Abstract

Spontaneous hemodynamic fluctuations recorded by functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) from bilateral temporal lobes were analyzed on 25 children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and 22 typically developing (TD) children. By frequency domain analysis, a new characteristic was uncovered that the power spectrum of low frequency cerebral hemodynamic oscillation showed a distinct pattern in ASD. More specifically, at the frequency of 0.0200 Hz, the power of oxygenated hemoglobin was larger for TD than ASD, whereas in the band of 0.0267-0.0333 Hz, the power of deoxygenated hemoglobin was larger for ASD than TD. Using these new features and those identified previously together as feature variables for the support vector machine (SVM) classifier, accurate classification between ASD and TD was achieved with a sensitivity of 90.2%, specificity of 95.1% and accuracy of 92.7%.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. H. Zhu, Y. Fan, H. Guo, D. Huang, and S. He, “Reduced interhemispheric functional connectivity of children with autism spectrum disorder: evidence from functional near infrared spectroscopy studies,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(4), 1262–1274 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. C. La, V. A. Nair, P. Mossahebi, J. Stamm, R. Birn, M. E. Meyerand, and V. Prabhakaran, “Recovery of slow-5 oscillations in a longitudinal study of ischemic stroke patients,” Neuroimage Clin. 11, 398–407 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  34. E. S. Neeley, E. D. Bigler, L. Krasny, S. Ozonoff, W. McMahon, and J. E. Lainhart, “Quantitative Temporal Lobe Differences: Autism Distinguished from Controls Using Classification and Regression Tree Analysis,” Brain Dev. 29(7), 389–399 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2019 (1)

T. Liu, X. Liu, L. Yi, C. Zhu, P. S. Markey, and M. Pelowski, “Assessing autism at its social and developmental roots: A review of Autism Spectrum Disorder studies using functional near-infrared spectroscopy,” Neuroimage 185, 955–967 (2019).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2018 (1)

2017 (2)

A. T. Eggebrecht, J. T. Elison, E. Feczko, A. Todorov, J. J. Wolff, S. Kandala, C. M. Adams, A. Z. Snyder, J. D. Lewis, A. M. Estes, L. Zwaigenbaum, K. N. Botteron, R. C. McKinstry, J. N. Constantino, A. Evans, H. C. Hazlett, S. Dager, S. J. Paterson, R. T. Schultz, M. A. Styner, G. Gerig, S. Das, P. Kostopoulos, B. L. Schlaggar, S. E. Petersen, J. Piven, J. R. Pruett, and J. R. Pruett, “Joint Attention and Brain Functional Connectivity in Infants and Toddlers,” Cereb. Cortex 27(3), 1709–1720 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, Q. Dong, and H. Niu, “The minimum resting-state fNIRS imaging duration for accurate and stable mapping of brain connectivity network in children,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 6461 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (11)

K. Yanagisawa, N. Nakamura, H. Tsunashima, and N. Narita, “Proposal of auxiliary diagnosis index for autism spectrum disorder using near-infrared spectroscopy,” Neurophotonics 3(3), 031413 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Li, L. Qiu, L. Xu, E. V. Pedapati, C. A. Erickson, and U. Sunar, “Characterization of autism spectrum disorder with spontaneous hemodynamic activity,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(10), 3871–3881 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. La, V. A. Nair, P. Mossahebi, J. Stamm, R. Birn, M. E. Meyerand, and V. Prabhakaran, “Recovery of slow-5 oscillations in a longitudinal study of ischemic stroke patients,” Neuroimage Clin. 11, 398–407 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. La, P. Mossahebi, V. A. Nair, B. M. Young, J. Stamm, R. Birn, M. E. Meyerand, and V. Prabhakaran, “Differing Patterns of Altered Slow-5 Oscillations in Healthy Aging and Ischemic Stroke,” Front. Hum. Neurosci. 10, 156 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Tachtsidis and F. Scholkmann, “False positives and false negatives in functional near-infrared spectroscopy: issues, challenges, and the way forward,” Neurophotonics 3(3), 031405 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Goldson, “Advances in Autism-2016,” Adv. Pediatr. 63(1), 333–355 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Li and D. Yu, “Weak network efficiency in young children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Evidence from a functional near-infrared spectroscopy study,” Brain Cogn. 108, 47–55 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. F. Sperdin and M. Schaer, “Aberrant Development of Speech Processing in Young Children with Autism: New Insights from Neuroimaging Biomarkers,” Front. Neurosci. 10, 393 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Xiang, M. Korostenskaja, C. Molloy, X. deGrauw, K. Leiken, C. Gilman, J. Meinzen-Derr, H. Fujiwara, D. F. Rose, T. Mitchell, and D. S. Murray, “Multi-frequency localization of aberrant brain activity in autism spectrum disorder,” Brain Dev. 38(1), 82–90 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Mohammad-Rezazadeh, J. Frohlich, S. K. Loo, and S. S. Jeste, “Brain connectivity in autism spectrum disorder,” Curr. Opin. Neurol. 29(2), 137–147 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Tebartz van Elst, A. Riedel, and S. Maier, “Autism as a Disorder of Altered Global Functional and Structural Connectivity,” Biol. Psychiatry 79(8), 626–627 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (2)

H. Zhu, J. Li, Y. Fan, X. Li, D. Huang, and S. He, “Atypical prefrontal cortical responses to joint/non-joint attention in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD): A functional near-infrared spectroscopy study,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(3), 690–701 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Ha, I. J. Sohn, N. Kim, H. J. Sim, and K. A. Cheon, “Characteristics of Brains in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Structure, Function and Connectivity across the Lifespan,” Exp. Neurobiol. 24(4), 273–284 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (1)

2013 (2)

F. Scholkmann and M. Wolf, “General equation for the differential pathlength factor of the frontal human head depending on wavelength and age,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(10), 105004 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Dilber, M. Calışkan, K. Sönmezoğlu, S. Nişli, N. M. Mukaddes, B. Tatlı, N. Aydınlı, B. Ekici, and M. Özmen, “Positron emission tomography findings in children with infantile spasms and autism,” J. Clin. Neurosci. 20(3), 373–376 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

R. C. Philip, M. R. Dauvermann, H. C. Whalley, K. Baynham, S. M. Lawrie, and A. C. Stanfield, “A systematic review and meta-analysis of the fMRI investigation of autism spectrum disorders,” Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. 36(2), 901–942 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Cornew, T. P. Roberts, L. Blaskey, and J. C. Edgar, “Resting-state oscillatory activity in autism spectrum disorders,” J. Autism Dev. Disord. 42(9), 1884–1894 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. T. Eyler, K. Pierce, and E. Courchesne, “A failure of left temporal cortex to specialize for language is an early emerging and fundamental property of autism,” Brain 135(3), 949–960 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

