Abstract

Stromal collagen organization has been identified as a potential prognostic indicator in a variety of cancers and other diseases accompanied by fibrosis. Changes in the connective tissue are increasingly considered for grading dysplasia and progress of oral squamous cell carcinoma, investigated mainly ex vivo by histopathology. In this study, polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) with local phase retardation imaging is used for the first time to visualize depth-resolved (i.e., local) birefringence of healthy human oral mucosa in vivo. Depth-resolved birefringence is shown to reveal the expected local collagen organization. To demonstrate proof-of-principle, 3D image stacks were acquired at labial and lingual locations of the oral mucosa, chosen as those most commonly affected by cancerous alterations. To enable an intuitive evaluation of the birefringence images suitable for clinical application, color depth-encoded en-face projections were generated. Compared to en-face views of intensity or conventional cumulative phase retardation, we show that this novel approach offers improved visualization of the mucosal connective tissue layer in general, and reveals the collagen fiber architecture in particular. This study provides the basis for future prospective pathological and comparative in vivo studies non-invasively assessing stromal changes in conspicuous and cancerous oral lesions at different stages.

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2018 (6)

A. Devendra, K. C. Niranjan, A. Swetha, and H. Kaveri, “Histochemical analysis of collagen reorganization at the invasive front of oral squamous cell carcinoma tumors,” J. Investig. Clin. Dent. 9(1), e12283 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Walther, C. Schnabel, F. Tetschke, T. Rosenauer, J. Golde, N. Ebert, M. Baumann, C. Hannig, and E. Koch, “In vivo imaging in the oral cavity by endoscopic optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 23(7), 071207 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Villiger, B. Braaf, N. Lippok, K. Otsuka, S. K. Nadkarni, and B. E. Bouma, “Optic axis mapping with catheter-based polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Optica 5(10), 1329–1337 (2018).
[Crossref]

Q. Li, K. Karnowski, P. B. Noble, A. Cairncross, A. James, M. Villiger, and D. D. Sampson, “Robust reconstruction of local optic axis orientation with fiber-based polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 9(11), 5437–5455 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Villiger, K. Otsuka, A. Karanasos, P. Doradla, J. Ren, N. Lippok, M. Shishkov, J. Daemen, R. Diletti, R. J. van Geuns, F. Zijlstra, G. van Soest, P. Libby, E. Regar, S. K. Nadkarni, and B. E. Bouma, “Coronary plaque microstructure and composition modify optical polarization: a new endogenous contrast mechanism for optical frequency domain imaging,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging 11(11), 1666–1676 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P.-H. Chen, C.-H. Wu, Y.-F. Chen, Y. C. Yeh, B.-H. Lin, K.-W. Chang, P.-Y. Lai, M.-C. Hou, C.-L. Lu, and W. C. Kuo, “Combination of structural and vascular optical coherence tomography for differentiating oral lesions of mice in different carcinogenesis stages,” Biomed. Opt. Express 9(4), 1461–1476 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (6)

M.-T. Tsai, Y. Chen, C.-Y. Lee, B.-H. Huang, N. H. Trung, Y.-J. Lee, and Y.-L. Wang, “Noninvasive structural and microvascular anatomy of oral mucosae using handheld optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(11), 5001–5012 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. F. de Boer, C. K. Hitzenberger, and Y. Yasuno, “Polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography - a review [Invited],” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(3), 1838–1873 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Baumann, “Polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography: a review of technology and applications,” Appl. Sci. (Basel) 7(5), 474 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Walther, J. Golde, L. Kirsten, F. Tetschke, F. Hempel, T. Rosenauer, C. Hannig, and E. Koch, “In vivo imaging of human oral hard and soft tissues by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(12), 121717 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Sharma, Y. Verma, K. Sahu, S. Kumar, A. V. Varma, J. Kumawat, and P. K. Gupta, “Human ex-vivo oral tissue imaging using spectral domain polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Lasers Med. Sci. 32(1), 143–150 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Li, S. Makita, Y.-J. Hong, D. Kasaragod, and Y. Yasuno, “Three-dimensional multi-contrast imaging of in vivo human skin by Jones matrix optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(3), 1290–1305 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (7)

W. C. Y. Lo, M. Villiger, A. Golberg, G. F. Broelsch, S. Khan, C. G. Lian, W. G. Austen, M. Yarmush, and B. E. Bouma, “Longitudinal, 3D imaging of collagen remodeling in murine hypertrophic scars in vivo using polarization-sensitive optical frequency domain imaging,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 136(1), 84–92 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Villiger, D. Lorenser, R. A. McLaughlin, B. C. Quirk, R. W. Kirk, B. E. Bouma, and D. D. Sampson, “Deep tissue volume imaging of birefringence through fibre-optic needle probes for the delineation of breast tumour,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 28771 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Kardam, M. Mehendiratta, S. Rehani, M. Kumra, K. Sahay, and K. Jain, “Stromal fibers in oral squamous cell carcinoma: A possible new prognostic indicator?” J. Oral Maxillofac. Pathol. 20(3), 405–412 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. E. John and S. Murthy, “Morphological analysis of collagen and elastic fibers in oral squamous cell carcinoma using special stains and comparison with Broder’s and Bryne’s grading systems,” Indian J. Dent. Res. 27(3), 242–248 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. R. Drifka, A. G. Loeffler, K. Mathewson, G. Mehta, A. Keikhosravi, Y. Liu, S. Lemancik, W. A. Ricke, S. M. Weber, W. J. Kao, and K. W. Eliceiri, “Comparison of picrosirius red staining with second harmonic generation imaging for the quantification of clinically relevant collagen fiber features in histopathology samples,” J. Histochem. Cytochem. 64(9), 519–529 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, W. Zheng, K. Lin, and Z. Huang, “Development of a hybrid Raman spectroscopy and optical coherence tomography technique for real-time in vivo tissue measurements,” Opt. Lett. 41(13), 3045–3048 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Kasaragod, S. Fukuda, Y. Ueno, S. Hoshi, T. Oshika, and Y. Yasuno, “Objective evaluation of functionality of filtering bleb based on polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(4), 2305–2310 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (7)

M. Yamanari, S. Tsuda, T. Kokubun, Y. Shiga, K. Omodaka, Y. Yokoyama, N. Himori, M. Ryu, S. Kunimatsu-Sanuki, H. Takahashi, K. Maruyama, H. Kunikata, and T. Nakazawa, “Fiber-based polarization-sensitive OCT for birefringence imaging of the anterior eye segment,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(2), 369–389 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Sawazaki-Calone, A. Rangel, A. G. Bueno, C. F. Morais, H. M. Nagai, R. P. Kunz, R. L. Souza, L. Rutkauskis, T. Salo, A. Almangush, and R. D. Coletta, “The prognostic value of histopathological grading systems in oral squamous cell carcinomas,” Oral Dis. 21(6), 755–761 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. T. Shah and M. C. Skala, “Ex vivo label-free microscopy of head and neck cancer patient tissues,” Proc. SPIE 9329, 93292B (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Li, F. Feroldi, J. de Lange, J. M. A. Daniels, K. Grünberg, and J. F. de Boer, “Polarization sensitive optical frequency domain imaging system for endobronchial imaging,” Opt. Express 23(3), 3390–3402 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Yoon, W. H. Jang, P. Xiao, B. Kim, T. Wang, Q. Li, J. Y. Lee, E. Chung, and K. H. Kim, “In vivo wide-field reflectance/fluorescence imaging and polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography of human oral cavity with a forward-viewing probe,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(2), 524–535 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. M. F. Lee, L. Cahill, K. Liu, C. MacAulay, C. Poh, and P. Lane, “Wide-field in vivo oral OCT imaging,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(7), 2664–2674 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Arun Gopinathan, G. Kokila, M. Jyothi, C. Ananjan, L. Pradeep, and S. Humaira Nazir, “Study of collagen birefringence in different grades of oral squamous cell carcinoma using picrosirius red and polarized light microscopy,” Scientifica (Cairo) 2015, 802980 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (3)

W. S. Chen, Y. Wang, N. R. Liu, J. X. Zhang, and R. Chen, “Multiphoton microscopic imaging of human normal and cancerous oesophagus tissue,” J. Microsc. 253(1), 79–82 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Rivera and B. Venegas, “Histological and molecular aspects of oral squamous cell carcinoma (Review),” Oncol. Lett. 8(1), 7–11 (2014).

