Abstract

Fractional resurfacing creates hundreds of microscopic wounds in the skin without injuring surrounding tissue. This technique allows rapid wound healing owing to small injury regions, and has been proven as an effective method for repairing photodamaged skin. Recently, ablative fractional laser (AFL) treatment has been demonstrated to facilitate topical drug delivery into skin. However, induced fractional photothermolysis depends on several parameters, such as incident angle, exposure energy, and spot size of the fractional laser. In this study, we used fractional CO2 laser to induce microscopic ablation array on the nail for facilitating drug delivery through the nail. To ensure proper energy delivery without damaging tissue structures beneath the nail plate, optical coherence tomography (OCT) was implemented for quantitative evaluation of induced microscopic ablation zone (MAZ). Moreover, to further study the feasibility of drug delivery, normal saline was dripped on the exposure area of fingernail and the speckle variance in OCT signal was used to observe water diffusion through the ablative channels into the nail plate. In conclusion, this study establishes OCT as an effective tool for the investigation of fractional photothermolysis and water/drug delivery through microscopic ablation channels after nail fractional laser treatment.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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2014 (4)

E. H. Lim, H. R. Kim, Y. O. Park, Y. Lee, Y. J. Seo, C. D. Kim, J. H. Lee, and M. Im, “Toenail onychomycosis treated with a fractional carbon-dioxide laser and topical antifungal cream,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 70(5), 918–923 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. H. Chen, S. H. Wang, L. H. Su, Y. L. Hsu, T. H. Tsai, Y. J. Hsu, and Y. J. Chang, “Comparison of visual effects of immersion fluids for dermoscopic examination of acral volar melanocytic lesions,” Dermatol. Sin. 32(2), 69–74 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Bradu and A. G. Podoleanu, “Imaging the eye fundus with real-time en-face spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(4), 1233–1249 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Wieser, W. Draxinger, T. Klein, S. Karpf, T. Pfeiffer, and R. Huber, “High definition live 3D-OCT in vivo: design and evaluation of a 4D OCT engine with 1 GVoxel/s,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(9), 2963–2977 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (13)

I. Grulkowski, J. J. Liu, B. Potsaid, V. Jayaraman, J. Jiang, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. E. Cable, “High-precision, high-accuracy ultralong-range swept-source optical coherence tomography using vertical cavity surface emitting laser light source,” Opt. Lett. 38(5), 673–675 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Iftimia, R. D. Ferguson, M. Mujat, A. H. Patel, E. Z. Zhang, W. Fox, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Combined reflectance confocal microscopy/optical coherence tomography imaging for skin burn assessment,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(5), 680–695 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. C. Hendargo, R. Estrada, S. J. Chiu, C. Tomasi, S. Farsiu, and J. A. Izatt, “Automated non-rigid registration and mosaicing for robust imaging of distinct retinal capillary beds using speckle variance optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(6), 803–821 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. T. Tsai, C. H. Yang, S. C. Shen, Y. J. Lee, F. Y. Chang, and C. S. Feng, “Monitoring of wound healing process of human skin after fractional laser treatments with optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(11), 2362–2375 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Unterhuber, B. Považay, A. Müller, O. B. Jensen, M. Duelk, T. Le, P. M. Petersen, C. Velez, M. Esmaeelpour, P. E. Andersen, and W. Drexler, “Simultaneous dual wavelength eye-tracked ultrahigh resolution retinal and choroidal optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 38(21), 4312–4315 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Deka, W. W. Wu, and F. J. Kao, “In vivo wound healing diagnosis with second harmonic and fluorescence lifetime imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(6), 061222 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Ahmad, N. D. Shemonski, S. G. Adie, H. S. Kim, W. M. W. Hwu, P. S. Carney, and S. A. Boppart, “Real-time in vivo computed optical interferometric tomography,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 444–448 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Alex, J. Weingast, M. Weinigel, M. Kellner-Höfer, R. Nemecek, M. Binder, H. Pehamberger, K. König, and W. Drexler, “Three-dimensional multiphoton/optical coherence tomography for diagnostic applications in dermatology,” J. Biophotonics 6(4), 352–362 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Sattler, R. Kästle, and J. Welzel, “Optical coherence tomography in dermatology,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(6), 061224 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. M. Liew, R. A. McLaughlin, P. Gong, F. M. Wood, and D. D. Sampson, “In vivo assessment of human burn scars through automated quantification of vascularity using optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(6), 061213 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Charkhchian, A. Beheshti, A. A. Zangivand, and A. Sedighi, “Nail disorder among patients on maintenance hemodialysis,” Dermatol. Sin. 31(1), 7–10 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. F. Hsiao, Y. C. Lin, C. C. Huang, and Y. H. Wu, “Efficacy and safety of a single treatment using a 10,600-nm carbon dioxide fractional laser for mild-to-moderate atrophic acne scars in Asian skin,” Dermatol. Sin. 31(2), 59–63 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Rattanapak, J. Birchall, K. Young, M. Ishii, I. Meglinski, T. Rades, and S. Hook, “Transcutaneous immunization using microneedles and cubosomes: Mechanistic investigations using Optical Coherence Tomography and Two-Photon Microscopy,” J. Control. Release 172(3), 894–903 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (6)

2011 (4)

Y. Lim, M. Yamanari, S. Fukuda, Y. Kaji, T. Kiuchi, M. Miura, T. Oshika, and Y. Yasuno, “Birefringence measurement of cornea and anterior segment by office-based polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(8), 2392–2402 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Sakai, M. Yamanari, Y. Lim, N. Nakagawa, and Y. Yasuno, “In vivo evaluation of human skin anisotropy by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(9), 2623–2631 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Lee, T. Yonetsu, K. Koura, K. Hishikari, T. Murai, T. Iwai, T. Takagi, Y. Iesaka, H. Fujiwara, M. Isobe, and T. Kakuta, “Impact of coronary plaque morphology assessed by optical coherence tomography on cardiac troponin elevation in patients with elective stent implantation,” Circ. Cardiovasc. Interv. 4(4), 378–386 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. R. Lee, S. C. Shen, S. A. Al-Suwayeh, H. H. Yang, C. Y. Yuan, and J. Y. Fang, “Laser-assisted topical drug delivery by using a low-fluence fractional laser: Imiquimod and macromolecules,” J. Control. Release 153(3), 240–248 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

H. L. Liu, M. Y. Hua, H. W. Yang, C. Y. Huang, P. C. Chu, J. S. Wu, I. C. Tseng, J. J. Wang, T. C. Yen, P. Y. Chen, and K. C. Wei, “Magnetic resonance monitoring of focused ultrasound/magnetic nanoparticle targeting delivery of therapeutic agents to the brain,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(34), 15205–15210 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Prati, E. Regar, G. S. Mintz, E. Arbustini, C. Di Mario, I. K. Jang, T. Akasaka, M. Costa, G. Guagliumi, E. Grube, Y. Ozaki, F. Pinto, and P. W. J. Serruys, “Expert review document on methodology, terminology, and clinical applications of optical coherence tomography: physical principles, methodology of image acquisition, and clinical application for assessment of coronary arteries and atherosclerosis,” Eur. Heart J. 31(4), 401–415 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

O. F. Stumpp, V. P. Bedi, D. Wyatt, D. Lac, Z. Rahman, and K. F. Chan, “In vivo confocal imaging of epidermal cell migration and dermal changes post nonablative fractional resurfacing: study of the wound healing process with corroborated histopathologic evidence,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024018 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. C. Adler, C. Zhou, T. H. Tsai, J. Schmitt, Q. Huang, H. Mashimo, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Three-dimensional endomicroscopy of the human colon using optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 17(2), 784–796 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