Y. Kita, A. Gunji, Y. Inoue, T. Goto, K. Sakihara, M. Kaga, M. Inagaki, and T. Hosokawa, “Self-face recognition in children with autism spectrum disorders: a near-infrared spectroscopy study,” Brain Dev. 33(6), 494–503 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Dinstein, K. Pierce, L. Eyler, S. Solso, R. Malach, M. Behrmann, and E. Courchesne, “Disrupted neural synchronization in toddlers with autism,” Neuron 70(6), 1218–1225 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

X. N. Zuo, A. Di Martino, C. Kelly, Z. E. Shehzad, D. G. Gee, D. F. Klein, F. X. Castellanos, B. B. Biswal, and M. P. Milham, “The oscillating brain: complex and reliable,” Neuroimage 49(2), 1432–1445 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. C. Mesquita, M. A. Franceschini, and D. A. Boas, “Resting state functional connectivity of the whole head with near-infrared spectroscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 1(1), 324–336 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

R. Luyster, K. Gotham, W. Guthrie, M. Coffing, R. Petrak, K. Pierce, S. Bishop, A. Esler, V. Hus, R. Oti, J. Richler, S. Risi, and C. Lord, “The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-toddler module: a new module of a standardized diagnostic measure for autism spectrum disorders,” J. Autism Dev. Disord. 39(9), 1305–1320 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

M. Murias, S. J. Webb, J. Greenson, and G. Dawson, “Resting state cortical connectivity reflected in EEG coherence in individuals with autism,” Biol. Psychiatry 62(3), 270–273 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. S. Neeley, E. D. Bigler, L. Krasny, S. Ozonoff, W. McMahon, and J. E. Lainhart, “Quantitative Temporal Lobe Differences: Autism Distinguished from Controls Using Classification and Regression Tree Analysis,” Brain Dev. 29(7), 389–399 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

A. Ben-Hur, D. Horn, H. T. Siegelmann, and V. Vapnik, “Support vector clustering,” J. Mach. Learn. Res. 2, 125–137 (2002).

2000 (2)

M. H. Ohnishi T, T. Hashimoto, T. Kunihiro, M. Nishikawa, T. Uema, and M. Sasaki, “Abnormal regional cerebral blood flow in childhood autism,” Brain 123(9), 1838–1844 (2000).
[Crossref]

M. Zilbovicius, N. Boddaert, P. Belin, J. B. Poline, P. Remy, J. F. Mangin, L. Thivard, C. Barthélémy, and Y. Samson, “Temporal lobe dysfunction in childhood autism: a PET study. Positron emission tomography,” Am. J. Psychiatry 157(12), 1988–1993 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1995 (2)

C. Cortes and V. Vapnik, “Support-vector networks,” Mach. Learn. 20(3), 273–297 (1995).
[Crossref]

C. Chiron, M. Leboyer, F. Leon, I. Jambaqué, C. Nuttin, and A. Syrota, “SPECT of the brain in childhood autism: evidence for a lack of normal hemispheric asymmetry,” Dev. Med. Child Neurol. 37(10), 849–860 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adams, C. M.

A. T. Eggebrecht, J. T. Elison, E. Feczko, A. Todorov, J. J. Wolff, S. Kandala, C. M. Adams, A. Z. Snyder, J. D. Lewis, A. M. Estes, L. Zwaigenbaum, K. N. Botteron, R. C. McKinstry, J. N. Constantino, A. Evans, H. C. Hazlett, S. Dager, S. J. Paterson, R. T. Schultz, M. A. Styner, G. Gerig, S. Das, P. Kostopoulos, B. L. Schlaggar, S. E. Petersen, J. Piven, J. R. Pruett, and J. R. Pruett, “Joint Attention and Brain Functional Connectivity in Infants and Toddlers,” Cereb. Cortex 27(3), 1709–1720 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aydinli, N.

C. Dilber, M. Calışkan, K. Sönmezoğlu, S. Nişli, N. M. Mukaddes, B. Tatlı, N. Aydınlı, B. Ekici, and M. Özmen, “Positron emission tomography findings in children with infantile spasms and autism,” J. Clin. Neurosci. 20(3), 373–376 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barthélémy, C.

M. Zilbovicius, N. Boddaert, P. Belin, J. B. Poline, P. Remy, J. F. Mangin, L. Thivard, C. Barthélémy, and Y. Samson, “Temporal lobe dysfunction in childhood autism: a PET study. Positron emission tomography,” Am. J. Psychiatry 157(12), 1988–1993 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baynham, K.

R. C. Philip, M. R. Dauvermann, H. C. Whalley, K. Baynham, S. M. Lawrie, and A. C. Stanfield, “A systematic review and meta-analysis of the fMRI investigation of autism spectrum disorders,” Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. 36(2), 901–942 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Behrmann, M.

I. Dinstein, K. Pierce, L. Eyler, S. Solso, R. Malach, M. Behrmann, and E. Courchesne, “Disrupted neural synchronization in toddlers with autism,” Neuron 70(6), 1218–1225 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Belin, P.

M. Zilbovicius, N. Boddaert, P. Belin, J. B. Poline, P. Remy, J. F. Mangin, L. Thivard, C. Barthélémy, and Y. Samson, “Temporal lobe dysfunction in childhood autism: a PET study. Positron emission tomography,” Am. J. Psychiatry 157(12), 1988–1993 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ben-Hur, A.

A. Ben-Hur, D. Horn, H. T. Siegelmann, and V. Vapnik, “Support vector clustering,” J. Mach. Learn. Res. 2, 125–137 (2002).

Bigler, E. D.

E. S. Neeley, E. D. Bigler, L. Krasny, S. Ozonoff, W. McMahon, and J. E. Lainhart, “Quantitative Temporal Lobe Differences: Autism Distinguished from Controls Using Classification and Regression Tree Analysis,” Brain Dev. 29(7), 389–399 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Birn, R.

C. La, P. Mossahebi, V. A. Nair, B. M. Young, J. Stamm, R. Birn, M. E. Meyerand, and V. Prabhakaran, “Differing Patterns of Altered Slow-5 Oscillations in Healthy Aging and Ischemic Stroke,” Front. Hum. Neurosci. 10, 156 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. La, V. A. Nair, P. Mossahebi, J. Stamm, R. Birn, M. E. Meyerand, and V. Prabhakaran, “Recovery of slow-5 oscillations in a longitudinal study of ischemic stroke patients,” Neuroimage Clin. 11, 398–407 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bishop, S.

R. Luyster, K. Gotham, W. Guthrie, M. Coffing, R. Petrak, K. Pierce, S. Bishop, A. Esler, V. Hus, R. Oti, J. Richler, S. Risi, and C. Lord, “The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-toddler module: a new module of a standardized diagnostic measure for autism spectrum disorders,” J. Autism Dev. Disord. 39(9), 1305–1320 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biswal, B. B.

X. N. Zuo, A. Di Martino, C. Kelly, Z. E. Shehzad, D. G. Gee, D. F. Klein, F. X. Castellanos, B. B. Biswal, and M. P. Milham, “The oscillating brain: complex and reliable,” Neuroimage 49(2), 1432–1445 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Blaskey, L.