Z. Wang, H.-C. Lee, O. O. Ahsen, B. Lee, W. Choi, B. Potsaid, J. Liu, V. Jayaraman, A. Cable, M. F. Kraus, K. Liang, J. Hornegger, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Depth-encoded all-fiber swept source polarization sensitive OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(9), 2931–2949 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (5)

N. Gladkova, E. Kiseleva, N. Robakidze, I. Balalaeva, M. Karabut, E. Gubarkova, and F. Feldchtein, “Evaluation of oral mucosa collagen condition with cross-polarization optical coherence tomography,” J. Biophotonics 6(4), 321–329 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Chin, X. Yang, R. A. McLaughlin, P. B. Noble, and D. D. Sampson, “En face parametric imaging of tissue birefringence using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(6), 066005 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Yang, L. Chin, B. R. Klyen, T. Shavlakadze, R. A. McLaughlin, M. D. Grounds, and D. D. Sampson, “Quantitative assessment of muscle damage in the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Appl. Physiol. 115(9), 1393–1401 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Villiger, E. Z. Zhang, S. K. Nadkarni, W.-Y. Oh, B. J. Vakoc, and B. E. Bouma, “Spectral binning for mitigation of polarization mode dispersion artifacts in catheter-based optical frequency domain imaging,” Opt. Express 21(14), 16353–16369 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Ju, Y.-J. Hong, S. Makita, Y. Lim, K. Kurokawa, L. Duan, M. Miura, S. Tang, and Y. Yasuno, “Advanced multi-contrast Jones matrix optical coherence tomography for Doppler and polarization sensitive imaging,” Opt. Express 21(16), 19412–19436 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (6)

W. L. Dissanayaka, G. Pitiyage, P. V. R. Kumarasiri, R. L. P. R. Liyanage, K. D. Dias, and W. M. Tilakaratne, “Clinical and histopathologic parameters in survival of oral squamous cell carcinoma,” Oral Surg. Oral Med. Oral Pathol. Oral Radiol. 113(4), 518–525 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Feller and J. Lemmer, “Oral squamous cell carcinoma: epidemiology, clinical presentation and treatment,” J. Cancer Ther. 3(4), 263–268 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Prestin, S. I. Rothschild, C. S. Betz, and M. Kraft, “Measurement of epithelial thickness within the oral cavity using optical coherence tomography,” Head Neck 34(12), 1777–1781 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Schindelin, I. Arganda-Carreras, E. Frise, V. Kaynig, M. Longair, T. Pietzsch, S. Preibisch, C. Rueden, S. Saalfeld, B. Schmid, J.-Y. Tinevez, D. J. White, V. Hartenstein, K. Eliceiri, P. Tomancak, and A. Cardona, “Fiji: an open-source platform for biological-image analysis,” Nat. Methods 9(7), 676–682 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Lim, Y.-J. Hong, L. Duan, M. Yamanari, and Y. Yasuno, “Passive component based multifunctional Jones matrix swept source optical coherence tomography for Doppler and polarization imaging,” Opt. Lett. 37(11), 1958–1960 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Baumann, W. Choi, B. Potsaid, D. Huang, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Swept source/Fourier domain polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography with a passive polarization delay unit,” Opt. Express 20(9), 10229–10241 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

2010 (3)

S. Makita, M. Yamanari, and Y. Yasuno, “Generalized Jones matrix optical coherence tomography: performance and local birefringence imaging,” Opt. Express 18(2), 854–876 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. H. Tomlins, O. Adegun, E. Hagi-Pavli, K. Piper, D. Bader, and F. Fortune, “Scattering attenuation microscopy of oral epithelial dysplasia,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(6), 066003 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Aparna and S. Charu, “Evaluation of collagen in different grades of oral squamous cell carcinoma by using the Picrosirius red stain - a histochemical study,” J. Clin. Diagn. Res. 4(6), 3444–3449 (2010).

2009 (3)

M.-T. Tsai, C.-K. Lee, H.-C. Lee, H.-M. Chen, C.-P. Chiang, Y.-M. Wang, and C.-C. Yang, “Differentiating oral lesions in different carcinogenesis stages with optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(4), 044028 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Wilder-Smith, K. Lee, S. Guo, J. Zhang, K. Osann, Z. Chen, and D. Messadi, “In vivo diagnosis of oral dysplasia and malignancy using optical coherence tomography: Preliminary studies in 50 patients,” Lasers Surg. Med. 41(5), 353–357 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Cimalla, J. Walther, M. Mehner, M. Cuevas, and E. Koch, “Simultaneous dual-band optical coherence tomography in the spectral domain for high resolution in vivo imaging,” Opt. Express 17(22), 19486–19500 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

2004 (2)

P. Wilder-Smith, W. G. Jung, M. Brenner, K. Osann, H. Beydoun, D. Messadi, and Z. Chen, “In vivo optical coherence tomography for the diagnosis of oral malignancy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 35(4), 269–275 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Todorović, S. Jiao, L. V. Wang, and G. Stoica, “Determination of local polarization properties of biological samples in the presence of diattenuation by use of Mueller optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 29(20), 2402–2404 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

1994 (1)

P. A. Reichart, C. W. van Wyk, J. Becker, and D. Schuppan, “Distribution of procollagen type III, collagen type VI and tenascin in oral submucous fibrosis (OSF),” J. Oral Pathol. Med. 23(9), 394–398 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1980 (1)

G. S. Montes, R. M. Krisztán, K. M. Shigihara, R. Tokoro, P. A. Mourão, and L. C. Junqueira, “Histochemical and morphological characterization of reticular fibers,” Histochemistry 65(2), 131–141 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1978 (1)

L. C. U. Junqueira, W. Cossermelli, and R. Brentani, “Differential staining of collagens Type I, II and III by Sirius Red and Polarization microscopy,” Arch. Histol. Jpn. 41(3), 267–274 (1978).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adegun, O.

P. H. Tomlins, O. Adegun, E. Hagi-Pavli, K. Piper, D. Bader, and F. Fortune, “Scattering attenuation microscopy of oral epithelial dysplasia,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(6), 066003 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ahsen, O. O.

Almangush, A.

I. Sawazaki-Calone, A. Rangel, A. G. Bueno, C. F. Morais, H. M. Nagai, R. P. Kunz, R. L. Souza, L. Rutkauskis, T. Salo, A. Almangush, and R. D. Coletta, “The prognostic value of histopathological grading systems in oral squamous cell carcinomas,” Oral Dis. 21(6), 755–761 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ananjan, C.

P. Arun Gopinathan, G. Kokila, M. Jyothi, C. Ananjan, L. Pradeep, and S. Humaira Nazir, “Study of collagen birefringence in different grades of oral squamous cell carcinoma using picrosirius red and polarized light microscopy,” Scientifica (Cairo) 2015, 802980 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aparna, V.

V. Aparna and S. Charu, “Evaluation of collagen in different grades of oral squamous cell carcinoma by using the Picrosirius red stain - a histochemical study,” J. Clin. Diagn. Res. 4(6), 3444–3449 (2010).

Arganda-Carreras, I.

J. Schindelin, I. Arganda-Carreras, E. Frise, V. Kaynig, M. Longair, T. Pietzsch, S. Preibisch, C. Rueden, S. Saalfeld, B. Schmid, J.-Y. Tinevez, D. J. White, V. Hartenstein, K. Eliceiri, P. Tomancak, and A. Cardona, “Fiji: an open-source platform for biological-image analysis,” Nat. Methods 9(7), 676–682 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arun Gopinathan, P.

P. Arun Gopinathan, G. Kokila, M. Jyothi, C. Ananjan, L. Pradeep, and S. Humaira Nazir, “Study of collagen birefringence in different grades of oral squamous cell carcinoma using picrosirius red and polarized light microscopy,” Scientifica (Cairo) 2015, 802980 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Austen, W. G.

W. C. Y. Lo, M. Villiger, A. Golberg, G. F. Broelsch, S. Khan, C. G. Lian, W. G. Austen, M. Yarmush, and B. E. Bouma, “Longitudinal, 3D imaging of collagen remodeling in murine hypertrophic scars in vivo using polarization-sensitive optical frequency domain imaging,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 136(1), 84–92 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bader, D.

P. H. Tomlins, O. Adegun, E. Hagi-Pavli, K. Piper, D. Bader, and F. Fortune, “Scattering attenuation microscopy of oral epithelial dysplasia,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(6), 066003 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Balalaeva, I.

N. Gladkova, E. Kiseleva, N. Robakidze, I. Balalaeva, M. Karabut, E. Gubarkova, and F. Feldchtein, “Evaluation of oral mucosa collagen condition with cross-polarization optical coherence tomography,” J. Biophotonics 6(4), 321–329 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baumann, B.

Baumann, M.

J. Walther, C. Schnabel, F. Tetschke, T. Rosenauer, J. Golde, N. Ebert, M. Baumann, C. Hannig, and E. Koch, “In vivo imaging in the oral cavity by endoscopic optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 23(7), 071207 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Becker, J.

P. A. Reichart, C. W. van Wyk, J. Becker, and D. Schuppan, “Distribution of procollagen type III, collagen type VI and tenascin in oral submucous fibrosis (OSF),” J. Oral Pathol. Med. 23(9), 394–398 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Betz, C. S.

S. Prestin, S. I. Rothschild, C. S. Betz, and M. Kraft, “Measurement of epithelial thickness within the oral cavity using optical coherence tomography,” Head Neck 34(12), 1777–1781 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beydoun, H.

P. Wilder-Smith, W. G. Jung, M. Brenner, K. Osann, H. Beydoun, D. Messadi, and Z. Chen, “In vivo optical coherence tomography for the diagnosis of oral malignancy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 35(4), 269–275 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bornemann, J.

Bouma, B. E.