2007 (1)

V. R. Korde, G. T. Bonnema, W. Xu, C. Krishnamurthy, J. Ranger-Moore, K. Saboda, L. D. Slayton, S. J. Salasche, J. A. Warneke, D. S. Alberts, and J. K. Barton, “Using optical coherence tomography to evaluate skin sun damage and precancer,” Lasers Surg. Med. 39(9), 687–695 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

M. Kinoshita, N. McDannold, F. A. Jolesz, and K. Hynynen, “Noninvasive localized delivery of Herceptin to the mouse brain by MRI-guided focused ultrasound-induced blood-brain barrier disruption,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(31), 11719–11723 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. J. Laubach, Z. Tannous, R. R. Anderson, and D. Manstein, “Skin responses to fractional photothermolysis,” Lasers Surg. Med. 38(2), 142–149 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (3)

D. Manstein, G. S. Herron, R. K. Sink, H. Tanner, and R. R. Anderson, “Fractional photothermolysis: A new concept for cutaneous remodeling using microscopic patterns of thermal injury,” Lasers Surg. Med. 34(5), 426–438 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Vandelli, M. Romagnoli, A. Monti, M. Gozzi, P. Guerra, F. Rivasi, and F. Forni, “Microwave-treated gelatin microspheres as drug delivery system,” J. Control. Release 96(1), 67–84 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. M. Srinivas, J. F. de Boer, H. Park, K. Keikhanzadeh, H. E. Huang, J. Zhang, W. Q. Jung, Z. P. Chen, and J. S. Nelson, “Determination of burn depth by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(1), 207–212 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (4)

2000 (3)

I. S. Woo, I. K. Rhee, and H. D. Park, “Differential damage in bacterial cells by microwave radiation on the basis of cell wall structure,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 66(5), 2243–2247 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. B. Zachary, “Modulating the Er:YAG laser,” Lasers Surg. Med. 26(2), 223–226 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. V. Ross, F. P. Sajben, J. Hsia, D. Barnette, C. H. Miller, and J. R. McKinlay, “Nonablative skin remodeling: Selective dermal heating with a mid-infrared laser and contact cooling combination,” Lasers Surg. Med. 26(2), 186–195 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

T. S. Alster and S. Garg, “Treatment of facial rhytides with a high-energy pulsed carbon dioxide laser,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 98(5), 791–794 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adie, S. G.

A. Ahmad, N. D. Shemonski, S. G. Adie, H. S. Kim, W. M. W. Hwu, P. S. Carney, and S. A. Boppart, “Real-time in vivo computed optical interferometric tomography,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 444–448 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adler, D. C.

Ahmad, A.

A. Ahmad, N. D. Shemonski, S. G. Adie, H. S. Kim, W. M. W. Hwu, P. S. Carney, and S. A. Boppart, “Real-time in vivo computed optical interferometric tomography,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 444–448 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Akasaka, T.

F. Prati, E. Regar, G. S. Mintz, E. Arbustini, C. Di Mario, I. K. Jang, T. Akasaka, M. Costa, G. Guagliumi, E. Grube, Y. Ozaki, F. Pinto, and P. W. J. Serruys, “Expert review document on methodology, terminology, and clinical applications of optical coherence tomography: physical principles, methodology of image acquisition, and clinical application for assessment of coronary arteries and atherosclerosis,” Eur. Heart J. 31(4), 401–415 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alberts, D. S.

V. R. Korde, G. T. Bonnema, W. Xu, C. Krishnamurthy, J. Ranger-Moore, K. Saboda, L. D. Slayton, S. J. Salasche, J. A. Warneke, D. S. Alberts, and J. K. Barton, “Using optical coherence tomography to evaluate skin sun damage and precancer,” Lasers Surg. Med. 39(9), 687–695 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alex, A.

A. Alex, J. Weingast, M. Weinigel, M. Kellner-Höfer, R. Nemecek, M. Binder, H. Pehamberger, K. König, and W. Drexler, “Three-dimensional multiphoton/optical coherence tomography for diagnostic applications in dermatology,” J. Biophotonics 6(4), 352–362 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alster, T. S.

T. S. Alster and S. Garg, “Treatment of facial rhytides with a high-energy pulsed carbon dioxide laser,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 98(5), 791–794 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Al-Suwayeh, S. A.

W. R. Lee, S. C. Shen, S. A. Al-Suwayeh, H. H. Yang, C. Y. Yuan, and J. Y. Fang, “Laser-assisted topical drug delivery by using a low-fluence fractional laser: Imiquimod and macromolecules,” J. Control. Release 153(3), 240–248 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Andersen, P. E.

Anderson, R. R.

H. J. Laubach, Z. Tannous, R. R. Anderson, and D. Manstein, “Skin responses to fractional photothermolysis,” Lasers Surg. Med. 38(2), 142–149 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Manstein, G. S. Herron, R. K. Sink, H. Tanner, and R. R. Anderson, “Fractional photothermolysis: A new concept for cutaneous remodeling using microscopic patterns of thermal injury,” Lasers Surg. Med. 34(5), 426–438 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arbustini, E.

F. Prati, E. Regar, G. S. Mintz, E. Arbustini, C. Di Mario, I. K. Jang, T. Akasaka, M. Costa, G. Guagliumi, E. Grube, Y. Ozaki, F. Pinto, and P. W. J. Serruys, “Expert review document on methodology, terminology, and clinical applications of optical coherence tomography: physical principles, methodology of image acquisition, and clinical application for assessment of coronary arteries and atherosclerosis,” Eur. Heart J. 31(4), 401–415 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barnette, D.

E. V. Ross, F. P. Sajben, J. Hsia, D. Barnette, C. H. Miller, and J. R. McKinlay, “Nonablative skin remodeling: Selective dermal heating with a mid-infrared laser and contact cooling combination,” Lasers Surg. Med. 26(2), 186–195 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barton, J. K.

V. R. Korde, G. T. Bonnema, W. Xu, C. Krishnamurthy, J. Ranger-Moore, K. Saboda, L. D. Slayton, S. J. Salasche, J. A. Warneke, D. S. Alberts, and J. K. Barton, “Using optical coherence tomography to evaluate skin sun damage and precancer,” Lasers Surg. Med. 39(9), 687–695 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bedi, V. P.

O. F. Stumpp, V. P. Bedi, D. Wyatt, D. Lac, Z. Rahman, and K. F. Chan, “In vivo confocal imaging of epidermal cell migration and dermal changes post nonablative fractional resurfacing: study of the wound healing process with corroborated histopathologic evidence,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024018 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beheshti, A.

M. Charkhchian, A. Beheshti, A. A. Zangivand, and A. Sedighi, “Nail disorder among patients on maintenance hemodialysis,” Dermatol. Sin. 31(1), 7–10 (2013).
[Crossref]

Binder, M.

A. Alex, J. Weingast, M. Weinigel, M. Kellner-Höfer, R. Nemecek, M. Binder, H. Pehamberger, K. König, and W. Drexler, “Three-dimensional multiphoton/optical coherence tomography for diagnostic applications in dermatology,” J. Biophotonics 6(4), 352–362 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Birchall, J.

T. Rattanapak, J. Birchall, K. Young, M. Ishii, I. Meglinski, T. Rades, and S. Hook, “Transcutaneous immunization using microneedles and cubosomes: Mechanistic investigations using Optical Coherence Tomography and Two-Photon Microscopy,” J. Control. Release 172(3), 894–903 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bisland, S.

