Abstract

We introduce a snapshot multi-wavelength quantitative polarization and phase microscope (MQPPM) for measuring spectral dependent quantitative polarization and phase information. The system uniquely integrates a polarized light microscope and a snap-shot quantitative phase microscope in a single system, utilizing a novel full-Stokes camera operating in the red, green, and blue (RGB) spectrum. The linear retardance and fast axis orientation of a birefringent sample can be measured simultaneously in the visible spectra. Both theoretical analysis and experiments have been performed to demonstrate the capability of the proposed microscope. Data from liquid crystal and different biological samples are presented. We believe that MQPPM will be a useful tool in measuring quantitative polarization and phase information of live cells.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2017 (1)

2016 (1)

C. Li, S. Chen, M. Klemba, and Y. Zhu, “Integrated quantitative phase and birefringence microscopy for imaging malaria-infected red blood cells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(9), 090501 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (2)

2014 (1)

2013 (1)

S. Sugita and T. Matsumoto, “Quantitative measurement of the distribution and alignment of collagen fibers in unfixed aortic tissues,” J. Biomech. 46(7), 1403–1407 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (7)

2011 (1)

2010 (2)

I. H. Shin, S. M. Shin, and D. Y. Kim, “New, simple theory-based, accurate polarization microscope for birefringence imaging of biological cells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(1), 016028 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Fu, W. Choi, Y. Sung, Z. Yaqoob, R. R. Dasari, and M. Feld, “Quantitative dispersion microscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 1(2), 347–353 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

2008 (3)

Y. Park, M. Diez-Silva, G. Popescu, G. Lykotrafitis, W. Choi, M. S. Feld, and S. Suresh, “Refractive index maps and membrane dynamics of human red blood cells parasitized by Plasmodium falciparum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(37), 13730–13735 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Ferraro, S. Grilli, L. Miccio, D. Alfieri, S. De Nicola, A. Finizio, and B. Javidi, “Full color 3-D imaging by digital holography and removal of chromatic aberrations,” J. Disp. Technol. 4(1), 97–100 (2008).
[Crossref]

C. J. Mann, P. R. Bingham, V. C. Paquit, and K. W. Tobin, “Quantitative phase imaging by three-wavelength digital holography,” Opt. Express 16(13), 9753–9764 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

N. Warnasooriya and M. K. Kim, “LED-based multi-wavelength phase imaging interference microscopy,” Opt. Express 15(15), 9239–9247 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, S. Oh, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Tomographic phase microscopy,” Nat. Methods 4(9), 717–719 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

2005 (2)

2004 (1)

2002 (1)

A. Wax, C. Yang, V. Backman, K. Badizadegan, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Cellular organization and substructure measured using angle-resolved low-coherence interferometry,” Biophys. J. 82(4), 2256–2264 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aknoun, S.

Alfieri, D.

P. Ferraro, S. Grilli, L. Miccio, D. Alfieri, S. De Nicola, A. Finizio, and B. Javidi, “Full color 3-D imaging by digital holography and removal of chromatic aberrations,” J. Disp. Technol. 4(1), 97–100 (2008).
[Crossref]

Backman, V.

A. Wax, C. Yang, V. Backman, K. Badizadegan, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Cellular organization and substructure measured using angle-resolved low-coherence interferometry,” Biophys. J. 82(4), 2256–2264 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Badizadegan, K.

W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, S. Oh, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Tomographic phase microscopy,” Nat. Methods 4(9), 717–719 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Popescu, L. P. Deflores, J. C. Vaughan, K. Badizadegan, H. Iwai, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Fourier phase microscopy for investigation of biological structures and dynamics,” Opt. Lett. 29(21), 2503–2505 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Wax, C. Yang, V. Backman, K. Badizadegan, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Cellular organization and substructure measured using angle-resolved low-coherence interferometry,” Biophys. J. 82(4), 2256–2264 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bhaduri, B.

Bingham, P. R.

Bon, P.