M. Villiger, K. Otsuka, A. Karanasos, P. Doradla, J. Ren, N. Lippok, M. Shishkov, J. Daemen, R. Diletti, R. J. van Geuns, F. Zijlstra, G. van Soest, P. Libby, E. Regar, S. K. Nadkarni, and B. E. Bouma, “Coronary plaque microstructure and composition modify optical polarization: a new endogenous contrast mechanism for optical frequency domain imaging,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging 11(11), 1666–1676 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Villiger, B. Braaf, N. Lippok, K. Otsuka, S. K. Nadkarni, and B. E. Bouma, “Optic axis mapping with catheter-based polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Optica 5(10), 1329–1337 (2018).
[Crossref]

W. C. Y. Lo, M. Villiger, A. Golberg, G. F. Broelsch, S. Khan, C. G. Lian, W. G. Austen, M. Yarmush, and B. E. Bouma, “Longitudinal, 3D imaging of collagen remodeling in murine hypertrophic scars in vivo using polarization-sensitive optical frequency domain imaging,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 136(1), 84–92 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Villiger, D. Lorenser, R. A. McLaughlin, B. C. Quirk, R. W. Kirk, B. E. Bouma, and D. D. Sampson, “Deep tissue volume imaging of birefringence through fibre-optic needle probes for the delineation of breast tumour,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 28771 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Villiger, E. Z. Zhang, S. K. Nadkarni, W.-Y. Oh, B. J. Vakoc, and B. E. Bouma, “Spectral binning for mitigation of polarization mode dispersion artifacts in catheter-based optical frequency domain imaging,” Opt. Express 21(14), 16353–16369 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Braaf, B.

Brenner, M.

P. Wilder-Smith, W. G. Jung, M. Brenner, K. Osann, H. Beydoun, D. Messadi, and Z. Chen, “In vivo optical coherence tomography for the diagnosis of oral malignancy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 35(4), 269–275 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brentani, R.

L. C. U. Junqueira, W. Cossermelli, and R. Brentani, “Differential staining of collagens Type I, II and III by Sirius Red and Polarization microscopy,” Arch. Histol. Jpn. 41(3), 267–274 (1978).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Broelsch, G. F.

W. C. Y. Lo, M. Villiger, A. Golberg, G. F. Broelsch, S. Khan, C. G. Lian, W. G. Austen, M. Yarmush, and B. E. Bouma, “Longitudinal, 3D imaging of collagen remodeling in murine hypertrophic scars in vivo using polarization-sensitive optical frequency domain imaging,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 136(1), 84–92 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bueno, A. G.

I. Sawazaki-Calone, A. Rangel, A. G. Bueno, C. F. Morais, H. M. Nagai, R. P. Kunz, R. L. Souza, L. Rutkauskis, T. Salo, A. Almangush, and R. D. Coletta, “The prognostic value of histopathological grading systems in oral squamous cell carcinomas,” Oral Dis. 21(6), 755–761 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cable, A.

Cahill, L.

Cairncross, A.

Cardona, A.

J. Schindelin, I. Arganda-Carreras, E. Frise, V. Kaynig, M. Longair, T. Pietzsch, S. Preibisch, C. Rueden, S. Saalfeld, B. Schmid, J.-Y. Tinevez, D. J. White, V. Hartenstein, K. Eliceiri, P. Tomancak, and A. Cardona, “Fiji: an open-source platform for biological-image analysis,” Nat. Methods 9(7), 676–682 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, K.-W.

Charu, S.

V. Aparna and S. Charu, “Evaluation of collagen in different grades of oral squamous cell carcinoma by using the Picrosirius red stain - a histochemical study,” J. Clin. Diagn. Res. 4(6), 3444–3449 (2010).

Chen, H.-M.

M.-T. Tsai, C.-K. Lee, H.-C. Lee, H.-M. Chen, C.-P. Chiang, Y.-M. Wang, and C.-C. Yang, “Differentiating oral lesions in different carcinogenesis stages with optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(4), 044028 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, P.-H.

Chen, R.

W. S. Chen, Y. Wang, N. R. Liu, J. X. Zhang, and R. Chen, “Multiphoton microscopic imaging of human normal and cancerous oesophagus tissue,” J. Microsc. 253(1), 79–82 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, W. S.

W. S. Chen, Y. Wang, N. R. Liu, J. X. Zhang, and R. Chen, “Multiphoton microscopic imaging of human normal and cancerous oesophagus tissue,” J. Microsc. 253(1), 79–82 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.

Chen, Y.-F.

Chen, Z.

P. Wilder-Smith, K. Lee, S. Guo, J. Zhang, K. Osann, Z. Chen, and D. Messadi, “In vivo diagnosis of oral dysplasia and malignancy using optical coherence tomography: Preliminary studies in 50 patients,” Lasers Surg. Med. 41(5), 353–357 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Wilder-Smith, W. G. Jung, M. Brenner, K. Osann, H. Beydoun, D. Messadi, and Z. Chen, “In vivo optical coherence tomography for the diagnosis of oral malignancy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 35(4), 269–275 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chiang, C.-P.

M.-T. Tsai, C.-K. Lee, H.-C. Lee, H.-M. Chen, C.-P. Chiang, Y.-M. Wang, and C.-C. Yang, “Differentiating oral lesions in different carcinogenesis stages with optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(4), 044028 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chin, L.

L. Chin, X. Yang, R. A. McLaughlin, P. B. Noble, and D. D. Sampson, “En face parametric imaging of tissue birefringence using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(6), 066005 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Yang, L. Chin, B. R. Klyen, T. Shavlakadze, R. A. McLaughlin, M. D. Grounds, and D. D. Sampson, “Quantitative assessment of muscle damage in the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Appl. Physiol. 115(9), 1393–1401 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, W.

Chung, E.

Cimalla, P.

Coletta, R. D.

I. Sawazaki-Calone, A. Rangel, A. G. Bueno, C. F. Morais, H. M. Nagai, R. P. Kunz, R. L. Souza, L. Rutkauskis, T. Salo, A. Almangush, and R. D. Coletta, “The prognostic value of histopathological grading systems in oral squamous cell carcinomas,” Oral Dis. 21(6), 755–761 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cossermelli, W.

L. C. U. Junqueira, W. Cossermelli, and R. Brentani, “Differential staining of collagens Type I, II and III by Sirius Red and Polarization microscopy,” Arch. Histol. Jpn. 41(3), 267–274 (1978).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cuevas, M.

Daemen, J.

M. Villiger, K. Otsuka, A. Karanasos, P. Doradla, J. Ren, N. Lippok, M. Shishkov, J. Daemen, R. Diletti, R. J. van Geuns, F. Zijlstra, G. van Soest, P. Libby, E. Regar, S. K. Nadkarni, and B. E. Bouma, “Coronary plaque microstructure and composition modify optical polarization: a new endogenous contrast mechanism for optical frequency domain imaging,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging 11(11), 1666–1676 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Daniels, J. M. A.

de Boer, J. F.

de Lange, J.

Devendra, A.

A. Devendra, K. C. Niranjan, A. Swetha, and H. Kaveri, “Histochemical analysis of collagen reorganization at the invasive front of oral squamous cell carcinoma tumors,” J. Investig. Clin. Dent. 9(1), e12283 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dias, K. D.

W. L. Dissanayaka, G. Pitiyage, P. V. R. Kumarasiri, R. L. P. R. Liyanage, K. D. Dias, and W. M. Tilakaratne, “Clinical and histopathologic parameters in survival of oral squamous cell carcinoma,” Oral Surg. Oral Med. Oral Pathol. Oral Radiol. 113(4), 518–525 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Diletti, R.

M. Villiger, K. Otsuka, A. Karanasos, P. Doradla, J. Ren, N. Lippok, M. Shishkov, J. Daemen, R. Diletti, R. J. van Geuns, F. Zijlstra, G. van Soest, P. Libby, E. Regar, S. K. Nadkarni, and B. E. Bouma, “Coronary plaque microstructure and composition modify optical polarization: a new endogenous contrast mechanism for optical frequency domain imaging,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging 11(11), 1666–1676 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dissanayaka, W. L.

W. L. Dissanayaka, G. Pitiyage, P. V. R. Kumarasiri, R. L. P. R. Liyanage, K. D. Dias, and W. M. Tilakaratne, “Clinical and histopathologic parameters in survival of oral squamous cell carcinoma,” Oral Surg. Oral Med. Oral Pathol. Oral Radiol. 113(4), 518–525 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Doradla, P.

M. Villiger, K. Otsuka, A. Karanasos, P. Doradla, J. Ren, N. Lippok, M. Shishkov, J. Daemen, R. Diletti, R. J. van Geuns, F. Zijlstra, G. van Soest, P. Libby, E. Regar, S. K. Nadkarni, and B. E. Bouma, “Coronary plaque microstructure and composition modify optical polarization: a new endogenous contrast mechanism for optical frequency domain imaging,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging 11(11), 1666–1676 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Drifka, C. R.

C. R. Drifka, A. G. Loeffler, K. Mathewson, G. Mehta, A. Keikhosravi, Y. Liu, S. Lemancik, W. A. Ricke, S. M. Weber, W. J. Kao, and K. W. Eliceiri, “Comparison of picrosirius red staining with second harmonic generation imaging for the quantification of clinically relevant collagen fiber features in histopathology samples,” J. Histochem. Cytochem. 64(9), 519–529 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Duan, L.

Dubois, A.

Duker, J. S.

Ebert, N.