Bonnema, G. T.

V. R. Korde, G. T. Bonnema, W. Xu, C. Krishnamurthy, J. Ranger-Moore, K. Saboda, L. D. Slayton, S. J. Salasche, J. A. Warneke, D. S. Alberts, and J. K. Barton, “Using optical coherence tomography to evaluate skin sun damage and precancer,” Lasers Surg. Med. 39(9), 687–695 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boppart, S. A.

A. Ahmad, N. D. Shemonski, S. G. Adie, H. S. Kim, W. M. W. Hwu, P. S. Carney, and S. A. Boppart, “Real-time in vivo computed optical interferometric tomography,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 444–448 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bouma, B. E.

Bouwstra, J.

K. van der Maaden, W. Jiskoot, and J. Bouwstra, “Microneedle technologies for (trans)dermal drug and vaccine delivery,” J. Control. Release 161(2), 645–655 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bradu, A.

Cable, A.

Cable, A. E.

Cadotte, A.

Cadotte, D. W.

Carney, P. S.

A. Ahmad, N. D. Shemonski, S. G. Adie, H. S. Kim, W. M. W. Hwu, P. S. Carney, and S. A. Boppart, “Real-time in vivo computed optical interferometric tomography,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 444–448 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chan, K. F.

O. F. Stumpp, V. P. Bedi, D. Wyatt, D. Lac, Z. Rahman, and K. F. Chan, “In vivo confocal imaging of epidermal cell migration and dermal changes post nonablative fractional resurfacing: study of the wound healing process with corroborated histopathologic evidence,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024018 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chandra, S.

V. Prabhu, S. B. S. Rao, S. Chandra, P. Kumar, L. Rao, V. Guddattu, K. Satyamoorthy, and K. K. Mahato, “Spectroscopic and histological evaluation of wound healing progression following Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT),” J. Biophotonics 5(2), 168–184 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, F. Y.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, Y. J.

T. H. Chen, S. H. Wang, L. H. Su, Y. L. Hsu, T. H. Tsai, Y. J. Hsu, and Y. J. Chang, “Comparison of visual effects of immersion fluids for dermoscopic examination of acral volar melanocytic lesions,” Dermatol. Sin. 32(2), 69–74 (2014).
[Crossref]

Charkhchian, M.

M. Charkhchian, A. Beheshti, A. A. Zangivand, and A. Sedighi, “Nail disorder among patients on maintenance hemodialysis,” Dermatol. Sin. 31(1), 7–10 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, P. Y.

H. L. Liu, M. Y. Hua, H. W. Yang, C. Y. Huang, P. C. Chu, J. S. Wu, I. C. Tseng, J. J. Wang, T. C. Yen, P. Y. Chen, and K. C. Wei, “Magnetic resonance monitoring of focused ultrasound/magnetic nanoparticle targeting delivery of therapeutic agents to the brain,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(34), 15205–15210 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, T. H.

T. H. Chen, S. H. Wang, L. H. Su, Y. L. Hsu, T. H. Tsai, Y. J. Hsu, and Y. J. Chang, “Comparison of visual effects of immersion fluids for dermoscopic examination of acral volar melanocytic lesions,” Dermatol. Sin. 32(2), 69–74 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, Z.

Chen, Z. P.

S. M. Srinivas, J. F. de Boer, H. Park, K. Keikhanzadeh, H. E. Huang, J. Zhang, W. Q. Jung, Z. P. Chen, and J. S. Nelson, “Determination of burn depth by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(1), 207–212 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chiu, S. J.

Choi, B.

Choi, D. H.

Choma, M. A.

Chu, P. C.

H. L. Liu, M. Y. Hua, H. W. Yang, C. Y. Huang, P. C. Chu, J. S. Wu, I. C. Tseng, J. J. Wang, T. C. Yen, P. Y. Chen, and K. C. Wei, “Magnetic resonance monitoring of focused ultrasound/magnetic nanoparticle targeting delivery of therapeutic agents to the brain,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(34), 15205–15210 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Conroy, L.

Costa, M.

F. Prati, E. Regar, G. S. Mintz, E. Arbustini, C. Di Mario, I. K. Jang, T. Akasaka, M. Costa, G. Guagliumi, E. Grube, Y. Ozaki, F. Pinto, and P. W. J. Serruys, “Expert review document on methodology, terminology, and clinical applications of optical coherence tomography: physical principles, methodology of image acquisition, and clinical application for assessment of coronary arteries and atherosclerosis,” Eur. Heart J. 31(4), 401–415 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

DaCosta, R. S.

de Boer, J. F.

Deka, G.

G. Deka, W. W. Wu, and F. J. Kao, “In vivo wound healing diagnosis with second harmonic and fluorescence lifetime imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(6), 061222 (2013).
[Crossref]

Di Mario, C.

F. Prati, E. Regar, G. S. Mintz, E. Arbustini, C. Di Mario, I. K. Jang, T. Akasaka, M. Costa, G. Guagliumi, E. Grube, Y. Ozaki, F. Pinto, and P. W. J. Serruys, “Expert review document on methodology, terminology, and clinical applications of optical coherence tomography: physical principles, methodology of image acquisition, and clinical application for assessment of coronary arteries and atherosclerosis,” Eur. Heart J. 31(4), 401–415 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Draxinger, W.

Drexler, W.

A. Unterhuber, B. Považay, A. Müller, O. B. Jensen, M. Duelk, T. Le, P. M. Petersen, C. Velez, M. Esmaeelpour, P. E. Andersen, and W. Drexler, “Simultaneous dual wavelength eye-tracked ultrahigh resolution retinal and choroidal optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 38(21), 4312–4315 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Alex, J. Weingast, M. Weinigel, M. Kellner-Höfer, R. Nemecek, M. Binder, H. Pehamberger, K. König, and W. Drexler, “Three-dimensional multiphoton/optical coherence tomography for diagnostic applications in dermatology,” J. Biophotonics 6(4), 352–362 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Duelk, M.

Esmaeelpour, M.

Estrada, R.

Fabritius, T.

Fang, J. Y.

W. R. Lee, S. C. Shen, S. A. Al-Suwayeh, H. H. Yang, C. Y. Yuan, and J. Y. Fang, “Laser-assisted topical drug delivery by using a low-fluence fractional laser: Imiquimod and macromolecules,” J. Control. Release 153(3), 240–248 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Farsiu, S.

Fehlings, M. G.

Feng, C. S.

Ferguson, R. D.

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Forni, F.

M. A. Vandelli, M. Romagnoli, A. Monti, M. Gozzi, P. Guerra, F. Rivasi, and F. Forni, “Microwave-treated gelatin microspheres as drug delivery system,” J. Control. Release 96(1), 67–84 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fox, W.

Fujimoto, J. G.

Fujiwara, H.

T. Lee, T. Yonetsu, K. Koura, K. Hishikari, T. Murai, T. Iwai, T. Takagi, Y. Iesaka, H. Fujiwara, M. Isobe, and T. Kakuta, “Impact of coronary plaque morphology assessed by optical coherence tomography on cardiac troponin elevation in patients with elective stent implantation,” Circ. Cardiovasc. Interv. 4(4), 378–386 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fukuda, S.

Gardiner, G.

Garg, S.

T. S. Alster and S. Garg, “Treatment of facial rhytides with a high-energy pulsed carbon dioxide laser,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 98(5), 791–794 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gong, P.

