Abstract

Laser-tissue vaporization through a fiber catheter is evolving into a major category of surgical operations to remove diseased tissue. Currently, during a surgery, the surgeon still relies on personal experience to optimize surgical techniques. Monitoring tissue temperature during laser-tissue vaporization would provide important feedback to the surgeon; however, simple and low-cost temperature sensing technology, which can be seamlessly integrated with a fiber catheter, is not available. We propose to monitor tissue temperature during laser-tissue vaporization by detecting blackbody radiation (BBR) between 1.6 µm-1.8 µm, a relatively transparent window for both water and silica fiber. We could detect BBR after passing through a 2-meter silica fiber down to ∼70°C using lock-in detection. We further proved the feasibility of the technology through ex vivo tissue studies. We found that the BBR can be correlated to different tissue vaporization levels. The results suggest that this simple and low-cost technology could be used to provide objective feedback for surgeons to maximize laser-tissue vaporization efficiency and ensure the best clinical outcomes.

© 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2017 (2)

C. Pascoe, D. Ow, M. Perera, H. H. Woo, G. Jack, and N. Lawrentschuk, “Optimising patient outcomes with photoselective vaporization of the prostate (PVP): a review,” Transl. Androl. Urol. 6(S2), S133–S141 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Welliver, S. Helo, and K. T. McVary, “Technique considerations and complication management in transurethral resection of the prostate and photoselective vaporization of the prostate,” Transl. Androl. Urol. 6(4), 695–703 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (6)

J. Oh, S. Y. Nam, Y. W. Lee, and H. W. Kang, “Effect of multiple-sweeping on ablation performance during ex vivo laser nephrectomy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 48(6), 616–623 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. A. Thomas, A. Tubaro, N. Barber, F. d’Ancona, G. Muir, U. Witzsch, M.-O. Grimm, J. Benejam, J.-U. Stolzenburg, A. Riddick, S. Pahernik, H. Roelink, F. Ameye, C. Saussine, F. Bruyère, W. Loidl, T. Larner, N.-K. Gogoi, R. Hindley, R. Muschter, A. Thorpe, N. Shrotri, S. Graham, M. Hamann, K. Miller, M. Schostak, C. Capitán, H. Knispel, and A. Bachmann, “A Multicenter Randomized Noninferiority Trial Comparing GreenLight-XPS Laser Vaporization of the Prostate and Transurethral Resection of the Prostate for the Treatment of Benign Prostatic Obstruction: Two-yr Outcomes of the GOLIATH Study,” Eur. Urol. 69(1), 94–102 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. M. Nair, M. A. Pimentel, and P. J. Gilling, “A Review of Laser Treatment for Symptomatic BPH (Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia),” Curr. Urol. Rep. 17(6), 45 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Zhang, P. Shen, Q. He, X. Yin, Z. Chen, H. Gui, K. Shu, Q. Tang, Y. Yang, X. Pan, J. Wang, N. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Different lasers in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia: a network meta-analysis,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 23503 (2016).
[Crossref]

E. Schena, D. Tosi, P. Saccomandi, E. Lewis, and T. Kim, “Fiber Optic Sensors for Temperature Monitoring during Thermal Treatments: An Overview,” Sensors 16(7), 1144 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. S. Kim, J. B. Choi, W. J. Bae, S. J. Kim, H. J. Cho, S.-H. Hong, J. Y. Lee, S. H. Kim, H. W. Kim, S. Y. Cho, and S. W. Kim, “Comparison of Photoselective Vaporization versus Holmium Laser Enucleation for Treatment of Benign Prostate Hyperplasia in a Small Prostate Volume,” PLoS One 11(5), e0156133 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

G. Tao, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, A. M. Stolyarov, S. Danto, J. V. Badding, Y. Fink, J. Ballato, and A. F. Abouraddy, “Infrared fibers,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(2), 379–458 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. S. Elterman, “How I Do It: GreenLight XPS 180W photoselective vaporization of the prostate,” Can. J. Urol. 22(3), 7836–7843 (2015).

2014 (2)

A. Bachmann, A. Tubaro, N. Barber, F. d’Ancona, G. Muir, U. Witzsch, M.-O. Grimm, J. Benejam, J.-U. Stolzenburg, A. Riddick, S. Pahernik, H. Roelink, F. Ameye, C. Saussine, F. Bruyère, W. Loidl, T. Larner, N.-K. Gogoi, R. Hindley, R. Muschter, A. Thorpe, N. Shrotri, S. Graham, M. Hamann, K. Miller, M. Schostak, C. Capitán, H. Knispel, and J. A. Thomas, “180-W XPS GreenLight laser vaporisation versus transurethral resection of the prostate for the treatment of benign prostatic obstruction: 6-month safety and efficacy results of a European Multicentre Randomised Trial–the GOLIATH study,” Eur. Urol. 65(5), 931–942 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. W. Kang, “Characterization on ablation performance of various surgical fibers,” Lasers Med Sci 29(1), 273–277 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

M. Perrotta, C. E. Marchitelli, A. F. Velazco, P. Tauscher, G. Lopez, and M. S. Peremateu, “Use of CO2 Laser Vaporization for the Treatment of High-Grade Vaginal Intraepithelial Neoplasia,” J. Low. Genit. Tract Dis. 17(1), 23–27 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

W. J. Ko, B. B. Choi, H. W. Kang, D. Rajabhandharaks, M. Rutman, and E. C. Osterberg, “Defining Optimal Laser-Fiber Sweeping Angle for Effective Tissue Vaporization Using 180 W 532 nm Lithium Triborate Laser,” J Endourol. 26(4), 313–317 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

M. W. Kramer, T. Bach, M. Wolters, F. Imkamp, A. J. Gross, M. A. Kuczyk, A. S. Merseburger, and T. R. W. Herrmann, “Current evidence for transurethral laser therapy of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer,” World J. Urol. 29(4), 433–442 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Hijazi, S. Sachidanandan, R. Singh, and V. Madhavan, “A calibrated dual-wavelength infrared thermometry approach with non-greybody compensation for machining temperature measurements,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 22(2), 025106 (2011).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

V. Rieke and K. B. Pauly, “MR Thermometry,” Cigongzhen Chengxiang 27(2), 376–390 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

E. Heinrich, F. Schiefelbein, and G. Schoen, “Technique and Short-Term Outcome of Green Light Laser (KTP, 80W) Vaporisation of the Prostate,” Eur. Urol. 52(6), 1632–1637 (2007).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

M. Jønler, L. Lund, and S. Bisballe, “Holmium:YAG laser vaporization of recurrent papillary tumours of the bladder under local anaesthesia,” BJU Int. 94(3), 322–325 (2004).
[Crossref]

R. P. Kiran, N. Pokala, and P. Burgess, “Use of laser for rectal lesions in poor-risk patients,” Am. J. Surg. 188(6), 708–713 (2004).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

M. F. Mitchell, G. Tortolero-Luna, E. Cook, L. Whittaker, H. Rhodes-Morris, and E. Silva, “A randomized clinical trial of cryotherapy, laser vaporization, and loop electrosurgical excision for treatment of squamous intraepithelial lesions of the cervix,” Obstet. Gynecol. 92(5), 737–744 (1998).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

S. Thomsen, “Pathologic Analysis of Photothermal and Photomechanical Effects of Laser–Tissue Interactions,” Photochem. Photobiol. 53(6), 825–835 (1991).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

1977 (1)

T. Izawa, N. Shibata, and A. Takeda, “Optical attenuation in pure and doped fused silica in the ir wavelength region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 31(1), 33–35 (1977).
[Crossref]

1973 (1)

J. Steketee, “Spectral emissivity of skin and pericardium,” Phys. Med. Biol. 18(5), 307686 (1973).
[Crossref]

Abouraddy, A. F.

G. Tao, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, A. M. Stolyarov, S. Danto, J. V. Badding, Y. Fink, J. Ballato, and A. F. Abouraddy, “Infrared fibers,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(2), 379–458 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ameye, F.

