Abstract

Terahertz imaging has been proposed for burns and skin cancer identification. However, the role of melanocytes, melanosomes, melanin content and distribution in determining the terahertz optical properties of human skin has not been investigated. We use terahertz time domain spectroscopy to measure the optical properties of in vitro pigmented human skin tissue models from Asian, Black, and Caucasian donors. Spectra were collected at various time intervals and used to extract the absorption coefficient and index of refraction at terahertz frequencies. Our results indicate that the degree of cell differentiation and type of donor both contribute to the measured terahertz optical properties.

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2018 (3)

Q. Sun, E. P. J. Parrott, Y. He, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “In vivo THz imaging of human skin: Accounting for occlusion effects,” J. Biophotonics 11(2), e201700111 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W.-S. Huang, Y.-W. Wang, K.-C. Hung, P.-S. Hsieh, K.-Y. Fu, L.-G. Dai, N.-H. Liou, K.-H. Ma, J.-C. Liu, and N.-T. Dai, “High correlation between skin color based on CIELAB color space, epidermal melanocyte ratio, and melanocyte melanin content,” PeerJ 6, e4815 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.-C. Chacón-Duque, K. Adhikari, M. Fuentes-Guajardo, J. Mendoza-Revilla, V. Acuña-Alonzo, R. Barquera, M. Quinto-Sánchez, J. Gómez-Valdés, P. Everardo Martínez, H. Villamil-Ramírez, T. Hünemeier, V. Ramallo, C. C. Silva de Cerqueira, M. Hurtado, V. Villegas, V. Granja, M. Villena, R. Vásquez, E. Llop, J. R. Sandoval, A. A. Salazar-Granara, M.-L. Parolin, K. Sandoval, R. I. Peñaloza-Espinosa, H. Rangel-Villalobos, C. A. Winkler, W. Klitz, C. Bravi, J. Molina, D. Corach, R. Barrantes, V. Gomes, C. Resende, L. Gusmão, A. Amorim, Y. Xue, J.-M. Dugoujon, P. Moral, R. González-José, L. Schuler-Faccini, F. M. Salzano, M.-C. Bortolini, S. Canizales-Quinteros, G. Poletti, C. Gallo, G. Bedoya, F. Rothhammer, D. Balding, G. Hellenthal, and A. Ruiz-Linares, “Latin Americans show wide-spread Converso ancestry and imprint of local Native ancestry on physical appearance,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 5388 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (3)

N. G. Crawford, D. E. Kelly, M. E. B. Hansen, M. H. Beltrame, S. Fan, S. L. Bowman, E. Jewett, A. Ranciaro, S. Thompson, Y. Lo, S. P. Pfeifer, J. D. Jensen, M. C. Campbell, W. Beggs, F. Hormozdiari, S. W. Mpoloka, G. G. Mokone, T. Nyambo, D. W. Meskel, G. Belay, J. Haut, H. Rothschild, L. Zon, Y. Zhou, M. A. Kovacs, M. Xu, T. Zhang, K. Bishop, J. Sinclair, C. Rivas, E. Elliot, J. Choi, S. A. Li, B. Hicks, S. Burgess, C. Abnet, D. E. Watkins-Chow, E. Oceana, Y. S. Song, E. Eskin, K. M. Brown, M. S. Marks, S. K. Loftus, W. J. Pavan, M. Yeager, S. Chanock, S. A. Tishkoff, S. A. Tishkoff, and NISC Comparative Sequencing Program, “Loci associated with skin pigmentation identified in African populations,” Science 358(6365), eaan8433 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Bajwa, S. Sung, D. B. Ennis, M. C. Fishbein, B. N. Nowroozi, D. Ruan, A. Maccabi, J. Alger, M. A. S. John, W. S. Grundfest, and Z. D. Taylor, “Terahertz Imaging of Cutaneous Edema: Correlation With Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Burn Wounds,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 64(11), 2682–2694 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Fan, B. S. Y. Ung, E. P. J. Parrott, V. P. Wallace, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “In vivo terahertz reflection imaging of human scars during and after the healing process,” J. Biophotonics 10(9), 1143–1151 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (5)

M. Bachelor, B. Breyfogle, A. Armento, and M. Klausner, “607 Measurement of Skin Pigmentation Using a Chromameter in a 3-Dimensional Epidermal Model Containing Functional Melanocytes,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 136(5), S108 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Dutta, A. S. Bhalla, and R. Guo, “THz Imaging of Skin Burn: Seeing the Unseen-An Overview,” Adv. Wound Care (New Rochelle) 5(8), 338–348 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. I. Zaytsev, N. V. Chernomyrdin, K. G. Kudrin, A. A. Gavdush, P. A. Nosov, S. O. Yurchenko, and I. V. Reshetov, “In vivo terahertz pulsed spectroscopy of dysplastic and non-dysplastic skin nevi,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 735, 012076 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. L. Chien, J. Suh, S. S. A. Cesar, A. H. Fischer, N. Cheng, F. Poon, B. Rainer, S. Leung, J. Martin, G. A. Okoye, and S. Kang, “Pigmentation in African American skin decreases with skin aging,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 75(4), 782–787 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. A. Vashi, M. B. de Castro Maymone, and R. V. Kundu, “Aging Differences in Ethnic Skin,” J. Clin. Aesthet. Dermatol. 9(1), 31–38 (2016).
[PubMed]

2014 (1)

K. Shiraga, Y. Ogawa, T. Suzuki, N. Kondo, A. Irisawa, and M. Imamura, “Characterization of Dielectric Responses of Human Cancer Cells in the Terahertz Region,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 35(5), 493–502 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (6)

K.-T. Kim, J. Park, S. J. Jo, S. Jung, O. S. Kwon, G. P. Gallerano, W.-Y. Park, and G.-S. Park, “High-power femtosecond-terahertz pulse induces a wound response in mouse skin,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 2296 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. V. Titova, A. K. Ayesheshim, A. Golubov, R. Rodriguez-Juarez, R. Woycicki, F. A. Hegmann, and O. Kovalchuk, “Intense THz pulses down-regulate genes associated with skin cancer and psoriasis: a new therapeutic avenue?” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 2363 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Williams, A. Schofield, G. Holder, J. Downes, D. Edgar, P. Harrison, M. Siggel-King, M. Surman, D. Dunning, S. Hill, D. Holder, F. Jackson, J. Jones, J. McKenzie, Y. Saveliev, N. Thomsen, P. Williams, and P. Weightman, “The influence of high intensity terahertz radiation on mammalian cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation,” Phys. Med. Biol. 58(2), 373–391 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Shiraga, Y. Ogawa, T. Suzuki, N. Kondo, A. Irisawa, and M. Imamura, “Determination of the complex dielectric constant of an epithelial cell monolayer in the terahertz region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(5), 053702 (2013).
[Crossref]

I. Echchgadda, J. A. Grundt, M. Tarango, B. L. Ibey, T. Tongue, M. Liang, H. Xin, and G. J. Wilmink, “Using a portable terahertz spectrometer to measure the optical properties of in vivo human skin,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(12), 120503 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. C. Truong, H. D. Tuan, H. H. Kha, and H. T. Nguyen, “Debye parameter extraction for characterizing interaction of terahertz radiation with human skin tissue,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 60(6), 1528–1537 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

K. W. Kim, K.-S. Kim, H. Kim, S. H. Lee, J.-H. Park, J.-H. Han, S.-H. Seok, J. Park, Y. Choi, Y. I. Kim, J. K. Han, and J.-H. Son, “Terahertz dynamic imaging of skin drug absorption,” Opt. Express 20(9), 9476–9484 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Sun, and E. Pickwell-Macpherson, “The potential of terahertz imaging for cancer diagnosis: A review of investigations to date,” Quant. Imaging Med. Surg. 2(1), 33–45 (2012).
[PubMed]

P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, D. B. Bennett, N. Bajwa, K. S. Barnett, R. S. Singh, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, W. S. Grundfest, and Z. D. Taylor, “In vivo terahertz imaging of rat skin burns,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(4), 040503 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (4)

M. H. Arbab, T. C. Dickey, D. P. Winebrenner, A. Chen, M. B. Klein, and P. D. Mourad, “Terahertz reflectometry of burn wounds in a rat model,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(8), 2339–2347 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J.-P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz Medical Imaging: in vivo Hydration Sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 201–219 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. J. Wilmink and J. E. Grundt, “Invited Review Article: Current State of Research on Biological Effects of Terahertz Radiation,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 32(10), 1074–1122 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. Sun, M. Y. Sy, Y.-X. J. Wang, A. T. Ahuja, Y.-T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-Macpherson, “A promising diagnostic method: Terahertz pulsed imaging and spectroscopy,” World J. Radiol. 3(3), 55–65 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

S. Y. Huang, Y. X. J. Wang, D. K. W. Yeung, A. T. Ahuja, Y.-T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-Macpherson, “Tissue characterization using terahertz pulsed imaging in reflection geometry,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(1), 149–160 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Yamaguchi and V. J. Hearing, “Physiological factors that regulate skin pigmentation,” Biofactors 35(2), 193–199 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Y. Suen, P. Tewari, Z. D. Taylor, W. S. Grundfest, H. Lee, E. R. Brown, M. O. Culjat, and R. S. Singh, “Towards medical terahertz sensing of skin hydration,” Stud. Health Technol. Inform. 142, 364–368 (2009).
[PubMed]

2008 (2)

G. M. Png, J. W. Choi, B. W.-H. Ng, S. P. Mickan, D. Abbott, and X.-C. Zhang, “The impact of hydration changes in fresh bio-tissue on THz spectroscopic measurements,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(13), 3501–3517 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, M. O. Culjat, J. Y. Suen, W. S. Grundfest, H. Lee, and E. R. Brown, “Reflective terahertz imaging of porcine skin burns,” Opt. Lett. 33(11), 1258–1260 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

2005 (3)

A. Hennessy, C. Oh, B. Diffey, K. Wakamatsu, S. Ito, and J. Rees, “Eumelanin and pheomelanin concentrations in human epidermis before and after UVB irradiation,” Pigment Cell Res. 18(3), 220–223 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Pickwell, A. J. Fitzgerald, B. E. Cole, P. F. Taday, R. J. Pye, T. Ha, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “Simulating the response of terahertz radiation to basal cell carcinoma using ex vivo spectroscopy measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(6), 064021 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. J. Hearing, “Biogenesis of pigment granules: a sensitive way to regulate melanocyte function,” J. Dermatol. Sci. 37(1), 3–14 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (3)

E. Pickwell, B. E. Cole, A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, and M. Pepper, “Simulation of terahertz pulse propagation in biological systems,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(12), 2190–2192 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Pearce, Z. Jian, D. M. Mittleman, P. Jeremy, Z. Jian, and D. M. Mittleman, “Propagation of terahertz pulses in random media,” Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci 362(1815), 301–313, discussion 313–314 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Pickwell, B. E. Cole, A. J. Fitzgerald, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “In vivo study of human skin using pulsed terahertz radiation,” Phys. Med. Biol. 49(9), 1595–1607 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (4)

A. J. Fitzgerald, E. Berry, N. N. Zinov’ev, S. Homer-Vanniasinkam, R. E. Miles, J. M. Chamberlain, and M. A. Smith, “Catalogue of human tissue optical properties at terahertz frequencies,” J. Biol. Phys. 29(2), 123–128 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Woodward, V. P. Wallace, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz Pulsed Imaging of Skin Cancer in the Time and Frequency Domain,” J. Biol. Phys. 29(2), 257–259 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T.-J. Yoon, T. C. Lei, Y. Yamaguchi, J. Batzer, R. Wolber, and V. J. Hearing, “Reconstituted 3-dimensional human skin of various ethnic origins as an in vitro model for studies of pigmentation,” Anal. Biochem. 318(2), 260–269 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. S. Barsh, “What Controls Variation in Human Skin Color?” PLoS Biol. 1(1), E27 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

M. S. Marks and M. C. Seabra, “The melanosome: Membrane dynamics in black and white,” Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 2(10), 738–748 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

M. D. Shriver and E. J. Parra, “Comparison of narrow-band reflectance spectroscopy and tristimulus colorimetry for measurements of skin and hair color in persons of different biological ancestry,” Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 112(1), 17–27 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1997 (2)

N. A. Monteiro-Riviere, A. O. Inman, T. H. Snider, J. A. Blank, and D. W. Hobson, “Comparison of an in vitro skin model to normal human skin for dermatological research,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 37(3), 172–179 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. A. Riley, “Melanin,” Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol. 29(11), 1235–1239 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

J. T. Kindt and C. A. Schmuttenmaer, “Far-Infrared Dielectric Properties of Polar Liquids Probed by Femtosecond Terahertz Pulse Spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. 100(24), 10373–10379 (1996).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

I. L. Weatherall and B. D. Coombs, “Skin color measurements in terms of CIELAB color space values,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 99(4), 468–473 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1991 (2)

E. Berardesca, J. de Rigal, J. L. Leveque, and H. I. Maibach, “In vivo biophysical characterization of skin physiological differences in races,” Dermatologica 182(2), 89–93 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Montagna and K. Carlisle, “The architecture of black and white facial skin,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 24(6), 929–937 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Abbott, D.

G. M. Png, J. W. Choi, B. W.-H. Ng, S. P. Mickan, D. Abbott, and X.-C. Zhang, “The impact of hydration changes in fresh bio-tissue on THz spectroscopic measurements,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(13), 3501–3517 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Abnet, C.