J. Walther, C. Schnabel, F. Tetschke, T. Rosenauer, J. Golde, N. Ebert, M. Baumann, C. Hannig, and E. Koch, “In vivo imaging in the oral cavity by endoscopic optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 23(7), 071207 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eliceiri, K.

J. Schindelin, I. Arganda-Carreras, E. Frise, V. Kaynig, M. Longair, T. Pietzsch, S. Preibisch, C. Rueden, S. Saalfeld, B. Schmid, J.-Y. Tinevez, D. J. White, V. Hartenstein, K. Eliceiri, P. Tomancak, and A. Cardona, “Fiji: an open-source platform for biological-image analysis,” Nat. Methods 9(7), 676–682 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eliceiri, K. W.

C. R. Drifka, A. G. Loeffler, K. Mathewson, G. Mehta, A. Keikhosravi, Y. Liu, S. Lemancik, W. A. Ricke, S. M. Weber, W. J. Kao, and K. W. Eliceiri, “Comparison of picrosirius red staining with second harmonic generation imaging for the quantification of clinically relevant collagen fiber features in histopathology samples,” J. Histochem. Cytochem. 64(9), 519–529 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feldchtein, F.

N. Gladkova, E. Kiseleva, N. Robakidze, I. Balalaeva, M. Karabut, E. Gubarkova, and F. Feldchtein, “Evaluation of oral mucosa collagen condition with cross-polarization optical coherence tomography,” J. Biophotonics 6(4), 321–329 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feller, L.

L. Feller and J. Lemmer, “Oral squamous cell carcinoma: epidemiology, clinical presentation and treatment,” J. Cancer Ther. 3(4), 263–268 (2012).
[Crossref]

Feroldi, F.

Först, M.

Fortune, F.

P. H. Tomlins, O. Adegun, E. Hagi-Pavli, K. Piper, D. Bader, and F. Fortune, “Scattering attenuation microscopy of oral epithelial dysplasia,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(6), 066003 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Frise, E.

J. Schindelin, I. Arganda-Carreras, E. Frise, V. Kaynig, M. Longair, T. Pietzsch, S. Preibisch, C. Rueden, S. Saalfeld, B. Schmid, J.-Y. Tinevez, D. J. White, V. Hartenstein, K. Eliceiri, P. Tomancak, and A. Cardona, “Fiji: an open-source platform for biological-image analysis,” Nat. Methods 9(7), 676–682 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

Fukuda, S.

D. Kasaragod, S. Fukuda, Y. Ueno, S. Hoshi, T. Oshika, and Y. Yasuno, “Objective evaluation of functionality of filtering bleb based on polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(4), 2305–2310 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Lim, M. Yamanari, S. Fukuda, Y. Kaji, T. Kiuchi, M. Miura, T. Oshika, and Y. Yasuno, “Birefringence measurement of cornea and anterior segment by office-based polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(8), 2392–2402 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gelikonov, V.

Georges, P.

Gladkova, N.

N. Gladkova, E. Kiseleva, N. Robakidze, I. Balalaeva, M. Karabut, E. Gubarkova, and F. Feldchtein, “Evaluation of oral mucosa collagen condition with cross-polarization optical coherence tomography,” J. Biophotonics 6(4), 321–329 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Golberg, A.

W. C. Y. Lo, M. Villiger, A. Golberg, G. F. Broelsch, S. Khan, C. G. Lian, W. G. Austen, M. Yarmush, and B. E. Bouma, “Longitudinal, 3D imaging of collagen remodeling in murine hypertrophic scars in vivo using polarization-sensitive optical frequency domain imaging,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 136(1), 84–92 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Golde, J.

J. Walther, C. Schnabel, F. Tetschke, T. Rosenauer, J. Golde, N. Ebert, M. Baumann, C. Hannig, and E. Koch, “In vivo imaging in the oral cavity by endoscopic optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 23(7), 071207 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Walther, J. Golde, L. Kirsten, F. Tetschke, F. Hempel, T. Rosenauer, C. Hannig, and E. Koch, “In vivo imaging of human oral hard and soft tissues by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(12), 121717 (2017).
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Grounds, M. D.

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P. Wilder-Smith, K. Lee, S. Guo, J. Zhang, K. Osann, Z. Chen, and D. Messadi, “In vivo diagnosis of oral dysplasia and malignancy using optical coherence tomography: Preliminary studies in 50 patients,” Lasers Surg. Med. 41(5), 353–357 (2009).
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P. Wilder-Smith, W. G. Jung, M. Brenner, K. Osann, H. Beydoun, D. Messadi, and Z. Chen, “In vivo optical coherence tomography for the diagnosis of oral malignancy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 35(4), 269–275 (2004).
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G. S. Montes, R. M. Krisztán, K. M. Shigihara, R. Tokoro, P. A. Mourão, and L. C. Junqueira, “Histochemical and morphological characterization of reticular fibers,” Histochemistry 65(2), 131–141 (1980).
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G. S. Montes, R. M. Krisztán, K. M. Shigihara, R. Tokoro, P. A. Mourão, and L. C. Junqueira, “Histochemical and morphological characterization of reticular fibers,” Histochemistry 65(2), 131–141 (1980).
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R. E. John and S. Murthy, “Morphological analysis of collagen and elastic fibers in oral squamous cell carcinoma using special stains and comparison with Broder’s and Bryne’s grading systems,” Indian J. Dent. Res. 27(3), 242–248 (2016).
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M. Villiger, K. Otsuka, A. Karanasos, P. Doradla, J. Ren, N. Lippok, M. Shishkov, J. Daemen, R. Diletti, R. J. van Geuns, F. Zijlstra, G. van Soest, P. Libby, E. Regar, S. K. Nadkarni, and B. E. Bouma, “Coronary plaque microstructure and composition modify optical polarization: a new endogenous contrast mechanism for optical frequency domain imaging,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging 11(11), 1666–1676 (2018).
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M. Villiger, B. Braaf, N. Lippok, K. Otsuka, S. K. Nadkarni, and B. E. Bouma, “Optic axis mapping with catheter-based polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Optica 5(10), 1329–1337 (2018).
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M. Villiger, E. Z. Zhang, S. K. Nadkarni, W.-Y. Oh, B. J. Vakoc, and B. E. Bouma, “Spectral binning for mitigation of polarization mode dispersion artifacts in catheter-based optical frequency domain imaging,” Opt. Express 21(14), 16353–16369 (2013).
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Nagai, H. M.

I. Sawazaki-Calone, A. Rangel, A. G. Bueno, C. F. Morais, H. M. Nagai, R. P. Kunz, R. L. Souza, L. Rutkauskis, T. Salo, A. Almangush, and R. D. Coletta, “The prognostic value of histopathological grading systems in oral squamous cell carcinomas,” Oral Dis. 21(6), 755–761 (2015).
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Nakazawa, T.

Niranjan, K. C.

A. Devendra, K. C. Niranjan, A. Swetha, and H. Kaveri, “Histochemical analysis of collagen reorganization at the invasive front of oral squamous cell carcinoma tumors,” J. Investig. Clin. Dent. 9(1), e12283 (2018).
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Noble, P. B.

Q. Li, K. Karnowski, P. B. Noble, A. Cairncross, A. James, M. Villiger, and D. D. Sampson, “Robust reconstruction of local optic axis orientation with fiber-based polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 9(11), 5437–5455 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Chin, X. Yang, R. A. McLaughlin, P. B. Noble, and D. D. Sampson, “En face parametric imaging of tissue birefringence using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(6), 066005 (2013).
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Omodaka, K.

Osann, K.

P. Wilder-Smith, K. Lee, S. Guo, J. Zhang, K. Osann, Z. Chen, and D. Messadi, “In vivo diagnosis of oral dysplasia and malignancy using optical coherence tomography: Preliminary studies in 50 patients,” Lasers Surg. Med. 41(5), 353–357 (2009).
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P. Wilder-Smith, W. G. Jung, M. Brenner, K. Osann, H. Beydoun, D. Messadi, and Z. Chen, “In vivo optical coherence tomography for the diagnosis of oral malignancy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 35(4), 269–275 (2004).
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Oshika, T.

D. Kasaragod, S. Fukuda, Y. Ueno, S. Hoshi, T. Oshika, and Y. Yasuno, “Objective evaluation of functionality of filtering bleb based on polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(4), 2305–2310 (2016).
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Y. Lim, M. Yamanari, S. Fukuda, Y. Kaji, T. Kiuchi, M. Miura, T. Oshika, and Y. Yasuno, “Birefringence measurement of cornea and anterior segment by office-based polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(8), 2392–2402 (2011).
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Otsuka, K.

M. Villiger, K. Otsuka, A. Karanasos, P. Doradla, J. Ren, N. Lippok, M. Shishkov, J. Daemen, R. Diletti, R. J. van Geuns, F. Zijlstra, G. van Soest, P. Libby, E. Regar, S. K. Nadkarni, and B. E. Bouma, “Coronary plaque microstructure and composition modify optical polarization: a new endogenous contrast mechanism for optical frequency domain imaging,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging 11(11), 1666–1676 (2018).
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M. Villiger, B. Braaf, N. Lippok, K. Otsuka, S. K. Nadkarni, and B. E. Bouma, “Optic axis mapping with catheter-based polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Optica 5(10), 1329–1337 (2018).
[Crossref]

Park, B. H.

Pietzsch, T.