J. A. Thomas, A. Tubaro, N. Barber, F. d’Ancona, G. Muir, U. Witzsch, M.-O. Grimm, J. Benejam, J.-U. Stolzenburg, A. Riddick, S. Pahernik, H. Roelink, F. Ameye, C. Saussine, F. Bruyère, W. Loidl, T. Larner, N.-K. Gogoi, R. Hindley, R. Muschter, A. Thorpe, N. Shrotri, S. Graham, M. Hamann, K. Miller, M. Schostak, C. Capitán, H. Knispel, and A. Bachmann, “A Multicenter Randomized Noninferiority Trial Comparing GreenLight-XPS Laser Vaporization of the Prostate and Transurethral Resection of the Prostate for the Treatment of Benign Prostatic Obstruction: Two-yr Outcomes of the GOLIATH Study,” Eur. Urol. 69(1), 94–102 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Bachmann, A. Tubaro, N. Barber, F. d’Ancona, G. Muir, U. Witzsch, M.-O. Grimm, J. Benejam, J.-U. Stolzenburg, A. Riddick, S. Pahernik, H. Roelink, F. Ameye, C. Saussine, F. Bruyère, W. Loidl, T. Larner, N.-K. Gogoi, R. Hindley, R. Muschter, A. Thorpe, N. Shrotri, S. Graham, M. Hamann, K. Miller, M. Schostak, C. Capitán, H. Knispel, and J. A. Thomas, “180-W XPS GreenLight laser vaporisation versus transurethral resection of the prostate for the treatment of benign prostatic obstruction: 6-month safety and efficacy results of a European Multicentre Randomised Trial–the GOLIATH study,” Eur. Urol. 65(5), 931–942 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bach, T.

M. W. Kramer, T. Bach, M. Wolters, F. Imkamp, A. J. Gross, M. A. Kuczyk, A. S. Merseburger, and T. R. W. Herrmann, “Current evidence for transurethral laser therapy of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer,” World J. Urol. 29(4), 433–442 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bachmann, A.

J. A. Thomas, A. Tubaro, N. Barber, F. d’Ancona, G. Muir, U. Witzsch, M.-O. Grimm, J. Benejam, J.-U. Stolzenburg, A. Riddick, S. Pahernik, H. Roelink, F. Ameye, C. Saussine, F. Bruyère, W. Loidl, T. Larner, N.-K. Gogoi, R. Hindley, R. Muschter, A. Thorpe, N. Shrotri, S. Graham, M. Hamann, K. Miller, M. Schostak, C. Capitán, H. Knispel, and A. Bachmann, “A Multicenter Randomized Noninferiority Trial Comparing GreenLight-XPS Laser Vaporization of the Prostate and Transurethral Resection of the Prostate for the Treatment of Benign Prostatic Obstruction: Two-yr Outcomes of the GOLIATH Study,” Eur. Urol. 69(1), 94–102 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Bachmann, A. Tubaro, N. Barber, F. d’Ancona, G. Muir, U. Witzsch, M.-O. Grimm, J. Benejam, J.-U. Stolzenburg, A. Riddick, S. Pahernik, H. Roelink, F. Ameye, C. Saussine, F. Bruyère, W. Loidl, T. Larner, N.-K. Gogoi, R. Hindley, R. Muschter, A. Thorpe, N. Shrotri, S. Graham, M. Hamann, K. Miller, M. Schostak, C. Capitán, H. Knispel, and J. A. Thomas, “180-W XPS GreenLight laser vaporisation versus transurethral resection of the prostate for the treatment of benign prostatic obstruction: 6-month safety and efficacy results of a European Multicentre Randomised Trial–the GOLIATH study,” Eur. Urol. 65(5), 931–942 (2014).
[Crossref]

Badding, J. V.

G. Tao, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, A. M. Stolyarov, S. Danto, J. V. Badding, Y. Fink, J. Ballato, and A. F. Abouraddy, “Infrared fibers,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(2), 379–458 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bae, W. J.

K. S. Kim, J. B. Choi, W. J. Bae, S. J. Kim, H. J. Cho, S.-H. Hong, J. Y. Lee, S. H. Kim, H. W. Kim, S. Y. Cho, and S. W. Kim, “Comparison of Photoselective Vaporization versus Holmium Laser Enucleation for Treatment of Benign Prostate Hyperplasia in a Small Prostate Volume,” PLoS One 11(5), e0156133 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ballato, J.

G. Tao, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, A. M. Stolyarov, S. Danto, J. V. Badding, Y. Fink, J. Ballato, and A. F. Abouraddy, “Infrared fibers,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(2), 379–458 (2015).
[Crossref]

Barber, N.

J. A. Thomas, A. Tubaro, N. Barber, F. d’Ancona, G. Muir, U. Witzsch, M.-O. Grimm, J. Benejam, J.-U. Stolzenburg, A. Riddick, S. Pahernik, H. Roelink, F. Ameye, C. Saussine, F. Bruyère, W. Loidl, T. Larner, N.-K. Gogoi, R. Hindley, R. Muschter, A. Thorpe, N. Shrotri, S. Graham, M. Hamann, K. Miller, M. Schostak, C. Capitán, H. Knispel, and A. Bachmann, “A Multicenter Randomized Noninferiority Trial Comparing GreenLight-XPS Laser Vaporization of the Prostate and Transurethral Resection of the Prostate for the Treatment of Benign Prostatic Obstruction: Two-yr Outcomes of the GOLIATH Study,” Eur. Urol. 69(1), 94–102 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Bachmann, A. Tubaro, N. Barber, F. d’Ancona, G. Muir, U. Witzsch, M.-O. Grimm, J. Benejam, J.-U. Stolzenburg, A. Riddick, S. Pahernik, H. Roelink, F. Ameye, C. Saussine, F. Bruyère, W. Loidl, T. Larner, N.-K. Gogoi, R. Hindley, R. Muschter, A. Thorpe, N. Shrotri, S. Graham, M. Hamann, K. Miller, M. Schostak, C. Capitán, H. Knispel, and J. A. Thomas, “180-W XPS GreenLight laser vaporisation versus transurethral resection of the prostate for the treatment of benign prostatic obstruction: 6-month safety and efficacy results of a European Multicentre Randomised Trial–the GOLIATH study,” Eur. Urol. 65(5), 931–942 (2014).
[Crossref]

Benejam, J.

J. A. Thomas, A. Tubaro, N. Barber, F. d’Ancona, G. Muir, U. Witzsch, M.-O. Grimm, J. Benejam, J.-U. Stolzenburg, A. Riddick, S. Pahernik, H. Roelink, F. Ameye, C. Saussine, F. Bruyère, W. Loidl, T. Larner, N.-K. Gogoi, R. Hindley, R. Muschter, A. Thorpe, N. Shrotri, S. Graham, M. Hamann, K. Miller, M. Schostak, C. Capitán, H. Knispel, and A. Bachmann, “A Multicenter Randomized Noninferiority Trial Comparing GreenLight-XPS Laser Vaporization of the Prostate and Transurethral Resection of the Prostate for the Treatment of Benign Prostatic Obstruction: Two-yr Outcomes of the GOLIATH Study,” Eur. Urol. 69(1), 94–102 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Bachmann, A. Tubaro, N. Barber, F. d’Ancona, G. Muir, U. Witzsch, M.-O. Grimm, J. Benejam, J.-U. Stolzenburg, A. Riddick, S. Pahernik, H. Roelink, F. Ameye, C. Saussine, F. Bruyère, W. Loidl, T. Larner, N.-K. Gogoi, R. Hindley, R. Muschter, A. Thorpe, N. Shrotri, S. Graham, M. Hamann, K. Miller, M. Schostak, C. Capitán, H. Knispel, and J. A. Thomas, “180-W XPS GreenLight laser vaporisation versus transurethral resection of the prostate for the treatment of benign prostatic obstruction: 6-month safety and efficacy results of a European Multicentre Randomised Trial–the GOLIATH study,” Eur. Urol. 65(5), 931–942 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bisballe, S.

M. Jønler, L. Lund, and S. Bisballe, “Holmium:YAG laser vaporization of recurrent papillary tumours of the bladder under local anaesthesia,” BJU Int. 94(3), 322–325 (2004).
[Crossref]

Bruyère, F.