N. G. Crawford, D. E. Kelly, M. E. B. Hansen, M. H. Beltrame, S. Fan, S. L. Bowman, E. Jewett, A. Ranciaro, S. Thompson, Y. Lo, S. P. Pfeifer, J. D. Jensen, M. C. Campbell, W. Beggs, F. Hormozdiari, S. W. Mpoloka, G. G. Mokone, T. Nyambo, D. W. Meskel, G. Belay, J. Haut, H. Rothschild, L. Zon, Y. Zhou, M. A. Kovacs, M. Xu, T. Zhang, K. Bishop, J. Sinclair, C. Rivas, E. Elliot, J. Choi, S. A. Li, B. Hicks, S. Burgess, C. Abnet, D. E. Watkins-Chow, E. Oceana, Y. S. Song, E. Eskin, K. M. Brown, M. S. Marks, S. K. Loftus, W. J. Pavan, M. Yeager, S. Chanock, S. A. Tishkoff, S. A. Tishkoff, and NISC Comparative Sequencing Program, “Loci associated with skin pigmentation identified in African populations,” Science 358(6365), eaan8433 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Acuña-Alonzo, V.

J.-C. Chacón-Duque, K. Adhikari, M. Fuentes-Guajardo, J. Mendoza-Revilla, V. Acuña-Alonzo, R. Barquera, M. Quinto-Sánchez, J. Gómez-Valdés, P. Everardo Martínez, H. Villamil-Ramírez, T. Hünemeier, V. Ramallo, C. C. Silva de Cerqueira, M. Hurtado, V. Villegas, V. Granja, M. Villena, R. Vásquez, E. Llop, J. R. Sandoval, A. A. Salazar-Granara, M.-L. Parolin, K. Sandoval, R. I. Peñaloza-Espinosa, H. Rangel-Villalobos, C. A. Winkler, W. Klitz, C. Bravi, J. Molina, D. Corach, R. Barrantes, V. Gomes, C. Resende, L. Gusmão, A. Amorim, Y. Xue, J.-M. Dugoujon, P. Moral, R. González-José, L. Schuler-Faccini, F. M. Salzano, M.-C. Bortolini, S. Canizales-Quinteros, G. Poletti, C. Gallo, G. Bedoya, F. Rothhammer, D. Balding, G. Hellenthal, and A. Ruiz-Linares, “Latin Americans show wide-spread Converso ancestry and imprint of local Native ancestry on physical appearance,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 5388 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adhikari, K.

J.-C. Chacón-Duque, K. Adhikari, M. Fuentes-Guajardo, J. Mendoza-Revilla, V. Acuña-Alonzo, R. Barquera, M. Quinto-Sánchez, J. Gómez-Valdés, P. Everardo Martínez, H. Villamil-Ramírez, T. Hünemeier, V. Ramallo, C. C. Silva de Cerqueira, M. Hurtado, V. Villegas, V. Granja, M. Villena, R. Vásquez, E. Llop, J. R. Sandoval, A. A. Salazar-Granara, M.-L. Parolin, K. Sandoval, R. I. Peñaloza-Espinosa, H. Rangel-Villalobos, C. A. Winkler, W. Klitz, C. Bravi, J. Molina, D. Corach, R. Barrantes, V. Gomes, C. Resende, L. Gusmão, A. Amorim, Y. Xue, J.-M. Dugoujon, P. Moral, R. González-José, L. Schuler-Faccini, F. M. Salzano, M.-C. Bortolini, S. Canizales-Quinteros, G. Poletti, C. Gallo, G. Bedoya, F. Rothhammer, D. Balding, G. Hellenthal, and A. Ruiz-Linares, “Latin Americans show wide-spread Converso ancestry and imprint of local Native ancestry on physical appearance,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 5388 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ahuja, A. T.

Y. Sun, M. Y. Sy, Y.-X. J. Wang, A. T. Ahuja, Y.-T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-Macpherson, “A promising diagnostic method: Terahertz pulsed imaging and spectroscopy,” World J. Radiol. 3(3), 55–65 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Y. Huang, Y. X. J. Wang, D. K. W. Yeung, A. T. Ahuja, Y.-T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-Macpherson, “Tissue characterization using terahertz pulsed imaging in reflection geometry,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(1), 149–160 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alger, J.

N. Bajwa, S. Sung, D. B. Ennis, M. C. Fishbein, B. N. Nowroozi, D. Ruan, A. Maccabi, J. Alger, M. A. S. John, W. S. Grundfest, and Z. D. Taylor, “Terahertz Imaging of Cutaneous Edema: Correlation With Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Burn Wounds,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 64(11), 2682–2694 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Amorim, A.

J.-C. Chacón-Duque, K. Adhikari, M. Fuentes-Guajardo, J. Mendoza-Revilla, V. Acuña-Alonzo, R. Barquera, M. Quinto-Sánchez, J. Gómez-Valdés, P. Everardo Martínez, H. Villamil-Ramírez, T. Hünemeier, V. Ramallo, C. C. Silva de Cerqueira, M. Hurtado, V. Villegas, V. Granja, M. Villena, R. Vásquez, E. Llop, J. R. Sandoval, A. A. Salazar-Granara, M.-L. Parolin, K. Sandoval, R. I. Peñaloza-Espinosa, H. Rangel-Villalobos, C. A. Winkler, W. Klitz, C. Bravi, J. Molina, D. Corach, R. Barrantes, V. Gomes, C. Resende, L. Gusmão, A. Amorim, Y. Xue, J.-M. Dugoujon, P. Moral, R. González-José, L. Schuler-Faccini, F. M. Salzano, M.-C. Bortolini, S. Canizales-Quinteros, G. Poletti, C. Gallo, G. Bedoya, F. Rothhammer, D. Balding, G. Hellenthal, and A. Ruiz-Linares, “Latin Americans show wide-spread Converso ancestry and imprint of local Native ancestry on physical appearance,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 5388 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arbab, M. H.

Armento, A.

M. Bachelor, B. Breyfogle, A. Armento, and M. Klausner, “607 Measurement of Skin Pigmentation Using a Chromameter in a 3-Dimensional Epidermal Model Containing Functional Melanocytes,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 136(5), S108 (2016).
[Crossref]

Arnone, D. D.

R. M. Woodward, V. P. Wallace, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz Pulsed Imaging of Skin Cancer in the Time and Frequency Domain,” J. Biol. Phys. 29(2), 257–259 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ayesheshim, A. K.

L. V. Titova, A. K. Ayesheshim, A. Golubov, R. Rodriguez-Juarez, R. Woycicki, F. A. Hegmann, and O. Kovalchuk, “Intense THz pulses down-regulate genes associated with skin cancer and psoriasis: a new therapeutic avenue?” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 2363 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bachelor, M.

M. Bachelor, B. Breyfogle, A. Armento, and M. Klausner, “607 Measurement of Skin Pigmentation Using a Chromameter in a 3-Dimensional Epidermal Model Containing Functional Melanocytes,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 136(5), S108 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bajwa, N.

N. Bajwa, S. Sung, D. B. Ennis, M. C. Fishbein, B. N. Nowroozi, D. Ruan, A. Maccabi, J. Alger, M. A. S. John, W. S. Grundfest, and Z. D. Taylor, “Terahertz Imaging of Cutaneous Edema: Correlation With Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Burn Wounds,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 64(11), 2682–2694 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, D. B. Bennett, N. Bajwa, K. S. Barnett, R. S. Singh, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, W. S. Grundfest, and Z. D. Taylor, “In vivo terahertz imaging of rat skin burns,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(4), 040503 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J.-P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz Medical Imaging: in vivo Hydration Sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 201–219 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Balding, D.

J.-C. Chacón-Duque, K. Adhikari, M. Fuentes-Guajardo, J. Mendoza-Revilla, V. Acuña-Alonzo, R. Barquera, M. Quinto-Sánchez, J. Gómez-Valdés, P. Everardo Martínez, H. Villamil-Ramírez, T. Hünemeier, V. Ramallo, C. C. Silva de Cerqueira, M. Hurtado, V. Villegas, V. Granja, M. Villena, R. Vásquez, E. Llop, J. R. Sandoval, A. A. Salazar-Granara, M.-L. Parolin, K. Sandoval, R. I. Peñaloza-Espinosa, H. Rangel-Villalobos, C. A. Winkler, W. Klitz, C. Bravi, J. Molina, D. Corach, R. Barrantes, V. Gomes, C. Resende, L. Gusmão, A. Amorim, Y. Xue, J.-M. Dugoujon, P. Moral, R. González-José, L. Schuler-Faccini, F. M. Salzano, M.-C. Bortolini, S. Canizales-Quinteros, G. Poletti, C. Gallo, G. Bedoya, F. Rothhammer, D. Balding, G. Hellenthal, and A. Ruiz-Linares, “Latin Americans show wide-spread Converso ancestry and imprint of local Native ancestry on physical appearance,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 5388 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barnett, K. S.

P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, D. B. Bennett, N. Bajwa, K. S. Barnett, R. S. Singh, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, W. S. Grundfest, and Z. D. Taylor, “In vivo terahertz imaging of rat skin burns,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(4), 040503 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barquera, R.

J.-C. Chacón-Duque, K. Adhikari, M. Fuentes-Guajardo, J. Mendoza-Revilla, V. Acuña-Alonzo, R. Barquera, M. Quinto-Sánchez, J. Gómez-Valdés, P. Everardo Martínez, H. Villamil-Ramírez, T. Hünemeier, V. Ramallo, C. C. Silva de Cerqueira, M. Hurtado, V. Villegas, V. Granja, M. Villena, R. Vásquez, E. Llop, J. R. Sandoval, A. A. Salazar-Granara, M.-L. Parolin, K. Sandoval, R. I. Peñaloza-Espinosa, H. Rangel-Villalobos, C. A. Winkler, W. Klitz, C. Bravi, J. Molina, D. Corach, R. Barrantes, V. Gomes, C. Resende, L. Gusmão, A. Amorim, Y. Xue, J.-M. Dugoujon, P. Moral, R. González-José, L. Schuler-Faccini, F. M. Salzano, M.-C. Bortolini, S. Canizales-Quinteros, G. Poletti, C. Gallo, G. Bedoya, F. Rothhammer, D. Balding, G. Hellenthal, and A. Ruiz-Linares, “Latin Americans show wide-spread Converso ancestry and imprint of local Native ancestry on physical appearance,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 5388 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barrantes, R.

J.-C. Chacón-Duque, K. Adhikari, M. Fuentes-Guajardo, J. Mendoza-Revilla, V. Acuña-Alonzo, R. Barquera, M. Quinto-Sánchez, J. Gómez-Valdés, P. Everardo Martínez, H. Villamil-Ramírez, T. Hünemeier, V. Ramallo, C. C. Silva de Cerqueira, M. Hurtado, V. Villegas, V. Granja, M. Villena, R. Vásquez, E. Llop, J. R. Sandoval, A. A. Salazar-Granara, M.-L. Parolin, K. Sandoval, R. I. Peñaloza-Espinosa, H. Rangel-Villalobos, C. A. Winkler, W. Klitz, C. Bravi, J. Molina, D. Corach, R. Barrantes, V. Gomes, C. Resende, L. Gusmão, A. Amorim, Y. Xue, J.-M. Dugoujon, P. Moral, R. González-José, L. Schuler-Faccini, F. M. Salzano, M.-C. Bortolini, S. Canizales-Quinteros, G. Poletti, C. Gallo, G. Bedoya, F. Rothhammer, D. Balding, G. Hellenthal, and A. Ruiz-Linares, “Latin Americans show wide-spread Converso ancestry and imprint of local Native ancestry on physical appearance,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 5388 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barsh, G. S.

G. S. Barsh, “What Controls Variation in Human Skin Color?” PLoS Biol. 1(1), E27 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Batzer, J.

T.-J. Yoon, T. C. Lei, Y. Yamaguchi, J. Batzer, R. Wolber, and V. J. Hearing, “Reconstituted 3-dimensional human skin of various ethnic origins as an in vitro model for studies of pigmentation,” Anal. Biochem. 318(2), 260–269 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bedoya, G.

J.-C. Chacón-Duque, K. Adhikari, M. Fuentes-Guajardo, J. Mendoza-Revilla, V. Acuña-Alonzo, R. Barquera, M. Quinto-Sánchez, J. Gómez-Valdés, P. Everardo Martínez, H. Villamil-Ramírez, T. Hünemeier, V. Ramallo, C. C. Silva de Cerqueira, M. Hurtado, V. Villegas, V. Granja, M. Villena, R. Vásquez, E. Llop, J. R. Sandoval, A. A. Salazar-Granara, M.-L. Parolin, K. Sandoval, R. I. Peñaloza-Espinosa, H. Rangel-Villalobos, C. A. Winkler, W. Klitz, C. Bravi, J. Molina, D. Corach, R. Barrantes, V. Gomes, C. Resende, L. Gusmão, A. Amorim, Y. Xue, J.-M. Dugoujon, P. Moral, R. González-José, L. Schuler-Faccini, F. M. Salzano, M.-C. Bortolini, S. Canizales-Quinteros, G. Poletti, C. Gallo, G. Bedoya, F. Rothhammer, D. Balding, G. Hellenthal, and A. Ruiz-Linares, “Latin Americans show wide-spread Converso ancestry and imprint of local Native ancestry on physical appearance,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 5388 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beggs, W.

N. G. Crawford, D. E. Kelly, M. E. B. Hansen, M. H. Beltrame, S. Fan, S. L. Bowman, E. Jewett, A. Ranciaro, S. Thompson, Y. Lo, S. P. Pfeifer, J. D. Jensen, M. C. Campbell, W. Beggs, F. Hormozdiari, S. W. Mpoloka, G. G. Mokone, T. Nyambo, D. W. Meskel, G. Belay, J. Haut, H. Rothschild, L. Zon, Y. Zhou, M. A. Kovacs, M. Xu, T. Zhang, K. Bishop, J. Sinclair, C. Rivas, E. Elliot, J. Choi, S. A. Li, B. Hicks, S. Burgess, C. Abnet, D. E. Watkins-Chow, E. Oceana, Y. S. Song, E. Eskin, K. M. Brown, M. S. Marks, S. K. Loftus, W. J. Pavan, M. Yeager, S. Chanock, S. A. Tishkoff, S. A. Tishkoff, and NISC Comparative Sequencing Program, “Loci associated with skin pigmentation identified in African populations,” Science 358(6365), eaan8433 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Belay, G.