L. Cornew, T. P. Roberts, L. Blaskey, and J. C. Edgar, “Resting-state oscillatory activity in autism spectrum disorders,” J. Autism Dev. Disord. 42(9), 1884–1894 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boas, D. A.

Boddaert, N.

M. Zilbovicius, N. Boddaert, P. Belin, J. B. Poline, P. Remy, J. F. Mangin, L. Thivard, C. Barthélémy, and Y. Samson, “Temporal lobe dysfunction in childhood autism: a PET study. Positron emission tomography,” Am. J. Psychiatry 157(12), 1988–1993 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Botteron, K. N.

A. T. Eggebrecht, J. T. Elison, E. Feczko, A. Todorov, J. J. Wolff, S. Kandala, C. M. Adams, A. Z. Snyder, J. D. Lewis, A. M. Estes, L. Zwaigenbaum, K. N. Botteron, R. C. McKinstry, J. N. Constantino, A. Evans, H. C. Hazlett, S. Dager, S. J. Paterson, R. T. Schultz, M. A. Styner, G. Gerig, S. Das, P. Kostopoulos, B. L. Schlaggar, S. E. Petersen, J. Piven, J. R. Pruett, and J. R. Pruett, “Joint Attention and Brain Functional Connectivity in Infants and Toddlers,” Cereb. Cortex 27(3), 1709–1720 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Caliskan, M.

C. Dilber, M. Calışkan, K. Sönmezoğlu, S. Nişli, N. M. Mukaddes, B. Tatlı, N. Aydınlı, B. Ekici, and M. Özmen, “Positron emission tomography findings in children with infantile spasms and autism,” J. Clin. Neurosci. 20(3), 373–376 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Castellanos, F. X.

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L. T. Eyler, K. Pierce, and E. Courchesne, “A failure of left temporal cortex to specialize for language is an early emerging and fundamental property of autism,” Brain 135(3), 949–960 (2012).
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A. T. Eggebrecht, J. T. Elison, E. Feczko, A. Todorov, J. J. Wolff, S. Kandala, C. M. Adams, A. Z. Snyder, J. D. Lewis, A. M. Estes, L. Zwaigenbaum, K. N. Botteron, R. C. McKinstry, J. N. Constantino, A. Evans, H. C. Hazlett, S. Dager, S. J. Paterson, R. T. Schultz, M. A. Styner, G. Gerig, S. Das, P. Kostopoulos, B. L. Schlaggar, S. E. Petersen, J. Piven, J. R. Pruett, and J. R. Pruett, “Joint Attention and Brain Functional Connectivity in Infants and Toddlers,” Cereb. Cortex 27(3), 1709–1720 (2017).
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A. T. Eggebrecht, J. T. Elison, E. Feczko, A. Todorov, J. J. Wolff, S. Kandala, C. M. Adams, A. Z. Snyder, J. D. Lewis, A. M. Estes, L. Zwaigenbaum, K. N. Botteron, R. C. McKinstry, J. N. Constantino, A. Evans, H. C. Hazlett, S. Dager, S. J. Paterson, R. T. Schultz, M. A. Styner, G. Gerig, S. Das, P. Kostopoulos, B. L. Schlaggar, S. E. Petersen, J. Piven, J. R. Pruett, and J. R. Pruett, “Joint Attention and Brain Functional Connectivity in Infants and Toddlers,” Cereb. Cortex 27(3), 1709–1720 (2017).
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M. Murias, S. J. Webb, J. Greenson, and G. Dawson, “Resting state cortical connectivity reflected in EEG coherence in individuals with autism,” Biol. Psychiatry 62(3), 270–273 (2007).
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J. Xiang, M. Korostenskaja, C. Molloy, X. deGrauw, K. Leiken, C. Gilman, J. Meinzen-Derr, H. Fujiwara, D. F. Rose, T. Mitchell, and D. S. Murray, “Multi-frequency localization of aberrant brain activity in autism spectrum disorder,” Brain Dev. 38(1), 82–90 (2016).
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L. Cornew, T. P. Roberts, L. Blaskey, and J. C. Edgar, “Resting-state oscillatory activity in autism spectrum disorders,” J. Autism Dev. Disord. 42(9), 1884–1894 (2012).
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A. T. Eggebrecht, J. T. Elison, E. Feczko, A. Todorov, J. J. Wolff, S. Kandala, C. M. Adams, A. Z. Snyder, J. D. Lewis, A. M. Estes, L. Zwaigenbaum, K. N. Botteron, R. C. McKinstry, J. N. Constantino, A. Evans, H. C. Hazlett, S. Dager, S. J. Paterson, R. T. Schultz, M. A. Styner, G. Gerig, S. Das, P. Kostopoulos, B. L. Schlaggar, S. E. Petersen, J. Piven, J. R. Pruett, and J. R. Pruett, “Joint Attention and Brain Functional Connectivity in Infants and Toddlers,” Cereb. Cortex 27(3), 1709–1720 (2017).
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C. Dilber, M. Calışkan, K. Sönmezoğlu, S. Nişli, N. M. Mukaddes, B. Tatlı, N. Aydınlı, B. Ekici, and M. Özmen, “Positron emission tomography findings in children with infantile spasms and autism,” J. Clin. Neurosci. 20(3), 373–376 (2013).
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A. T. Eggebrecht, J. T. Elison, E. Feczko, A. Todorov, J. J. Wolff, S. Kandala, C. M. Adams, A. Z. Snyder, J. D. Lewis, A. M. Estes, L. Zwaigenbaum, K. N. Botteron, R. C. McKinstry, J. N. Constantino, A. Evans, H. C. Hazlett, S. Dager, S. J. Paterson, R. T. Schultz, M. A. Styner, G. Gerig, S. Das, P. Kostopoulos, B. L. Schlaggar, S. E. Petersen, J. Piven, J. R. Pruett, and J. R. Pruett, “Joint Attention and Brain Functional Connectivity in Infants and Toddlers,” Cereb. Cortex 27(3), 1709–1720 (2017).
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Esler, A.