J. A. Thomas, A. Tubaro, N. Barber, F. d’Ancona, G. Muir, U. Witzsch, M.-O. Grimm, J. Benejam, J.-U. Stolzenburg, A. Riddick, S. Pahernik, H. Roelink, F. Ameye, C. Saussine, F. Bruyère, W. Loidl, T. Larner, N.-K. Gogoi, R. Hindley, R. Muschter, A. Thorpe, N. Shrotri, S. Graham, M. Hamann, K. Miller, M. Schostak, C. Capitán, H. Knispel, and A. Bachmann, “A Multicenter Randomized Noninferiority Trial Comparing GreenLight-XPS Laser Vaporization of the Prostate and Transurethral Resection of the Prostate for the Treatment of Benign Prostatic Obstruction: Two-yr Outcomes of the GOLIATH Study,” Eur. Urol. 69(1), 94–102 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Bachmann, A. Tubaro, N. Barber, F. d’Ancona, G. Muir, U. Witzsch, M.-O. Grimm, J. Benejam, J.-U. Stolzenburg, A. Riddick, S. Pahernik, H. Roelink, F. Ameye, C. Saussine, F. Bruyère, W. Loidl, T. Larner, N.-K. Gogoi, R. Hindley, R. Muschter, A. Thorpe, N. Shrotri, S. Graham, M. Hamann, K. Miller, M. Schostak, C. Capitán, H. Knispel, and J. A. Thomas, “180-W XPS GreenLight laser vaporisation versus transurethral resection of the prostate for the treatment of benign prostatic obstruction: 6-month safety and efficacy results of a European Multicentre Randomised Trial–the GOLIATH study,” Eur. Urol. 65(5), 931–942 (2014).
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M. W. Kramer, T. Bach, M. Wolters, F. Imkamp, A. J. Gross, M. A. Kuczyk, A. S. Merseburger, and T. R. W. Herrmann, “Current evidence for transurethral laser therapy of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer,” World J. Urol. 29(4), 433–442 (2011).
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M. W. Kramer, T. Bach, M. Wolters, F. Imkamp, A. J. Gross, M. A. Kuczyk, A. S. Merseburger, and T. R. W. Herrmann, “Current evidence for transurethral laser therapy of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer,” World J. Urol. 29(4), 433–442 (2011).
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J. A. Thomas, A. Tubaro, N. Barber, F. d’Ancona, G. Muir, U. Witzsch, M.-O. Grimm, J. Benejam, J.-U. Stolzenburg, A. Riddick, S. Pahernik, H. Roelink, F. Ameye, C. Saussine, F. Bruyère, W. Loidl, T. Larner, N.-K. Gogoi, R. Hindley, R. Muschter, A. Thorpe, N. Shrotri, S. Graham, M. Hamann, K. Miller, M. Schostak, C. Capitán, H. Knispel, and A. Bachmann, “A Multicenter Randomized Noninferiority Trial Comparing GreenLight-XPS Laser Vaporization of the Prostate and Transurethral Resection of the Prostate for the Treatment of Benign Prostatic Obstruction: Two-yr Outcomes of the GOLIATH Study,” Eur. Urol. 69(1), 94–102 (2016).
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A. Bachmann, A. Tubaro, N. Barber, F. d’Ancona, G. Muir, U. Witzsch, M.-O. Grimm, J. Benejam, J.-U. Stolzenburg, A. Riddick, S. Pahernik, H. Roelink, F. Ameye, C. Saussine, F. Bruyère, W. Loidl, T. Larner, N.-K. Gogoi, R. Hindley, R. Muschter, A. Thorpe, N. Shrotri, S. Graham, M. Hamann, K. Miller, M. Schostak, C. Capitán, H. Knispel, and J. A. Thomas, “180-W XPS GreenLight laser vaporisation versus transurethral resection of the prostate for the treatment of benign prostatic obstruction: 6-month safety and efficacy results of a European Multicentre Randomised Trial–the GOLIATH study,” Eur. Urol. 65(5), 931–942 (2014).
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Lawrentschuk, N.

C. Pascoe, D. Ow, M. Perera, H. H. Woo, G. Jack, and N. Lawrentschuk, “Optimising patient outcomes with photoselective vaporization of the prostate (PVP): a review,” Transl. Androl. Urol. 6(S2), S133–S141 (2017).
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Lee, J. Y.

K. S. Kim, J. B. Choi, W. J. Bae, S. J. Kim, H. J. Cho, S.-H. Hong, J. Y. Lee, S. H. Kim, H. W. Kim, S. Y. Cho, and S. W. Kim, “Comparison of Photoselective Vaporization versus Holmium Laser Enucleation for Treatment of Benign Prostate Hyperplasia in a Small Prostate Volume,” PLoS One 11(5), e0156133 (2016).
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Lee, Y. W.

J. Oh, S. Y. Nam, Y. W. Lee, and H. W. Kang, “Effect of multiple-sweeping on ablation performance during ex vivo laser nephrectomy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 48(6), 616–623 (2016).
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E. Schena, D. Tosi, P. Saccomandi, E. Lewis, and T. Kim, “Fiber Optic Sensors for Temperature Monitoring during Thermal Treatments: An Overview,” Sensors 16(7), 1144 (2016).
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Loidl, W.

J. A. Thomas, A. Tubaro, N. Barber, F. d’Ancona, G. Muir, U. Witzsch, M.-O. Grimm, J. Benejam, J.-U. Stolzenburg, A. Riddick, S. Pahernik, H. Roelink, F. Ameye, C. Saussine, F. Bruyère, W. Loidl, T. Larner, N.-K. Gogoi, R. Hindley, R. Muschter, A. Thorpe, N. Shrotri, S. Graham, M. Hamann, K. Miller, M. Schostak, C. Capitán, H. Knispel, and A. Bachmann, “A Multicenter Randomized Noninferiority Trial Comparing GreenLight-XPS Laser Vaporization of the Prostate and Transurethral Resection of the Prostate for the Treatment of Benign Prostatic Obstruction: Two-yr Outcomes of the GOLIATH Study,” Eur. Urol. 69(1), 94–102 (2016).
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A. Bachmann, A. Tubaro, N. Barber, F. d’Ancona, G. Muir, U. Witzsch, M.-O. Grimm, J. Benejam, J.-U. Stolzenburg, A. Riddick, S. Pahernik, H. Roelink, F. Ameye, C. Saussine, F. Bruyère, W. Loidl, T. Larner, N.-K. Gogoi, R. Hindley, R. Muschter, A. Thorpe, N. Shrotri, S. Graham, M. Hamann, K. Miller, M. Schostak, C. Capitán, H. Knispel, and J. A. Thomas, “180-W XPS GreenLight laser vaporisation versus transurethral resection of the prostate for the treatment of benign prostatic obstruction: 6-month safety and efficacy results of a European Multicentre Randomised Trial–the GOLIATH study,” Eur. Urol. 65(5), 931–942 (2014).
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Lopez, G.

M. Perrotta, C. E. Marchitelli, A. F. Velazco, P. Tauscher, G. Lopez, and M. S. Peremateu, “Use of CO2 Laser Vaporization for the Treatment of High-Grade Vaginal Intraepithelial Neoplasia,” J. Low. Genit. Tract Dis. 17(1), 23–27 (2013).
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M. Jønler, L. Lund, and S. Bisballe, “Holmium:YAG laser vaporization of recurrent papillary tumours of the bladder under local anaesthesia,” BJU Int. 94(3), 322–325 (2004).
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Madhavan, V.

A. Hijazi, S. Sachidanandan, R. Singh, and V. Madhavan, “A calibrated dual-wavelength infrared thermometry approach with non-greybody compensation for machining temperature measurements,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 22(2), 025106 (2011).
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J. Manni, Basic Aspects of Medical and Dental Lasers, P2-32 (Lulu Publishing Service, 2013).

Marchitelli, C. E.