N. G. Crawford, D. E. Kelly, M. E. B. Hansen, M. H. Beltrame, S. Fan, S. L. Bowman, E. Jewett, A. Ranciaro, S. Thompson, Y. Lo, S. P. Pfeifer, J. D. Jensen, M. C. Campbell, W. Beggs, F. Hormozdiari, S. W. Mpoloka, G. G. Mokone, T. Nyambo, D. W. Meskel, G. Belay, J. Haut, H. Rothschild, L. Zon, Y. Zhou, M. A. Kovacs, M. Xu, T. Zhang, K. Bishop, J. Sinclair, C. Rivas, E. Elliot, J. Choi, S. A. Li, B. Hicks, S. Burgess, C. Abnet, D. E. Watkins-Chow, E. Oceana, Y. S. Song, E. Eskin, K. M. Brown, M. S. Marks, S. K. Loftus, W. J. Pavan, M. Yeager, S. Chanock, S. A. Tishkoff, S. A. Tishkoff, and NISC Comparative Sequencing Program, “Loci associated with skin pigmentation identified in African populations,” Science 358(6365), eaan8433 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beltrame, M. H.

N. G. Crawford, D. E. Kelly, M. E. B. Hansen, M. H. Beltrame, S. Fan, S. L. Bowman, E. Jewett, A. Ranciaro, S. Thompson, Y. Lo, S. P. Pfeifer, J. D. Jensen, M. C. Campbell, W. Beggs, F. Hormozdiari, S. W. Mpoloka, G. G. Mokone, T. Nyambo, D. W. Meskel, G. Belay, J. Haut, H. Rothschild, L. Zon, Y. Zhou, M. A. Kovacs, M. Xu, T. Zhang, K. Bishop, J. Sinclair, C. Rivas, E. Elliot, J. Choi, S. A. Li, B. Hicks, S. Burgess, C. Abnet, D. E. Watkins-Chow, E. Oceana, Y. S. Song, E. Eskin, K. M. Brown, M. S. Marks, S. K. Loftus, W. J. Pavan, M. Yeager, S. Chanock, S. A. Tishkoff, S. A. Tishkoff, and NISC Comparative Sequencing Program, “Loci associated with skin pigmentation identified in African populations,” Science 358(6365), eaan8433 (2017).
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Bennett, D. B.

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[PubMed]

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Dugoujon, J.-M.

J.-C. Chacón-Duque, K. Adhikari, M. Fuentes-Guajardo, J. Mendoza-Revilla, V. Acuña-Alonzo, R. Barquera, M. Quinto-Sánchez, J. Gómez-Valdés, P. Everardo Martínez, H. Villamil-Ramírez, T. Hünemeier, V. Ramallo, C. C. Silva de Cerqueira, M. Hurtado, V. Villegas, V. Granja, M. Villena, R. Vásquez, E. Llop, J. R. Sandoval, A. A. Salazar-Granara, M.-L. Parolin, K. Sandoval, R. I. Peñaloza-Espinosa, H. Rangel-Villalobos, C. A. Winkler, W. Klitz, C. Bravi, J. Molina, D. Corach, R. Barrantes, V. Gomes, C. Resende, L. Gusmão, A. Amorim, Y. Xue, J.-M. Dugoujon, P. Moral, R. González-José, L. Schuler-Faccini, F. M. Salzano, M.-C. Bortolini, S. Canizales-Quinteros, G. Poletti, C. Gallo, G. Bedoya, F. Rothhammer, D. Balding, G. Hellenthal, and A. Ruiz-Linares, “Latin Americans show wide-spread Converso ancestry and imprint of local Native ancestry on physical appearance,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 5388 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dunning, D.

R. Williams, A. Schofield, G. Holder, J. Downes, D. Edgar, P. Harrison, M. Siggel-King, M. Surman, D. Dunning, S. Hill, D. Holder, F. Jackson, J. Jones, J. McKenzie, Y. Saveliev, N. Thomsen, P. Williams, and P. Weightman, “The influence of high intensity terahertz radiation on mammalian cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation,” Phys. Med. Biol. 58(2), 373–391 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dutta, M.

M. Dutta, A. S. Bhalla, and R. Guo, “THz Imaging of Skin Burn: Seeing the Unseen-An Overview,” Adv. Wound Care (New Rochelle) 5(8), 338–348 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Echchgadda, I.

I. Echchgadda, J. A. Grundt, M. Tarango, B. L. Ibey, T. Tongue, M. Liang, H. Xin, and G. J. Wilmink, “Using a portable terahertz spectrometer to measure the optical properties of in vivo human skin,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(12), 120503 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Edgar, D.

R. Williams, A. Schofield, G. Holder, J. Downes, D. Edgar, P. Harrison, M. Siggel-King, M. Surman, D. Dunning, S. Hill, D. Holder, F. Jackson, J. Jones, J. McKenzie, Y. Saveliev, N. Thomsen, P. Williams, and P. Weightman, “The influence of high intensity terahertz radiation on mammalian cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation,” Phys. Med. Biol. 58(2), 373–391 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Elliot, E.

N. G. Crawford, D. E. Kelly, M. E. B. Hansen, M. H. Beltrame, S. Fan, S. L. Bowman, E. Jewett, A. Ranciaro, S. Thompson, Y. Lo, S. P. Pfeifer, J. D. Jensen, M. C. Campbell, W. Beggs, F. Hormozdiari, S. W. Mpoloka, G. G. Mokone, T. Nyambo, D. W. Meskel, G. Belay, J. Haut, H. Rothschild, L. Zon, Y. Zhou, M. A. Kovacs, M. Xu, T. Zhang, K. Bishop, J. Sinclair, C. Rivas, E. Elliot, J. Choi, S. A. Li, B. Hicks, S. Burgess, C. Abnet, D. E. Watkins-Chow, E. Oceana, Y. S. Song, E. Eskin, K. M. Brown, M. S. Marks, S. K. Loftus, W. J. Pavan, M. Yeager, S. Chanock, S. A. Tishkoff, S. A. Tishkoff, and NISC Comparative Sequencing Program, “Loci associated with skin pigmentation identified in African populations,” Science 358(6365), eaan8433 (2017).
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Ennis, D. B.

N. Bajwa, S. Sung, D. B. Ennis, M. C. Fishbein, B. N. Nowroozi, D. Ruan, A. Maccabi, J. Alger, M. A. S. John, W. S. Grundfest, and Z. D. Taylor, “Terahertz Imaging of Cutaneous Edema: Correlation With Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Burn Wounds,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 64(11), 2682–2694 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eskin, E.

N. G. Crawford, D. E. Kelly, M. E. B. Hansen, M. H. Beltrame, S. Fan, S. L. Bowman, E. Jewett, A. Ranciaro, S. Thompson, Y. Lo, S. P. Pfeifer, J. D. Jensen, M. C. Campbell, W. Beggs, F. Hormozdiari, S. W. Mpoloka, G. G. Mokone, T. Nyambo, D. W. Meskel, G. Belay, J. Haut, H. Rothschild, L. Zon, Y. Zhou, M. A. Kovacs, M. Xu, T. Zhang, K. Bishop, J. Sinclair, C. Rivas, E. Elliot, J. Choi, S. A. Li, B. Hicks, S. Burgess, C. Abnet, D. E. Watkins-Chow, E. Oceana, Y. S. Song, E. Eskin, K. M. Brown, M. S. Marks, S. K. Loftus, W. J. Pavan, M. Yeager, S. Chanock, S. A. Tishkoff, S. A. Tishkoff, and NISC Comparative Sequencing Program, “Loci associated with skin pigmentation identified in African populations,” Science 358(6365), eaan8433 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Everardo Martínez, P.

J.-C. Chacón-Duque, K. Adhikari, M. Fuentes-Guajardo, J. Mendoza-Revilla, V. Acuña-Alonzo, R. Barquera, M. Quinto-Sánchez, J. Gómez-Valdés, P. Everardo Martínez, H. Villamil-Ramírez, T. Hünemeier, V. Ramallo, C. C. Silva de Cerqueira, M. Hurtado, V. Villegas, V. Granja, M. Villena, R. Vásquez, E. Llop, J. R. Sandoval, A. A. Salazar-Granara, M.-L. Parolin, K. Sandoval, R. I. Peñaloza-Espinosa, H. Rangel-Villalobos, C. A. Winkler, W. Klitz, C. Bravi, J. Molina, D. Corach, R. Barrantes, V. Gomes, C. Resende, L. Gusmão, A. Amorim, Y. Xue, J.-M. Dugoujon, P. Moral, R. González-José, L. Schuler-Faccini, F. M. Salzano, M.-C. Bortolini, S. Canizales-Quinteros, G. Poletti, C. Gallo, G. Bedoya, F. Rothhammer, D. Balding, G. Hellenthal, and A. Ruiz-Linares, “Latin Americans show wide-spread Converso ancestry and imprint of local Native ancestry on physical appearance,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 5388 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fan, S.

S. Fan, B. S. Y. Ung, E. P. J. Parrott, V. P. Wallace, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “In vivo terahertz reflection imaging of human scars during and after the healing process,” J. Biophotonics 10(9), 1143–1151 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. G. Crawford, D. E. Kelly, M. E. B. Hansen, M. H. Beltrame, S. Fan, S. L. Bowman, E. Jewett, A. Ranciaro, S. Thompson, Y. Lo, S. P. Pfeifer, J. D. Jensen, M. C. Campbell, W. Beggs, F. Hormozdiari, S. W. Mpoloka, G. G. Mokone, T. Nyambo, D. W. Meskel, G. Belay, J. Haut, H. Rothschild, L. Zon, Y. Zhou, M. A. Kovacs, M. Xu, T. Zhang, K. Bishop, J. Sinclair, C. Rivas, E. Elliot, J. Choi, S. A. Li, B. Hicks, S. Burgess, C. Abnet, D. E. Watkins-Chow, E. Oceana, Y. S. Song, E. Eskin, K. M. Brown, M. S. Marks, S. K. Loftus, W. J. Pavan, M. Yeager, S. Chanock, S. A. Tishkoff, S. A. Tishkoff, and NISC Comparative Sequencing Program, “Loci associated with skin pigmentation identified in African populations,” Science 358(6365), eaan8433 (2017).
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C. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Sun, and E. Pickwell-Macpherson, “The potential of terahertz imaging for cancer diagnosis: A review of investigations to date,” Quant. Imaging Med. Surg. 2(1), 33–45 (2012).
[PubMed]

Fischer, A. H.

A. L. Chien, J. Suh, S. S. A. Cesar, A. H. Fischer, N. Cheng, F. Poon, B. Rainer, S. Leung, J. Martin, G. A. Okoye, and S. Kang, “Pigmentation in African American skin decreases with skin aging,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 75(4), 782–787 (2016).
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Fishbein, M. C.

N. Bajwa, S. Sung, D. B. Ennis, M. C. Fishbein, B. N. Nowroozi, D. Ruan, A. Maccabi, J. Alger, M. A. S. John, W. S. Grundfest, and Z. D. Taylor, “Terahertz Imaging of Cutaneous Edema: Correlation With Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Burn Wounds,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 64(11), 2682–2694 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fitzgerald, A. J.

V. P. Wallace, A. J. Fitzgerald, E. Pickwell, R. J. Pye, P. F. Taday, N. Flanagan, and T. Ha, “Terahertz Pulsed Spectroscopy of Human Basal Cell Carcinoma,” Appl. Spectrosc. 60(10), 1127–1133 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Pickwell, A. J. Fitzgerald, B. E. Cole, P. F. Taday, R. J. Pye, T. Ha, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “Simulating the response of terahertz radiation to basal cell carcinoma using ex vivo spectroscopy measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(6), 064021 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Pickwell, B. E. Cole, A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, and M. Pepper, “Simulation of terahertz pulse propagation in biological systems,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(12), 2190–2192 (2004).
[Crossref]

E. Pickwell, B. E. Cole, A. J. Fitzgerald, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “In vivo study of human skin using pulsed terahertz radiation,” Phys. Med. Biol. 49(9), 1595–1607 (2004).
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A. J. Fitzgerald, E. Berry, N. N. Zinov’ev, S. Homer-Vanniasinkam, R. E. Miles, J. M. Chamberlain, and M. A. Smith, “Catalogue of human tissue optical properties at terahertz frequencies,” J. Biol. Phys. 29(2), 123–128 (2003).
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Flanagan, N.

Fu, K.-Y.

W.-S. Huang, Y.-W. Wang, K.-C. Hung, P.-S. Hsieh, K.-Y. Fu, L.-G. Dai, N.-H. Liou, K.-H. Ma, J.-C. Liu, and N.-T. Dai, “High correlation between skin color based on CIELAB color space, epidermal melanocyte ratio, and melanocyte melanin content,” PeerJ 6, e4815 (2018).
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Fuentes-Guajardo, M.