Y. M. Liew, R. A. McLaughlin, P. Gong, F. M. Wood, and D. D. Sampson, “In vivo assessment of human burn scars through automated quantification of vascularity using optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(6), 061213 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gordon, M. L.

Gozzi, M.

M. A. Vandelli, M. Romagnoli, A. Monti, M. Gozzi, P. Guerra, F. Rivasi, and F. Forni, “Microwave-treated gelatin microspheres as drug delivery system,” J. Control. Release 96(1), 67–84 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grube, E.

F. Prati, E. Regar, G. S. Mintz, E. Arbustini, C. Di Mario, I. K. Jang, T. Akasaka, M. Costa, G. Guagliumi, E. Grube, Y. Ozaki, F. Pinto, and P. W. J. Serruys, “Expert review document on methodology, terminology, and clinical applications of optical coherence tomography: physical principles, methodology of image acquisition, and clinical application for assessment of coronary arteries and atherosclerosis,” Eur. Heart J. 31(4), 401–415 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grulkowski, I.

Guagliumi, G.

F. Prati, E. Regar, G. S. Mintz, E. Arbustini, C. Di Mario, I. K. Jang, T. Akasaka, M. Costa, G. Guagliumi, E. Grube, Y. Ozaki, F. Pinto, and P. W. J. Serruys, “Expert review document on methodology, terminology, and clinical applications of optical coherence tomography: physical principles, methodology of image acquisition, and clinical application for assessment of coronary arteries and atherosclerosis,” Eur. Heart J. 31(4), 401–415 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guddattu, V.

V. Prabhu, S. B. S. Rao, S. Chandra, P. Kumar, L. Rao, V. Guddattu, K. Satyamoorthy, and K. K. Mahato, “Spectroscopic and histological evaluation of wound healing progression following Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT),” J. Biophotonics 5(2), 168–184 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guerra, P.

M. A. Vandelli, M. Romagnoli, A. Monti, M. Gozzi, P. Guerra, F. Rivasi, and F. Forni, “Microwave-treated gelatin microspheres as drug delivery system,” J. Control. Release 96(1), 67–84 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hendargo, H. C.

Herron, G. S.

D. Manstein, G. S. Herron, R. K. Sink, H. Tanner, and R. R. Anderson, “Fractional photothermolysis: A new concept for cutaneous remodeling using microscopic patterns of thermal injury,” Lasers Surg. Med. 34(5), 426–438 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hiro-Oka, H.

Hishikari, K.

T. Lee, T. Yonetsu, K. Koura, K. Hishikari, T. Murai, T. Iwai, T. Takagi, Y. Iesaka, H. Fujiwara, M. Isobe, and T. Kakuta, “Impact of coronary plaque morphology assessed by optical coherence tomography on cardiac troponin elevation in patients with elective stent implantation,” Circ. Cardiovasc. Interv. 4(4), 378–386 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hook, S.

T. Rattanapak, J. Birchall, K. Young, M. Ishii, I. Meglinski, T. Rades, and S. Hook, “Transcutaneous immunization using microneedles and cubosomes: Mechanistic investigations using Optical Coherence Tomography and Two-Photon Microscopy,” J. Control. Release 172(3), 894–903 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hsia, J.

E. V. Ross, F. P. Sajben, J. Hsia, D. Barnette, C. H. Miller, and J. R. McKinlay, “Nonablative skin remodeling: Selective dermal heating with a mid-infrared laser and contact cooling combination,” Lasers Surg. Med. 26(2), 186–195 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hsiao, P. F.

P. F. Hsiao, Y. C. Lin, C. C. Huang, and Y. H. Wu, “Efficacy and safety of a single treatment using a 10,600-nm carbon dioxide fractional laser for mild-to-moderate atrophic acne scars in Asian skin,” Dermatol. Sin. 31(2), 59–63 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hsu, Y. J.

T. H. Chen, S. H. Wang, L. H. Su, Y. L. Hsu, T. H. Tsai, Y. J. Hsu, and Y. J. Chang, “Comparison of visual effects of immersion fluids for dermoscopic examination of acral volar melanocytic lesions,” Dermatol. Sin. 32(2), 69–74 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hsu, Y. L.

T. H. Chen, S. H. Wang, L. H. Su, Y. L. Hsu, T. H. Tsai, Y. J. Hsu, and Y. J. Chang, “Comparison of visual effects of immersion fluids for dermoscopic examination of acral volar melanocytic lesions,” Dermatol. Sin. 32(2), 69–74 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hua, M. Y.

H. L. Liu, M. Y. Hua, H. W. Yang, C. Y. Huang, P. C. Chu, J. S. Wu, I. C. Tseng, J. J. Wang, T. C. Yen, P. Y. Chen, and K. C. Wei, “Magnetic resonance monitoring of focused ultrasound/magnetic nanoparticle targeting delivery of therapeutic agents to the brain,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(34), 15205–15210 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, C. C.

P. F. Hsiao, Y. C. Lin, C. C. Huang, and Y. H. Wu, “Efficacy and safety of a single treatment using a 10,600-nm carbon dioxide fractional laser for mild-to-moderate atrophic acne scars in Asian skin,” Dermatol. Sin. 31(2), 59–63 (2013).
[Crossref]

Huang, C. Y.

H. L. Liu, M. Y. Hua, H. W. Yang, C. Y. Huang, P. C. Chu, J. S. Wu, I. C. Tseng, J. J. Wang, T. C. Yen, P. Y. Chen, and K. C. Wei, “Magnetic resonance monitoring of focused ultrasound/magnetic nanoparticle targeting delivery of therapeutic agents to the brain,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(34), 15205–15210 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, H. E.

S. M. Srinivas, J. F. de Boer, H. Park, K. Keikhanzadeh, H. E. Huang, J. Zhang, W. Q. Jung, Z. P. Chen, and J. S. Nelson, “Determination of burn depth by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(1), 207–212 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, Q.

Huber, R.

Hwu, W. M. W.

A. Ahmad, N. D. Shemonski, S. G. Adie, H. S. Kim, W. M. W. Hwu, P. S. Carney, and S. A. Boppart, “Real-time in vivo computed optical interferometric tomography,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 444–448 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hynynen, K.

M. Kinoshita, N. McDannold, F. A. Jolesz, and K. Hynynen, “Noninvasive localized delivery of Herceptin to the mouse brain by MRI-guided focused ultrasound-induced blood-brain barrier disruption,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(31), 11719–11723 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Iesaka, Y.

T. Lee, T. Yonetsu, K. Koura, K. Hishikari, T. Murai, T. Iwai, T. Takagi, Y. Iesaka, H. Fujiwara, M. Isobe, and T. Kakuta, “Impact of coronary plaque morphology assessed by optical coherence tomography on cardiac troponin elevation in patients with elective stent implantation,” Circ. Cardiovasc. Interv. 4(4), 378–386 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Iftimia, N.

Im, M.

E. H. Lim, H. R. Kim, Y. O. Park, Y. Lee, Y. J. Seo, C. D. Kim, J. H. Lee, and M. Im, “Toenail onychomycosis treated with a fractional carbon-dioxide laser and topical antifungal cream,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 70(5), 918–923 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ishii, M.

T. Rattanapak, J. Birchall, K. Young, M. Ishii, I. Meglinski, T. Rades, and S. Hook, “Transcutaneous immunization using microneedles and cubosomes: Mechanistic investigations using Optical Coherence Tomography and Two-Photon Microscopy,” J. Control. Release 172(3), 894–903 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Isobe, M.