M. Perrotta, C. E. Marchitelli, A. F. Velazco, P. Tauscher, G. Lopez, and M. S. Peremateu, “Use of CO2 Laser Vaporization for the Treatment of High-Grade Vaginal Intraepithelial Neoplasia,” J. Low. Genit. Tract Dis. 17(1), 23–27 (2013).
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C. Welliver, S. Helo, and K. T. McVary, “Technique considerations and complication management in transurethral resection of the prostate and photoselective vaporization of the prostate,” Transl. Androl. Urol. 6(4), 695–703 (2017).
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M. W. Kramer, T. Bach, M. Wolters, F. Imkamp, A. J. Gross, M. A. Kuczyk, A. S. Merseburger, and T. R. W. Herrmann, “Current evidence for transurethral laser therapy of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer,” World J. Urol. 29(4), 433–442 (2011).
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J. A. Thomas, A. Tubaro, N. Barber, F. d’Ancona, G. Muir, U. Witzsch, M.-O. Grimm, J. Benejam, J.-U. Stolzenburg, A. Riddick, S. Pahernik, H. Roelink, F. Ameye, C. Saussine, F. Bruyère, W. Loidl, T. Larner, N.-K. Gogoi, R. Hindley, R. Muschter, A. Thorpe, N. Shrotri, S. Graham, M. Hamann, K. Miller, M. Schostak, C. Capitán, H. Knispel, and A. Bachmann, “A Multicenter Randomized Noninferiority Trial Comparing GreenLight-XPS Laser Vaporization of the Prostate and Transurethral Resection of the Prostate for the Treatment of Benign Prostatic Obstruction: Two-yr Outcomes of the GOLIATH Study,” Eur. Urol. 69(1), 94–102 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Bachmann, A. Tubaro, N. Barber, F. d’Ancona, G. Muir, U. Witzsch, M.-O. Grimm, J. Benejam, J.-U. Stolzenburg, A. Riddick, S. Pahernik, H. Roelink, F. Ameye, C. Saussine, F. Bruyère, W. Loidl, T. Larner, N.-K. Gogoi, R. Hindley, R. Muschter, A. Thorpe, N. Shrotri, S. Graham, M. Hamann, K. Miller, M. Schostak, C. Capitán, H. Knispel, and J. A. Thomas, “180-W XPS GreenLight laser vaporisation versus transurethral resection of the prostate for the treatment of benign prostatic obstruction: 6-month safety and efficacy results of a European Multicentre Randomised Trial–the GOLIATH study,” Eur. Urol. 65(5), 931–942 (2014).
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M. F. Mitchell, G. Tortolero-Luna, E. Cook, L. Whittaker, H. Rhodes-Morris, and E. Silva, “A randomized clinical trial of cryotherapy, laser vaporization, and loop electrosurgical excision for treatment of squamous intraepithelial lesions of the cervix,” Obstet. Gynecol. 92(5), 737–744 (1998).
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J. A. Thomas, A. Tubaro, N. Barber, F. d’Ancona, G. Muir, U. Witzsch, M.-O. Grimm, J. Benejam, J.-U. Stolzenburg, A. Riddick, S. Pahernik, H. Roelink, F. Ameye, C. Saussine, F. Bruyère, W. Loidl, T. Larner, N.-K. Gogoi, R. Hindley, R. Muschter, A. Thorpe, N. Shrotri, S. Graham, M. Hamann, K. Miller, M. Schostak, C. Capitán, H. Knispel, and A. Bachmann, “A Multicenter Randomized Noninferiority Trial Comparing GreenLight-XPS Laser Vaporization of the Prostate and Transurethral Resection of the Prostate for the Treatment of Benign Prostatic Obstruction: Two-yr Outcomes of the GOLIATH Study,” Eur. Urol. 69(1), 94–102 (2016).
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A. Bachmann, A. Tubaro, N. Barber, F. d’Ancona, G. Muir, U. Witzsch, M.-O. Grimm, J. Benejam, J.-U. Stolzenburg, A. Riddick, S. Pahernik, H. Roelink, F. Ameye, C. Saussine, F. Bruyère, W. Loidl, T. Larner, N.-K. Gogoi, R. Hindley, R. Muschter, A. Thorpe, N. Shrotri, S. Graham, M. Hamann, K. Miller, M. Schostak, C. Capitán, H. Knispel, and J. A. Thomas, “180-W XPS GreenLight laser vaporisation versus transurethral resection of the prostate for the treatment of benign prostatic obstruction: 6-month safety and efficacy results of a European Multicentre Randomised Trial–the GOLIATH study,” Eur. Urol. 65(5), 931–942 (2014).
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J. A. Thomas, A. Tubaro, N. Barber, F. d’Ancona, G. Muir, U. Witzsch, M.-O. Grimm, J. Benejam, J.-U. Stolzenburg, A. Riddick, S. Pahernik, H. Roelink, F. Ameye, C. Saussine, F. Bruyère, W. Loidl, T. Larner, N.-K. Gogoi, R. Hindley, R. Muschter, A. Thorpe, N. Shrotri, S. Graham, M. Hamann, K. Miller, M. Schostak, C. Capitán, H. Knispel, and A. Bachmann, “A Multicenter Randomized Noninferiority Trial Comparing GreenLight-XPS Laser Vaporization of the Prostate and Transurethral Resection of the Prostate for the Treatment of Benign Prostatic Obstruction: Two-yr Outcomes of the GOLIATH Study,” Eur. Urol. 69(1), 94–102 (2016).
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A. Bachmann, A. Tubaro, N. Barber, F. d’Ancona, G. Muir, U. Witzsch, M.-O. Grimm, J. Benejam, J.-U. Stolzenburg, A. Riddick, S. Pahernik, H. Roelink, F. Ameye, C. Saussine, F. Bruyère, W. Loidl, T. Larner, N.-K. Gogoi, R. Hindley, R. Muschter, A. Thorpe, N. Shrotri, S. Graham, M. Hamann, K. Miller, M. Schostak, C. Capitán, H. Knispel, and J. A. Thomas, “180-W XPS GreenLight laser vaporisation versus transurethral resection of the prostate for the treatment of benign prostatic obstruction: 6-month safety and efficacy results of a European Multicentre Randomised Trial–the GOLIATH study,” Eur. Urol. 65(5), 931–942 (2014).
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J. Oh, S. Y. Nam, Y. W. Lee, and H. W. Kang, “Effect of multiple-sweeping on ablation performance during ex vivo laser nephrectomy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 48(6), 616–623 (2016).
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W. J. Ko, B. B. Choi, H. W. Kang, D. Rajabhandharaks, M. Rutman, and E. C. Osterberg, “Defining Optimal Laser-Fiber Sweeping Angle for Effective Tissue Vaporization Using 180 W 532 nm Lithium Triborate Laser,” J Endourol. 26(4), 313–317 (2012).
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C. Pascoe, D. Ow, M. Perera, H. H. Woo, G. Jack, and N. Lawrentschuk, “Optimising patient outcomes with photoselective vaporization of the prostate (PVP): a review,” Transl. Androl. Urol. 6(S2), S133–S141 (2017).
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J. A. Thomas, A. Tubaro, N. Barber, F. d’Ancona, G. Muir, U. Witzsch, M.-O. Grimm, J. Benejam, J.-U. Stolzenburg, A. Riddick, S. Pahernik, H. Roelink, F. Ameye, C. Saussine, F. Bruyère, W. Loidl, T. Larner, N.-K. Gogoi, R. Hindley, R. Muschter, A. Thorpe, N. Shrotri, S. Graham, M. Hamann, K. Miller, M. Schostak, C. Capitán, H. Knispel, and A. Bachmann, “A Multicenter Randomized Noninferiority Trial Comparing GreenLight-XPS Laser Vaporization of the Prostate and Transurethral Resection of the Prostate for the Treatment of Benign Prostatic Obstruction: Two-yr Outcomes of the GOLIATH Study,” Eur. Urol. 69(1), 94–102 (2016).
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A. Bachmann, A. Tubaro, N. Barber, F. d’Ancona, G. Muir, U. Witzsch, M.-O. Grimm, J. Benejam, J.-U. Stolzenburg, A. Riddick, S. Pahernik, H. Roelink, F. Ameye, C. Saussine, F. Bruyère, W. Loidl, T. Larner, N.-K. Gogoi, R. Hindley, R. Muschter, A. Thorpe, N. Shrotri, S. Graham, M. Hamann, K. Miller, M. Schostak, C. Capitán, H. Knispel, and J. A. Thomas, “180-W XPS GreenLight laser vaporisation versus transurethral resection of the prostate for the treatment of benign prostatic obstruction: 6-month safety and efficacy results of a European Multicentre Randomised Trial–the GOLIATH study,” Eur. Urol. 65(5), 931–942 (2014).
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C. Pascoe, D. Ow, M. Perera, H. H. Woo, G. Jack, and N. Lawrentschuk, “Optimising patient outcomes with photoselective vaporization of the prostate (PVP): a review,” Transl. Androl. Urol. 6(S2), S133–S141 (2017).
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V. Rieke and K. B. Pauly, “MR Thermometry,” Cigongzhen Chengxiang 27(2), 376–390 (2008).
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M. Perrotta, C. E. Marchitelli, A. F. Velazco, P. Tauscher, G. Lopez, and M. S. Peremateu, “Use of CO2 Laser Vaporization for the Treatment of High-Grade Vaginal Intraepithelial Neoplasia,” J. Low. Genit. Tract Dis. 17(1), 23–27 (2013).
[Crossref]

Perera, M.