J.-C. Chacón-Duque, K. Adhikari, M. Fuentes-Guajardo, J. Mendoza-Revilla, V. Acuña-Alonzo, R. Barquera, M. Quinto-Sánchez, J. Gómez-Valdés, P. Everardo Martínez, H. Villamil-Ramírez, T. Hünemeier, V. Ramallo, C. C. Silva de Cerqueira, M. Hurtado, V. Villegas, V. Granja, M. Villena, R. Vásquez, E. Llop, J. R. Sandoval, A. A. Salazar-Granara, M.-L. Parolin, K. Sandoval, R. I. Peñaloza-Espinosa, H. Rangel-Villalobos, C. A. Winkler, W. Klitz, C. Bravi, J. Molina, D. Corach, R. Barrantes, V. Gomes, C. Resende, L. Gusmão, A. Amorim, Y. Xue, J.-M. Dugoujon, P. Moral, R. González-José, L. Schuler-Faccini, F. M. Salzano, M.-C. Bortolini, S. Canizales-Quinteros, G. Poletti, C. Gallo, G. Bedoya, F. Rothhammer, D. Balding, G. Hellenthal, and A. Ruiz-Linares, “Latin Americans show wide-spread Converso ancestry and imprint of local Native ancestry on physical appearance,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 5388 (2018).
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Gallerano, G. P.

K.-T. Kim, J. Park, S. J. Jo, S. Jung, O. S. Kwon, G. P. Gallerano, W.-Y. Park, and G.-S. Park, “High-power femtosecond-terahertz pulse induces a wound response in mouse skin,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 2296 (2013).
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Gallo, C.

J.-C. Chacón-Duque, K. Adhikari, M. Fuentes-Guajardo, J. Mendoza-Revilla, V. Acuña-Alonzo, R. Barquera, M. Quinto-Sánchez, J. Gómez-Valdés, P. Everardo Martínez, H. Villamil-Ramírez, T. Hünemeier, V. Ramallo, C. C. Silva de Cerqueira, M. Hurtado, V. Villegas, V. Granja, M. Villena, R. Vásquez, E. Llop, J. R. Sandoval, A. A. Salazar-Granara, M.-L. Parolin, K. Sandoval, R. I. Peñaloza-Espinosa, H. Rangel-Villalobos, C. A. Winkler, W. Klitz, C. Bravi, J. Molina, D. Corach, R. Barrantes, V. Gomes, C. Resende, L. Gusmão, A. Amorim, Y. Xue, J.-M. Dugoujon, P. Moral, R. González-José, L. Schuler-Faccini, F. M. Salzano, M.-C. Bortolini, S. Canizales-Quinteros, G. Poletti, C. Gallo, G. Bedoya, F. Rothhammer, D. Balding, G. Hellenthal, and A. Ruiz-Linares, “Latin Americans show wide-spread Converso ancestry and imprint of local Native ancestry on physical appearance,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 5388 (2018).
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Gavdush, A. A.

K. I. Zaytsev, N. V. Chernomyrdin, K. G. Kudrin, A. A. Gavdush, P. A. Nosov, S. O. Yurchenko, and I. V. Reshetov, “In vivo terahertz pulsed spectroscopy of dysplastic and non-dysplastic skin nevi,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 735, 012076 (2016).
[Crossref]

Golubov, A.

L. V. Titova, A. K. Ayesheshim, A. Golubov, R. Rodriguez-Juarez, R. Woycicki, F. A. Hegmann, and O. Kovalchuk, “Intense THz pulses down-regulate genes associated with skin cancer and psoriasis: a new therapeutic avenue?” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 2363 (2013).
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Gomes, V.

J.-C. Chacón-Duque, K. Adhikari, M. Fuentes-Guajardo, J. Mendoza-Revilla, V. Acuña-Alonzo, R. Barquera, M. Quinto-Sánchez, J. Gómez-Valdés, P. Everardo Martínez, H. Villamil-Ramírez, T. Hünemeier, V. Ramallo, C. C. Silva de Cerqueira, M. Hurtado, V. Villegas, V. Granja, M. Villena, R. Vásquez, E. Llop, J. R. Sandoval, A. A. Salazar-Granara, M.-L. Parolin, K. Sandoval, R. I. Peñaloza-Espinosa, H. Rangel-Villalobos, C. A. Winkler, W. Klitz, C. Bravi, J. Molina, D. Corach, R. Barrantes, V. Gomes, C. Resende, L. Gusmão, A. Amorim, Y. Xue, J.-M. Dugoujon, P. Moral, R. González-José, L. Schuler-Faccini, F. M. Salzano, M.-C. Bortolini, S. Canizales-Quinteros, G. Poletti, C. Gallo, G. Bedoya, F. Rothhammer, D. Balding, G. Hellenthal, and A. Ruiz-Linares, “Latin Americans show wide-spread Converso ancestry and imprint of local Native ancestry on physical appearance,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 5388 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gómez-Valdés, J.

J.-C. Chacón-Duque, K. Adhikari, M. Fuentes-Guajardo, J. Mendoza-Revilla, V. Acuña-Alonzo, R. Barquera, M. Quinto-Sánchez, J. Gómez-Valdés, P. Everardo Martínez, H. Villamil-Ramírez, T. Hünemeier, V. Ramallo, C. C. Silva de Cerqueira, M. Hurtado, V. Villegas, V. Granja, M. Villena, R. Vásquez, E. Llop, J. R. Sandoval, A. A. Salazar-Granara, M.-L. Parolin, K. Sandoval, R. I. Peñaloza-Espinosa, H. Rangel-Villalobos, C. A. Winkler, W. Klitz, C. Bravi, J. Molina, D. Corach, R. Barrantes, V. Gomes, C. Resende, L. Gusmão, A. Amorim, Y. Xue, J.-M. Dugoujon, P. Moral, R. González-José, L. Schuler-Faccini, F. M. Salzano, M.-C. Bortolini, S. Canizales-Quinteros, G. Poletti, C. Gallo, G. Bedoya, F. Rothhammer, D. Balding, G. Hellenthal, and A. Ruiz-Linares, “Latin Americans show wide-spread Converso ancestry and imprint of local Native ancestry on physical appearance,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 5388 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

González-José, R.

J.-C. Chacón-Duque, K. Adhikari, M. Fuentes-Guajardo, J. Mendoza-Revilla, V. Acuña-Alonzo, R. Barquera, M. Quinto-Sánchez, J. Gómez-Valdés, P. Everardo Martínez, H. Villamil-Ramírez, T. Hünemeier, V. Ramallo, C. C. Silva de Cerqueira, M. Hurtado, V. Villegas, V. Granja, M. Villena, R. Vásquez, E. Llop, J. R. Sandoval, A. A. Salazar-Granara, M.-L. Parolin, K. Sandoval, R. I. Peñaloza-Espinosa, H. Rangel-Villalobos, C. A. Winkler, W. Klitz, C. Bravi, J. Molina, D. Corach, R. Barrantes, V. Gomes, C. Resende, L. Gusmão, A. Amorim, Y. Xue, J.-M. Dugoujon, P. Moral, R. González-José, L. Schuler-Faccini, F. M. Salzano, M.-C. Bortolini, S. Canizales-Quinteros, G. Poletti, C. Gallo, G. Bedoya, F. Rothhammer, D. Balding, G. Hellenthal, and A. Ruiz-Linares, “Latin Americans show wide-spread Converso ancestry and imprint of local Native ancestry on physical appearance,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 5388 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Granja, V.

J.-C. Chacón-Duque, K. Adhikari, M. Fuentes-Guajardo, J. Mendoza-Revilla, V. Acuña-Alonzo, R. Barquera, M. Quinto-Sánchez, J. Gómez-Valdés, P. Everardo Martínez, H. Villamil-Ramírez, T. Hünemeier, V. Ramallo, C. C. Silva de Cerqueira, M. Hurtado, V. Villegas, V. Granja, M. Villena, R. Vásquez, E. Llop, J. R. Sandoval, A. A. Salazar-Granara, M.-L. Parolin, K. Sandoval, R. I. Peñaloza-Espinosa, H. Rangel-Villalobos, C. A. Winkler, W. Klitz, C. Bravi, J. Molina, D. Corach, R. Barrantes, V. Gomes, C. Resende, L. Gusmão, A. Amorim, Y. Xue, J.-M. Dugoujon, P. Moral, R. González-José, L. Schuler-Faccini, F. M. Salzano, M.-C. Bortolini, S. Canizales-Quinteros, G. Poletti, C. Gallo, G. Bedoya, F. Rothhammer, D. Balding, G. Hellenthal, and A. Ruiz-Linares, “Latin Americans show wide-spread Converso ancestry and imprint of local Native ancestry on physical appearance,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 5388 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grundfest, W. S.

N. Bajwa, S. Sung, D. B. Ennis, M. C. Fishbein, B. N. Nowroozi, D. Ruan, A. Maccabi, J. Alger, M. A. S. John, W. S. Grundfest, and Z. D. Taylor, “Terahertz Imaging of Cutaneous Edema: Correlation With Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Burn Wounds,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 64(11), 2682–2694 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, D. B. Bennett, N. Bajwa, K. S. Barnett, R. S. Singh, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, W. S. Grundfest, and Z. D. Taylor, “In vivo terahertz imaging of rat skin burns,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(4), 040503 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J.-P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz Medical Imaging: in vivo Hydration Sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 201–219 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Y. Suen, P. Tewari, Z. D. Taylor, W. S. Grundfest, H. Lee, E. R. Brown, M. O. Culjat, and R. S. Singh, “Towards medical terahertz sensing of skin hydration,” Stud. Health Technol. Inform. 142, 364–368 (2009).
[PubMed]

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, M. O. Culjat, J. Y. Suen, W. S. Grundfest, H. Lee, and E. R. Brown, “Reflective terahertz imaging of porcine skin burns,” Opt. Lett. 33(11), 1258–1260 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grundt, J. A.

I. Echchgadda, J. A. Grundt, M. Tarango, B. L. Ibey, T. Tongue, M. Liang, H. Xin, and G. J. Wilmink, “Using a portable terahertz spectrometer to measure the optical properties of in vivo human skin,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(12), 120503 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grundt, J. E.

G. J. Wilmink and J. E. Grundt, “Invited Review Article: Current State of Research on Biological Effects of Terahertz Radiation,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 32(10), 1074–1122 (2011).
[Crossref]

Guo, R.

M. Dutta, A. S. Bhalla, and R. Guo, “THz Imaging of Skin Burn: Seeing the Unseen-An Overview,” Adv. Wound Care (New Rochelle) 5(8), 338–348 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gusmão, L.

J.-C. Chacón-Duque, K. Adhikari, M. Fuentes-Guajardo, J. Mendoza-Revilla, V. Acuña-Alonzo, R. Barquera, M. Quinto-Sánchez, J. Gómez-Valdés, P. Everardo Martínez, H. Villamil-Ramírez, T. Hünemeier, V. Ramallo, C. C. Silva de Cerqueira, M. Hurtado, V. Villegas, V. Granja, M. Villena, R. Vásquez, E. Llop, J. R. Sandoval, A. A. Salazar-Granara, M.-L. Parolin, K. Sandoval, R. I. Peñaloza-Espinosa, H. Rangel-Villalobos, C. A. Winkler, W. Klitz, C. Bravi, J. Molina, D. Corach, R. Barrantes, V. Gomes, C. Resende, L. Gusmão, A. Amorim, Y. Xue, J.-M. Dugoujon, P. Moral, R. González-José, L. Schuler-Faccini, F. M. Salzano, M.-C. Bortolini, S. Canizales-Quinteros, G. Poletti, C. Gallo, G. Bedoya, F. Rothhammer, D. Balding, G. Hellenthal, and A. Ruiz-Linares, “Latin Americans show wide-spread Converso ancestry and imprint of local Native ancestry on physical appearance,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 5388 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ha, T.

V. P. Wallace, A. J. Fitzgerald, E. Pickwell, R. J. Pye, P. F. Taday, N. Flanagan, and T. Ha, “Terahertz Pulsed Spectroscopy of Human Basal Cell Carcinoma,” Appl. Spectrosc. 60(10), 1127–1133 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Pickwell, A. J. Fitzgerald, B. E. Cole, P. F. Taday, R. J. Pye, T. Ha, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “Simulating the response of terahertz radiation to basal cell carcinoma using ex vivo spectroscopy measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(6), 064021 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Han, J. K.

Han, J.-H.

Hansen, M. E. B.

N. G. Crawford, D. E. Kelly, M. E. B. Hansen, M. H. Beltrame, S. Fan, S. L. Bowman, E. Jewett, A. Ranciaro, S. Thompson, Y. Lo, S. P. Pfeifer, J. D. Jensen, M. C. Campbell, W. Beggs, F. Hormozdiari, S. W. Mpoloka, G. G. Mokone, T. Nyambo, D. W. Meskel, G. Belay, J. Haut, H. Rothschild, L. Zon, Y. Zhou, M. A. Kovacs, M. Xu, T. Zhang, K. Bishop, J. Sinclair, C. Rivas, E. Elliot, J. Choi, S. A. Li, B. Hicks, S. Burgess, C. Abnet, D. E. Watkins-Chow, E. Oceana, Y. S. Song, E. Eskin, K. M. Brown, M. S. Marks, S. K. Loftus, W. J. Pavan, M. Yeager, S. Chanock, S. A. Tishkoff, S. A. Tishkoff, and NISC Comparative Sequencing Program, “Loci associated with skin pigmentation identified in African populations,” Science 358(6365), eaan8433 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Harrison, P.

R. Williams, A. Schofield, G. Holder, J. Downes, D. Edgar, P. Harrison, M. Siggel-King, M. Surman, D. Dunning, S. Hill, D. Holder, F. Jackson, J. Jones, J. McKenzie, Y. Saveliev, N. Thomsen, P. Williams, and P. Weightman, “The influence of high intensity terahertz radiation on mammalian cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation,” Phys. Med. Biol. 58(2), 373–391 (2013).
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Haut, J.