R. Luyster, K. Gotham, W. Guthrie, M. Coffing, R. Petrak, K. Pierce, S. Bishop, A. Esler, V. Hus, R. Oti, J. Richler, S. Risi, and C. Lord, “The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-toddler module: a new module of a standardized diagnostic measure for autism spectrum disorders,” J. Autism Dev. Disord. 39(9), 1305–1320 (2009).
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A. T. Eggebrecht, J. T. Elison, E. Feczko, A. Todorov, J. J. Wolff, S. Kandala, C. M. Adams, A. Z. Snyder, J. D. Lewis, A. M. Estes, L. Zwaigenbaum, K. N. Botteron, R. C. McKinstry, J. N. Constantino, A. Evans, H. C. Hazlett, S. Dager, S. J. Paterson, R. T. Schultz, M. A. Styner, G. Gerig, S. Das, P. Kostopoulos, B. L. Schlaggar, S. E. Petersen, J. Piven, J. R. Pruett, and J. R. Pruett, “Joint Attention and Brain Functional Connectivity in Infants and Toddlers,” Cereb. Cortex 27(3), 1709–1720 (2017).
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A. T. Eggebrecht, J. T. Elison, E. Feczko, A. Todorov, J. J. Wolff, S. Kandala, C. M. Adams, A. Z. Snyder, J. D. Lewis, A. M. Estes, L. Zwaigenbaum, K. N. Botteron, R. C. McKinstry, J. N. Constantino, A. Evans, H. C. Hazlett, S. Dager, S. J. Paterson, R. T. Schultz, M. A. Styner, G. Gerig, S. Das, P. Kostopoulos, B. L. Schlaggar, S. E. Petersen, J. Piven, J. R. Pruett, and J. R. Pruett, “Joint Attention and Brain Functional Connectivity in Infants and Toddlers,” Cereb. Cortex 27(3), 1709–1720 (2017).
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L. T. Eyler, K. Pierce, and E. Courchesne, “A failure of left temporal cortex to specialize for language is an early emerging and fundamental property of autism,” Brain 135(3), 949–960 (2012).
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Feczko, E.

A. T. Eggebrecht, J. T. Elison, E. Feczko, A. Todorov, J. J. Wolff, S. Kandala, C. M. Adams, A. Z. Snyder, J. D. Lewis, A. M. Estes, L. Zwaigenbaum, K. N. Botteron, R. C. McKinstry, J. N. Constantino, A. Evans, H. C. Hazlett, S. Dager, S. J. Paterson, R. T. Schultz, M. A. Styner, G. Gerig, S. Das, P. Kostopoulos, B. L. Schlaggar, S. E. Petersen, J. Piven, J. R. Pruett, and J. R. Pruett, “Joint Attention and Brain Functional Connectivity in Infants and Toddlers,” Cereb. Cortex 27(3), 1709–1720 (2017).
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Frohlich, J.

I. Mohammad-Rezazadeh, J. Frohlich, S. K. Loo, and S. S. Jeste, “Brain connectivity in autism spectrum disorder,” Curr. Opin. Neurol. 29(2), 137–147 (2016).
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J. Xiang, M. Korostenskaja, C. Molloy, X. deGrauw, K. Leiken, C. Gilman, J. Meinzen-Derr, H. Fujiwara, D. F. Rose, T. Mitchell, and D. S. Murray, “Multi-frequency localization of aberrant brain activity in autism spectrum disorder,” Brain Dev. 38(1), 82–90 (2016).
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X. N. Zuo, A. Di Martino, C. Kelly, Z. E. Shehzad, D. G. Gee, D. F. Klein, F. X. Castellanos, B. B. Biswal, and M. P. Milham, “The oscillating brain: complex and reliable,” Neuroimage 49(2), 1432–1445 (2010).
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A. T. Eggebrecht, J. T. Elison, E. Feczko, A. Todorov, J. J. Wolff, S. Kandala, C. M. Adams, A. Z. Snyder, J. D. Lewis, A. M. Estes, L. Zwaigenbaum, K. N. Botteron, R. C. McKinstry, J. N. Constantino, A. Evans, H. C. Hazlett, S. Dager, S. J. Paterson, R. T. Schultz, M. A. Styner, G. Gerig, S. Das, P. Kostopoulos, B. L. Schlaggar, S. E. Petersen, J. Piven, J. R. Pruett, and J. R. Pruett, “Joint Attention and Brain Functional Connectivity in Infants and Toddlers,” Cereb. Cortex 27(3), 1709–1720 (2017).
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J. Xiang, M. Korostenskaja, C. Molloy, X. deGrauw, K. Leiken, C. Gilman, J. Meinzen-Derr, H. Fujiwara, D. F. Rose, T. Mitchell, and D. S. Murray, “Multi-frequency localization of aberrant brain activity in autism spectrum disorder,” Brain Dev. 38(1), 82–90 (2016).
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Greenson, J.

M. Murias, S. J. Webb, J. Greenson, and G. Dawson, “Resting state cortical connectivity reflected in EEG coherence in individuals with autism,” Biol. Psychiatry 62(3), 270–273 (2007).
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Guthrie, W.

R. Luyster, K. Gotham, W. Guthrie, M. Coffing, R. Petrak, K. Pierce, S. Bishop, A. Esler, V. Hus, R. Oti, J. Richler, S. Risi, and C. Lord, “The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-toddler module: a new module of a standardized diagnostic measure for autism spectrum disorders,” J. Autism Dev. Disord. 39(9), 1305–1320 (2009).
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S. Ha, I. J. Sohn, N. Kim, H. J. Sim, and K. A. Cheon, “Characteristics of Brains in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Structure, Function and Connectivity across the Lifespan,” Exp. Neurobiol. 24(4), 273–284 (2015).
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M. H. Ohnishi T, T. Hashimoto, T. Kunihiro, M. Nishikawa, T. Uema, and M. Sasaki, “Abnormal regional cerebral blood flow in childhood autism,” Brain 123(9), 1838–1844 (2000).
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A. T. Eggebrecht, J. T. Elison, E. Feczko, A. Todorov, J. J. Wolff, S. Kandala, C. M. Adams, A. Z. Snyder, J. D. Lewis, A. M. Estes, L. Zwaigenbaum, K. N. Botteron, R. C. McKinstry, J. N. Constantino, A. Evans, H. C. Hazlett, S. Dager, S. J. Paterson, R. T. Schultz, M. A. Styner, G. Gerig, S. Das, P. Kostopoulos, B. L. Schlaggar, S. E. Petersen, J. Piven, J. R. Pruett, and J. R. Pruett, “Joint Attention and Brain Functional Connectivity in Infants and Toddlers,” Cereb. Cortex 27(3), 1709–1720 (2017).
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Y. Kita, A. Gunji, Y. Inoue, T. Goto, K. Sakihara, M. Kaga, M. Inagaki, and T. Hosokawa, “Self-face recognition in children with autism spectrum disorders: a near-infrared spectroscopy study,” Brain Dev. 33(6), 494–503 (2011).
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Huang, D.

Hus, V.

R. Luyster, K. Gotham, W. Guthrie, M. Coffing, R. Petrak, K. Pierce, S. Bishop, A. Esler, V. Hus, R. Oti, J. Richler, S. Risi, and C. Lord, “The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-toddler module: a new module of a standardized diagnostic measure for autism spectrum disorders,” J. Autism Dev. Disord. 39(9), 1305–1320 (2009).
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Y. Kita, A. Gunji, Y. Inoue, T. Goto, K. Sakihara, M. Kaga, M. Inagaki, and T. Hosokawa, “Self-face recognition in children with autism spectrum disorders: a near-infrared spectroscopy study,” Brain Dev. 33(6), 494–503 (2011).
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Y. Kita, A. Gunji, Y. Inoue, T. Goto, K. Sakihara, M. Kaga, M. Inagaki, and T. Hosokawa, “Self-face recognition in children with autism spectrum disorders: a near-infrared spectroscopy study,” Brain Dev. 33(6), 494–503 (2011).
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C. Chiron, M. Leboyer, F. Leon, I. Jambaqué, C. Nuttin, and A. Syrota, “SPECT of the brain in childhood autism: evidence for a lack of normal hemispheric asymmetry,” Dev. Med. Child Neurol. 37(10), 849–860 (1995).
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I. Mohammad-Rezazadeh, J. Frohlich, S. K. Loo, and S. S. Jeste, “Brain connectivity in autism spectrum disorder,” Curr. Opin. Neurol. 29(2), 137–147 (2016).
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Kaga, M.