C. Pascoe, D. Ow, M. Perera, H. H. Woo, G. Jack, and N. Lawrentschuk, “Optimising patient outcomes with photoselective vaporization of the prostate (PVP): a review,” Transl. Androl. Urol. 6(S2), S133–S141 (2017).
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Perrotta, M.

M. Perrotta, C. E. Marchitelli, A. F. Velazco, P. Tauscher, G. Lopez, and M. S. Peremateu, “Use of CO2 Laser Vaporization for the Treatment of High-Grade Vaginal Intraepithelial Neoplasia,” J. Low. Genit. Tract Dis. 17(1), 23–27 (2013).
[Crossref]

Pimentel, M. A.

S. M. Nair, M. A. Pimentel, and P. J. Gilling, “A Review of Laser Treatment for Symptomatic BPH (Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia),” Curr. Urol. Rep. 17(6), 45 (2016).
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R. P. Kiran, N. Pokala, and P. Burgess, “Use of laser for rectal lesions in poor-risk patients,” Am. J. Surg. 188(6), 708–713 (2004).
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Rajabhandharaks, D.

W. J. Ko, B. B. Choi, H. W. Kang, D. Rajabhandharaks, M. Rutman, and E. C. Osterberg, “Defining Optimal Laser-Fiber Sweeping Angle for Effective Tissue Vaporization Using 180 W 532 nm Lithium Triborate Laser,” J Endourol. 26(4), 313–317 (2012).
[Crossref]

Rhodes-Morris, H.

M. F. Mitchell, G. Tortolero-Luna, E. Cook, L. Whittaker, H. Rhodes-Morris, and E. Silva, “A randomized clinical trial of cryotherapy, laser vaporization, and loop electrosurgical excision for treatment of squamous intraepithelial lesions of the cervix,” Obstet. Gynecol. 92(5), 737–744 (1998).
[Crossref]

Riddick, A.

J. A. Thomas, A. Tubaro, N. Barber, F. d’Ancona, G. Muir, U. Witzsch, M.-O. Grimm, J. Benejam, J.-U. Stolzenburg, A. Riddick, S. Pahernik, H. Roelink, F. Ameye, C. Saussine, F. Bruyère, W. Loidl, T. Larner, N.-K. Gogoi, R. Hindley, R. Muschter, A. Thorpe, N. Shrotri, S. Graham, M. Hamann, K. Miller, M. Schostak, C. Capitán, H. Knispel, and A. Bachmann, “A Multicenter Randomized Noninferiority Trial Comparing GreenLight-XPS Laser Vaporization of the Prostate and Transurethral Resection of the Prostate for the Treatment of Benign Prostatic Obstruction: Two-yr Outcomes of the GOLIATH Study,” Eur. Urol. 69(1), 94–102 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Bachmann, A. Tubaro, N. Barber, F. d’Ancona, G. Muir, U. Witzsch, M.-O. Grimm, J. Benejam, J.-U. Stolzenburg, A. Riddick, S. Pahernik, H. Roelink, F. Ameye, C. Saussine, F. Bruyère, W. Loidl, T. Larner, N.-K. Gogoi, R. Hindley, R. Muschter, A. Thorpe, N. Shrotri, S. Graham, M. Hamann, K. Miller, M. Schostak, C. Capitán, H. Knispel, and J. A. Thomas, “180-W XPS GreenLight laser vaporisation versus transurethral resection of the prostate for the treatment of benign prostatic obstruction: 6-month safety and efficacy results of a European Multicentre Randomised Trial–the GOLIATH study,” Eur. Urol. 65(5), 931–942 (2014).
[Crossref]

Rieke, V.

V. Rieke and K. B. Pauly, “MR Thermometry,” Cigongzhen Chengxiang 27(2), 376–390 (2008).
[Crossref]

Roelink, H.

J. A. Thomas, A. Tubaro, N. Barber, F. d’Ancona, G. Muir, U. Witzsch, M.-O. Grimm, J. Benejam, J.-U. Stolzenburg, A. Riddick, S. Pahernik, H. Roelink, F. Ameye, C. Saussine, F. Bruyère, W. Loidl, T. Larner, N.-K. Gogoi, R. Hindley, R. Muschter, A. Thorpe, N. Shrotri, S. Graham, M. Hamann, K. Miller, M. Schostak, C. Capitán, H. Knispel, and A. Bachmann, “A Multicenter Randomized Noninferiority Trial Comparing GreenLight-XPS Laser Vaporization of the Prostate and Transurethral Resection of the Prostate for the Treatment of Benign Prostatic Obstruction: Two-yr Outcomes of the GOLIATH Study,” Eur. Urol. 69(1), 94–102 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Bachmann, A. Tubaro, N. Barber, F. d’Ancona, G. Muir, U. Witzsch, M.-O. Grimm, J. Benejam, J.-U. Stolzenburg, A. Riddick, S. Pahernik, H. Roelink, F. Ameye, C. Saussine, F. Bruyère, W. Loidl, T. Larner, N.-K. Gogoi, R. Hindley, R. Muschter, A. Thorpe, N. Shrotri, S. Graham, M. Hamann, K. Miller, M. Schostak, C. Capitán, H. Knispel, and J. A. Thomas, “180-W XPS GreenLight laser vaporisation versus transurethral resection of the prostate for the treatment of benign prostatic obstruction: 6-month safety and efficacy results of a European Multicentre Randomised Trial–the GOLIATH study,” Eur. Urol. 65(5), 931–942 (2014).
[Crossref]

Rutman, M.

W. J. Ko, B. B. Choi, H. W. Kang, D. Rajabhandharaks, M. Rutman, and E. C. Osterberg, “Defining Optimal Laser-Fiber Sweeping Angle for Effective Tissue Vaporization Using 180 W 532 nm Lithium Triborate Laser,” J Endourol. 26(4), 313–317 (2012).
[Crossref]

Saccomandi, P.

E. Schena, D. Tosi, P. Saccomandi, E. Lewis, and T. Kim, “Fiber Optic Sensors for Temperature Monitoring during Thermal Treatments: An Overview,” Sensors 16(7), 1144 (2016).
[Crossref]

Sachidanandan, S.

A. Hijazi, S. Sachidanandan, R. Singh, and V. Madhavan, “A calibrated dual-wavelength infrared thermometry approach with non-greybody compensation for machining temperature measurements,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 22(2), 025106 (2011).
[Crossref]

Saussine, C.

J. A. Thomas, A. Tubaro, N. Barber, F. d’Ancona, G. Muir, U. Witzsch, M.-O. Grimm, J. Benejam, J.-U. Stolzenburg, A. Riddick, S. Pahernik, H. Roelink, F. Ameye, C. Saussine, F. Bruyère, W. Loidl, T. Larner, N.-K. Gogoi, R. Hindley, R. Muschter, A. Thorpe, N. Shrotri, S. Graham, M. Hamann, K. Miller, M. Schostak, C. Capitán, H. Knispel, and A. Bachmann, “A Multicenter Randomized Noninferiority Trial Comparing GreenLight-XPS Laser Vaporization of the Prostate and Transurethral Resection of the Prostate for the Treatment of Benign Prostatic Obstruction: Two-yr Outcomes of the GOLIATH Study,” Eur. Urol. 69(1), 94–102 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Bachmann, A. Tubaro, N. Barber, F. d’Ancona, G. Muir, U. Witzsch, M.-O. Grimm, J. Benejam, J.-U. Stolzenburg, A. Riddick, S. Pahernik, H. Roelink, F. Ameye, C. Saussine, F. Bruyère, W. Loidl, T. Larner, N.-K. Gogoi, R. Hindley, R. Muschter, A. Thorpe, N. Shrotri, S. Graham, M. Hamann, K. Miller, M. Schostak, C. Capitán, H. Knispel, and J. A. Thomas, “180-W XPS GreenLight laser vaporisation versus transurethral resection of the prostate for the treatment of benign prostatic obstruction: 6-month safety and efficacy results of a European Multicentre Randomised Trial–the GOLIATH study,” Eur. Urol. 65(5), 931–942 (2014).
[Crossref]

Schena, E.

E. Schena, D. Tosi, P. Saccomandi, E. Lewis, and T. Kim, “Fiber Optic Sensors for Temperature Monitoring during Thermal Treatments: An Overview,” Sensors 16(7), 1144 (2016).
[Crossref]

Schiefelbein, F.