Boone, C. W.

A. Wax, C. Yang, V. Backman, K. Badizadegan, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Cellular organization and substructure measured using angle-resolved low-coherence interferometry,” Biophys. J. 82(4), 2256–2264 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brock, N.

Chen, S.

C. Li, S. Chen, M. Klemba, and Y. Zhu, “Integrated quantitative phase and birefringence microscopy for imaging malaria-infected red blood cells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(9), 090501 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, W.

D. Fu, W. Choi, Y. Sung, Z. Yaqoob, R. R. Dasari, and M. Feld, “Quantitative dispersion microscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 1(2), 347–353 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Park, T. Yamauchi, W. Choi, R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic phase microscopy for quantifying hemoglobin concentrations in intact red blood cells,” Opt. Lett. 34(23), 3668–3670 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Park, M. Diez-Silva, G. Popescu, G. Lykotrafitis, W. Choi, M. S. Feld, and S. Suresh, “Refractive index maps and membrane dynamics of human red blood cells parasitized by Plasmodium falciparum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(37), 13730–13735 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, S. Oh, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Tomographic phase microscopy,” Nat. Methods 4(9), 717–719 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Creath, K.

Cuche, E.

Dan, D.

Dasari, R.

Dasari, R. R.

De Nicola, S.

P. Ferraro, S. Grilli, L. Miccio, D. Alfieri, S. De Nicola, A. Finizio, and B. Javidi, “Full color 3-D imaging by digital holography and removal of chromatic aberrations,” J. Disp. Technol. 4(1), 97–100 (2008).
[Crossref]

Deflores, L. P.

Depeursinge, C.

Diez-Silva, M.

Y. Park, M. Diez-Silva, G. Popescu, G. Lykotrafitis, W. Choi, M. S. Feld, and S. Suresh, “Refractive index maps and membrane dynamics of human red blood cells parasitized by Plasmodium falciparum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(37), 13730–13735 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ding, H.

Emery, Y.

Fan, C.

Fang-Yen, C.

W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, S. Oh, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Tomographic phase microscopy,” Nat. Methods 4(9), 717–719 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feld, M.

Feld, M. S.

Y. Park, T. Yamauchi, W. Choi, R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic phase microscopy for quantifying hemoglobin concentrations in intact red blood cells,” Opt. Lett. 34(23), 3668–3670 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Park, M. Diez-Silva, G. Popescu, G. Lykotrafitis, W. Choi, M. S. Feld, and S. Suresh, “Refractive index maps and membrane dynamics of human red blood cells parasitized by Plasmodium falciparum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(37), 13730–13735 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, S. Oh, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Tomographic phase microscopy,” Nat. Methods 4(9), 717–719 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Popescu, T. Ikeda, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diffraction phase microscopy for quantifying cell structure and dynamics,” Opt. Lett. 31(6), 775–777 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Ikeda, G. Popescu, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Hilbert phase microscopy for investigating fast dynamics in transparent systems,” Opt. Lett. 30(10), 1165–1167 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Popescu, L. P. Deflores, J. C. Vaughan, K. Badizadegan, H. Iwai, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Fourier phase microscopy for investigation of biological structures and dynamics,” Opt. Lett. 29(21), 2503–2505 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Wax, C. Yang, V. Backman, K. Badizadegan, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Cellular organization and substructure measured using angle-resolved low-coherence interferometry,” Biophys. J. 82(4), 2256–2264 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ferraro, P.

P. Ferraro, S. Grilli, L. Miccio, D. Alfieri, S. De Nicola, A. Finizio, and B. Javidi, “Full color 3-D imaging by digital holography and removal of chromatic aberrations,” J. Disp. Technol. 4(1), 97–100 (2008).
[Crossref]

Finizio, A.

P. Ferraro, S. Grilli, L. Miccio, D. Alfieri, S. De Nicola, A. Finizio, and B. Javidi, “Full color 3-D imaging by digital holography and removal of chromatic aberrations,” J. Disp. Technol. 4(1), 97–100 (2008).
[Crossref]

Fu, D.