T. Lee, T. Yonetsu, K. Koura, K. Hishikari, T. Murai, T. Iwai, T. Takagi, Y. Iesaka, H. Fujiwara, M. Isobe, and T. Kakuta, “Impact of coronary plaque morphology assessed by optical coherence tomography on cardiac troponin elevation in patients with elective stent implantation,” Circ. Cardiovasc. Interv. 4(4), 378–386 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Iwai, T.

T. Lee, T. Yonetsu, K. Koura, K. Hishikari, T. Murai, T. Iwai, T. Takagi, Y. Iesaka, H. Fujiwara, M. Isobe, and T. Kakuta, “Impact of coronary plaque morphology assessed by optical coherence tomography on cardiac troponin elevation in patients with elective stent implantation,” Circ. Cardiovasc. Interv. 4(4), 378–386 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Izatt, J. A.

Jang, I. K.

F. Prati, E. Regar, G. S. Mintz, E. Arbustini, C. Di Mario, I. K. Jang, T. Akasaka, M. Costa, G. Guagliumi, E. Grube, Y. Ozaki, F. Pinto, and P. W. J. Serruys, “Expert review document on methodology, terminology, and clinical applications of optical coherence tomography: physical principles, methodology of image acquisition, and clinical application for assessment of coronary arteries and atherosclerosis,” Eur. Heart J. 31(4), 401–415 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jayaraman, V.

Jensen, O. B.

Jia, W.

Jiang, J.

Jiskoot, W.

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Lee, J. H.

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Leung, M. K. K.

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Lin, C. P.

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P. F. Hsiao, Y. C. Lin, C. C. Huang, and Y. H. Wu, “Efficacy and safety of a single treatment using a 10,600-nm carbon dioxide fractional laser for mild-to-moderate atrophic acne scars in Asian skin,” Dermatol. Sin. 31(2), 59–63 (2013).
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Lo, S.

Mahato, K. K.

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Makita, S.

Manstein, D.

H. J. Laubach, Z. Tannous, R. R. Anderson, and D. Manstein, “Skin responses to fractional photothermolysis,” Lasers Surg. Med. 38(2), 142–149 (2006).
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D. Manstein, G. S. Herron, R. K. Sink, H. Tanner, and R. R. Anderson, “Fractional photothermolysis: A new concept for cutaneous remodeling using microscopic patterns of thermal injury,” Lasers Surg. Med. 34(5), 426–438 (2004).
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Marcon, N. E.

Mariampillai, A.

Mashimo, H.

Matsumoto, M.

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McDannold, N.

M. Kinoshita, N. McDannold, F. A. Jolesz, and K. Hynynen, “Noninvasive localized delivery of Herceptin to the mouse brain by MRI-guided focused ultrasound-induced blood-brain barrier disruption,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(31), 11719–11723 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McKinlay, J. R.

E. V. Ross, F. P. Sajben, J. Hsia, D. Barnette, C. H. Miller, and J. R. McKinlay, “Nonablative skin remodeling: Selective dermal heating with a mid-infrared laser and contact cooling combination,” Lasers Surg. Med. 26(2), 186–195 (2000).
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McLaughlin, R. A.

Y. M. Liew, R. A. McLaughlin, P. Gong, F. M. Wood, and D. D. Sampson, “In vivo assessment of human burn scars through automated quantification of vascularity using optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(6), 061213 (2013).
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Meglinski, I.

T. Rattanapak, J. Birchall, K. Young, M. Ishii, I. Meglinski, T. Rades, and S. Hook, “Transcutaneous immunization using microneedles and cubosomes: Mechanistic investigations using Optical Coherence Tomography and Two-Photon Microscopy,” J. Control. Release 172(3), 894–903 (2013).
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Miller, C. H.

E. V. Ross, F. P. Sajben, J. Hsia, D. Barnette, C. H. Miller, and J. R. McKinlay, “Nonablative skin remodeling: Selective dermal heating with a mid-infrared laser and contact cooling combination,” Lasers Surg. Med. 26(2), 186–195 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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F. Prati, E. Regar, G. S. Mintz, E. Arbustini, C. Di Mario, I. K. Jang, T. Akasaka, M. Costa, G. Guagliumi, E. Grube, Y. Ozaki, F. Pinto, and P. W. J. Serruys, “Expert review document on methodology, terminology, and clinical applications of optical coherence tomography: physical principles, methodology of image acquisition, and clinical application for assessment of coronary arteries and atherosclerosis,” Eur. Heart J. 31(4), 401–415 (2010).
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Miura, M.

Miyazawa, A.

S. Sakai, M. Yamanari, A. Miyazawa, M. Matsumoto, N. Nakagawa, T. Sugawara, K. Kawabata, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, “In vivo three-dimensional birefringence analysis shows collagen differences between young and old photo-aged human skin,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 128(7), 1641–1647 (2008).
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M. A. Vandelli, M. Romagnoli, A. Monti, M. Gozzi, P. Guerra, F. Rivasi, and F. Forni, “Microwave-treated gelatin microspheres as drug delivery system,” J. Control. Release 96(1), 67–84 (2004).
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Mujat, M.

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Munce, N. R.

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T. Lee, T. Yonetsu, K. Koura, K. Hishikari, T. Murai, T. Iwai, T. Takagi, Y. Iesaka, H. Fujiwara, M. Isobe, and T. Kakuta, “Impact of coronary plaque morphology assessed by optical coherence tomography on cardiac troponin elevation in patients with elective stent implantation,” Circ. Cardiovasc. Interv. 4(4), 378–386 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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S. Sakai, M. Yamanari, Y. Lim, N. Nakagawa, and Y. Yasuno, “In vivo evaluation of human skin anisotropy by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(9), 2623–2631 (2011).
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S. Sakai, M. Yamanari, A. Miyazawa, M. Matsumoto, N. Nakagawa, T. Sugawara, K. Kawabata, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, “In vivo three-dimensional birefringence analysis shows collagen differences between young and old photo-aged human skin,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 128(7), 1641–1647 (2008).
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S. M. Srinivas, J. F. de Boer, H. Park, K. Keikhanzadeh, H. E. Huang, J. Zhang, W. Q. Jung, Z. P. Chen, and J. S. Nelson, “Determination of burn depth by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(1), 207–212 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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A. Alex, J. Weingast, M. Weinigel, M. Kellner-Höfer, R. Nemecek, M. Binder, H. Pehamberger, K. König, and W. Drexler, “Three-dimensional multiphoton/optical coherence tomography for diagnostic applications in dermatology,” J. Biophotonics 6(4), 352–362 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ohbayashi, K.

Oshika, T.

Ozaki, Y.

F. Prati, E. Regar, G. S. Mintz, E. Arbustini, C. Di Mario, I. K. Jang, T. Akasaka, M. Costa, G. Guagliumi, E. Grube, Y. Ozaki, F. Pinto, and P. W. J. Serruys, “Expert review document on methodology, terminology, and clinical applications of optical coherence tomography: physical principles, methodology of image acquisition, and clinical application for assessment of coronary arteries and atherosclerosis,” Eur. Heart J. 31(4), 401–415 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, B. H.

Park, H.

S. M. Srinivas, J. F. de Boer, H. Park, K. Keikhanzadeh, H. E. Huang, J. Zhang, W. Q. Jung, Z. P. Chen, and J. S. Nelson, “Determination of burn depth by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(1), 207–212 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, H. D.

I. S. Woo, I. K. Rhee, and H. D. Park, “Differential damage in bacterial cells by microwave radiation on the basis of cell wall structure,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 66(5), 2243–2247 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, Y. O.