E. Heinrich, F. Schiefelbein, and G. Schoen, “Technique and Short-Term Outcome of Green Light Laser (KTP, 80W) Vaporisation of the Prostate,” Eur. Urol. 52(6), 1632–1637 (2007).
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Schoen, G.

E. Heinrich, F. Schiefelbein, and G. Schoen, “Technique and Short-Term Outcome of Green Light Laser (KTP, 80W) Vaporisation of the Prostate,” Eur. Urol. 52(6), 1632–1637 (2007).
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Schostak, M.

J. A. Thomas, A. Tubaro, N. Barber, F. d’Ancona, G. Muir, U. Witzsch, M.-O. Grimm, J. Benejam, J.-U. Stolzenburg, A. Riddick, S. Pahernik, H. Roelink, F. Ameye, C. Saussine, F. Bruyère, W. Loidl, T. Larner, N.-K. Gogoi, R. Hindley, R. Muschter, A. Thorpe, N. Shrotri, S. Graham, M. Hamann, K. Miller, M. Schostak, C. Capitán, H. Knispel, and A. Bachmann, “A Multicenter Randomized Noninferiority Trial Comparing GreenLight-XPS Laser Vaporization of the Prostate and Transurethral Resection of the Prostate for the Treatment of Benign Prostatic Obstruction: Two-yr Outcomes of the GOLIATH Study,” Eur. Urol. 69(1), 94–102 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Bachmann, A. Tubaro, N. Barber, F. d’Ancona, G. Muir, U. Witzsch, M.-O. Grimm, J. Benejam, J.-U. Stolzenburg, A. Riddick, S. Pahernik, H. Roelink, F. Ameye, C. Saussine, F. Bruyère, W. Loidl, T. Larner, N.-K. Gogoi, R. Hindley, R. Muschter, A. Thorpe, N. Shrotri, S. Graham, M. Hamann, K. Miller, M. Schostak, C. Capitán, H. Knispel, and J. A. Thomas, “180-W XPS GreenLight laser vaporisation versus transurethral resection of the prostate for the treatment of benign prostatic obstruction: 6-month safety and efficacy results of a European Multicentre Randomised Trial–the GOLIATH study,” Eur. Urol. 65(5), 931–942 (2014).
[Crossref]

Shen, P.

X. Zhang, P. Shen, Q. He, X. Yin, Z. Chen, H. Gui, K. Shu, Q. Tang, Y. Yang, X. Pan, J. Wang, N. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Different lasers in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia: a network meta-analysis,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 23503 (2016).
[Crossref]

Shibata, N.

T. Izawa, N. Shibata, and A. Takeda, “Optical attenuation in pure and doped fused silica in the ir wavelength region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 31(1), 33–35 (1977).
[Crossref]

Shrotri, N.

J. A. Thomas, A. Tubaro, N. Barber, F. d’Ancona, G. Muir, U. Witzsch, M.-O. Grimm, J. Benejam, J.-U. Stolzenburg, A. Riddick, S. Pahernik, H. Roelink, F. Ameye, C. Saussine, F. Bruyère, W. Loidl, T. Larner, N.-K. Gogoi, R. Hindley, R. Muschter, A. Thorpe, N. Shrotri, S. Graham, M. Hamann, K. Miller, M. Schostak, C. Capitán, H. Knispel, and A. Bachmann, “A Multicenter Randomized Noninferiority Trial Comparing GreenLight-XPS Laser Vaporization of the Prostate and Transurethral Resection of the Prostate for the Treatment of Benign Prostatic Obstruction: Two-yr Outcomes of the GOLIATH Study,” Eur. Urol. 69(1), 94–102 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Bachmann, A. Tubaro, N. Barber, F. d’Ancona, G. Muir, U. Witzsch, M.-O. Grimm, J. Benejam, J.-U. Stolzenburg, A. Riddick, S. Pahernik, H. Roelink, F. Ameye, C. Saussine, F. Bruyère, W. Loidl, T. Larner, N.-K. Gogoi, R. Hindley, R. Muschter, A. Thorpe, N. Shrotri, S. Graham, M. Hamann, K. Miller, M. Schostak, C. Capitán, H. Knispel, and J. A. Thomas, “180-W XPS GreenLight laser vaporisation versus transurethral resection of the prostate for the treatment of benign prostatic obstruction: 6-month safety and efficacy results of a European Multicentre Randomised Trial–the GOLIATH study,” Eur. Urol. 65(5), 931–942 (2014).
[Crossref]

Shu, K.

X. Zhang, P. Shen, Q. He, X. Yin, Z. Chen, H. Gui, K. Shu, Q. Tang, Y. Yang, X. Pan, J. Wang, N. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Different lasers in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia: a network meta-analysis,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 23503 (2016).
[Crossref]

Silva, E.

M. F. Mitchell, G. Tortolero-Luna, E. Cook, L. Whittaker, H. Rhodes-Morris, and E. Silva, “A randomized clinical trial of cryotherapy, laser vaporization, and loop electrosurgical excision for treatment of squamous intraepithelial lesions of the cervix,” Obstet. Gynecol. 92(5), 737–744 (1998).
[Crossref]

Singh, R.

A. Hijazi, S. Sachidanandan, R. Singh, and V. Madhavan, “A calibrated dual-wavelength infrared thermometry approach with non-greybody compensation for machining temperature measurements,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 22(2), 025106 (2011).
[Crossref]

Steketee, J.

J. Steketee, “Spectral emissivity of skin and pericardium,” Phys. Med. Biol. 18(5), 307686 (1973).
[Crossref]

Stolyarov, A. M.

G. Tao, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, A. M. Stolyarov, S. Danto, J. V. Badding, Y. Fink, J. Ballato, and A. F. Abouraddy, “Infrared fibers,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(2), 379–458 (2015).
[Crossref]

Stolzenburg, J.-U.

J. A. Thomas, A. Tubaro, N. Barber, F. d’Ancona, G. Muir, U. Witzsch, M.-O. Grimm, J. Benejam, J.-U. Stolzenburg, A. Riddick, S. Pahernik, H. Roelink, F. Ameye, C. Saussine, F. Bruyère, W. Loidl, T. Larner, N.-K. Gogoi, R. Hindley, R. Muschter, A. Thorpe, N. Shrotri, S. Graham, M. Hamann, K. Miller, M. Schostak, C. Capitán, H. Knispel, and A. Bachmann, “A Multicenter Randomized Noninferiority Trial Comparing GreenLight-XPS Laser Vaporization of the Prostate and Transurethral Resection of the Prostate for the Treatment of Benign Prostatic Obstruction: Two-yr Outcomes of the GOLIATH Study,” Eur. Urol. 69(1), 94–102 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Bachmann, A. Tubaro, N. Barber, F. d’Ancona, G. Muir, U. Witzsch, M.-O. Grimm, J. Benejam, J.-U. Stolzenburg, A. Riddick, S. Pahernik, H. Roelink, F. Ameye, C. Saussine, F. Bruyère, W. Loidl, T. Larner, N.-K. Gogoi, R. Hindley, R. Muschter, A. Thorpe, N. Shrotri, S. Graham, M. Hamann, K. Miller, M. Schostak, C. Capitán, H. Knispel, and J. A. Thomas, “180-W XPS GreenLight laser vaporisation versus transurethral resection of the prostate for the treatment of benign prostatic obstruction: 6-month safety and efficacy results of a European Multicentre Randomised Trial–the GOLIATH study,” Eur. Urol. 65(5), 931–942 (2014).
[Crossref]

Takeda, A.

T. Izawa, N. Shibata, and A. Takeda, “Optical attenuation in pure and doped fused silica in the ir wavelength region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 31(1), 33–35 (1977).
[Crossref]

Tang, Q.

X. Zhang, P. Shen, Q. He, X. Yin, Z. Chen, H. Gui, K. Shu, Q. Tang, Y. Yang, X. Pan, J. Wang, N. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Different lasers in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia: a network meta-analysis,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 23503 (2016).
[Crossref]

Tao, G.

G. Tao, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, A. M. Stolyarov, S. Danto, J. V. Badding, Y. Fink, J. Ballato, and A. F. Abouraddy, “Infrared fibers,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(2), 379–458 (2015).
[Crossref]

Tauscher, P.

M. Perrotta, C. E. Marchitelli, A. F. Velazco, P. Tauscher, G. Lopez, and M. S. Peremateu, “Use of CO2 Laser Vaporization for the Treatment of High-Grade Vaginal Intraepithelial Neoplasia,” J. Low. Genit. Tract Dis. 17(1), 23–27 (2013).
[Crossref]

Thomas, J. A.