Gao, P.

Goldstein, G.

Grilli, S.

P. Ferraro, S. Grilli, L. Miccio, D. Alfieri, S. De Nicola, A. Finizio, and B. Javidi, “Full color 3-D imaging by digital holography and removal of chromatic aberrations,” J. Disp. Technol. 4(1), 97–100 (2008).
[Crossref]

Guo, R.

Ikeda, T.

Iwai, H.

Jafarfard, M. R.

Jang, J.

Jang, Y.

Javidi, B.

P. Ferraro, S. Grilli, L. Miccio, D. Alfieri, S. De Nicola, A. Finizio, and B. Javidi, “Full color 3-D imaging by digital holography and removal of chromatic aberrations,” J. Disp. Technol. 4(1), 97–100 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kim, D. Y.

M. R. Jafarfard, S. Moon, B. Tayebi, and D. Y. Kim, “Dual-wavelength diffraction phase microscopy for simultaneous measurement of refractive index and thickness,” Opt. Lett. 39(10), 2908–2911 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. H. Shin, S. M. Shin, and D. Y. Kim, “New, simple theory-based, accurate polarization microscope for birefringence imaging of biological cells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(1), 016028 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, M. K.

Klemba, M.

C. Li, S. Chen, M. Klemba, and Y. Zhu, “Integrated quantitative phase and birefringence microscopy for imaging malaria-infected red blood cells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(9), 090501 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lei, M.

Li, C.

C. Li, S. Chen, M. Klemba, and Y. Zhu, “Integrated quantitative phase and birefringence microscopy for imaging malaria-infected red blood cells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(9), 090501 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Li and Y. Zhu, “Quantitative polarized light microscopy using spectral multiplexing interferometry,” Opt. Lett. 40(11), 2622–2625 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liang, R.

Lue, N.

W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, S. Oh, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Tomographic phase microscopy,” Nat. Methods 4(9), 717–719 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lykotrafitis, G.

Y. Park, M. Diez-Silva, G. Popescu, G. Lykotrafitis, W. Choi, M. S. Feld, and S. Suresh, “Refractive index maps and membrane dynamics of human red blood cells parasitized by Plasmodium falciparum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(37), 13730–13735 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ma, B.

Magistretti, P.

Mann, C. J.

Marquet, P.

Matsumoto, T.

S. Sugita and T. Matsumoto, “Quantitative measurement of the distribution and alignment of collagen fibers in unfixed aortic tissues,” J. Biomech. 46(7), 1403–1407 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mehta, D. S.

D. S. Mehta and V. Srivastava, “Quantitative phase imaging of human red blood cells using phase-shifting white light interference microscopy with colour fringe analysis,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(20), 203701 (2012).
[Crossref]

Miccio, L.

P. Ferraro, S. Grilli, L. Miccio, D. Alfieri, S. De Nicola, A. Finizio, and B. Javidi, “Full color 3-D imaging by digital holography and removal of chromatic aberrations,” J. Disp. Technol. 4(1), 97–100 (2008).
[Crossref]

Min, J.

Monneret, S.

Moon, S.

Oh, S.

W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, S. Oh, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Tomographic phase microscopy,” Nat. Methods 4(9), 717–719 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Paquit, V. C.

Park, Y.

Pau, S.

Pham, H.

Popescu, G.

Rappaz, B.

Rinehart, M.

Rupp, R.

Savatier, J.

Shin, I. H.

I. H. Shin, S. M. Shin, and D. Y. Kim, “New, simple theory-based, accurate polarization microscope for birefringence imaging of biological cells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(1), 016028 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shin, S. M.

I. H. Shin, S. M. Shin, and D. Y. Kim, “New, simple theory-based, accurate polarization microscope for birefringence imaging of biological cells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(1), 016028 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shribak, M.

Spires, O. J.

Srivastava, V.