N. G. Crawford, D. E. Kelly, M. E. B. Hansen, M. H. Beltrame, S. Fan, S. L. Bowman, E. Jewett, A. Ranciaro, S. Thompson, Y. Lo, S. P. Pfeifer, J. D. Jensen, M. C. Campbell, W. Beggs, F. Hormozdiari, S. W. Mpoloka, G. G. Mokone, T. Nyambo, D. W. Meskel, G. Belay, J. Haut, H. Rothschild, L. Zon, Y. Zhou, M. A. Kovacs, M. Xu, T. Zhang, K. Bishop, J. Sinclair, C. Rivas, E. Elliot, J. Choi, S. A. Li, B. Hicks, S. Burgess, C. Abnet, D. E. Watkins-Chow, E. Oceana, Y. S. Song, E. Eskin, K. M. Brown, M. S. Marks, S. K. Loftus, W. J. Pavan, M. Yeager, S. Chanock, S. A. Tishkoff, S. A. Tishkoff, and NISC Comparative Sequencing Program, “Loci associated with skin pigmentation identified in African populations,” Science 358(6365), eaan8433 (2017).
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Q. Sun, E. P. J. Parrott, Y. He, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “In vivo THz imaging of human skin: Accounting for occlusion effects,” J. Biophotonics 11(2), e201700111 (2018).
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Y. Yamaguchi and V. J. Hearing, “Physiological factors that regulate skin pigmentation,” Biofactors 35(2), 193–199 (2009).
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V. J. Hearing, “Biogenesis of pigment granules: a sensitive way to regulate melanocyte function,” J. Dermatol. Sci. 37(1), 3–14 (2005).
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L. V. Titova, A. K. Ayesheshim, A. Golubov, R. Rodriguez-Juarez, R. Woycicki, F. A. Hegmann, and O. Kovalchuk, “Intense THz pulses down-regulate genes associated with skin cancer and psoriasis: a new therapeutic avenue?” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 2363 (2013).
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Hellenthal, G.

J.-C. Chacón-Duque, K. Adhikari, M. Fuentes-Guajardo, J. Mendoza-Revilla, V. Acuña-Alonzo, R. Barquera, M. Quinto-Sánchez, J. Gómez-Valdés, P. Everardo Martínez, H. Villamil-Ramírez, T. Hünemeier, V. Ramallo, C. C. Silva de Cerqueira, M. Hurtado, V. Villegas, V. Granja, M. Villena, R. Vásquez, E. Llop, J. R. Sandoval, A. A. Salazar-Granara, M.-L. Parolin, K. Sandoval, R. I. Peñaloza-Espinosa, H. Rangel-Villalobos, C. A. Winkler, W. Klitz, C. Bravi, J. Molina, D. Corach, R. Barrantes, V. Gomes, C. Resende, L. Gusmão, A. Amorim, Y. Xue, J.-M. Dugoujon, P. Moral, R. González-José, L. Schuler-Faccini, F. M. Salzano, M.-C. Bortolini, S. Canizales-Quinteros, G. Poletti, C. Gallo, G. Bedoya, F. Rothhammer, D. Balding, G. Hellenthal, and A. Ruiz-Linares, “Latin Americans show wide-spread Converso ancestry and imprint of local Native ancestry on physical appearance,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 5388 (2018).
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A. Hennessy, C. Oh, B. Diffey, K. Wakamatsu, S. Ito, and J. Rees, “Eumelanin and pheomelanin concentrations in human epidermis before and after UVB irradiation,” Pigment Cell Res. 18(3), 220–223 (2005).
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Hicks, B.

N. G. Crawford, D. E. Kelly, M. E. B. Hansen, M. H. Beltrame, S. Fan, S. L. Bowman, E. Jewett, A. Ranciaro, S. Thompson, Y. Lo, S. P. Pfeifer, J. D. Jensen, M. C. Campbell, W. Beggs, F. Hormozdiari, S. W. Mpoloka, G. G. Mokone, T. Nyambo, D. W. Meskel, G. Belay, J. Haut, H. Rothschild, L. Zon, Y. Zhou, M. A. Kovacs, M. Xu, T. Zhang, K. Bishop, J. Sinclair, C. Rivas, E. Elliot, J. Choi, S. A. Li, B. Hicks, S. Burgess, C. Abnet, D. E. Watkins-Chow, E. Oceana, Y. S. Song, E. Eskin, K. M. Brown, M. S. Marks, S. K. Loftus, W. J. Pavan, M. Yeager, S. Chanock, S. A. Tishkoff, S. A. Tishkoff, and NISC Comparative Sequencing Program, “Loci associated with skin pigmentation identified in African populations,” Science 358(6365), eaan8433 (2017).
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R. Williams, A. Schofield, G. Holder, J. Downes, D. Edgar, P. Harrison, M. Siggel-King, M. Surman, D. Dunning, S. Hill, D. Holder, F. Jackson, J. Jones, J. McKenzie, Y. Saveliev, N. Thomsen, P. Williams, and P. Weightman, “The influence of high intensity terahertz radiation on mammalian cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation,” Phys. Med. Biol. 58(2), 373–391 (2013).
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Hobson, D. W.

N. A. Monteiro-Riviere, A. O. Inman, T. H. Snider, J. A. Blank, and D. W. Hobson, “Comparison of an in vitro skin model to normal human skin for dermatological research,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 37(3), 172–179 (1997).
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R. Williams, A. Schofield, G. Holder, J. Downes, D. Edgar, P. Harrison, M. Siggel-King, M. Surman, D. Dunning, S. Hill, D. Holder, F. Jackson, J. Jones, J. McKenzie, Y. Saveliev, N. Thomsen, P. Williams, and P. Weightman, “The influence of high intensity terahertz radiation on mammalian cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation,” Phys. Med. Biol. 58(2), 373–391 (2013).
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Holder, G.

R. Williams, A. Schofield, G. Holder, J. Downes, D. Edgar, P. Harrison, M. Siggel-King, M. Surman, D. Dunning, S. Hill, D. Holder, F. Jackson, J. Jones, J. McKenzie, Y. Saveliev, N. Thomsen, P. Williams, and P. Weightman, “The influence of high intensity terahertz radiation on mammalian cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation,” Phys. Med. Biol. 58(2), 373–391 (2013).
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A. J. Fitzgerald, E. Berry, N. N. Zinov’ev, S. Homer-Vanniasinkam, R. E. Miles, J. M. Chamberlain, and M. A. Smith, “Catalogue of human tissue optical properties at terahertz frequencies,” J. Biol. Phys. 29(2), 123–128 (2003).
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N. G. Crawford, D. E. Kelly, M. E. B. Hansen, M. H. Beltrame, S. Fan, S. L. Bowman, E. Jewett, A. Ranciaro, S. Thompson, Y. Lo, S. P. Pfeifer, J. D. Jensen, M. C. Campbell, W. Beggs, F. Hormozdiari, S. W. Mpoloka, G. G. Mokone, T. Nyambo, D. W. Meskel, G. Belay, J. Haut, H. Rothschild, L. Zon, Y. Zhou, M. A. Kovacs, M. Xu, T. Zhang, K. Bishop, J. Sinclair, C. Rivas, E. Elliot, J. Choi, S. A. Li, B. Hicks, S. Burgess, C. Abnet, D. E. Watkins-Chow, E. Oceana, Y. S. Song, E. Eskin, K. M. Brown, M. S. Marks, S. K. Loftus, W. J. Pavan, M. Yeager, S. Chanock, S. A. Tishkoff, S. A. Tishkoff, and NISC Comparative Sequencing Program, “Loci associated with skin pigmentation identified in African populations,” Science 358(6365), eaan8433 (2017).
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W.-S. Huang, Y.-W. Wang, K.-C. Hung, P.-S. Hsieh, K.-Y. Fu, L.-G. Dai, N.-H. Liou, K.-H. Ma, J.-C. Liu, and N.-T. Dai, “High correlation between skin color based on CIELAB color space, epidermal melanocyte ratio, and melanocyte melanin content,” PeerJ 6, e4815 (2018).
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S. Y. Huang, Y. X. J. Wang, D. K. W. Yeung, A. T. Ahuja, Y.-T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-Macpherson, “Tissue characterization using terahertz pulsed imaging in reflection geometry,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(1), 149–160 (2009).
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W.-S. Huang, Y.-W. Wang, K.-C. Hung, P.-S. Hsieh, K.-Y. Fu, L.-G. Dai, N.-H. Liou, K.-H. Ma, J.-C. Liu, and N.-T. Dai, “High correlation between skin color based on CIELAB color space, epidermal melanocyte ratio, and melanocyte melanin content,” PeerJ 6, e4815 (2018).
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Hubschman, J.-P.

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J.-P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz Medical Imaging: in vivo Hydration Sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 201–219 (2011).
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J.-C. Chacón-Duque, K. Adhikari, M. Fuentes-Guajardo, J. Mendoza-Revilla, V. Acuña-Alonzo, R. Barquera, M. Quinto-Sánchez, J. Gómez-Valdés, P. Everardo Martínez, H. Villamil-Ramírez, T. Hünemeier, V. Ramallo, C. C. Silva de Cerqueira, M. Hurtado, V. Villegas, V. Granja, M. Villena, R. Vásquez, E. Llop, J. R. Sandoval, A. A. Salazar-Granara, M.-L. Parolin, K. Sandoval, R. I. Peñaloza-Espinosa, H. Rangel-Villalobos, C. A. Winkler, W. Klitz, C. Bravi, J. Molina, D. Corach, R. Barrantes, V. Gomes, C. Resende, L. Gusmão, A. Amorim, Y. Xue, J.-M. Dugoujon, P. Moral, R. González-José, L. Schuler-Faccini, F. M. Salzano, M.-C. Bortolini, S. Canizales-Quinteros, G. Poletti, C. Gallo, G. Bedoya, F. Rothhammer, D. Balding, G. Hellenthal, and A. Ruiz-Linares, “Latin Americans show wide-spread Converso ancestry and imprint of local Native ancestry on physical appearance,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 5388 (2018).
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W.-S. Huang, Y.-W. Wang, K.-C. Hung, P.-S. Hsieh, K.-Y. Fu, L.-G. Dai, N.-H. Liou, K.-H. Ma, J.-C. Liu, and N.-T. Dai, “High correlation between skin color based on CIELAB color space, epidermal melanocyte ratio, and melanocyte melanin content,” PeerJ 6, e4815 (2018).
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Hurtado, M.

J.-C. Chacón-Duque, K. Adhikari, M. Fuentes-Guajardo, J. Mendoza-Revilla, V. Acuña-Alonzo, R. Barquera, M. Quinto-Sánchez, J. Gómez-Valdés, P. Everardo Martínez, H. Villamil-Ramírez, T. Hünemeier, V. Ramallo, C. C. Silva de Cerqueira, M. Hurtado, V. Villegas, V. Granja, M. Villena, R. Vásquez, E. Llop, J. R. Sandoval, A. A. Salazar-Granara, M.-L. Parolin, K. Sandoval, R. I. Peñaloza-Espinosa, H. Rangel-Villalobos, C. A. Winkler, W. Klitz, C. Bravi, J. Molina, D. Corach, R. Barrantes, V. Gomes, C. Resende, L. Gusmão, A. Amorim, Y. Xue, J.-M. Dugoujon, P. Moral, R. González-José, L. Schuler-Faccini, F. M. Salzano, M.-C. Bortolini, S. Canizales-Quinteros, G. Poletti, C. Gallo, G. Bedoya, F. Rothhammer, D. Balding, G. Hellenthal, and A. Ruiz-Linares, “Latin Americans show wide-spread Converso ancestry and imprint of local Native ancestry on physical appearance,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 5388 (2018).
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I. Echchgadda, J. A. Grundt, M. Tarango, B. L. Ibey, T. Tongue, M. Liang, H. Xin, and G. J. Wilmink, “Using a portable terahertz spectrometer to measure the optical properties of in vivo human skin,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(12), 120503 (2013).
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Imamura, M.

K. Shiraga, Y. Ogawa, T. Suzuki, N. Kondo, A. Irisawa, and M. Imamura, “Characterization of Dielectric Responses of Human Cancer Cells in the Terahertz Region,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 35(5), 493–502 (2014).
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K. Shiraga, Y. Ogawa, T. Suzuki, N. Kondo, A. Irisawa, and M. Imamura, “Determination of the complex dielectric constant of an epithelial cell monolayer in the terahertz region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(5), 053702 (2013).
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Inman, A. O.

N. A. Monteiro-Riviere, A. O. Inman, T. H. Snider, J. A. Blank, and D. W. Hobson, “Comparison of an in vitro skin model to normal human skin for dermatological research,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 37(3), 172–179 (1997).
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Irisawa, A.

K. Shiraga, Y. Ogawa, T. Suzuki, N. Kondo, A. Irisawa, and M. Imamura, “Characterization of Dielectric Responses of Human Cancer Cells in the Terahertz Region,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 35(5), 493–502 (2014).
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K. Shiraga, Y. Ogawa, T. Suzuki, N. Kondo, A. Irisawa, and M. Imamura, “Determination of the complex dielectric constant of an epithelial cell monolayer in the terahertz region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(5), 053702 (2013).
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Ito, S.

A. Hennessy, C. Oh, B. Diffey, K. Wakamatsu, S. Ito, and J. Rees, “Eumelanin and pheomelanin concentrations in human epidermis before and after UVB irradiation,” Pigment Cell Res. 18(3), 220–223 (2005).
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Jackson, F.

R. Williams, A. Schofield, G. Holder, J. Downes, D. Edgar, P. Harrison, M. Siggel-King, M. Surman, D. Dunning, S. Hill, D. Holder, F. Jackson, J. Jones, J. McKenzie, Y. Saveliev, N. Thomsen, P. Williams, and P. Weightman, “The influence of high intensity terahertz radiation on mammalian cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation,” Phys. Med. Biol. 58(2), 373–391 (2013).
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Jensen, J. D.