J. A. Thomas, A. Tubaro, N. Barber, F. d’Ancona, G. Muir, U. Witzsch, M.-O. Grimm, J. Benejam, J.-U. Stolzenburg, A. Riddick, S. Pahernik, H. Roelink, F. Ameye, C. Saussine, F. Bruyère, W. Loidl, T. Larner, N.-K. Gogoi, R. Hindley, R. Muschter, A. Thorpe, N. Shrotri, S. Graham, M. Hamann, K. Miller, M. Schostak, C. Capitán, H. Knispel, and A. Bachmann, “A Multicenter Randomized Noninferiority Trial Comparing GreenLight-XPS Laser Vaporization of the Prostate and Transurethral Resection of the Prostate for the Treatment of Benign Prostatic Obstruction: Two-yr Outcomes of the GOLIATH Study,” Eur. Urol. 69(1), 94–102 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Bachmann, A. Tubaro, N. Barber, F. d’Ancona, G. Muir, U. Witzsch, M.-O. Grimm, J. Benejam, J.-U. Stolzenburg, A. Riddick, S. Pahernik, H. Roelink, F. Ameye, C. Saussine, F. Bruyère, W. Loidl, T. Larner, N.-K. Gogoi, R. Hindley, R. Muschter, A. Thorpe, N. Shrotri, S. Graham, M. Hamann, K. Miller, M. Schostak, C. Capitán, H. Knispel, and J. A. Thomas, “180-W XPS GreenLight laser vaporisation versus transurethral resection of the prostate for the treatment of benign prostatic obstruction: 6-month safety and efficacy results of a European Multicentre Randomised Trial–the GOLIATH study,” Eur. Urol. 65(5), 931–942 (2014).
[Crossref]

Thomsen, S.

S. Thomsen, “Pathologic Analysis of Photothermal and Photomechanical Effects of Laser–Tissue Interactions,” Photochem. Photobiol. 53(6), 825–835 (1991).
[Crossref]

Thorpe, A.

J. A. Thomas, A. Tubaro, N. Barber, F. d’Ancona, G. Muir, U. Witzsch, M.-O. Grimm, J. Benejam, J.-U. Stolzenburg, A. Riddick, S. Pahernik, H. Roelink, F. Ameye, C. Saussine, F. Bruyère, W. Loidl, T. Larner, N.-K. Gogoi, R. Hindley, R. Muschter, A. Thorpe, N. Shrotri, S. Graham, M. Hamann, K. Miller, M. Schostak, C. Capitán, H. Knispel, and A. Bachmann, “A Multicenter Randomized Noninferiority Trial Comparing GreenLight-XPS Laser Vaporization of the Prostate and Transurethral Resection of the Prostate for the Treatment of Benign Prostatic Obstruction: Two-yr Outcomes of the GOLIATH Study,” Eur. Urol. 69(1), 94–102 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Bachmann, A. Tubaro, N. Barber, F. d’Ancona, G. Muir, U. Witzsch, M.-O. Grimm, J. Benejam, J.-U. Stolzenburg, A. Riddick, S. Pahernik, H. Roelink, F. Ameye, C. Saussine, F. Bruyère, W. Loidl, T. Larner, N.-K. Gogoi, R. Hindley, R. Muschter, A. Thorpe, N. Shrotri, S. Graham, M. Hamann, K. Miller, M. Schostak, C. Capitán, H. Knispel, and J. A. Thomas, “180-W XPS GreenLight laser vaporisation versus transurethral resection of the prostate for the treatment of benign prostatic obstruction: 6-month safety and efficacy results of a European Multicentre Randomised Trial–the GOLIATH study,” Eur. Urol. 65(5), 931–942 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tortolero-Luna, G.

M. F. Mitchell, G. Tortolero-Luna, E. Cook, L. Whittaker, H. Rhodes-Morris, and E. Silva, “A randomized clinical trial of cryotherapy, laser vaporization, and loop electrosurgical excision for treatment of squamous intraepithelial lesions of the cervix,” Obstet. Gynecol. 92(5), 737–744 (1998).
[Crossref]

Tosi, D.

E. Schena, D. Tosi, P. Saccomandi, E. Lewis, and T. Kim, “Fiber Optic Sensors for Temperature Monitoring during Thermal Treatments: An Overview,” Sensors 16(7), 1144 (2016).
[Crossref]

Tubaro, A.

J. A. Thomas, A. Tubaro, N. Barber, F. d’Ancona, G. Muir, U. Witzsch, M.-O. Grimm, J. Benejam, J.-U. Stolzenburg, A. Riddick, S. Pahernik, H. Roelink, F. Ameye, C. Saussine, F. Bruyère, W. Loidl, T. Larner, N.-K. Gogoi, R. Hindley, R. Muschter, A. Thorpe, N. Shrotri, S. Graham, M. Hamann, K. Miller, M. Schostak, C. Capitán, H. Knispel, and A. Bachmann, “A Multicenter Randomized Noninferiority Trial Comparing GreenLight-XPS Laser Vaporization of the Prostate and Transurethral Resection of the Prostate for the Treatment of Benign Prostatic Obstruction: Two-yr Outcomes of the GOLIATH Study,” Eur. Urol. 69(1), 94–102 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Bachmann, A. Tubaro, N. Barber, F. d’Ancona, G. Muir, U. Witzsch, M.-O. Grimm, J. Benejam, J.-U. Stolzenburg, A. Riddick, S. Pahernik, H. Roelink, F. Ameye, C. Saussine, F. Bruyère, W. Loidl, T. Larner, N.-K. Gogoi, R. Hindley, R. Muschter, A. Thorpe, N. Shrotri, S. Graham, M. Hamann, K. Miller, M. Schostak, C. Capitán, H. Knispel, and J. A. Thomas, “180-W XPS GreenLight laser vaporisation versus transurethral resection of the prostate for the treatment of benign prostatic obstruction: 6-month safety and efficacy results of a European Multicentre Randomised Trial–the GOLIATH study,” Eur. Urol. 65(5), 931–942 (2014).
[Crossref]

Velazco, A. F.

M. Perrotta, C. E. Marchitelli, A. F. Velazco, P. Tauscher, G. Lopez, and M. S. Peremateu, “Use of CO2 Laser Vaporization for the Treatment of High-Grade Vaginal Intraepithelial Neoplasia,” J. Low. Genit. Tract Dis. 17(1), 23–27 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wang, J.

X. Zhang, P. Shen, Q. He, X. Yin, Z. Chen, H. Gui, K. Shu, Q. Tang, Y. Yang, X. Pan, J. Wang, N. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Different lasers in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia: a network meta-analysis,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 23503 (2016).
[Crossref]

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C. Welliver, S. Helo, and K. T. McVary, “Technique considerations and complication management in transurethral resection of the prostate and photoselective vaporization of the prostate,” Transl. Androl. Urol. 6(4), 695–703 (2017).
[Crossref]

Whittaker, L.

M. F. Mitchell, G. Tortolero-Luna, E. Cook, L. Whittaker, H. Rhodes-Morris, and E. Silva, “A randomized clinical trial of cryotherapy, laser vaporization, and loop electrosurgical excision for treatment of squamous intraepithelial lesions of the cervix,” Obstet. Gynecol. 92(5), 737–744 (1998).
[Crossref]

Witzsch, U.