E. H. Lim, H. R. Kim, Y. O. Park, Y. Lee, Y. J. Seo, C. D. Kim, J. H. Lee, and M. Im, “Toenail onychomycosis treated with a fractional carbon-dioxide laser and topical antifungal cream,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 70(5), 918–923 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Patel, A. H.

Pehamberger, H.

A. Alex, J. Weingast, M. Weinigel, M. Kellner-Höfer, R. Nemecek, M. Binder, H. Pehamberger, K. König, and W. Drexler, “Three-dimensional multiphoton/optical coherence tomography for diagnostic applications in dermatology,” J. Biophotonics 6(4), 352–362 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pekar, J.

Petersen, P. M.

Pfeiffer, T.

Pinto, F.

F. Prati, E. Regar, G. S. Mintz, E. Arbustini, C. Di Mario, I. K. Jang, T. Akasaka, M. Costa, G. Guagliumi, E. Grube, Y. Ozaki, F. Pinto, and P. W. J. Serruys, “Expert review document on methodology, terminology, and clinical applications of optical coherence tomography: physical principles, methodology of image acquisition, and clinical application for assessment of coronary arteries and atherosclerosis,” Eur. Heart J. 31(4), 401–415 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Podoleanu, A. G.

Potsaid, B.

Považay, B.

Prabhu, V.

V. Prabhu, S. B. S. Rao, S. Chandra, P. Kumar, L. Rao, V. Guddattu, K. Satyamoorthy, and K. K. Mahato, “Spectroscopic and histological evaluation of wound healing progression following Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT),” J. Biophotonics 5(2), 168–184 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Prati, F.

F. Prati, E. Regar, G. S. Mintz, E. Arbustini, C. Di Mario, I. K. Jang, T. Akasaka, M. Costa, G. Guagliumi, E. Grube, Y. Ozaki, F. Pinto, and P. W. J. Serruys, “Expert review document on methodology, terminology, and clinical applications of optical coherence tomography: physical principles, methodology of image acquisition, and clinical application for assessment of coronary arteries and atherosclerosis,” Eur. Heart J. 31(4), 401–415 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qi, B.

Rades, T.

T. Rattanapak, J. Birchall, K. Young, M. Ishii, I. Meglinski, T. Rades, and S. Hook, “Transcutaneous immunization using microneedles and cubosomes: Mechanistic investigations using Optical Coherence Tomography and Two-Photon Microscopy,” J. Control. Release 172(3), 894–903 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rahman, Z.

O. F. Stumpp, V. P. Bedi, D. Wyatt, D. Lac, Z. Rahman, and K. F. Chan, “In vivo confocal imaging of epidermal cell migration and dermal changes post nonablative fractional resurfacing: study of the wound healing process with corroborated histopathologic evidence,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024018 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rajadhyaksha, M.

Ranger-Moore, J.

V. R. Korde, G. T. Bonnema, W. Xu, C. Krishnamurthy, J. Ranger-Moore, K. Saboda, L. D. Slayton, S. J. Salasche, J. A. Warneke, D. S. Alberts, and J. K. Barton, “Using optical coherence tomography to evaluate skin sun damage and precancer,” Lasers Surg. Med. 39(9), 687–695 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rao, L.

V. Prabhu, S. B. S. Rao, S. Chandra, P. Kumar, L. Rao, V. Guddattu, K. Satyamoorthy, and K. K. Mahato, “Spectroscopic and histological evaluation of wound healing progression following Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT),” J. Biophotonics 5(2), 168–184 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rao, S. B. S.

V. Prabhu, S. B. S. Rao, S. Chandra, P. Kumar, L. Rao, V. Guddattu, K. Satyamoorthy, and K. K. Mahato, “Spectroscopic and histological evaluation of wound healing progression following Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT),” J. Biophotonics 5(2), 168–184 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rattanapak, T.

T. Rattanapak, J. Birchall, K. Young, M. Ishii, I. Meglinski, T. Rades, and S. Hook, “Transcutaneous immunization using microneedles and cubosomes: Mechanistic investigations using Optical Coherence Tomography and Two-Photon Microscopy,” J. Control. Release 172(3), 894–903 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Regar, E.

F. Prati, E. Regar, G. S. Mintz, E. Arbustini, C. Di Mario, I. K. Jang, T. Akasaka, M. Costa, G. Guagliumi, E. Grube, Y. Ozaki, F. Pinto, and P. W. J. Serruys, “Expert review document on methodology, terminology, and clinical applications of optical coherence tomography: physical principles, methodology of image acquisition, and clinical application for assessment of coronary arteries and atherosclerosis,” Eur. Heart J. 31(4), 401–415 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rhee, I. K.

I. S. Woo, I. K. Rhee, and H. D. Park, “Differential damage in bacterial cells by microwave radiation on the basis of cell wall structure,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 66(5), 2243–2247 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rivasi, F.

M. A. Vandelli, M. Romagnoli, A. Monti, M. Gozzi, P. Guerra, F. Rivasi, and F. Forni, “Microwave-treated gelatin microspheres as drug delivery system,” J. Control. Release 96(1), 67–84 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Romagnoli, M.

M. A. Vandelli, M. Romagnoli, A. Monti, M. Gozzi, P. Guerra, F. Rivasi, and F. Forni, “Microwave-treated gelatin microspheres as drug delivery system,” J. Control. Release 96(1), 67–84 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ross, E. V.

E. V. Ross, F. P. Sajben, J. Hsia, D. Barnette, C. H. Miller, and J. R. McKinlay, “Nonablative skin remodeling: Selective dermal heating with a mid-infrared laser and contact cooling combination,” Lasers Surg. Med. 26(2), 186–195 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Saboda, K.

V. R. Korde, G. T. Bonnema, W. Xu, C. Krishnamurthy, J. Ranger-Moore, K. Saboda, L. D. Slayton, S. J. Salasche, J. A. Warneke, D. S. Alberts, and J. K. Barton, “Using optical coherence tomography to evaluate skin sun damage and precancer,” Lasers Surg. Med. 39(9), 687–695 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sajben, F. P.

E. V. Ross, F. P. Sajben, J. Hsia, D. Barnette, C. H. Miller, and J. R. McKinlay, “Nonablative skin remodeling: Selective dermal heating with a mid-infrared laser and contact cooling combination,” Lasers Surg. Med. 26(2), 186–195 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sakai, S.

S. Sakai, M. Yamanari, Y. Lim, N. Nakagawa, and Y. Yasuno, “In vivo evaluation of human skin anisotropy by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(9), 2623–2631 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Sakai, M. Yamanari, A. Miyazawa, M. Matsumoto, N. Nakagawa, T. Sugawara, K. Kawabata, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, “In vivo three-dimensional birefringence analysis shows collagen differences between young and old photo-aged human skin,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 128(7), 1641–1647 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Salasche, S. J.

V. R. Korde, G. T. Bonnema, W. Xu, C. Krishnamurthy, J. Ranger-Moore, K. Saboda, L. D. Slayton, S. J. Salasche, J. A. Warneke, D. S. Alberts, and J. K. Barton, “Using optical coherence tomography to evaluate skin sun damage and precancer,” Lasers Surg. Med. 39(9), 687–695 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sampson, D. D.

Y. M. Liew, R. A. McLaughlin, P. Gong, F. M. Wood, and D. D. Sampson, “In vivo assessment of human burn scars through automated quantification of vascularity using optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(6), 061213 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sarunic, M. V.

Sattler, E.

E. Sattler, R. Kästle, and J. Welzel, “Optical coherence tomography in dermatology,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(6), 061224 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Satyamoorthy, K.