Y. Kita, A. Gunji, Y. Inoue, T. Goto, K. Sakihara, M. Kaga, M. Inagaki, and T. Hosokawa, “Self-face recognition in children with autism spectrum disorders: a near-infrared spectroscopy study,” Brain Dev. 33(6), 494–503 (2011).
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A. T. Eggebrecht, J. T. Elison, E. Feczko, A. Todorov, J. J. Wolff, S. Kandala, C. M. Adams, A. Z. Snyder, J. D. Lewis, A. M. Estes, L. Zwaigenbaum, K. N. Botteron, R. C. McKinstry, J. N. Constantino, A. Evans, H. C. Hazlett, S. Dager, S. J. Paterson, R. T. Schultz, M. A. Styner, G. Gerig, S. Das, P. Kostopoulos, B. L. Schlaggar, S. E. Petersen, J. Piven, J. R. Pruett, and J. R. Pruett, “Joint Attention and Brain Functional Connectivity in Infants and Toddlers,” Cereb. Cortex 27(3), 1709–1720 (2017).
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X. N. Zuo, A. Di Martino, C. Kelly, Z. E. Shehzad, D. G. Gee, D. F. Klein, F. X. Castellanos, B. B. Biswal, and M. P. Milham, “The oscillating brain: complex and reliable,” Neuroimage 49(2), 1432–1445 (2010).
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S. Ha, I. J. Sohn, N. Kim, H. J. Sim, and K. A. Cheon, “Characteristics of Brains in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Structure, Function and Connectivity across the Lifespan,” Exp. Neurobiol. 24(4), 273–284 (2015).
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Y. Kita, A. Gunji, Y. Inoue, T. Goto, K. Sakihara, M. Kaga, M. Inagaki, and T. Hosokawa, “Self-face recognition in children with autism spectrum disorders: a near-infrared spectroscopy study,” Brain Dev. 33(6), 494–503 (2011).
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Klein, D. F.

X. N. Zuo, A. Di Martino, C. Kelly, Z. E. Shehzad, D. G. Gee, D. F. Klein, F. X. Castellanos, B. B. Biswal, and M. P. Milham, “The oscillating brain: complex and reliable,” Neuroimage 49(2), 1432–1445 (2010).
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J. Xiang, M. Korostenskaja, C. Molloy, X. deGrauw, K. Leiken, C. Gilman, J. Meinzen-Derr, H. Fujiwara, D. F. Rose, T. Mitchell, and D. S. Murray, “Multi-frequency localization of aberrant brain activity in autism spectrum disorder,” Brain Dev. 38(1), 82–90 (2016).
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A. T. Eggebrecht, J. T. Elison, E. Feczko, A. Todorov, J. J. Wolff, S. Kandala, C. M. Adams, A. Z. Snyder, J. D. Lewis, A. M. Estes, L. Zwaigenbaum, K. N. Botteron, R. C. McKinstry, J. N. Constantino, A. Evans, H. C. Hazlett, S. Dager, S. J. Paterson, R. T. Schultz, M. A. Styner, G. Gerig, S. Das, P. Kostopoulos, B. L. Schlaggar, S. E. Petersen, J. Piven, J. R. Pruett, and J. R. Pruett, “Joint Attention and Brain Functional Connectivity in Infants and Toddlers,” Cereb. Cortex 27(3), 1709–1720 (2017).
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M. H. Ohnishi T, T. Hashimoto, T. Kunihiro, M. Nishikawa, T. Uema, and M. Sasaki, “Abnormal regional cerebral blood flow in childhood autism,” Brain 123(9), 1838–1844 (2000).
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C. La, V. A. Nair, P. Mossahebi, J. Stamm, R. Birn, M. E. Meyerand, and V. Prabhakaran, “Recovery of slow-5 oscillations in a longitudinal study of ischemic stroke patients,” Neuroimage Clin. 11, 398–407 (2016).
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E. S. Neeley, E. D. Bigler, L. Krasny, S. Ozonoff, W. McMahon, and J. E. Lainhart, “Quantitative Temporal Lobe Differences: Autism Distinguished from Controls Using Classification and Regression Tree Analysis,” Brain Dev. 29(7), 389–399 (2007).
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Lawrie, S. M.

R. C. Philip, M. R. Dauvermann, H. C. Whalley, K. Baynham, S. M. Lawrie, and A. C. Stanfield, “A systematic review and meta-analysis of the fMRI investigation of autism spectrum disorders,” Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. 36(2), 901–942 (2012).
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Leboyer, M.

C. Chiron, M. Leboyer, F. Leon, I. Jambaqué, C. Nuttin, and A. Syrota, “SPECT of the brain in childhood autism: evidence for a lack of normal hemispheric asymmetry,” Dev. Med. Child Neurol. 37(10), 849–860 (1995).
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J. Xiang, M. Korostenskaja, C. Molloy, X. deGrauw, K. Leiken, C. Gilman, J. Meinzen-Derr, H. Fujiwara, D. F. Rose, T. Mitchell, and D. S. Murray, “Multi-frequency localization of aberrant brain activity in autism spectrum disorder,” Brain Dev. 38(1), 82–90 (2016).
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C. Chiron, M. Leboyer, F. Leon, I. Jambaqué, C. Nuttin, and A. Syrota, “SPECT of the brain in childhood autism: evidence for a lack of normal hemispheric asymmetry,” Dev. Med. Child Neurol. 37(10), 849–860 (1995).
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A. T. Eggebrecht, J. T. Elison, E. Feczko, A. Todorov, J. J. Wolff, S. Kandala, C. M. Adams, A. Z. Snyder, J. D. Lewis, A. M. Estes, L. Zwaigenbaum, K. N. Botteron, R. C. McKinstry, J. N. Constantino, A. Evans, H. C. Hazlett, S. Dager, S. J. Paterson, R. T. Schultz, M. A. Styner, G. Gerig, S. Das, P. Kostopoulos, B. L. Schlaggar, S. E. Petersen, J. Piven, J. R. Pruett, and J. R. Pruett, “Joint Attention and Brain Functional Connectivity in Infants and Toddlers,” Cereb. Cortex 27(3), 1709–1720 (2017).
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R. Luyster, K. Gotham, W. Guthrie, M. Coffing, R. Petrak, K. Pierce, S. Bishop, A. Esler, V. Hus, R. Oti, J. Richler, S. Risi, and C. Lord, “The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-toddler module: a new module of a standardized diagnostic measure for autism spectrum disorders,” J. Autism Dev. Disord. 39(9), 1305–1320 (2009).
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L. Tebartz van Elst, A. Riedel, and S. Maier, “Autism as a Disorder of Altered Global Functional and Structural Connectivity,” Biol. Psychiatry 79(8), 626–627 (2016).
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M. H. Ohnishi T, T. Hashimoto, T. Kunihiro, M. Nishikawa, T. Uema, and M. Sasaki, “Abnormal regional cerebral blood flow in childhood autism,” Brain 123(9), 1838–1844 (2000).
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Snyder, A. Z.