D. S. Mehta and V. Srivastava, “Quantitative phase imaging of human red blood cells using phase-shifting white light interference microscopy with colour fringe analysis,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(20), 203701 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sugita, S.

S. Sugita and T. Matsumoto, “Quantitative measurement of the distribution and alignment of collagen fibers in unfixed aortic tissues,” J. Biomech. 46(7), 1403–1407 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sung, Y.

Suresh, S.

Y. Park, M. Diez-Silva, G. Popescu, G. Lykotrafitis, W. Choi, M. S. Feld, and S. Suresh, “Refractive index maps and membrane dynamics of human red blood cells parasitized by Plasmodium falciparum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(37), 13730–13735 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tayebi, B.

Tian, X.

Tobin, K. W.

Tu, X.

Vaughan, J. C.

Warnasooriya, N.

Wattellier, B.

Wax, A.

M. Rinehart, Y. Zhu, and A. Wax, “Quantitative phase spectroscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(5), 958–965 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Wax, C. Yang, V. Backman, K. Badizadegan, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Cellular organization and substructure measured using angle-resolved low-coherence interferometry,” Biophys. J. 82(4), 2256–2264 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yamauchi, T.

Yan, S.

Yang, C.

A. Wax, C. Yang, V. Backman, K. Badizadegan, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Cellular organization and substructure measured using angle-resolved low-coherence interferometry,” Biophys. J. 82(4), 2256–2264 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yao, B.

Yao, G.

Yaqoob, Z.

Ye, T.

Zheng, J.

Zhu, Y.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

D. S. Mehta and V. Srivastava, “Quantitative phase imaging of human red blood cells using phase-shifting white light interference microscopy with colour fringe analysis,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(20), 203701 (2012).
[Crossref]

Biomed. Opt. Express (3)

Biophys. J. (1)

A. Wax, C. Yang, V. Backman, K. Badizadegan, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Cellular organization and substructure measured using angle-resolved low-coherence interferometry,” Biophys. J. 82(4), 2256–2264 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Biomech. (1)

S. Sugita and T. Matsumoto, “Quantitative measurement of the distribution and alignment of collagen fibers in unfixed aortic tissues,” J. Biomech. 46(7), 1403–1407 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (2)

C. Li, S. Chen, M. Klemba, and Y. Zhu, “Integrated quantitative phase and birefringence microscopy for imaging malaria-infected red blood cells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(9), 090501 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. H. Shin, S. M. Shin, and D. Y. Kim, “New, simple theory-based, accurate polarization microscope for birefringence imaging of biological cells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(1), 016028 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Disp. Technol. (1)

P. Ferraro, S. Grilli, L. Miccio, D. Alfieri, S. De Nicola, A. Finizio, and B. Javidi, “Full color 3-D imaging by digital holography and removal of chromatic aberrations,” J. Disp. Technol. 4(1), 97–100 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Nat. Methods (1)

W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, S. Oh, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Tomographic phase microscopy,” Nat. Methods 4(9), 717–719 (2007).
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Opt. Express (6)

Opt. Lett. (9)

C. Fan and G. Yao, “Mapping local retardance in birefringent samples using polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 37(9), 1415–1417 (2012).
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[Crossref] [PubMed]

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[Crossref] [PubMed]

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[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Popescu, T. Ikeda, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diffraction phase microscopy for quantifying cell structure and dynamics,” Opt. Lett. 31(6), 775–777 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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T. Ikeda, G. Popescu, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Hilbert phase microscopy for investigating fast dynamics in transparent systems,” Opt. Lett. 30(10), 1165–1167 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

Y. Park, M. Diez-Silva, G. Popescu, G. Lykotrafitis, W. Choi, M. S. Feld, and S. Suresh, “Refractive index maps and membrane dynamics of human red blood cells parasitized by Plasmodium falciparum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(37), 13730–13735 (2008).
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Other (2)

N. J. Brock, J. E. Millerd, J. C. Wyant, and J. B. Hayes, “Pixelated phase-mask interferometer,” U.S. Patent, 7,230,717 (12 June 2007).