V. Prabhu, S. B. S. Rao, S. Chandra, P. Kumar, L. Rao, V. Guddattu, K. Satyamoorthy, and K. K. Mahato, “Spectroscopic and histological evaluation of wound healing progression following Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT),” J. Biophotonics 5(2), 168–184 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schmitt, J.

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sedighi, A.

M. Charkhchian, A. Beheshti, A. A. Zangivand, and A. Sedighi, “Nail disorder among patients on maintenance hemodialysis,” Dermatol. Sin. 31(1), 7–10 (2013).
[Crossref]

Seng-Yue, E.

Seo, Y. J.

E. H. Lim, H. R. Kim, Y. O. Park, Y. Lee, Y. J. Seo, C. D. Kim, J. H. Lee, and M. Im, “Toenail onychomycosis treated with a fractional carbon-dioxide laser and topical antifungal cream,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 70(5), 918–923 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Serruys, P. W. J.

F. Prati, E. Regar, G. S. Mintz, E. Arbustini, C. Di Mario, I. K. Jang, T. Akasaka, M. Costa, G. Guagliumi, E. Grube, Y. Ozaki, F. Pinto, and P. W. J. Serruys, “Expert review document on methodology, terminology, and clinical applications of optical coherence tomography: physical principles, methodology of image acquisition, and clinical application for assessment of coronary arteries and atherosclerosis,” Eur. Heart J. 31(4), 401–415 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shemonski, N. D.

A. Ahmad, N. D. Shemonski, S. G. Adie, H. S. Kim, W. M. W. Hwu, P. S. Carney, and S. A. Boppart, “Real-time in vivo computed optical interferometric tomography,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 444–448 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shen, S. C.

M. T. Tsai, C. H. Yang, S. C. Shen, Y. J. Lee, F. Y. Chang, and C. S. Feng, “Monitoring of wound healing process of human skin after fractional laser treatments with optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(11), 2362–2375 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. R. Lee, S. C. Shen, S. A. Al-Suwayeh, H. H. Yang, C. Y. Yuan, and J. Y. Fang, “Laser-assisted topical drug delivery by using a low-fluence fractional laser: Imiquimod and macromolecules,” J. Control. Release 153(3), 240–248 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shimizu, K.

Sink, R. K.

D. Manstein, G. S. Herron, R. K. Sink, H. Tanner, and R. R. Anderson, “Fractional photothermolysis: A new concept for cutaneous remodeling using microscopic patterns of thermal injury,” Lasers Surg. Med. 34(5), 426–438 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Slayton, L. D.

V. R. Korde, G. T. Bonnema, W. Xu, C. Krishnamurthy, J. Ranger-Moore, K. Saboda, L. D. Slayton, S. J. Salasche, J. A. Warneke, D. S. Alberts, and J. K. Barton, “Using optical coherence tomography to evaluate skin sun damage and precancer,” Lasers Surg. Med. 39(9), 687–695 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Srinivas, S. M.

S. M. Srinivas, J. F. de Boer, H. Park, K. Keikhanzadeh, H. E. Huang, J. Zhang, W. Q. Jung, Z. P. Chen, and J. S. Nelson, “Determination of burn depth by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(1), 207–212 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Standish, B. A.

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stumpp, O. F.

O. F. Stumpp, V. P. Bedi, D. Wyatt, D. Lac, Z. Rahman, and K. F. Chan, “In vivo confocal imaging of epidermal cell migration and dermal changes post nonablative fractional resurfacing: study of the wound healing process with corroborated histopathologic evidence,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024018 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Su, L. H.

T. H. Chen, S. H. Wang, L. H. Su, Y. L. Hsu, T. H. Tsai, Y. J. Hsu, and Y. J. Chang, “Comparison of visual effects of immersion fluids for dermoscopic examination of acral volar melanocytic lesions,” Dermatol. Sin. 32(2), 69–74 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sugawara, T.

S. Sakai, M. Yamanari, A. Miyazawa, M. Matsumoto, N. Nakagawa, T. Sugawara, K. Kawabata, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, “In vivo three-dimensional birefringence analysis shows collagen differences between young and old photo-aged human skin,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 128(7), 1641–1647 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, V.

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Takagi, T.

T. Lee, T. Yonetsu, K. Koura, K. Hishikari, T. Murai, T. Iwai, T. Takagi, Y. Iesaka, H. Fujiwara, M. Isobe, and T. Kakuta, “Impact of coronary plaque morphology assessed by optical coherence tomography on cardiac troponin elevation in patients with elective stent implantation,” Circ. Cardiovasc. Interv. 4(4), 378–386 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tang, S. J.

Tanner, H.

D. Manstein, G. S. Herron, R. K. Sink, H. Tanner, and R. R. Anderson, “Fractional photothermolysis: A new concept for cutaneous remodeling using microscopic patterns of thermal injury,” Lasers Surg. Med. 34(5), 426–438 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tannous, Z.

H. J. Laubach, Z. Tannous, R. R. Anderson, and D. Manstein, “Skin responses to fractional photothermolysis,” Lasers Surg. Med. 38(2), 142–149 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tearney, G. J.

Tomasi, C.

Tsai, M. T.

Tsai, T. H.

T. H. Chen, S. H. Wang, L. H. Su, Y. L. Hsu, T. H. Tsai, Y. J. Hsu, and Y. J. Chang, “Comparison of visual effects of immersion fluids for dermoscopic examination of acral volar melanocytic lesions,” Dermatol. Sin. 32(2), 69–74 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. C. Adler, C. Zhou, T. H. Tsai, J. Schmitt, Q. Huang, H. Mashimo, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Three-dimensional endomicroscopy of the human colon using optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 17(2), 784–796 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tseng, I. C.

H. L. Liu, M. Y. Hua, H. W. Yang, C. Y. Huang, P. C. Chu, J. S. Wu, I. C. Tseng, J. J. Wang, T. C. Yen, P. Y. Chen, and K. C. Wei, “Magnetic resonance monitoring of focused ultrasound/magnetic nanoparticle targeting delivery of therapeutic agents to the brain,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(34), 15205–15210 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Unterhuber, A.

van der Maaden, K.

K. van der Maaden, W. Jiskoot, and J. Bouwstra, “Microneedle technologies for (trans)dermal drug and vaccine delivery,” J. Control. Release 161(2), 645–655 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vandelli, M. A.

M. A. Vandelli, M. Romagnoli, A. Monti, M. Gozzi, P. Guerra, F. Rivasi, and F. Forni, “Microwave-treated gelatin microspheres as drug delivery system,” J. Control. Release 96(1), 67–84 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Velez, C.

Vitkin, I. A.

Wang, J. J.

H. L. Liu, M. Y. Hua, H. W. Yang, C. Y. Huang, P. C. Chu, J. S. Wu, I. C. Tseng, J. J. Wang, T. C. Yen, P. Y. Chen, and K. C. Wei, “Magnetic resonance monitoring of focused ultrasound/magnetic nanoparticle targeting delivery of therapeutic agents to the brain,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(34), 15205–15210 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, S. H.

T. H. Chen, S. H. Wang, L. H. Su, Y. L. Hsu, T. H. Tsai, Y. J. Hsu, and Y. J. Chang, “Comparison of visual effects of immersion fluids for dermoscopic examination of acral volar melanocytic lesions,” Dermatol. Sin. 32(2), 69–74 (2014).
[Crossref]

Warneke, J. A.