A. T. Eggebrecht, J. T. Elison, E. Feczko, A. Todorov, J. J. Wolff, S. Kandala, C. M. Adams, A. Z. Snyder, J. D. Lewis, A. M. Estes, L. Zwaigenbaum, K. N. Botteron, R. C. McKinstry, J. N. Constantino, A. Evans, H. C. Hazlett, S. Dager, S. J. Paterson, R. T. Schultz, M. A. Styner, G. Gerig, S. Das, P. Kostopoulos, B. L. Schlaggar, S. E. Petersen, J. Piven, J. R. Pruett, and J. R. Pruett, “Joint Attention and Brain Functional Connectivity in Infants and Toddlers,” Cereb. Cortex 27(3), 1709–1720 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sohn, I. J.

S. Ha, I. J. Sohn, N. Kim, H. J. Sim, and K. A. Cheon, “Characteristics of Brains in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Structure, Function and Connectivity across the Lifespan,” Exp. Neurobiol. 24(4), 273–284 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Solso, S.

I. Dinstein, K. Pierce, L. Eyler, S. Solso, R. Malach, M. Behrmann, and E. Courchesne, “Disrupted neural synchronization in toddlers with autism,” Neuron 70(6), 1218–1225 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sönmezoglu, K.

C. Dilber, M. Calışkan, K. Sönmezoğlu, S. Nişli, N. M. Mukaddes, B. Tatlı, N. Aydınlı, B. Ekici, and M. Özmen, “Positron emission tomography findings in children with infantile spasms and autism,” J. Clin. Neurosci. 20(3), 373–376 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sperdin, H. F.

H. F. Sperdin and M. Schaer, “Aberrant Development of Speech Processing in Young Children with Autism: New Insights from Neuroimaging Biomarkers,” Front. Neurosci. 10, 393 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stamm, J.

C. La, P. Mossahebi, V. A. Nair, B. M. Young, J. Stamm, R. Birn, M. E. Meyerand, and V. Prabhakaran, “Differing Patterns of Altered Slow-5 Oscillations in Healthy Aging and Ischemic Stroke,” Front. Hum. Neurosci. 10, 156 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. La, V. A. Nair, P. Mossahebi, J. Stamm, R. Birn, M. E. Meyerand, and V. Prabhakaran, “Recovery of slow-5 oscillations in a longitudinal study of ischemic stroke patients,” Neuroimage Clin. 11, 398–407 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stanfield, A. C.

R. C. Philip, M. R. Dauvermann, H. C. Whalley, K. Baynham, S. M. Lawrie, and A. C. Stanfield, “A systematic review and meta-analysis of the fMRI investigation of autism spectrum disorders,” Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. 36(2), 901–942 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Styner, M. A.

A. T. Eggebrecht, J. T. Elison, E. Feczko, A. Todorov, J. J. Wolff, S. Kandala, C. M. Adams, A. Z. Snyder, J. D. Lewis, A. M. Estes, L. Zwaigenbaum, K. N. Botteron, R. C. McKinstry, J. N. Constantino, A. Evans, H. C. Hazlett, S. Dager, S. J. Paterson, R. T. Schultz, M. A. Styner, G. Gerig, S. Das, P. Kostopoulos, B. L. Schlaggar, S. E. Petersen, J. Piven, J. R. Pruett, and J. R. Pruett, “Joint Attention and Brain Functional Connectivity in Infants and Toddlers,” Cereb. Cortex 27(3), 1709–1720 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sunar, U.

Syrota, A.

C. Chiron, M. Leboyer, F. Leon, I. Jambaqué, C. Nuttin, and A. Syrota, “SPECT of the brain in childhood autism: evidence for a lack of normal hemispheric asymmetry,” Dev. Med. Child Neurol. 37(10), 849–860 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tachtsidis, I.

I. Tachtsidis and F. Scholkmann, “False positives and false negatives in functional near-infrared spectroscopy: issues, challenges, and the way forward,” Neurophotonics 3(3), 031405 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tatli, B.

C. Dilber, M. Calışkan, K. Sönmezoğlu, S. Nişli, N. M. Mukaddes, B. Tatlı, N. Aydınlı, B. Ekici, and M. Özmen, “Positron emission tomography findings in children with infantile spasms and autism,” J. Clin. Neurosci. 20(3), 373–376 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tebartz van Elst, L.

L. Tebartz van Elst, A. Riedel, and S. Maier, “Autism as a Disorder of Altered Global Functional and Structural Connectivity,” Biol. Psychiatry 79(8), 626–627 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thivard, L.

M. Zilbovicius, N. Boddaert, P. Belin, J. B. Poline, P. Remy, J. F. Mangin, L. Thivard, C. Barthélémy, and Y. Samson, “Temporal lobe dysfunction in childhood autism: a PET study. Positron emission tomography,” Am. J. Psychiatry 157(12), 1988–1993 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Todorov, A.

A. T. Eggebrecht, J. T. Elison, E. Feczko, A. Todorov, J. J. Wolff, S. Kandala, C. M. Adams, A. Z. Snyder, J. D. Lewis, A. M. Estes, L. Zwaigenbaum, K. N. Botteron, R. C. McKinstry, J. N. Constantino, A. Evans, H. C. Hazlett, S. Dager, S. J. Paterson, R. T. Schultz, M. A. Styner, G. Gerig, S. Das, P. Kostopoulos, B. L. Schlaggar, S. E. Petersen, J. Piven, J. R. Pruett, and J. R. Pruett, “Joint Attention and Brain Functional Connectivity in Infants and Toddlers,” Cereb. Cortex 27(3), 1709–1720 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tsunashima, H.

K. Yanagisawa, N. Nakamura, H. Tsunashima, and N. Narita, “Proposal of auxiliary diagnosis index for autism spectrum disorder using near-infrared spectroscopy,” Neurophotonics 3(3), 031413 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Uema, T.

M. H. Ohnishi T, T. Hashimoto, T. Kunihiro, M. Nishikawa, T. Uema, and M. Sasaki, “Abnormal regional cerebral blood flow in childhood autism,” Brain 123(9), 1838–1844 (2000).
[Crossref]

Vapnik, V.

A. Ben-Hur, D. Horn, H. T. Siegelmann, and V. Vapnik, “Support vector clustering,” J. Mach. Learn. Res. 2, 125–137 (2002).

C. Cortes and V. Vapnik, “Support-vector networks,” Mach. Learn. 20(3), 273–297 (1995).
[Crossref]

Wang, J.