J. Schindelin, I. Arganda-Carreras, E. Frise, V. Kaynig, M. Longair, T. Pietzsch, S. Preibisch, C. Rueden, S. Saalfeld, B. Schmid, J.-Y. Tinevez, D. J. White, V. Hartenstein, K. Eliceiri, P. Tomancak, and A. Cardona, “Fiji: an open-source platform for biological-image analysis,” Nat. Methods 9(7), 676–682 (2012).
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P. H. Tomlins, O. Adegun, E. Hagi-Pavli, K. Piper, D. Bader, and F. Fortune, “Scattering attenuation microscopy of oral epithelial dysplasia,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(6), 066003 (2010).
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Pitiyage, G.

W. L. Dissanayaka, G. Pitiyage, P. V. R. Kumarasiri, R. L. P. R. Liyanage, K. D. Dias, and W. M. Tilakaratne, “Clinical and histopathologic parameters in survival of oral squamous cell carcinoma,” Oral Surg. Oral Med. Oral Pathol. Oral Radiol. 113(4), 518–525 (2012).
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Potsaid, B.

Pradeep, L.

P. Arun Gopinathan, G. Kokila, M. Jyothi, C. Ananjan, L. Pradeep, and S. Humaira Nazir, “Study of collagen birefringence in different grades of oral squamous cell carcinoma using picrosirius red and polarized light microscopy,” Scientifica (Cairo) 2015, 802980 (2015).
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J. Schindelin, I. Arganda-Carreras, E. Frise, V. Kaynig, M. Longair, T. Pietzsch, S. Preibisch, C. Rueden, S. Saalfeld, B. Schmid, J.-Y. Tinevez, D. J. White, V. Hartenstein, K. Eliceiri, P. Tomancak, and A. Cardona, “Fiji: an open-source platform for biological-image analysis,” Nat. Methods 9(7), 676–682 (2012).
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S. Prestin, S. I. Rothschild, C. S. Betz, and M. Kraft, “Measurement of epithelial thickness within the oral cavity using optical coherence tomography,” Head Neck 34(12), 1777–1781 (2012).
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Prodanetz, N.

Quirk, B. C.

M. Villiger, D. Lorenser, R. A. McLaughlin, B. C. Quirk, R. W. Kirk, B. E. Bouma, and D. D. Sampson, “Deep tissue volume imaging of birefringence through fibre-optic needle probes for the delineation of breast tumour,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 28771 (2016).
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I. Sawazaki-Calone, A. Rangel, A. G. Bueno, C. F. Morais, H. M. Nagai, R. P. Kunz, R. L. Souza, L. Rutkauskis, T. Salo, A. Almangush, and R. D. Coletta, “The prognostic value of histopathological grading systems in oral squamous cell carcinomas,” Oral Dis. 21(6), 755–761 (2015).
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Regar, E.

M. Villiger, K. Otsuka, A. Karanasos, P. Doradla, J. Ren, N. Lippok, M. Shishkov, J. Daemen, R. Diletti, R. J. van Geuns, F. Zijlstra, G. van Soest, P. Libby, E. Regar, S. K. Nadkarni, and B. E. Bouma, “Coronary plaque microstructure and composition modify optical polarization: a new endogenous contrast mechanism for optical frequency domain imaging,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging 11(11), 1666–1676 (2018).
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Rehani, S.

P. Kardam, M. Mehendiratta, S. Rehani, M. Kumra, K. Sahay, and K. Jain, “Stromal fibers in oral squamous cell carcinoma: A possible new prognostic indicator?” J. Oral Maxillofac. Pathol. 20(3), 405–412 (2016).
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Reichart, P. A.

P. A. Reichart, C. W. van Wyk, J. Becker, and D. Schuppan, “Distribution of procollagen type III, collagen type VI and tenascin in oral submucous fibrosis (OSF),” J. Oral Pathol. Med. 23(9), 394–398 (1994).
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Ren, J.

M. Villiger, K. Otsuka, A. Karanasos, P. Doradla, J. Ren, N. Lippok, M. Shishkov, J. Daemen, R. Diletti, R. J. van Geuns, F. Zijlstra, G. van Soest, P. Libby, E. Regar, S. K. Nadkarni, and B. E. Bouma, “Coronary plaque microstructure and composition modify optical polarization: a new endogenous contrast mechanism for optical frequency domain imaging,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging 11(11), 1666–1676 (2018).
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C. R. Drifka, A. G. Loeffler, K. Mathewson, G. Mehta, A. Keikhosravi, Y. Liu, S. Lemancik, W. A. Ricke, S. M. Weber, W. J. Kao, and K. W. Eliceiri, “Comparison of picrosirius red staining with second harmonic generation imaging for the quantification of clinically relevant collagen fiber features in histopathology samples,” J. Histochem. Cytochem. 64(9), 519–529 (2016).
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C. Rivera and B. Venegas, “Histological and molecular aspects of oral squamous cell carcinoma (Review),” Oncol. Lett. 8(1), 7–11 (2014).

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N. Gladkova, E. Kiseleva, N. Robakidze, I. Balalaeva, M. Karabut, E. Gubarkova, and F. Feldchtein, “Evaluation of oral mucosa collagen condition with cross-polarization optical coherence tomography,” J. Biophotonics 6(4), 321–329 (2013).
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J. Walther, C. Schnabel, F. Tetschke, T. Rosenauer, J. Golde, N. Ebert, M. Baumann, C. Hannig, and E. Koch, “In vivo imaging in the oral cavity by endoscopic optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 23(7), 071207 (2018).
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J. Walther, J. Golde, L. Kirsten, F. Tetschke, F. Hempel, T. Rosenauer, C. Hannig, and E. Koch, “In vivo imaging of human oral hard and soft tissues by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(12), 121717 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rothschild, S. I.

S. Prestin, S. I. Rothschild, C. S. Betz, and M. Kraft, “Measurement of epithelial thickness within the oral cavity using optical coherence tomography,” Head Neck 34(12), 1777–1781 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rueden, C.

J. Schindelin, I. Arganda-Carreras, E. Frise, V. Kaynig, M. Longair, T. Pietzsch, S. Preibisch, C. Rueden, S. Saalfeld, B. Schmid, J.-Y. Tinevez, D. J. White, V. Hartenstein, K. Eliceiri, P. Tomancak, and A. Cardona, “Fiji: an open-source platform for biological-image analysis,” Nat. Methods 9(7), 676–682 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rutkauskis, L.

I. Sawazaki-Calone, A. Rangel, A. G. Bueno, C. F. Morais, H. M. Nagai, R. P. Kunz, R. L. Souza, L. Rutkauskis, T. Salo, A. Almangush, and R. D. Coletta, “The prognostic value of histopathological grading systems in oral squamous cell carcinomas,” Oral Dis. 21(6), 755–761 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ryu, M.

Saalfeld, S.

J. Schindelin, I. Arganda-Carreras, E. Frise, V. Kaynig, M. Longair, T. Pietzsch, S. Preibisch, C. Rueden, S. Saalfeld, B. Schmid, J.-Y. Tinevez, D. J. White, V. Hartenstein, K. Eliceiri, P. Tomancak, and A. Cardona, “Fiji: an open-source platform for biological-image analysis,” Nat. Methods 9(7), 676–682 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sacchet, D.

Sahay, K.

P. Kardam, M. Mehendiratta, S. Rehani, M. Kumra, K. Sahay, and K. Jain, “Stromal fibers in oral squamous cell carcinoma: A possible new prognostic indicator?” J. Oral Maxillofac. Pathol. 20(3), 405–412 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sahu, K.

P. Sharma, Y. Verma, K. Sahu, S. Kumar, A. V. Varma, J. Kumawat, and P. K. Gupta, “Human ex-vivo oral tissue imaging using spectral domain polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Lasers Med. Sci. 32(1), 143–150 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Salo, T.

I. Sawazaki-Calone, A. Rangel, A. G. Bueno, C. F. Morais, H. M. Nagai, R. P. Kunz, R. L. Souza, L. Rutkauskis, T. Salo, A. Almangush, and R. D. Coletta, “The prognostic value of histopathological grading systems in oral squamous cell carcinomas,” Oral Dis. 21(6), 755–761 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sampson, D. D.

Q. Li, K. Karnowski, P. B. Noble, A. Cairncross, A. James, M. Villiger, and D. D. Sampson, “Robust reconstruction of local optic axis orientation with fiber-based polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 9(11), 5437–5455 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Villiger, D. Lorenser, R. A. McLaughlin, B. C. Quirk, R. W. Kirk, B. E. Bouma, and D. D. Sampson, “Deep tissue volume imaging of birefringence through fibre-optic needle probes for the delineation of breast tumour,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 28771 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Chin, X. Yang, R. A. McLaughlin, P. B. Noble, and D. D. Sampson, “En face parametric imaging of tissue birefringence using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(6), 066005 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Yang, L. Chin, B. R. Klyen, T. Shavlakadze, R. A. McLaughlin, M. D. Grounds, and D. D. Sampson, “Quantitative assessment of muscle damage in the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Appl. Physiol. 115(9), 1393–1401 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sapozhnikova, V.

Sawazaki-Calone, I.