N. G. Crawford, D. E. Kelly, M. E. B. Hansen, M. H. Beltrame, S. Fan, S. L. Bowman, E. Jewett, A. Ranciaro, S. Thompson, Y. Lo, S. P. Pfeifer, J. D. Jensen, M. C. Campbell, W. Beggs, F. Hormozdiari, S. W. Mpoloka, G. G. Mokone, T. Nyambo, D. W. Meskel, G. Belay, J. Haut, H. Rothschild, L. Zon, Y. Zhou, M. A. Kovacs, M. Xu, T. Zhang, K. Bishop, J. Sinclair, C. Rivas, E. Elliot, J. Choi, S. A. Li, B. Hicks, S. Burgess, C. Abnet, D. E. Watkins-Chow, E. Oceana, Y. S. Song, E. Eskin, K. M. Brown, M. S. Marks, S. K. Loftus, W. J. Pavan, M. Yeager, S. Chanock, S. A. Tishkoff, S. A. Tishkoff, and NISC Comparative Sequencing Program, “Loci associated with skin pigmentation identified in African populations,” Science 358(6365), eaan8433 (2017).
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Jeremy, P.

J. Pearce, Z. Jian, D. M. Mittleman, P. Jeremy, Z. Jian, and D. M. Mittleman, “Propagation of terahertz pulses in random media,” Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci 362(1815), 301–313, discussion 313–314 (2004).
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Jewett, E.

N. G. Crawford, D. E. Kelly, M. E. B. Hansen, M. H. Beltrame, S. Fan, S. L. Bowman, E. Jewett, A. Ranciaro, S. Thompson, Y. Lo, S. P. Pfeifer, J. D. Jensen, M. C. Campbell, W. Beggs, F. Hormozdiari, S. W. Mpoloka, G. G. Mokone, T. Nyambo, D. W. Meskel, G. Belay, J. Haut, H. Rothschild, L. Zon, Y. Zhou, M. A. Kovacs, M. Xu, T. Zhang, K. Bishop, J. Sinclair, C. Rivas, E. Elliot, J. Choi, S. A. Li, B. Hicks, S. Burgess, C. Abnet, D. E. Watkins-Chow, E. Oceana, Y. S. Song, E. Eskin, K. M. Brown, M. S. Marks, S. K. Loftus, W. J. Pavan, M. Yeager, S. Chanock, S. A. Tishkoff, S. A. Tishkoff, and NISC Comparative Sequencing Program, “Loci associated with skin pigmentation identified in African populations,” Science 358(6365), eaan8433 (2017).
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Jian, Z.

J. Pearce, Z. Jian, D. M. Mittleman, P. Jeremy, Z. Jian, and D. M. Mittleman, “Propagation of terahertz pulses in random media,” Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci 362(1815), 301–313, discussion 313–314 (2004).
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J. Pearce, Z. Jian, D. M. Mittleman, P. Jeremy, Z. Jian, and D. M. Mittleman, “Propagation of terahertz pulses in random media,” Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci 362(1815), 301–313, discussion 313–314 (2004).
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Jo, S. J.

K.-T. Kim, J. Park, S. J. Jo, S. Jung, O. S. Kwon, G. P. Gallerano, W.-Y. Park, and G.-S. Park, “High-power femtosecond-terahertz pulse induces a wound response in mouse skin,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 2296 (2013).
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John, M. A. S.

N. Bajwa, S. Sung, D. B. Ennis, M. C. Fishbein, B. N. Nowroozi, D. Ruan, A. Maccabi, J. Alger, M. A. S. John, W. S. Grundfest, and Z. D. Taylor, “Terahertz Imaging of Cutaneous Edema: Correlation With Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Burn Wounds,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 64(11), 2682–2694 (2017).
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Jones, J.

R. Williams, A. Schofield, G. Holder, J. Downes, D. Edgar, P. Harrison, M. Siggel-King, M. Surman, D. Dunning, S. Hill, D. Holder, F. Jackson, J. Jones, J. McKenzie, Y. Saveliev, N. Thomsen, P. Williams, and P. Weightman, “The influence of high intensity terahertz radiation on mammalian cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation,” Phys. Med. Biol. 58(2), 373–391 (2013).
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Jung, S.

K.-T. Kim, J. Park, S. J. Jo, S. Jung, O. S. Kwon, G. P. Gallerano, W.-Y. Park, and G.-S. Park, “High-power femtosecond-terahertz pulse induces a wound response in mouse skin,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 2296 (2013).
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Kang, S.

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Kelly, D. E.

N. G. Crawford, D. E. Kelly, M. E. B. Hansen, M. H. Beltrame, S. Fan, S. L. Bowman, E. Jewett, A. Ranciaro, S. Thompson, Y. Lo, S. P. Pfeifer, J. D. Jensen, M. C. Campbell, W. Beggs, F. Hormozdiari, S. W. Mpoloka, G. G. Mokone, T. Nyambo, D. W. Meskel, G. Belay, J. Haut, H. Rothschild, L. Zon, Y. Zhou, M. A. Kovacs, M. Xu, T. Zhang, K. Bishop, J. Sinclair, C. Rivas, E. Elliot, J. Choi, S. A. Li, B. Hicks, S. Burgess, C. Abnet, D. E. Watkins-Chow, E. Oceana, Y. S. Song, E. Eskin, K. M. Brown, M. S. Marks, S. K. Loftus, W. J. Pavan, M. Yeager, S. Chanock, S. A. Tishkoff, S. A. Tishkoff, and NISC Comparative Sequencing Program, “Loci associated with skin pigmentation identified in African populations,” Science 358(6365), eaan8433 (2017).
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Kim, K. W.

Kim, K.-S.

Kim, K.-T.

K.-T. Kim, J. Park, S. J. Jo, S. Jung, O. S. Kwon, G. P. Gallerano, W.-Y. Park, and G.-S. Park, “High-power femtosecond-terahertz pulse induces a wound response in mouse skin,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 2296 (2013).
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Klitz, W.

J.-C. Chacón-Duque, K. Adhikari, M. Fuentes-Guajardo, J. Mendoza-Revilla, V. Acuña-Alonzo, R. Barquera, M. Quinto-Sánchez, J. Gómez-Valdés, P. Everardo Martínez, H. Villamil-Ramírez, T. Hünemeier, V. Ramallo, C. C. Silva de Cerqueira, M. Hurtado, V. Villegas, V. Granja, M. Villena, R. Vásquez, E. Llop, J. R. Sandoval, A. A. Salazar-Granara, M.-L. Parolin, K. Sandoval, R. I. Peñaloza-Espinosa, H. Rangel-Villalobos, C. A. Winkler, W. Klitz, C. Bravi, J. Molina, D. Corach, R. Barrantes, V. Gomes, C. Resende, L. Gusmão, A. Amorim, Y. Xue, J.-M. Dugoujon, P. Moral, R. González-José, L. Schuler-Faccini, F. M. Salzano, M.-C. Bortolini, S. Canizales-Quinteros, G. Poletti, C. Gallo, G. Bedoya, F. Rothhammer, D. Balding, G. Hellenthal, and A. Ruiz-Linares, “Latin Americans show wide-spread Converso ancestry and imprint of local Native ancestry on physical appearance,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 5388 (2018).
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Kondo, N.

K. Shiraga, Y. Ogawa, T. Suzuki, N. Kondo, A. Irisawa, and M. Imamura, “Characterization of Dielectric Responses of Human Cancer Cells in the Terahertz Region,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 35(5), 493–502 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. Shiraga, Y. Ogawa, T. Suzuki, N. Kondo, A. Irisawa, and M. Imamura, “Determination of the complex dielectric constant of an epithelial cell monolayer in the terahertz region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(5), 053702 (2013).
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Oceana, E.

N. G. Crawford, D. E. Kelly, M. E. B. Hansen, M. H. Beltrame, S. Fan, S. L. Bowman, E. Jewett, A. Ranciaro, S. Thompson, Y. Lo, S. P. Pfeifer, J. D. Jensen, M. C. Campbell, W. Beggs, F. Hormozdiari, S. W. Mpoloka, G. G. Mokone, T. Nyambo, D. W. Meskel, G. Belay, J. Haut, H. Rothschild, L. Zon, Y. Zhou, M. A. Kovacs, M. Xu, T. Zhang, K. Bishop, J. Sinclair, C. Rivas, E. Elliot, J. Choi, S. A. Li, B. Hicks, S. Burgess, C. Abnet, D. E. Watkins-Chow, E. Oceana, Y. S. Song, E. Eskin, K. M. Brown, M. S. Marks, S. K. Loftus, W. J. Pavan, M. Yeager, S. Chanock, S. A. Tishkoff, S. A. Tishkoff, and NISC Comparative Sequencing Program, “Loci associated with skin pigmentation identified in African populations,” Science 358(6365), eaan8433 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ogawa, Y.

K. Shiraga, Y. Ogawa, T. Suzuki, N. Kondo, A. Irisawa, and M. Imamura, “Characterization of Dielectric Responses of Human Cancer Cells in the Terahertz Region,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 35(5), 493–502 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. Shiraga, Y. Ogawa, T. Suzuki, N. Kondo, A. Irisawa, and M. Imamura, “Determination of the complex dielectric constant of an epithelial cell monolayer in the terahertz region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(5), 053702 (2013).
[Crossref]

Oh, C.

A. Hennessy, C. Oh, B. Diffey, K. Wakamatsu, S. Ito, and J. Rees, “Eumelanin and pheomelanin concentrations in human epidermis before and after UVB irradiation,” Pigment Cell Res. 18(3), 220–223 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Okoye, G. A.

A. L. Chien, J. Suh, S. S. A. Cesar, A. H. Fischer, N. Cheng, F. Poon, B. Rainer, S. Leung, J. Martin, G. A. Okoye, and S. Kang, “Pigmentation in African American skin decreases with skin aging,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 75(4), 782–787 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, G.-S.

K.-T. Kim, J. Park, S. J. Jo, S. Jung, O. S. Kwon, G. P. Gallerano, W.-Y. Park, and G.-S. Park, “High-power femtosecond-terahertz pulse induces a wound response in mouse skin,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 2296 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, J.

K.-T. Kim, J. Park, S. J. Jo, S. Jung, O. S. Kwon, G. P. Gallerano, W.-Y. Park, and G.-S. Park, “High-power femtosecond-terahertz pulse induces a wound response in mouse skin,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 2296 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. W. Kim, K.-S. Kim, H. Kim, S. H. Lee, J.-H. Park, J.-H. Han, S.-H. Seok, J. Park, Y. Choi, Y. I. Kim, J. K. Han, and J.-H. Son, “Terahertz dynamic imaging of skin drug absorption,” Opt. Express 20(9), 9476–9484 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, J.-H.

Park, W.-Y.

K.-T. Kim, J. Park, S. J. Jo, S. Jung, O. S. Kwon, G. P. Gallerano, W.-Y. Park, and G.-S. Park, “High-power femtosecond-terahertz pulse induces a wound response in mouse skin,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 2296 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Parolin, M.-L.

J.-C. Chacón-Duque, K. Adhikari, M. Fuentes-Guajardo, J. Mendoza-Revilla, V. Acuña-Alonzo, R. Barquera, M. Quinto-Sánchez, J. Gómez-Valdés, P. Everardo Martínez, H. Villamil-Ramírez, T. Hünemeier, V. Ramallo, C. C. Silva de Cerqueira, M. Hurtado, V. Villegas, V. Granja, M. Villena, R. Vásquez, E. Llop, J. R. Sandoval, A. A. Salazar-Granara, M.-L. Parolin, K. Sandoval, R. I. Peñaloza-Espinosa, H. Rangel-Villalobos, C. A. Winkler, W. Klitz, C. Bravi, J. Molina, D. Corach, R. Barrantes, V. Gomes, C. Resende, L. Gusmão, A. Amorim, Y. Xue, J.-M. Dugoujon, P. Moral, R. González-José, L. Schuler-Faccini, F. M. Salzano, M.-C. Bortolini, S. Canizales-Quinteros, G. Poletti, C. Gallo, G. Bedoya, F. Rothhammer, D. Balding, G. Hellenthal, and A. Ruiz-Linares, “Latin Americans show wide-spread Converso ancestry and imprint of local Native ancestry on physical appearance,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 5388 (2018).
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Parra, E. J.

M. D. Shriver and E. J. Parra, “Comparison of narrow-band reflectance spectroscopy and tristimulus colorimetry for measurements of skin and hair color in persons of different biological ancestry,” Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 112(1), 17–27 (2000).
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Parrott, E. P. J.

Q. Sun, E. P. J. Parrott, Y. He, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “In vivo THz imaging of human skin: Accounting for occlusion effects,” J. Biophotonics 11(2), e201700111 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Fan, B. S. Y. Ung, E. P. J. Parrott, V. P. Wallace, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “In vivo terahertz reflection imaging of human scars during and after the healing process,” J. Biophotonics 10(9), 1143–1151 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pavan, W. J.

N. G. Crawford, D. E. Kelly, M. E. B. Hansen, M. H. Beltrame, S. Fan, S. L. Bowman, E. Jewett, A. Ranciaro, S. Thompson, Y. Lo, S. P. Pfeifer, J. D. Jensen, M. C. Campbell, W. Beggs, F. Hormozdiari, S. W. Mpoloka, G. G. Mokone, T. Nyambo, D. W. Meskel, G. Belay, J. Haut, H. Rothschild, L. Zon, Y. Zhou, M. A. Kovacs, M. Xu, T. Zhang, K. Bishop, J. Sinclair, C. Rivas, E. Elliot, J. Choi, S. A. Li, B. Hicks, S. Burgess, C. Abnet, D. E. Watkins-Chow, E. Oceana, Y. S. Song, E. Eskin, K. M. Brown, M. S. Marks, S. K. Loftus, W. J. Pavan, M. Yeager, S. Chanock, S. A. Tishkoff, S. A. Tishkoff, and NISC Comparative Sequencing Program, “Loci associated with skin pigmentation identified in African populations,” Science 358(6365), eaan8433 (2017).
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Pearce, J.