J. Wang, Q. Dong, and H. Niu, “The minimum resting-state fNIRS imaging duration for accurate and stable mapping of brain connectivity network in children,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 6461 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Webb, S. J.

M. Murias, S. J. Webb, J. Greenson, and G. Dawson, “Resting state cortical connectivity reflected in EEG coherence in individuals with autism,” Biol. Psychiatry 62(3), 270–273 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Whalley, H. C.

R. C. Philip, M. R. Dauvermann, H. C. Whalley, K. Baynham, S. M. Lawrie, and A. C. Stanfield, “A systematic review and meta-analysis of the fMRI investigation of autism spectrum disorders,” Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. 36(2), 901–942 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wolf, M.

F. Scholkmann and M. Wolf, “General equation for the differential pathlength factor of the frontal human head depending on wavelength and age,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(10), 105004 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wolff, J. J.

A. T. Eggebrecht, J. T. Elison, E. Feczko, A. Todorov, J. J. Wolff, S. Kandala, C. M. Adams, A. Z. Snyder, J. D. Lewis, A. M. Estes, L. Zwaigenbaum, K. N. Botteron, R. C. McKinstry, J. N. Constantino, A. Evans, H. C. Hazlett, S. Dager, S. J. Paterson, R. T. Schultz, M. A. Styner, G. Gerig, S. Das, P. Kostopoulos, B. L. Schlaggar, S. E. Petersen, J. Piven, J. R. Pruett, and J. R. Pruett, “Joint Attention and Brain Functional Connectivity in Infants and Toddlers,” Cereb. Cortex 27(3), 1709–1720 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xiang, J.

J. Xiang, M. Korostenskaja, C. Molloy, X. deGrauw, K. Leiken, C. Gilman, J. Meinzen-Derr, H. Fujiwara, D. F. Rose, T. Mitchell, and D. S. Murray, “Multi-frequency localization of aberrant brain activity in autism spectrum disorder,” Brain Dev. 38(1), 82–90 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, L.

Yanagisawa, K.

K. Yanagisawa, N. Nakamura, H. Tsunashima, and N. Narita, “Proposal of auxiliary diagnosis index for autism spectrum disorder using near-infrared spectroscopy,” Neurophotonics 3(3), 031413 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yi, L.

T. Liu, X. Liu, L. Yi, C. Zhu, P. S. Markey, and M. Pelowski, “Assessing autism at its social and developmental roots: A review of Autism Spectrum Disorder studies using functional near-infrared spectroscopy,” Neuroimage 185, 955–967 (2019).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Young, B. M.

C. La, P. Mossahebi, V. A. Nair, B. M. Young, J. Stamm, R. Birn, M. E. Meyerand, and V. Prabhakaran, “Differing Patterns of Altered Slow-5 Oscillations in Healthy Aging and Ischemic Stroke,” Front. Hum. Neurosci. 10, 156 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, D.

Y. Li, H. Jia, and D. Yu, “Novel analysis of fNIRS acquired dynamic hemoglobin concentrations: application in young children with autism spectrum disorder,” Biomed. Opt. Express 9(8), 3694–3710 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Li and D. Yu, “Weak network efficiency in young children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Evidence from a functional near-infrared spectroscopy study,” Brain Cogn. 108, 47–55 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhu, C.

T. Liu, X. Liu, L. Yi, C. Zhu, P. S. Markey, and M. Pelowski, “Assessing autism at its social and developmental roots: A review of Autism Spectrum Disorder studies using functional near-infrared spectroscopy,” Neuroimage 185, 955–967 (2019).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhu, H.

Zilbovicius, M.

M. Zilbovicius, N. Boddaert, P. Belin, J. B. Poline, P. Remy, J. F. Mangin, L. Thivard, C. Barthélémy, and Y. Samson, “Temporal lobe dysfunction in childhood autism: a PET study. Positron emission tomography,” Am. J. Psychiatry 157(12), 1988–1993 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zuo, X. N.

X. N. Zuo, A. Di Martino, C. Kelly, Z. E. Shehzad, D. G. Gee, D. F. Klein, F. X. Castellanos, B. B. Biswal, and M. P. Milham, “The oscillating brain: complex and reliable,” Neuroimage 49(2), 1432–1445 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zwaigenbaum, L.

A. T. Eggebrecht, J. T. Elison, E. Feczko, A. Todorov, J. J. Wolff, S. Kandala, C. M. Adams, A. Z. Snyder, J. D. Lewis, A. M. Estes, L. Zwaigenbaum, K. N. Botteron, R. C. McKinstry, J. N. Constantino, A. Evans, H. C. Hazlett, S. Dager, S. J. Paterson, R. T. Schultz, M. A. Styner, G. Gerig, S. Das, P. Kostopoulos, B. L. Schlaggar, S. E. Petersen, J. Piven, J. R. Pruett, and J. R. Pruett, “Joint Attention and Brain Functional Connectivity in Infants and Toddlers,” Cereb. Cortex 27(3), 1709–1720 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Pediatr. (1)

E. Goldson, “Advances in Autism-2016,” Adv. Pediatr. 63(1), 333–355 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Am. J. Psychiatry (1)

M. Zilbovicius, N. Boddaert, P. Belin, J. B. Poline, P. Remy, J. F. Mangin, L. Thivard, C. Barthélémy, and Y. Samson, “Temporal lobe dysfunction in childhood autism: a PET study. Positron emission tomography,” Am. J. Psychiatry 157(12), 1988–1993 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biol. Psychiatry (2)

M. Murias, S. J. Webb, J. Greenson, and G. Dawson, “Resting state cortical connectivity reflected in EEG coherence in individuals with autism,” Biol. Psychiatry 62(3), 270–273 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Tebartz van Elst, A. Riedel, and S. Maier, “Autism as a Disorder of Altered Global Functional and Structural Connectivity,” Biol. Psychiatry 79(8), 626–627 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biomed. Opt. Express (5)

Brain (2)

M. H. Ohnishi T, T. Hashimoto, T. Kunihiro, M. Nishikawa, T. Uema, and M. Sasaki, “Abnormal regional cerebral blood flow in childhood autism,” Brain 123(9), 1838–1844 (2000).
[Crossref]

L. T. Eyler, K. Pierce, and E. Courchesne, “A failure of left temporal cortex to specialize for language is an early emerging and fundamental property of autism,” Brain 135(3), 949–960 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brain Cogn. (1)

Y. Li and D. Yu, “Weak network efficiency in young children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Evidence from a functional near-infrared spectroscopy study,” Brain Cogn. 108, 47–55 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brain Dev. (3)