I. Sawazaki-Calone, A. Rangel, A. G. Bueno, C. F. Morais, H. M. Nagai, R. P. Kunz, R. L. Souza, L. Rutkauskis, T. Salo, A. Almangush, and R. D. Coletta, “The prognostic value of histopathological grading systems in oral squamous cell carcinomas,” Oral Dis. 21(6), 755–761 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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J. Schindelin, I. Arganda-Carreras, E. Frise, V. Kaynig, M. Longair, T. Pietzsch, S. Preibisch, C. Rueden, S. Saalfeld, B. Schmid, J.-Y. Tinevez, D. J. White, V. Hartenstein, K. Eliceiri, P. Tomancak, and A. Cardona, “Fiji: an open-source platform for biological-image analysis,” Nat. Methods 9(7), 676–682 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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J. Schindelin, I. Arganda-Carreras, E. Frise, V. Kaynig, M. Longair, T. Pietzsch, S. Preibisch, C. Rueden, S. Saalfeld, B. Schmid, J.-Y. Tinevez, D. J. White, V. Hartenstein, K. Eliceiri, P. Tomancak, and A. Cardona, “Fiji: an open-source platform for biological-image analysis,” Nat. Methods 9(7), 676–682 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schnabel, C.

J. Walther, C. Schnabel, F. Tetschke, T. Rosenauer, J. Golde, N. Ebert, M. Baumann, C. Hannig, and E. Koch, “In vivo imaging in the oral cavity by endoscopic optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 23(7), 071207 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schuppan, D.

P. A. Reichart, C. W. van Wyk, J. Becker, and D. Schuppan, “Distribution of procollagen type III, collagen type VI and tenascin in oral submucous fibrosis (OSF),” J. Oral Pathol. Med. 23(9), 394–398 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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A. T. Shah and M. C. Skala, “Ex vivo label-free microscopy of head and neck cancer patient tissues,” Proc. SPIE 9329, 93292B (2015).
[Crossref]

Sharma, P.

P. Sharma, Y. Verma, K. Sahu, S. Kumar, A. V. Varma, J. Kumawat, and P. K. Gupta, “Human ex-vivo oral tissue imaging using spectral domain polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Lasers Med. Sci. 32(1), 143–150 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shavlakadze, T.

X. Yang, L. Chin, B. R. Klyen, T. Shavlakadze, R. A. McLaughlin, M. D. Grounds, and D. D. Sampson, “Quantitative assessment of muscle damage in the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Appl. Physiol. 115(9), 1393–1401 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shiga, Y.

Shigihara, K. M.

G. S. Montes, R. M. Krisztán, K. M. Shigihara, R. Tokoro, P. A. Mourão, and L. C. Junqueira, “Histochemical and morphological characterization of reticular fibers,” Histochemistry 65(2), 131–141 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shishkov, M.

M. Villiger, K. Otsuka, A. Karanasos, P. Doradla, J. Ren, N. Lippok, M. Shishkov, J. Daemen, R. Diletti, R. J. van Geuns, F. Zijlstra, G. van Soest, P. Libby, E. Regar, S. K. Nadkarni, and B. E. Bouma, “Coronary plaque microstructure and composition modify optical polarization: a new endogenous contrast mechanism for optical frequency domain imaging,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging 11(11), 1666–1676 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Skala, M. C.

A. T. Shah and M. C. Skala, “Ex vivo label-free microscopy of head and neck cancer patient tissues,” Proc. SPIE 9329, 93292B (2015).
[Crossref]

Snopova, L.

Souza, R. L.

I. Sawazaki-Calone, A. Rangel, A. G. Bueno, C. F. Morais, H. M. Nagai, R. P. Kunz, R. L. Souza, L. Rutkauskis, T. Salo, A. Almangush, and R. D. Coletta, “The prognostic value of histopathological grading systems in oral squamous cell carcinomas,” Oral Dis. 21(6), 755–761 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Spöler, F.

Stoica, G.

Swetha, A.

A. Devendra, K. C. Niranjan, A. Swetha, and H. Kaveri, “Histochemical analysis of collagen reorganization at the invasive front of oral squamous cell carcinoma tumors,” J. Investig. Clin. Dent. 9(1), e12283 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Takahashi, H.

Tang, S.

Tetschke, F.

J. Walther, C. Schnabel, F. Tetschke, T. Rosenauer, J. Golde, N. Ebert, M. Baumann, C. Hannig, and E. Koch, “In vivo imaging in the oral cavity by endoscopic optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 23(7), 071207 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Walther, J. Golde, L. Kirsten, F. Tetschke, F. Hempel, T. Rosenauer, C. Hannig, and E. Koch, “In vivo imaging of human oral hard and soft tissues by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(12), 121717 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tilakaratne, W. M.

W. L. Dissanayaka, G. Pitiyage, P. V. R. Kumarasiri, R. L. P. R. Liyanage, K. D. Dias, and W. M. Tilakaratne, “Clinical and histopathologic parameters in survival of oral squamous cell carcinoma,” Oral Surg. Oral Med. Oral Pathol. Oral Radiol. 113(4), 518–525 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tinevez, J.-Y.

J. Schindelin, I. Arganda-Carreras, E. Frise, V. Kaynig, M. Longair, T. Pietzsch, S. Preibisch, C. Rueden, S. Saalfeld, B. Schmid, J.-Y. Tinevez, D. J. White, V. Hartenstein, K. Eliceiri, P. Tomancak, and A. Cardona, “Fiji: an open-source platform for biological-image analysis,” Nat. Methods 9(7), 676–682 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Todorovic, M.

Tokoro, R.

G. S. Montes, R. M. Krisztán, K. M. Shigihara, R. Tokoro, P. A. Mourão, and L. C. Junqueira, “Histochemical and morphological characterization of reticular fibers,” Histochemistry 65(2), 131–141 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tomancak, P.

J. Schindelin, I. Arganda-Carreras, E. Frise, V. Kaynig, M. Longair, T. Pietzsch, S. Preibisch, C. Rueden, S. Saalfeld, B. Schmid, J.-Y. Tinevez, D. J. White, V. Hartenstein, K. Eliceiri, P. Tomancak, and A. Cardona, “Fiji: an open-source platform for biological-image analysis,” Nat. Methods 9(7), 676–682 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tomlins, P. H.

P. H. Tomlins, O. Adegun, E. Hagi-Pavli, K. Piper, D. Bader, and F. Fortune, “Scattering attenuation microscopy of oral epithelial dysplasia,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(6), 066003 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Trung, N. H.

Tsai, M.-T.

M.-T. Tsai, Y. Chen, C.-Y. Lee, B.-H. Huang, N. H. Trung, Y.-J. Lee, and Y.-L. Wang, “Noninvasive structural and microvascular anatomy of oral mucosae using handheld optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(11), 5001–5012 (2017).
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M.-T. Tsai, C.-K. Lee, H.-C. Lee, H.-M. Chen, C.-P. Chiang, Y.-M. Wang, and C.-C. Yang, “Differentiating oral lesions in different carcinogenesis stages with optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(4), 044028 (2009).
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Tsuda, S.

Tu, Y.

Turchin, I.

Ueno, Y.

D. Kasaragod, S. Fukuda, Y. Ueno, S. Hoshi, T. Oshika, and Y. Yasuno, “Objective evaluation of functionality of filtering bleb based on polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(4), 2305–2310 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vakoc, B. J.

van Geuns, R. J.

M. Villiger, K. Otsuka, A. Karanasos, P. Doradla, J. Ren, N. Lippok, M. Shishkov, J. Daemen, R. Diletti, R. J. van Geuns, F. Zijlstra, G. van Soest, P. Libby, E. Regar, S. K. Nadkarni, and B. E. Bouma, “Coronary plaque microstructure and composition modify optical polarization: a new endogenous contrast mechanism for optical frequency domain imaging,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging 11(11), 1666–1676 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

van Soest, G.

M. Villiger, K. Otsuka, A. Karanasos, P. Doradla, J. Ren, N. Lippok, M. Shishkov, J. Daemen, R. Diletti, R. J. van Geuns, F. Zijlstra, G. van Soest, P. Libby, E. Regar, S. K. Nadkarni, and B. E. Bouma, “Coronary plaque microstructure and composition modify optical polarization: a new endogenous contrast mechanism for optical frequency domain imaging,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging 11(11), 1666–1676 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

van Wyk, C. W.

P. A. Reichart, C. W. van Wyk, J. Becker, and D. Schuppan, “Distribution of procollagen type III, collagen type VI and tenascin in oral submucous fibrosis (OSF),” J. Oral Pathol. Med. 23(9), 394–398 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Varma, A. V.

P. Sharma, Y. Verma, K. Sahu, S. Kumar, A. V. Varma, J. Kumawat, and P. K. Gupta, “Human ex-vivo oral tissue imaging using spectral domain polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Lasers Med. Sci. 32(1), 143–150 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Venegas, B.

C. Rivera and B. Venegas, “Histological and molecular aspects of oral squamous cell carcinoma (Review),” Oncol. Lett. 8(1), 7–11 (2014).

Verma, Y.

P. Sharma, Y. Verma, K. Sahu, S. Kumar, A. V. Varma, J. Kumawat, and P. K. Gupta, “Human ex-vivo oral tissue imaging using spectral domain polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Lasers Med. Sci. 32(1), 143–150 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Villiger, M.