J. Pearce, Z. Jian, D. M. Mittleman, P. Jeremy, Z. Jian, and D. M. Mittleman, “Propagation of terahertz pulses in random media,” Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci 362(1815), 301–313, discussion 313–314 (2004).
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Peñaloza-Espinosa, R. I.

J.-C. Chacón-Duque, K. Adhikari, M. Fuentes-Guajardo, J. Mendoza-Revilla, V. Acuña-Alonzo, R. Barquera, M. Quinto-Sánchez, J. Gómez-Valdés, P. Everardo Martínez, H. Villamil-Ramírez, T. Hünemeier, V. Ramallo, C. C. Silva de Cerqueira, M. Hurtado, V. Villegas, V. Granja, M. Villena, R. Vásquez, E. Llop, J. R. Sandoval, A. A. Salazar-Granara, M.-L. Parolin, K. Sandoval, R. I. Peñaloza-Espinosa, H. Rangel-Villalobos, C. A. Winkler, W. Klitz, C. Bravi, J. Molina, D. Corach, R. Barrantes, V. Gomes, C. Resende, L. Gusmão, A. Amorim, Y. Xue, J.-M. Dugoujon, P. Moral, R. González-José, L. Schuler-Faccini, F. M. Salzano, M.-C. Bortolini, S. Canizales-Quinteros, G. Poletti, C. Gallo, G. Bedoya, F. Rothhammer, D. Balding, G. Hellenthal, and A. Ruiz-Linares, “Latin Americans show wide-spread Converso ancestry and imprint of local Native ancestry on physical appearance,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 5388 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pepper, M.

E. Pickwell, A. J. Fitzgerald, B. E. Cole, P. F. Taday, R. J. Pye, T. Ha, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “Simulating the response of terahertz radiation to basal cell carcinoma using ex vivo spectroscopy measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(6), 064021 (2005).
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E. Pickwell, B. E. Cole, A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, and M. Pepper, “Simulation of terahertz pulse propagation in biological systems,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(12), 2190–2192 (2004).
[Crossref]

E. Pickwell, B. E. Cole, A. J. Fitzgerald, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “In vivo study of human skin using pulsed terahertz radiation,” Phys. Med. Biol. 49(9), 1595–1607 (2004).
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R. M. Woodward, V. P. Wallace, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz Pulsed Imaging of Skin Cancer in the Time and Frequency Domain,” J. Biol. Phys. 29(2), 257–259 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pfeifer, S. P.

N. G. Crawford, D. E. Kelly, M. E. B. Hansen, M. H. Beltrame, S. Fan, S. L. Bowman, E. Jewett, A. Ranciaro, S. Thompson, Y. Lo, S. P. Pfeifer, J. D. Jensen, M. C. Campbell, W. Beggs, F. Hormozdiari, S. W. Mpoloka, G. G. Mokone, T. Nyambo, D. W. Meskel, G. Belay, J. Haut, H. Rothschild, L. Zon, Y. Zhou, M. A. Kovacs, M. Xu, T. Zhang, K. Bishop, J. Sinclair, C. Rivas, E. Elliot, J. Choi, S. A. Li, B. Hicks, S. Burgess, C. Abnet, D. E. Watkins-Chow, E. Oceana, Y. S. Song, E. Eskin, K. M. Brown, M. S. Marks, S. K. Loftus, W. J. Pavan, M. Yeager, S. Chanock, S. A. Tishkoff, S. A. Tishkoff, and NISC Comparative Sequencing Program, “Loci associated with skin pigmentation identified in African populations,” Science 358(6365), eaan8433 (2017).
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Pickwell, E.

V. P. Wallace, A. J. Fitzgerald, E. Pickwell, R. J. Pye, P. F. Taday, N. Flanagan, and T. Ha, “Terahertz Pulsed Spectroscopy of Human Basal Cell Carcinoma,” Appl. Spectrosc. 60(10), 1127–1133 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Pickwell, A. J. Fitzgerald, B. E. Cole, P. F. Taday, R. J. Pye, T. Ha, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “Simulating the response of terahertz radiation to basal cell carcinoma using ex vivo spectroscopy measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(6), 064021 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Pickwell, B. E. Cole, A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, and M. Pepper, “Simulation of terahertz pulse propagation in biological systems,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(12), 2190–2192 (2004).
[Crossref]

E. Pickwell, B. E. Cole, A. J. Fitzgerald, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “In vivo study of human skin using pulsed terahertz radiation,” Phys. Med. Biol. 49(9), 1595–1607 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pickwell-MacPherson, E.

Q. Sun, E. P. J. Parrott, Y. He, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “In vivo THz imaging of human skin: Accounting for occlusion effects,” J. Biophotonics 11(2), e201700111 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Fan, B. S. Y. Ung, E. P. J. Parrott, V. P. Wallace, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “In vivo terahertz reflection imaging of human scars during and after the healing process,” J. Biophotonics 10(9), 1143–1151 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Sun, and E. Pickwell-Macpherson, “The potential of terahertz imaging for cancer diagnosis: A review of investigations to date,” Quant. Imaging Med. Surg. 2(1), 33–45 (2012).
[PubMed]

Y. Sun, M. Y. Sy, Y.-X. J. Wang, A. T. Ahuja, Y.-T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-Macpherson, “A promising diagnostic method: Terahertz pulsed imaging and spectroscopy,” World J. Radiol. 3(3), 55–65 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Y. Huang, Y. X. J. Wang, D. K. W. Yeung, A. T. Ahuja, Y.-T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-Macpherson, “Tissue characterization using terahertz pulsed imaging in reflection geometry,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(1), 149–160 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Png, G. M.

G. M. Png, J. W. Choi, B. W.-H. Ng, S. P. Mickan, D. Abbott, and X.-C. Zhang, “The impact of hydration changes in fresh bio-tissue on THz spectroscopic measurements,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(13), 3501–3517 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Poletti, G.

J.-C. Chacón-Duque, K. Adhikari, M. Fuentes-Guajardo, J. Mendoza-Revilla, V. Acuña-Alonzo, R. Barquera, M. Quinto-Sánchez, J. Gómez-Valdés, P. Everardo Martínez, H. Villamil-Ramírez, T. Hünemeier, V. Ramallo, C. C. Silva de Cerqueira, M. Hurtado, V. Villegas, V. Granja, M. Villena, R. Vásquez, E. Llop, J. R. Sandoval, A. A. Salazar-Granara, M.-L. Parolin, K. Sandoval, R. I. Peñaloza-Espinosa, H. Rangel-Villalobos, C. A. Winkler, W. Klitz, C. Bravi, J. Molina, D. Corach, R. Barrantes, V. Gomes, C. Resende, L. Gusmão, A. Amorim, Y. Xue, J.-M. Dugoujon, P. Moral, R. González-José, L. Schuler-Faccini, F. M. Salzano, M.-C. Bortolini, S. Canizales-Quinteros, G. Poletti, C. Gallo, G. Bedoya, F. Rothhammer, D. Balding, G. Hellenthal, and A. Ruiz-Linares, “Latin Americans show wide-spread Converso ancestry and imprint of local Native ancestry on physical appearance,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 5388 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Poon, F.

A. L. Chien, J. Suh, S. S. A. Cesar, A. H. Fischer, N. Cheng, F. Poon, B. Rainer, S. Leung, J. Martin, G. A. Okoye, and S. Kang, “Pigmentation in African American skin decreases with skin aging,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 75(4), 782–787 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pye, R. J.

V. P. Wallace, A. J. Fitzgerald, E. Pickwell, R. J. Pye, P. F. Taday, N. Flanagan, and T. Ha, “Terahertz Pulsed Spectroscopy of Human Basal Cell Carcinoma,” Appl. Spectrosc. 60(10), 1127–1133 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Pickwell, A. J. Fitzgerald, B. E. Cole, P. F. Taday, R. J. Pye, T. Ha, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “Simulating the response of terahertz radiation to basal cell carcinoma using ex vivo spectroscopy measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(6), 064021 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Quinto-Sánchez, M.

J.-C. Chacón-Duque, K. Adhikari, M. Fuentes-Guajardo, J. Mendoza-Revilla, V. Acuña-Alonzo, R. Barquera, M. Quinto-Sánchez, J. Gómez-Valdés, P. Everardo Martínez, H. Villamil-Ramírez, T. Hünemeier, V. Ramallo, C. C. Silva de Cerqueira, M. Hurtado, V. Villegas, V. Granja, M. Villena, R. Vásquez, E. Llop, J. R. Sandoval, A. A. Salazar-Granara, M.-L. Parolin, K. Sandoval, R. I. Peñaloza-Espinosa, H. Rangel-Villalobos, C. A. Winkler, W. Klitz, C. Bravi, J. Molina, D. Corach, R. Barrantes, V. Gomes, C. Resende, L. Gusmão, A. Amorim, Y. Xue, J.-M. Dugoujon, P. Moral, R. González-José, L. Schuler-Faccini, F. M. Salzano, M.-C. Bortolini, S. Canizales-Quinteros, G. Poletti, C. Gallo, G. Bedoya, F. Rothhammer, D. Balding, G. Hellenthal, and A. Ruiz-Linares, “Latin Americans show wide-spread Converso ancestry and imprint of local Native ancestry on physical appearance,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 5388 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rainer, B.

A. L. Chien, J. Suh, S. S. A. Cesar, A. H. Fischer, N. Cheng, F. Poon, B. Rainer, S. Leung, J. Martin, G. A. Okoye, and S. Kang, “Pigmentation in African American skin decreases with skin aging,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 75(4), 782–787 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ramallo, V.

J.-C. Chacón-Duque, K. Adhikari, M. Fuentes-Guajardo, J. Mendoza-Revilla, V. Acuña-Alonzo, R. Barquera, M. Quinto-Sánchez, J. Gómez-Valdés, P. Everardo Martínez, H. Villamil-Ramírez, T. Hünemeier, V. Ramallo, C. C. Silva de Cerqueira, M. Hurtado, V. Villegas, V. Granja, M. Villena, R. Vásquez, E. Llop, J. R. Sandoval, A. A. Salazar-Granara, M.-L. Parolin, K. Sandoval, R. I. Peñaloza-Espinosa, H. Rangel-Villalobos, C. A. Winkler, W. Klitz, C. Bravi, J. Molina, D. Corach, R. Barrantes, V. Gomes, C. Resende, L. Gusmão, A. Amorim, Y. Xue, J.-M. Dugoujon, P. Moral, R. González-José, L. Schuler-Faccini, F. M. Salzano, M.-C. Bortolini, S. Canizales-Quinteros, G. Poletti, C. Gallo, G. Bedoya, F. Rothhammer, D. Balding, G. Hellenthal, and A. Ruiz-Linares, “Latin Americans show wide-spread Converso ancestry and imprint of local Native ancestry on physical appearance,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 5388 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ranciaro, A.

N. G. Crawford, D. E. Kelly, M. E. B. Hansen, M. H. Beltrame, S. Fan, S. L. Bowman, E. Jewett, A. Ranciaro, S. Thompson, Y. Lo, S. P. Pfeifer, J. D. Jensen, M. C. Campbell, W. Beggs, F. Hormozdiari, S. W. Mpoloka, G. G. Mokone, T. Nyambo, D. W. Meskel, G. Belay, J. Haut, H. Rothschild, L. Zon, Y. Zhou, M. A. Kovacs, M. Xu, T. Zhang, K. Bishop, J. Sinclair, C. Rivas, E. Elliot, J. Choi, S. A. Li, B. Hicks, S. Burgess, C. Abnet, D. E. Watkins-Chow, E. Oceana, Y. S. Song, E. Eskin, K. M. Brown, M. S. Marks, S. K. Loftus, W. J. Pavan, M. Yeager, S. Chanock, S. A. Tishkoff, S. A. Tishkoff, and NISC Comparative Sequencing Program, “Loci associated with skin pigmentation identified in African populations,” Science 358(6365), eaan8433 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rangel-Villalobos, H.

J.-C. Chacón-Duque, K. Adhikari, M. Fuentes-Guajardo, J. Mendoza-Revilla, V. Acuña-Alonzo, R. Barquera, M. Quinto-Sánchez, J. Gómez-Valdés, P. Everardo Martínez, H. Villamil-Ramírez, T. Hünemeier, V. Ramallo, C. C. Silva de Cerqueira, M. Hurtado, V. Villegas, V. Granja, M. Villena, R. Vásquez, E. Llop, J. R. Sandoval, A. A. Salazar-Granara, M.-L. Parolin, K. Sandoval, R. I. Peñaloza-Espinosa, H. Rangel-Villalobos, C. A. Winkler, W. Klitz, C. Bravi, J. Molina, D. Corach, R. Barrantes, V. Gomes, C. Resende, L. Gusmão, A. Amorim, Y. Xue, J.-M. Dugoujon, P. Moral, R. González-José, L. Schuler-Faccini, F. M. Salzano, M.-C. Bortolini, S. Canizales-Quinteros, G. Poletti, C. Gallo, G. Bedoya, F. Rothhammer, D. Balding, G. Hellenthal, and A. Ruiz-Linares, “Latin Americans show wide-spread Converso ancestry and imprint of local Native ancestry on physical appearance,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 5388 (2018).
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Rawlings, A. V.

A. V. Rawlings, “Ethnic skin types: are there differences in skin structure and function?” Int. J. Cosmet. Sci. 28(2), 79–93 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rees, J.