B. Yayebi, J. h. Kim, and J. H. Han, “Review on multi-wavelength quantitative phase microscopy,” in 2016 4th international Winter Conference on Brain-Computer Interface, 1–2 (2016).

Supplementary Material (1)

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» Visualization 1       This video shows the quantitative phase measurement of human breast cancer cells after exposure to purified water.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 System layout of the snapshot multi-wavelength quantitative polarization and phase microscope (MQPPM). BS: non-polarizing beams splitter; L1 and L2: lens; P: polarizer; QWP1, QWP2 and QWP3: achromatic quarter waveplate; MO1 and MO2: microscope objective; RGB PolarCam: custom camera constructed by 4D Technology with a wire-grid micro-polarizer array on the standard RGB Bayer filter array.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Spectrum for RGB LED light source.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The retardance of waveplate measured by AxoScan Mueller matrix polarimeter.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Retardance and (b) fast axis orientation angle of the waveplate at RGB spectrum as a function of rotation angle from 0° to 180° with 10° steps.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 System calibration using a step height measurement. (a) 3D surface and (b) line profile of a step height standard.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Measured retardance of liquid crystal in (a) red, (b) green and (c) blue. Wrapped retardance of liquid crystal in (d) red, (e) green and (f) blue. Unwrapped retardance of liquid crystal in (g) red, (h) green and (i) blue.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Fast axis orientation in (a) red, (b) green, (c) blue and (d) combined result of RGB.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Wrapped phase of liquid crystal in (a) red, (b) green and (c) blue channels.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Measurement results of red blood cells (RBCs). (a) RBC phase in R channel, (b)-(d) 3-D images of one cell in the R, G and B channels, and (e) the phase profile of one cell in different wavelengths.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Time series of phase images of breast cancer cells after contact with purified water. (a)-(b) Cells osmotically swell after exposure to purified water. (c)-(d) Cells swell and flatten after more purified water were added. Movies were taken with sampling times of a few seconds over 18 minutes (Visualization 1).

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Measurement results of the VLSI step height standard from the R channel.

Equations (14)

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S=[ S 0 S 1 S 2 S 3 ]=[ E E x x + E y E y E E x x E y E y E x E y + E y E x i( E x E y E y E x ) ]
E T =QWP(45)*S(ϕ,δ,α)* M R *S(ϕ,δ,α)*QWP(45)* E in
S(ϕ,δ,α)= e iϕ R(α)[ e iδ/2 0 0 e iδ/2 ]R(α)
E T =[ e 2i(ϕ+α) sinδ e 2iϕ cosδ ],
E R =QWP(0)* M R *QWP(0)* E in =[ 1 0 ]
S T =[ S T0 S T1 S T2 S T3 ]=[ 1 cos2δ cos2αsin2δ sin2αsin2δ ].
α= 1 2 arctan( S T3 S T2 ),
δ= 1 2 arctan S T2 2 + S T3 2 S T1 .
E= E T + E R =[ e 2i(ϕ+α) sinδ+1 e 2iϕ cosδ ]
S=[ 1 cos2δ cos2αsin2δ sin2αsin2δ ]+[ 1 1 0 0 ]+2[ cos(2α+2ϕ)sinδ cos(2α+2ϕ)sinδ cosδcos2ϕ cosδsin2ϕ ]= S T + S R +2 S F
ϕ= 1 2 arctan( S F3 S F2 ).
S=[ 2 0 2cos2ϕ 2sin2ϕ ].
ϕ= 1 2 arctan( S 3 S 2 ).
δ={ nπ+ 1 2 arctan S T2 2 + S T3 2 S T1 , nπδ<(n+ 1 2 )π (n+1)π 1 2 arctan S T2 2 + S T3 2 S 1T ,(n+ 1 2 )πδ<(n+1)π .

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