M. Villiger, K. Otsuka, A. Karanasos, P. Doradla, J. Ren, N. Lippok, M. Shishkov, J. Daemen, R. Diletti, R. J. van Geuns, F. Zijlstra, G. van Soest, P. Libby, E. Regar, S. K. Nadkarni, and B. E. Bouma, “Coronary plaque microstructure and composition modify optical polarization: a new endogenous contrast mechanism for optical frequency domain imaging,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging 11(11), 1666–1676 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Villiger, B. Braaf, N. Lippok, K. Otsuka, S. K. Nadkarni, and B. E. Bouma, “Optic axis mapping with catheter-based polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Optica 5(10), 1329–1337 (2018).
[Crossref]

Q. Li, K. Karnowski, P. B. Noble, A. Cairncross, A. James, M. Villiger, and D. D. Sampson, “Robust reconstruction of local optic axis orientation with fiber-based polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 9(11), 5437–5455 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Villiger, D. Lorenser, R. A. McLaughlin, B. C. Quirk, R. W. Kirk, B. E. Bouma, and D. D. Sampson, “Deep tissue volume imaging of birefringence through fibre-optic needle probes for the delineation of breast tumour,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 28771 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. C. Y. Lo, M. Villiger, A. Golberg, G. F. Broelsch, S. Khan, C. G. Lian, W. G. Austen, M. Yarmush, and B. E. Bouma, “Longitudinal, 3D imaging of collagen remodeling in murine hypertrophic scars in vivo using polarization-sensitive optical frequency domain imaging,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 136(1), 84–92 (2016).
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M. Villiger, E. Z. Zhang, S. K. Nadkarni, W.-Y. Oh, B. J. Vakoc, and B. E. Bouma, “Spectral binning for mitigation of polarization mode dispersion artifacts in catheter-based optical frequency domain imaging,” Opt. Express 21(14), 16353–16369 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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J. Walther, C. Schnabel, F. Tetschke, T. Rosenauer, J. Golde, N. Ebert, M. Baumann, C. Hannig, and E. Koch, “In vivo imaging in the oral cavity by endoscopic optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 23(7), 071207 (2018).
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J. Walther, J. Golde, L. Kirsten, F. Tetschke, F. Hempel, T. Rosenauer, C. Hannig, and E. Koch, “In vivo imaging of human oral hard and soft tissues by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(12), 121717 (2017).
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P. Cimalla, J. Walther, M. Mehner, M. Cuevas, and E. Koch, “Simultaneous dual-band optical coherence tomography in the spectral domain for high resolution in vivo imaging,” Opt. Express 17(22), 19486–19500 (2009).
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Wang, L. V.

Wang, T.

Wang, Y.

W. S. Chen, Y. Wang, N. R. Liu, J. X. Zhang, and R. Chen, “Multiphoton microscopic imaging of human normal and cancerous oesophagus tissue,” J. Microsc. 253(1), 79–82 (2014).
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Wang, Y.-L.

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M.-T. Tsai, C.-K. Lee, H.-C. Lee, H.-M. Chen, C.-P. Chiang, Y.-M. Wang, and C.-C. Yang, “Differentiating oral lesions in different carcinogenesis stages with optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(4), 044028 (2009).
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Wang, Z.

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C. R. Drifka, A. G. Loeffler, K. Mathewson, G. Mehta, A. Keikhosravi, Y. Liu, S. Lemancik, W. A. Ricke, S. M. Weber, W. J. Kao, and K. W. Eliceiri, “Comparison of picrosirius red staining with second harmonic generation imaging for the quantification of clinically relevant collagen fiber features in histopathology samples,” J. Histochem. Cytochem. 64(9), 519–529 (2016).
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White, D. J.

J. Schindelin, I. Arganda-Carreras, E. Frise, V. Kaynig, M. Longair, T. Pietzsch, S. Preibisch, C. Rueden, S. Saalfeld, B. Schmid, J.-Y. Tinevez, D. J. White, V. Hartenstein, K. Eliceiri, P. Tomancak, and A. Cardona, “Fiji: an open-source platform for biological-image analysis,” Nat. Methods 9(7), 676–682 (2012).
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P. Wilder-Smith, K. Lee, S. Guo, J. Zhang, K. Osann, Z. Chen, and D. Messadi, “In vivo diagnosis of oral dysplasia and malignancy using optical coherence tomography: Preliminary studies in 50 patients,” Lasers Surg. Med. 41(5), 353–357 (2009).
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P. Wilder-Smith, W. G. Jung, M. Brenner, K. Osann, H. Beydoun, D. Messadi, and Z. Chen, “In vivo optical coherence tomography for the diagnosis of oral malignancy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 35(4), 269–275 (2004).
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Xiao, P.

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M.-T. Tsai, C.-K. Lee, H.-C. Lee, H.-M. Chen, C.-P. Chiang, Y.-M. Wang, and C.-C. Yang, “Differentiating oral lesions in different carcinogenesis stages with optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(4), 044028 (2009).
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Yang, X.

L. Chin, X. Yang, R. A. McLaughlin, P. B. Noble, and D. D. Sampson, “En face parametric imaging of tissue birefringence using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(6), 066005 (2013).
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X. Yang, L. Chin, B. R. Klyen, T. Shavlakadze, R. A. McLaughlin, M. D. Grounds, and D. D. Sampson, “Quantitative assessment of muscle damage in the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Appl. Physiol. 115(9), 1393–1401 (2013).
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W. C. Y. Lo, M. Villiger, A. Golberg, G. F. Broelsch, S. Khan, C. G. Lian, W. G. Austen, M. Yarmush, and B. E. Bouma, “Longitudinal, 3D imaging of collagen remodeling in murine hypertrophic scars in vivo using polarization-sensitive optical frequency domain imaging,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 136(1), 84–92 (2016).
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E. Li, S. Makita, Y.-J. Hong, D. Kasaragod, and Y. Yasuno, “Three-dimensional multi-contrast imaging of in vivo human skin by Jones matrix optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(3), 1290–1305 (2017).
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J. F. de Boer, C. K. Hitzenberger, and Y. Yasuno, “Polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography - a review [Invited],” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(3), 1838–1873 (2017).
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D. Kasaragod, S. Fukuda, Y. Ueno, S. Hoshi, T. Oshika, and Y. Yasuno, “Objective evaluation of functionality of filtering bleb based on polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(4), 2305–2310 (2016).
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M. J. Ju, Y.-J. Hong, S. Makita, Y. Lim, K. Kurokawa, L. Duan, M. Miura, S. Tang, and Y. Yasuno, “Advanced multi-contrast Jones matrix optical coherence tomography for Doppler and polarization sensitive imaging,” Opt. Express 21(16), 19412–19436 (2013).
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S. Makita, M. Yamanari, and Y. Yasuno, “Generalized Jones matrix optical coherence tomography: performance and local birefringence imaging,” Opt. Express 18(2), 854–876 (2010).
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Yokoyama, Y.

Yoon, Y.

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Zhang, J.

P. Wilder-Smith, K. Lee, S. Guo, J. Zhang, K. Osann, Z. Chen, and D. Messadi, “In vivo diagnosis of oral dysplasia and malignancy using optical coherence tomography: Preliminary studies in 50 patients,” Lasers Surg. Med. 41(5), 353–357 (2009).
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Zhang, J. X.

W. S. Chen, Y. Wang, N. R. Liu, J. X. Zhang, and R. Chen, “Multiphoton microscopic imaging of human normal and cancerous oesophagus tissue,” J. Microsc. 253(1), 79–82 (2014).
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M. Villiger, K. Otsuka, A. Karanasos, P. Doradla, J. Ren, N. Lippok, M. Shishkov, J. Daemen, R. Diletti, R. J. van Geuns, F. Zijlstra, G. van Soest, P. Libby, E. Regar, S. K. Nadkarni, and B. E. Bouma, “Coronary plaque microstructure and composition modify optical polarization: a new endogenous contrast mechanism for optical frequency domain imaging,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging 11(11), 1666–1676 (2018).
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Q. Li, K. Karnowski, P. B. Noble, A. Cairncross, A. James, M. Villiger, and D. D. Sampson, “Robust reconstruction of local optic axis orientation with fiber-based polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 9(11), 5437–5455 (2018).
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M.-T. Tsai, Y. Chen, C.-Y. Lee, B.-H. Huang, N. H. Trung, Y.-J. Lee, and Y.-L. Wang, “Noninvasive structural and microvascular anatomy of oral mucosae using handheld optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(11), 5001–5012 (2017).
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Y. Yoon, W. H. Jang, P. Xiao, B. Kim, T. Wang, Q. Li, J. Y. Lee, E. Chung, and K. H. Kim, “In vivo wide-field reflectance/fluorescence imaging and polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography of human oral cavity with a forward-viewing probe,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(2), 524–535 (2015).
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E. Li, S. Makita, Y.-J. Hong, D. Kasaragod, and Y. Yasuno, “Three-dimensional multi-contrast imaging of in vivo human skin by Jones matrix optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(3), 1290–1305 (2017).
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S. Prestin, S. I. Rothschild, C. S. Betz, and M. Kraft, “Measurement of epithelial thickness within the oral cavity using optical coherence tomography,” Head Neck 34(12), 1777–1781 (2012).
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Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1)