A. Hennessy, C. Oh, B. Diffey, K. Wakamatsu, S. Ito, and J. Rees, “Eumelanin and pheomelanin concentrations in human epidermis before and after UVB irradiation,” Pigment Cell Res. 18(3), 220–223 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Resende, C.

J.-C. Chacón-Duque, K. Adhikari, M. Fuentes-Guajardo, J. Mendoza-Revilla, V. Acuña-Alonzo, R. Barquera, M. Quinto-Sánchez, J. Gómez-Valdés, P. Everardo Martínez, H. Villamil-Ramírez, T. Hünemeier, V. Ramallo, C. C. Silva de Cerqueira, M. Hurtado, V. Villegas, V. Granja, M. Villena, R. Vásquez, E. Llop, J. R. Sandoval, A. A. Salazar-Granara, M.-L. Parolin, K. Sandoval, R. I. Peñaloza-Espinosa, H. Rangel-Villalobos, C. A. Winkler, W. Klitz, C. Bravi, J. Molina, D. Corach, R. Barrantes, V. Gomes, C. Resende, L. Gusmão, A. Amorim, Y. Xue, J.-M. Dugoujon, P. Moral, R. González-José, L. Schuler-Faccini, F. M. Salzano, M.-C. Bortolini, S. Canizales-Quinteros, G. Poletti, C. Gallo, G. Bedoya, F. Rothhammer, D. Balding, G. Hellenthal, and A. Ruiz-Linares, “Latin Americans show wide-spread Converso ancestry and imprint of local Native ancestry on physical appearance,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 5388 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reshetov, I. V.

K. I. Zaytsev, N. V. Chernomyrdin, K. G. Kudrin, A. A. Gavdush, P. A. Nosov, S. O. Yurchenko, and I. V. Reshetov, “In vivo terahertz pulsed spectroscopy of dysplastic and non-dysplastic skin nevi,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 735, 012076 (2016).
[Crossref]

Riley, P. A.

P. A. Riley, “Melanin,” Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol. 29(11), 1235–1239 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rivas, C.

N. G. Crawford, D. E. Kelly, M. E. B. Hansen, M. H. Beltrame, S. Fan, S. L. Bowman, E. Jewett, A. Ranciaro, S. Thompson, Y. Lo, S. P. Pfeifer, J. D. Jensen, M. C. Campbell, W. Beggs, F. Hormozdiari, S. W. Mpoloka, G. G. Mokone, T. Nyambo, D. W. Meskel, G. Belay, J. Haut, H. Rothschild, L. Zon, Y. Zhou, M. A. Kovacs, M. Xu, T. Zhang, K. Bishop, J. Sinclair, C. Rivas, E. Elliot, J. Choi, S. A. Li, B. Hicks, S. Burgess, C. Abnet, D. E. Watkins-Chow, E. Oceana, Y. S. Song, E. Eskin, K. M. Brown, M. S. Marks, S. K. Loftus, W. J. Pavan, M. Yeager, S. Chanock, S. A. Tishkoff, S. A. Tishkoff, and NISC Comparative Sequencing Program, “Loci associated with skin pigmentation identified in African populations,” Science 358(6365), eaan8433 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rodriguez-Juarez, R.

L. V. Titova, A. K. Ayesheshim, A. Golubov, R. Rodriguez-Juarez, R. Woycicki, F. A. Hegmann, and O. Kovalchuk, “Intense THz pulses down-regulate genes associated with skin cancer and psoriasis: a new therapeutic avenue?” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 2363 (2013).
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Rothhammer, F.

J.-C. Chacón-Duque, K. Adhikari, M. Fuentes-Guajardo, J. Mendoza-Revilla, V. Acuña-Alonzo, R. Barquera, M. Quinto-Sánchez, J. Gómez-Valdés, P. Everardo Martínez, H. Villamil-Ramírez, T. Hünemeier, V. Ramallo, C. C. Silva de Cerqueira, M. Hurtado, V. Villegas, V. Granja, M. Villena, R. Vásquez, E. Llop, J. R. Sandoval, A. A. Salazar-Granara, M.-L. Parolin, K. Sandoval, R. I. Peñaloza-Espinosa, H. Rangel-Villalobos, C. A. Winkler, W. Klitz, C. Bravi, J. Molina, D. Corach, R. Barrantes, V. Gomes, C. Resende, L. Gusmão, A. Amorim, Y. Xue, J.-M. Dugoujon, P. Moral, R. González-José, L. Schuler-Faccini, F. M. Salzano, M.-C. Bortolini, S. Canizales-Quinteros, G. Poletti, C. Gallo, G. Bedoya, F. Rothhammer, D. Balding, G. Hellenthal, and A. Ruiz-Linares, “Latin Americans show wide-spread Converso ancestry and imprint of local Native ancestry on physical appearance,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 5388 (2018).
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N. G. Crawford, D. E. Kelly, M. E. B. Hansen, M. H. Beltrame, S. Fan, S. L. Bowman, E. Jewett, A. Ranciaro, S. Thompson, Y. Lo, S. P. Pfeifer, J. D. Jensen, M. C. Campbell, W. Beggs, F. Hormozdiari, S. W. Mpoloka, G. G. Mokone, T. Nyambo, D. W. Meskel, G. Belay, J. Haut, H. Rothschild, L. Zon, Y. Zhou, M. A. Kovacs, M. Xu, T. Zhang, K. Bishop, J. Sinclair, C. Rivas, E. Elliot, J. Choi, S. A. Li, B. Hicks, S. Burgess, C. Abnet, D. E. Watkins-Chow, E. Oceana, Y. S. Song, E. Eskin, K. M. Brown, M. S. Marks, S. K. Loftus, W. J. Pavan, M. Yeager, S. Chanock, S. A. Tishkoff, S. A. Tishkoff, and NISC Comparative Sequencing Program, “Loci associated with skin pigmentation identified in African populations,” Science 358(6365), eaan8433 (2017).
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J.-C. Chacón-Duque, K. Adhikari, M. Fuentes-Guajardo, J. Mendoza-Revilla, V. Acuña-Alonzo, R. Barquera, M. Quinto-Sánchez, J. Gómez-Valdés, P. Everardo Martínez, H. Villamil-Ramírez, T. Hünemeier, V. Ramallo, C. C. Silva de Cerqueira, M. Hurtado, V. Villegas, V. Granja, M. Villena, R. Vásquez, E. Llop, J. R. Sandoval, A. A. Salazar-Granara, M.-L. Parolin, K. Sandoval, R. I. Peñaloza-Espinosa, H. Rangel-Villalobos, C. A. Winkler, W. Klitz, C. Bravi, J. Molina, D. Corach, R. Barrantes, V. Gomes, C. Resende, L. Gusmão, A. Amorim, Y. Xue, J.-M. Dugoujon, P. Moral, R. González-José, L. Schuler-Faccini, F. M. Salzano, M.-C. Bortolini, S. Canizales-Quinteros, G. Poletti, C. Gallo, G. Bedoya, F. Rothhammer, D. Balding, G. Hellenthal, and A. Ruiz-Linares, “Latin Americans show wide-spread Converso ancestry and imprint of local Native ancestry on physical appearance,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 5388 (2018).
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J. Y. Suen, P. Tewari, Z. D. Taylor, W. S. Grundfest, H. Lee, E. R. Brown, M. O. Culjat, and R. S. Singh, “Towards medical terahertz sensing of skin hydration,” Stud. Health Technol. Inform. 142, 364–368 (2009).
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[Crossref] [PubMed]

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[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Y. Suen, P. Tewari, Z. D. Taylor, W. S. Grundfest, H. Lee, E. R. Brown, M. O. Culjat, and R. S. Singh, “Towards medical terahertz sensing of skin hydration,” Stud. Health Technol. Inform. 142, 364–368 (2009).
[PubMed]

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[Crossref]

Zhang, T.

N. G. Crawford, D. E. Kelly, M. E. B. Hansen, M. H. Beltrame, S. Fan, S. L. Bowman, E. Jewett, A. Ranciaro, S. Thompson, Y. Lo, S. P. Pfeifer, J. D. Jensen, M. C. Campbell, W. Beggs, F. Hormozdiari, S. W. Mpoloka, G. G. Mokone, T. Nyambo, D. W. Meskel, G. Belay, J. Haut, H. Rothschild, L. Zon, Y. Zhou, M. A. Kovacs, M. Xu, T. Zhang, K. Bishop, J. Sinclair, C. Rivas, E. Elliot, J. Choi, S. A. Li, B. Hicks, S. Burgess, C. Abnet, D. E. Watkins-Chow, E. Oceana, Y. S. Song, E. Eskin, K. M. Brown, M. S. Marks, S. K. Loftus, W. J. Pavan, M. Yeager, S. Chanock, S. A. Tishkoff, S. A. Tishkoff, and NISC Comparative Sequencing Program, “Loci associated with skin pigmentation identified in African populations,” Science 358(6365), eaan8433 (2017).
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G. M. Png, J. W. Choi, B. W.-H. Ng, S. P. Mickan, D. Abbott, and X.-C. Zhang, “The impact of hydration changes in fresh bio-tissue on THz spectroscopic measurements,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(13), 3501–3517 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Y. Sun, M. Y. Sy, Y.-X. J. Wang, A. T. Ahuja, Y.-T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-Macpherson, “A promising diagnostic method: Terahertz pulsed imaging and spectroscopy,” World J. Radiol. 3(3), 55–65 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Y. Huang, Y. X. J. Wang, D. K. W. Yeung, A. T. Ahuja, Y.-T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-Macpherson, “Tissue characterization using terahertz pulsed imaging in reflection geometry,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(1), 149–160 (2009).
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N. G. Crawford, D. E. Kelly, M. E. B. Hansen, M. H. Beltrame, S. Fan, S. L. Bowman, E. Jewett, A. Ranciaro, S. Thompson, Y. Lo, S. P. Pfeifer, J. D. Jensen, M. C. Campbell, W. Beggs, F. Hormozdiari, S. W. Mpoloka, G. G. Mokone, T. Nyambo, D. W. Meskel, G. Belay, J. Haut, H. Rothschild, L. Zon, Y. Zhou, M. A. Kovacs, M. Xu, T. Zhang, K. Bishop, J. Sinclair, C. Rivas, E. Elliot, J. Choi, S. A. Li, B. Hicks, S. Burgess, C. Abnet, D. E. Watkins-Chow, E. Oceana, Y. S. Song, E. Eskin, K. M. Brown, M. S. Marks, S. K. Loftus, W. J. Pavan, M. Yeager, S. Chanock, S. A. Tishkoff, S. A. Tishkoff, and NISC Comparative Sequencing Program, “Loci associated with skin pigmentation identified in African populations,” Science 358(6365), eaan8433 (2017).
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M. Dutta, A. S. Bhalla, and R. Guo, “THz Imaging of Skin Burn: Seeing the Unseen-An Overview,” Adv. Wound Care (New Rochelle) 5(8), 338–348 (2016).
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S. Fan, B. S. Y. Ung, E. P. J. Parrott, V. P. Wallace, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “In vivo terahertz reflection imaging of human scars during and after the healing process,” J. Biophotonics 10(9), 1143–1151 (2017).
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S. Y. Huang, Y. X. J. Wang, D. K. W. Yeung, A. T. Ahuja, Y.-T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-Macpherson, “Tissue characterization using terahertz pulsed imaging in reflection geometry,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(1), 149–160 (2009).
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I. Echchgadda, C. Z. Cerna, M. A. Sloan, D. P. Elam, and B. L. Ibey, “Effects of different terahertz frequencies on gene expression in human keratinocytes,” in Proc.SPIE (2015), Vol. 9321.

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K. Yang, N. Chopra, Q. Abbasi, K. Qaraqe, and A. Alomainy, “Collagen Analysis at Terahertz Band using Double-Debye Parameter Extraction and Particle Swarm Optimisation,” IEEE Access PP, 1–1 (2017).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Human skin tissue model. (a) Schematic illustration of the wells used for culturing skin tissue models. (b-d) Top down digital photographs of (b) Asian, (c) Black, and (d) Caucasian skin tissue models on Day 16.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 THz optical properties of (a) Asian, Black, and Caucasian donor tissue models on Day 2, (b) on Day 16, and of (c) water, skin, and collagen obtained from the double Debye model. Insets: fits from the double Debye model.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Normalized percentage difference of the absorption coefficient (top) and index of refraction (bottom) for (a) Day 2 and (b) Day 16.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Absorption coefficient (top) and index of refraction (bottom) obtained from the complex transmission spectra (dashed lines) and the double Debye model (solid lines) for (a) Day 2 and (b) Day 16.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Complex dielectric permittivity of the three tissue models. (a) Real and (b) imaginary parts. (c) Cole-Cole diagram.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Skin tissue model thicknessa

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Table 2 Dielectric relaxation parameters from double Debye model

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ϵ ^ ( ω )= ϵ + ϵ s ϵ 2 1+iω τ 1 + ϵ 2 ϵ 1+iω τ 2
α( ω )= 1 d log( [ | E s | | E r | ] 2 )
n( ω )=1+ c( φ s φ r ) ωd
ϵ ^ ( ω )= ϵ + ϵ s ϵ 2 1+iω τ 1 + ϵ 2 ϵ 1+iω τ 2
α fit ( ω )= 2ω c ( Re ( ϵ ^ ) 2 +Im ( ϵ ^ ) 2   Re( ϵ ^ ) 2 ) 1 2
n fit ( ω )= ( Re ( ϵ ^ ) 2 +Im ( ϵ ^ ) 2  + Re( ϵ ^ ) 2 ) 1 2
SSR= i=1 m [ ( α i α fit,i ) 2 +  ( n i n fit,i ) 2 ]

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