom (blue dots). Solid lines represent a linear fit. Error bars represent standard error.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Scanning paths illustrations. Scanning path overlaid on the phosphenized word (Sun) for the same subject at various CPDs.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Scanning Path Features Analysis. (a) Hand saccades time as a function of phosphene density for the X direction (red dots) and Y direction (black dots). Solid line represents a linear fit. (b) Number of direction changes (or number of hand saccades) as a function of phosphene density for the X direction, solid line represents a linear fit. (c) Scanning velocity as a function of phosphene density for the X direction (red dots) and Y direction (black dots). Solid lines represent a linear fit. (d) Scanning amplitude as a function of phosphene density, solid line represents a power decay fit. Error bars represent standard error.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Phosphene density and phosphene per letter needed for various recognition rate

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Contrast= I Max I Min I Max + I Min
SaccadeBlock={ A COD (i)Saccade: T A COD (i) + T A COD (i+1) 1.5sec }
T SaccadesBlock ={ T A COD (i) + T A COD (i+1) 1.5sec }
Zoom=1+4.3 e 2CPD

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