J. Xiang, M. Korostenskaja, C. Molloy, X. deGrauw, K. Leiken, C. Gilman, J. Meinzen-Derr, H. Fujiwara, D. F. Rose, T. Mitchell, and D. S. Murray, “Multi-frequency localization of aberrant brain activity in autism spectrum disorder,” Brain Dev. 38(1), 82–90 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. S. Neeley, E. D. Bigler, L. Krasny, S. Ozonoff, W. McMahon, and J. E. Lainhart, “Quantitative Temporal Lobe Differences: Autism Distinguished from Controls Using Classification and Regression Tree Analysis,” Brain Dev. 29(7), 389–399 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Kita, A. Gunji, Y. Inoue, T. Goto, K. Sakihara, M. Kaga, M. Inagaki, and T. Hosokawa, “Self-face recognition in children with autism spectrum disorders: a near-infrared spectroscopy study,” Brain Dev. 33(6), 494–503 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cereb. Cortex (1)

A. T. Eggebrecht, J. T. Elison, E. Feczko, A. Todorov, J. J. Wolff, S. Kandala, C. M. Adams, A. Z. Snyder, J. D. Lewis, A. M. Estes, L. Zwaigenbaum, K. N. Botteron, R. C. McKinstry, J. N. Constantino, A. Evans, H. C. Hazlett, S. Dager, S. J. Paterson, R. T. Schultz, M. A. Styner, G. Gerig, S. Das, P. Kostopoulos, B. L. Schlaggar, S. E. Petersen, J. Piven, J. R. Pruett, and J. R. Pruett, “Joint Attention and Brain Functional Connectivity in Infants and Toddlers,” Cereb. Cortex 27(3), 1709–1720 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Curr. Opin. Neurol. (1)

I. Mohammad-Rezazadeh, J. Frohlich, S. K. Loo, and S. S. Jeste, “Brain connectivity in autism spectrum disorder,” Curr. Opin. Neurol. 29(2), 137–147 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dev. Med. Child Neurol. (1)

C. Chiron, M. Leboyer, F. Leon, I. Jambaqué, C. Nuttin, and A. Syrota, “SPECT of the brain in childhood autism: evidence for a lack of normal hemispheric asymmetry,” Dev. Med. Child Neurol. 37(10), 849–860 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Exp. Neurobiol. (1)

S. Ha, I. J. Sohn, N. Kim, H. J. Sim, and K. A. Cheon, “Characteristics of Brains in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Structure, Function and Connectivity across the Lifespan,” Exp. Neurobiol. 24(4), 273–284 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Front. Hum. Neurosci. (1)

C. La, P. Mossahebi, V. A. Nair, B. M. Young, J. Stamm, R. Birn, M. E. Meyerand, and V. Prabhakaran, “Differing Patterns of Altered Slow-5 Oscillations in Healthy Aging and Ischemic Stroke,” Front. Hum. Neurosci. 10, 156 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Front. Neurosci. (1)

H. F. Sperdin and M. Schaer, “Aberrant Development of Speech Processing in Young Children with Autism: New Insights from Neuroimaging Biomarkers,” Front. Neurosci. 10, 393 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Autism Dev. Disord. (2)

L. Cornew, T. P. Roberts, L. Blaskey, and J. C. Edgar, “Resting-state oscillatory activity in autism spectrum disorders,” J. Autism Dev. Disord. 42(9), 1884–1894 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Luyster, K. Gotham, W. Guthrie, M. Coffing, R. Petrak, K. Pierce, S. Bishop, A. Esler, V. Hus, R. Oti, J. Richler, S. Risi, and C. Lord, “The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-toddler module: a new module of a standardized diagnostic measure for autism spectrum disorders,” J. Autism Dev. Disord. 39(9), 1305–1320 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

F. Scholkmann and M. Wolf, “General equation for the differential pathlength factor of the frontal human head depending on wavelength and age,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(10), 105004 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Clin. Neurosci. (1)

C. Dilber, M. Calışkan, K. Sönmezoğlu, S. Nişli, N. M. Mukaddes, B. Tatlı, N. Aydınlı, B. Ekici, and M. Özmen, “Positron emission tomography findings in children with infantile spasms and autism,” J. Clin. Neurosci. 20(3), 373–376 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Mach. Learn. Res. (1)

A. Ben-Hur, D. Horn, H. T. Siegelmann, and V. Vapnik, “Support vector clustering,” J. Mach. Learn. Res. 2, 125–137 (2002).

Mach. Learn. (1)

C. Cortes and V. Vapnik, “Support-vector networks,” Mach. Learn. 20(3), 273–297 (1995).
[Crossref]

Neuroimage (2)

X. N. Zuo, A. Di Martino, C. Kelly, Z. E. Shehzad, D. G. Gee, D. F. Klein, F. X. Castellanos, B. B. Biswal, and M. P. Milham, “The oscillating brain: complex and reliable,” Neuroimage 49(2), 1432–1445 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Liu, X. Liu, L. Yi, C. Zhu, P. S. Markey, and M. Pelowski, “Assessing autism at its social and developmental roots: A review of Autism Spectrum Disorder studies using functional near-infrared spectroscopy,” Neuroimage 185, 955–967 (2019).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Neuroimage Clin. (1)

C. La, V. A. Nair, P. Mossahebi, J. Stamm, R. Birn, M. E. Meyerand, and V. Prabhakaran, “Recovery of slow-5 oscillations in a longitudinal study of ischemic stroke patients,” Neuroimage Clin. 11, 398–407 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Neuron (1)

I. Dinstein, K. Pierce, L. Eyler, S. Solso, R. Malach, M. Behrmann, and E. Courchesne, “Disrupted neural synchronization in toddlers with autism,” Neuron 70(6), 1218–1225 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Neurophotonics (2)

K. Yanagisawa, N. Nakamura, H. Tsunashima, and N. Narita, “Proposal of auxiliary diagnosis index for autism spectrum disorder using near-infrared spectroscopy,” Neurophotonics 3(3), 031413 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Tachtsidis and F. Scholkmann, “False positives and false negatives in functional near-infrared spectroscopy: issues, challenges, and the way forward,” Neurophotonics 3(3), 031405 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (1)

R. C. Philip, M. R. Dauvermann, H. C. Whalley, K. Baynham, S. M. Lawrie, and A. C. Stanfield, “A systematic review and meta-analysis of the fMRI investigation of autism spectrum disorders,” Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. 36(2), 901–942 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sci. Rep. (1)

J. Wang, Q. Dong, and H. Niu, “The minimum resting-state fNIRS imaging duration for accurate and stable mapping of brain connectivity network in children,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 6461 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic representation of the brain and locations of measurement channels over the bilateral temporal lobes, with 12 channels on each hemisphere [21].
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Power spectrum of HbO2 and Hb on the left and right temporal lobe, for TD (blue line) and ASD (red line), respectively. The error bars are standard error of mean calculated from each group.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The average (a) and the distribution (b) of power of HbO2 at 0.0200 Hz, Hb at 0.0267 and 0.0333 Hz, for TD and ASD group, all on the right hemisphere. The differences are significant with p = 0.0023, 0.0049 and 0.0125, respectively. The effect size for the differences in power is 0.9361, 0.8540 and 0.7573, respectively.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 p values of the differences between ASD and TD in frequency band of 0.0133-0.0467 Hz

Metrics