J. A. Thomas, A. Tubaro, N. Barber, F. d’Ancona, G. Muir, U. Witzsch, M.-O. Grimm, J. Benejam, J.-U. Stolzenburg, A. Riddick, S. Pahernik, H. Roelink, F. Ameye, C. Saussine, F. Bruyère, W. Loidl, T. Larner, N.-K. Gogoi, R. Hindley, R. Muschter, A. Thorpe, N. Shrotri, S. Graham, M. Hamann, K. Miller, M. Schostak, C. Capitán, H. Knispel, and A. Bachmann, “A Multicenter Randomized Noninferiority Trial Comparing GreenLight-XPS Laser Vaporization of the Prostate and Transurethral Resection of the Prostate for the Treatment of Benign Prostatic Obstruction: Two-yr Outcomes of the GOLIATH Study,” Eur. Urol. 69(1), 94–102 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Bachmann, A. Tubaro, N. Barber, F. d’Ancona, G. Muir, U. Witzsch, M.-O. Grimm, J. Benejam, J.-U. Stolzenburg, A. Riddick, S. Pahernik, H. Roelink, F. Ameye, C. Saussine, F. Bruyère, W. Loidl, T. Larner, N.-K. Gogoi, R. Hindley, R. Muschter, A. Thorpe, N. Shrotri, S. Graham, M. Hamann, K. Miller, M. Schostak, C. Capitán, H. Knispel, and J. A. Thomas, “180-W XPS GreenLight laser vaporisation versus transurethral resection of the prostate for the treatment of benign prostatic obstruction: 6-month safety and efficacy results of a European Multicentre Randomised Trial–the GOLIATH study,” Eur. Urol. 65(5), 931–942 (2014).
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M. W. Kramer, T. Bach, M. Wolters, F. Imkamp, A. J. Gross, M. A. Kuczyk, A. S. Merseburger, and T. R. W. Herrmann, “Current evidence for transurethral laser therapy of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer,” World J. Urol. 29(4), 433–442 (2011).
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C. Pascoe, D. Ow, M. Perera, H. H. Woo, G. Jack, and N. Lawrentschuk, “Optimising patient outcomes with photoselective vaporization of the prostate (PVP): a review,” Transl. Androl. Urol. 6(S2), S133–S141 (2017).
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X. Zhang, P. Shen, Q. He, X. Yin, Z. Chen, H. Gui, K. Shu, Q. Tang, Y. Yang, X. Pan, J. Wang, N. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Different lasers in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia: a network meta-analysis,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 23503 (2016).
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X. Zhang, P. Shen, Q. He, X. Yin, Z. Chen, H. Gui, K. Shu, Q. Tang, Y. Yang, X. Pan, J. Wang, N. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Different lasers in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia: a network meta-analysis,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 23503 (2016).
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X. Zhang, P. Shen, Q. He, X. Yin, Z. Chen, H. Gui, K. Shu, Q. Tang, Y. Yang, X. Pan, J. Wang, N. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Different lasers in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia: a network meta-analysis,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 23503 (2016).
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X. Zhang, P. Shen, Q. He, X. Yin, Z. Chen, H. Gui, K. Shu, Q. Tang, Y. Yang, X. Pan, J. Wang, N. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Different lasers in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia: a network meta-analysis,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 23503 (2016).
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A. Bachmann, A. Tubaro, N. Barber, F. d’Ancona, G. Muir, U. Witzsch, M.-O. Grimm, J. Benejam, J.-U. Stolzenburg, A. Riddick, S. Pahernik, H. Roelink, F. Ameye, C. Saussine, F. Bruyère, W. Loidl, T. Larner, N.-K. Gogoi, R. Hindley, R. Muschter, A. Thorpe, N. Shrotri, S. Graham, M. Hamann, K. Miller, M. Schostak, C. Capitán, H. Knispel, and J. A. Thomas, “180-W XPS GreenLight laser vaporisation versus transurethral resection of the prostate for the treatment of benign prostatic obstruction: 6-month safety and efficacy results of a European Multicentre Randomised Trial–the GOLIATH study,” Eur. Urol. 65(5), 931–942 (2014).
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J. A. Thomas, A. Tubaro, N. Barber, F. d’Ancona, G. Muir, U. Witzsch, M.-O. Grimm, J. Benejam, J.-U. Stolzenburg, A. Riddick, S. Pahernik, H. Roelink, F. Ameye, C. Saussine, F. Bruyère, W. Loidl, T. Larner, N.-K. Gogoi, R. Hindley, R. Muschter, A. Thorpe, N. Shrotri, S. Graham, M. Hamann, K. Miller, M. Schostak, C. Capitán, H. Knispel, and A. Bachmann, “A Multicenter Randomized Noninferiority Trial Comparing GreenLight-XPS Laser Vaporization of the Prostate and Transurethral Resection of the Prostate for the Treatment of Benign Prostatic Obstruction: Two-yr Outcomes of the GOLIATH Study,” Eur. Urol. 69(1), 94–102 (2016).
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M. Perrotta, C. E. Marchitelli, A. F. Velazco, P. Tauscher, G. Lopez, and M. S. Peremateu, “Use of CO2 Laser Vaporization for the Treatment of High-Grade Vaginal Intraepithelial Neoplasia,” J. Low. Genit. Tract Dis. 17(1), 23–27 (2013).
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A. Hijazi, S. Sachidanandan, R. Singh, and V. Madhavan, “A calibrated dual-wavelength infrared thermometry approach with non-greybody compensation for machining temperature measurements,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 22(2), 025106 (2011).
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M. F. Mitchell, G. Tortolero-Luna, E. Cook, L. Whittaker, H. Rhodes-Morris, and E. Silva, “A randomized clinical trial of cryotherapy, laser vaporization, and loop electrosurgical excision for treatment of squamous intraepithelial lesions of the cervix,” Obstet. Gynecol. 92(5), 737–744 (1998).
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S. Thomsen, “Pathologic Analysis of Photothermal and Photomechanical Effects of Laser–Tissue Interactions,” Photochem. Photobiol. 53(6), 825–835 (1991).
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J. Steketee, “Spectral emissivity of skin and pericardium,” Phys. Med. Biol. 18(5), 307686 (1973).
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X. Zhang, P. Shen, Q. He, X. Yin, Z. Chen, H. Gui, K. Shu, Q. Tang, Y. Yang, X. Pan, J. Wang, N. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Different lasers in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia: a network meta-analysis,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 23503 (2016).
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Sensors (1)

E. Schena, D. Tosi, P. Saccomandi, E. Lewis, and T. Kim, “Fiber Optic Sensors for Temperature Monitoring during Thermal Treatments: An Overview,” Sensors 16(7), 1144 (2016).
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C. Pascoe, D. Ow, M. Perera, H. H. Woo, G. Jack, and N. Lawrentschuk, “Optimising patient outcomes with photoselective vaporization of the prostate (PVP): a review,” Transl. Androl. Urol. 6(S2), S133–S141 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Welliver, S. Helo, and K. T. McVary, “Technique considerations and complication management in transurethral resection of the prostate and photoselective vaporization of the prostate,” Transl. Androl. Urol. 6(4), 695–703 (2017).
[Crossref]

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M. W. Kramer, T. Bach, M. Wolters, F. Imkamp, A. J. Gross, M. A. Kuczyk, A. S. Merseburger, and T. R. W. Herrmann, “Current evidence for transurethral laser therapy of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer,” World J. Urol. 29(4), 433–442 (2011).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Both 2-meter silica fiber transmittance and the transmittance through 1 mm water are normalized to the values at 800 nm, a wavelength having very water absorption and high fiber transmittance. The power due to blackbody radiation at three different temperatures were calculated from an 0.17 mm2 circular area (0.6 mm diameter). The wavelength responsivity curve of a Germanium detector is also plotted. (b) The layout of the bench-top experiment. The BBR from the temperature controlled dry bath was received by a 2 m multimode silica fiber and then modulated by a chopper. The detected current signal from a Ge detector was first amplified through a transimpedance amplifier (TIA) and then demodulated by a lock-in amplifier. Simultaneously, a thermocouple (TC) was used to calibrate the blackbody radiation signal.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. The setup for ex vivo laser vaporization using porcine kidney tissue. The arrows mark the fiber, the tissue sample, cooling saline channel, and the window for exposing the tissue to the laser.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a). Average BBR signal measurement is shown with standard deviation error bars. The measured BBR was fitted with a power function, and the sensitivity was found by taking the derivative of the fit. The data is only shown every degree for clarity; (b) Blackbody radiation measured at different working distances, 1 mm, 2 mm, and 3 mm between 65°C and 110 °C.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Blackbody radiation measured during LTV. Three typical cases at different vaporization levels were shown as (a)-(c). The red boxes indicate the detected BBR signals by excluding the signals at the edges of the tissue holder window. The inset photos were taken immediately after vaporization to show the appearances of the tissue samples. (d) The vaporized cavities at different translation speeds. Tissue samples were immediately removed from the tissue sample holder and then stained with TTC to enhance the contrast of the coagulated layer.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Blackbody radiation averaged from the values in the red boxes shown in Fig. 4(a)-(c).
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. (a) The depths of vaporized cavities at different radiant exposures; (b) The tissue volume removed at different radiant exposures. The tissue volume removed was calculated by multiplying the vaporized area with the translational speed. The radiant exposure was calculated from the translational speed and the power density.

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