D. Kasaragod, S. Fukuda, Y. Ueno, S. Hoshi, T. Oshika, and Y. Yasuno, “Objective evaluation of functionality of filtering bleb based on polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(4), 2305–2310 (2016).
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X. Yang, L. Chin, B. R. Klyen, T. Shavlakadze, R. A. McLaughlin, M. D. Grounds, and D. D. Sampson, “Quantitative assessment of muscle damage in the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Appl. Physiol. 115(9), 1393–1401 (2013).
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J. Walther, J. Golde, L. Kirsten, F. Tetschke, F. Hempel, T. Rosenauer, C. Hannig, and E. Koch, “In vivo imaging of human oral hard and soft tissues by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(12), 121717 (2017).
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J. Walther, C. Schnabel, F. Tetschke, T. Rosenauer, J. Golde, N. Ebert, M. Baumann, C. Hannig, and E. Koch, “In vivo imaging in the oral cavity by endoscopic optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 23(7), 071207 (2018).
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P. Wilder-Smith, K. Lee, S. Guo, J. Zhang, K. Osann, Z. Chen, and D. Messadi, “In vivo diagnosis of oral dysplasia and malignancy using optical coherence tomography: Preliminary studies in 50 patients,” Lasers Surg. Med. 41(5), 353–357 (2009).
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Nat. Methods (1)

J. Schindelin, I. Arganda-Carreras, E. Frise, V. Kaynig, M. Longair, T. Pietzsch, S. Preibisch, C. Rueden, S. Saalfeld, B. Schmid, J.-Y. Tinevez, D. J. White, V. Hartenstein, K. Eliceiri, P. Tomancak, and A. Cardona, “Fiji: an open-source platform for biological-image analysis,” Nat. Methods 9(7), 676–682 (2012).
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S. Makita, M. Yamanari, and Y. Yasuno, “Generalized Jones matrix optical coherence tomography: performance and local birefringence imaging,” Opt. Express 18(2), 854–876 (2010).
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M. J. Ju, Y.-J. Hong, S. Makita, Y. Lim, K. Kurokawa, L. Duan, M. Miura, S. Tang, and Y. Yasuno, “Advanced multi-contrast Jones matrix optical coherence tomography for Doppler and polarization sensitive imaging,” Opt. Express 21(16), 19412–19436 (2013).
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J. Li, F. Feroldi, J. de Lange, J. M. A. Daniels, K. Grünberg, and J. F. de Boer, “Polarization sensitive optical frequency domain imaging system for endobronchial imaging,” Opt. Express 23(3), 3390–3402 (2015).
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B. Baumann, W. Choi, B. Potsaid, D. Huang, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Swept source/Fourier domain polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography with a passive polarization delay unit,” Opt. Express 20(9), 10229–10241 (2012).
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P. Arun Gopinathan, G. Kokila, M. Jyothi, C. Ananjan, L. Pradeep, and S. Humaira Nazir, “Study of collagen birefringence in different grades of oral squamous cell carcinoma using picrosirius red and polarized light microscopy,” Scientifica (Cairo) 2015, 802980 (2015).
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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 PS-OCT system with standard scanner head modified from [37] for imaging the oral mucosa of the anterior human oral cavity in vivo. The system contains a swept laser source, a fiber-based interferometer including a polarization delay unit, a scanning unit for 2D beam deflection, a reference arm and a polarization-diverse balanced receiver. FC, fiber coupler; OC, optical circulator; RM, reference mirror; BS, beamsplitter; PBS, polarizing beamsplitter; S,P, orthogonal input polarization states; BD, balanced detectors; H,V, horizontal and vertical polarization state channels; GS, galvanometer scanner.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Measurement points within the anterior oral cavity for representative polarization-sensitive OCT imaging of the oral mucosa. (a) Position A: labial oral mucosa of inner lower lip; Positions B and C: vestibular (mucolabial fold) mucosa; (b) Positions D and E: tip of the dorsal tongue; (c) Positions F and G: lateral dorsal tongue, and Positions H and I: transition of dorsal to ventral lateral tongue; (d) Positions J and K: ventral tongue.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a,b,c) Cross-sectional (B-scan) images of the labial oral mucosa by PS-OCT. (a) Intensity image showing the epithelium (EP), papillary layer (PL) and the the dense, fibrous reticular layer (RL). The border between the EP and PL cannot be readily located on the basis of the intensity image. Minor salivary glands (SG) are below the RL. (b) Depth-resolved birefringence (Δn) revealing highly aligned collagen fibers within the RL immediately below and parallel to the EP; (c) Cumulative phase retardation (δ); Images are scaled in depth using refractive index of n = 1.4 [48]. Scale bar: 300 µm. (d,e,f) En-face projections (single slices; imaged area: 2.1 mm × 2.1 mm) of the corresponding data set for (d) the intensity signal (dynamic range 30 dB); (e) the depth-resolved birefringence (Δn range 0.0 × 10−3 - 1.5 × 10−3); (f) the cumulative phase retardation (δ range 0 to π/2) at a depth of 265 µm below the surface (black arrows in (a) and (c)).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a,b) Averaged (AVG) intensity and maximum intensity projection of the depth-resolved birefringence (MIP Δn) of N = 30 en-face slices within the RL at measurement point A in Fig. 2(a). (c) Corresponding color depth-encoded tissue birefringence (∆n) for representative depths within the absolute range 214-367 µm below the surface. (d) Resulting color depth-encoded birefringence using isoluminant colormap; Scaling: intensity 20 dB; tissue birefringence Δn 0.3 × 10−3 - 1.5 × 10−3. Salivary glands marked by asterisk. The imaged area corresponds to 2.1 mm × 2.1 mm.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 En-face projections (single slices) of the labial oral mucosa detected at position A in Fig. 2(a) and displayed via B-scans in Fig. 3. (a) Intensity; (b) depth-resolved birefringence (Δn); and (c) cumulative retardation (δ). Depth position 117 µm: papillary layer with epithelial rete ridges and connective tissue papillae showing birefringence due to stretched connective tissue papillae (squares). Depth position 184 µm: transition from PL to RL of the lamina propria with visible gland duct orifice (asterisk). Depths 240 µm and 270 µm: aligned collagen fibers within RL (cross signs). The imaged area corresponds to 2.1 mm × 2.1 mm.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a,c) Intensity and birefringence (Δn) at different depths of the reticular layer (RL) within the lamina propria of the inner side of the lower lip at measurement points in Fig. 2(a) labelled B (a) and C (c) presenting the vestibular mucosa (mucolabial fold). The alignment of collagen fibers within the RL and around salivary glands (asterisk) are more visible by means of local tissue birefringence than by intensity. The imaged area corresponds to 2.1 mm × 2.1 mm. (b,d) Corresponding color depth-encoded depth-resolved birefringence. (b) Position B: N = 33 en-face slices; Δn: 0.5 × 10−3 – 1.5 × 10−3. (d) Position C: N = 17 en-face slices; Δn: 0.5 × 10−3 – 1.5 × 10−3.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a,c) Intensity and birefringence (Δn) at different depths of the dorsal tongue at measurement points in Fig. 2(b) labelled D (a) and E (c). The birefringence of the connective tissue core of the lingual papillae (filiform and fungiform papillae) is shown. The imaged area corresponds to 2.1 mm × 2.1 mm. (b,d) Corresponding color depth-encoded depth-resolved birefringence. (b) Position D: N = 20 en-face slices; Δn: 0.2 × 10−3 – 1.2 × 10−3. (d) Position E: N = 30 en-face slices; Δn: 0.1 × 10−3 – 1.5 × 10−3.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 (a,c) Intensity and birefringence (Δn) at different depths of the transition region from dorsal to lateral tongue at measurement points in Fig. 2(c) labelled F (a) and G (c). The higher birefringence of aligned collagen fibers surrounding small lingual papillae can be seen. The imaged area corresponds to 2.1 mm × 2.1 mm. (b,d) Corresponding color depth-coded depth-resolved birefringence. (b) Position F: N = 20 en-face slices; Δn: 0.2 × 10−3 – 1.5 × 10−3. (d) Position G: N = 12 en-face slices; Δn: 0.1 × 10−3 – 1.0 × 10−3.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 (a,c) Intensity and birefringence (Δn) at different depths of the transition from dorsal to ventral tongue at measurement points in Fig. 2(c) labelled H (a) and I (c). The imaged area corresponds to 2.1 mm × 2.1 mm. (b,d) Corresponding color depth-encoded depth-resolved birefringence. (b) Position H: N = 21 en-face slices; Δn: 0.3 × 10−3 – 1.5 × 10−3. (d) Position I: N = 31 en-face slices; Δn: 0.3 × 10−3 – 1.5 × 10−3.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 (a,c) Intensity and birefringence (Δn) at different depths of the ventral tongue at measurement points in Fig. 2(d) labelled J (a) and K (c). The imaged area corresponds to 2.1 mm × 2.1 mm. (b,d) Corresponding color depth-encoded depth-resolved birefringence. (b) Position J: N = 25 en-face slices; birefringence Δn: 0.3 × 10−3 – 2.5 × 10−3. (d) Position K: N = 16 en-face slices; Δn: 0.2 × 10−3 – 1.5 × 10−3.

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