V. R. Korde, G. T. Bonnema, W. Xu, C. Krishnamurthy, J. Ranger-Moore, K. Saboda, L. D. Slayton, S. J. Salasche, J. A. Warneke, D. S. Alberts, and J. K. Barton, “Using optical coherence tomography to evaluate skin sun damage and precancer,” Lasers Surg. Med. 39(9), 687–695 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wei, K. C.

H. L. Liu, M. Y. Hua, H. W. Yang, C. Y. Huang, P. C. Chu, J. S. Wu, I. C. Tseng, J. J. Wang, T. C. Yen, P. Y. Chen, and K. C. Wei, “Magnetic resonance monitoring of focused ultrasound/magnetic nanoparticle targeting delivery of therapeutic agents to the brain,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(34), 15205–15210 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weingast, J.

A. Alex, J. Weingast, M. Weinigel, M. Kellner-Höfer, R. Nemecek, M. Binder, H. Pehamberger, K. König, and W. Drexler, “Three-dimensional multiphoton/optical coherence tomography for diagnostic applications in dermatology,” J. Biophotonics 6(4), 352–362 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weinigel, M.

A. Alex, J. Weingast, M. Weinigel, M. Kellner-Höfer, R. Nemecek, M. Binder, H. Pehamberger, K. König, and W. Drexler, “Three-dimensional multiphoton/optical coherence tomography for diagnostic applications in dermatology,” J. Biophotonics 6(4), 352–362 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Welzel, J.

E. Sattler, R. Kästle, and J. Welzel, “Optical coherence tomography in dermatology,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(6), 061224 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wieser, W.

Wilson, B. C.

Woo, I. S.

I. S. Woo, I. K. Rhee, and H. D. Park, “Differential damage in bacterial cells by microwave radiation on the basis of cell wall structure,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 66(5), 2243–2247 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wood, F. M.

Y. M. Liew, R. A. McLaughlin, P. Gong, F. M. Wood, and D. D. Sampson, “In vivo assessment of human burn scars through automated quantification of vascularity using optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(6), 061213 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, J. S.

H. L. Liu, M. Y. Hua, H. W. Yang, C. Y. Huang, P. C. Chu, J. S. Wu, I. C. Tseng, J. J. Wang, T. C. Yen, P. Y. Chen, and K. C. Wei, “Magnetic resonance monitoring of focused ultrasound/magnetic nanoparticle targeting delivery of therapeutic agents to the brain,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(34), 15205–15210 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, W. W.

G. Deka, W. W. Wu, and F. J. Kao, “In vivo wound healing diagnosis with second harmonic and fluorescence lifetime imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(6), 061222 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wu, Y. H.

P. F. Hsiao, Y. C. Lin, C. C. Huang, and Y. H. Wu, “Efficacy and safety of a single treatment using a 10,600-nm carbon dioxide fractional laser for mild-to-moderate atrophic acne scars in Asian skin,” Dermatol. Sin. 31(2), 59–63 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wyatt, D.

O. F. Stumpp, V. P. Bedi, D. Wyatt, D. Lac, Z. Rahman, and K. F. Chan, “In vivo confocal imaging of epidermal cell migration and dermal changes post nonablative fractional resurfacing: study of the wound healing process with corroborated histopathologic evidence,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024018 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, W.

V. R. Korde, G. T. Bonnema, W. Xu, C. Krishnamurthy, J. Ranger-Moore, K. Saboda, L. D. Slayton, S. J. Salasche, J. A. Warneke, D. S. Alberts, and J. K. Barton, “Using optical coherence tomography to evaluate skin sun damage and precancer,” Lasers Surg. Med. 39(9), 687–695 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yamanari, M.

Yang, C. H.

Yang, H. H.

W. R. Lee, S. C. Shen, S. A. Al-Suwayeh, H. H. Yang, C. Y. Yuan, and J. Y. Fang, “Laser-assisted topical drug delivery by using a low-fluence fractional laser: Imiquimod and macromolecules,” J. Control. Release 153(3), 240–248 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, H. W.

H. L. Liu, M. Y. Hua, H. W. Yang, C. Y. Huang, P. C. Chu, J. S. Wu, I. C. Tseng, J. J. Wang, T. C. Yen, P. Y. Chen, and K. C. Wei, “Magnetic resonance monitoring of focused ultrasound/magnetic nanoparticle targeting delivery of therapeutic agents to the brain,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(34), 15205–15210 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, V. X. D.

Yasuno, Y.

Yatagai, T.

S. Sakai, M. Yamanari, A. Miyazawa, M. Matsumoto, N. Nakagawa, T. Sugawara, K. Kawabata, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, “In vivo three-dimensional birefringence analysis shows collagen differences between young and old photo-aged human skin,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 128(7), 1641–1647 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yen, T. C.

H. L. Liu, M. Y. Hua, H. W. Yang, C. Y. Huang, P. C. Chu, J. S. Wu, I. C. Tseng, J. J. Wang, T. C. Yen, P. Y. Chen, and K. C. Wei, “Magnetic resonance monitoring of focused ultrasound/magnetic nanoparticle targeting delivery of therapeutic agents to the brain,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(34), 15205–15210 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yonetsu, T.

T. Lee, T. Yonetsu, K. Koura, K. Hishikari, T. Murai, T. Iwai, T. Takagi, Y. Iesaka, H. Fujiwara, M. Isobe, and T. Kakuta, “Impact of coronary plaque morphology assessed by optical coherence tomography on cardiac troponin elevation in patients with elective stent implantation,” Circ. Cardiovasc. Interv. 4(4), 378–386 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Young, K.

T. Rattanapak, J. Birchall, K. Young, M. Ishii, I. Meglinski, T. Rades, and S. Hook, “Transcutaneous immunization using microneedles and cubosomes: Mechanistic investigations using Optical Coherence Tomography and Two-Photon Microscopy,” J. Control. Release 172(3), 894–903 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yuan, C. Y.

W. R. Lee, S. C. Shen, S. A. Al-Suwayeh, H. H. Yang, C. Y. Yuan, and J. Y. Fang, “Laser-assisted topical drug delivery by using a low-fluence fractional laser: Imiquimod and macromolecules,” J. Control. Release 153(3), 240–248 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yun, S. H.

Zachary, C. B.

C. B. Zachary, “Modulating the Er:YAG laser,” Lasers Surg. Med. 26(2), 223–226 (2000).
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Zangivand, A. A.

M. Charkhchian, A. Beheshti, A. A. Zangivand, and A. Sedighi, “Nail disorder among patients on maintenance hemodialysis,” Dermatol. Sin. 31(1), 7–10 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, E. Z.

Zhang, J.

S. M. Srinivas, J. F. de Boer, H. Park, K. Keikhanzadeh, H. E. Huang, J. Zhang, W. Q. Jung, Z. P. Chen, and J. S. Nelson, “Determination of burn depth by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(1), 207–212 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, C.

Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (1)

I. S. Woo, I. K. Rhee, and H. D. Park, “Differential damage in bacterial cells by microwave radiation on the basis of cell wall structure,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 66(5), 2243–2247 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biomed. Opt. Express (9)

Y. Lim, M. Yamanari, S. Fukuda, Y. Kaji, T. Kiuchi, M. Miura, T. Oshika, and Y. Yasuno, “Birefringence measurement of cornea and anterior segment by office-based polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(8), 2392–2402 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Sakai, M. Yamanari, Y. Lim, N. Nakagawa, and Y. Yasuno, “In vivo evaluation of human skin anisotropy by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(9), 2623–2631 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. W. Cadotte, A. Mariampillai, A. Cadotte, K. K. C. Lee, T. R. Kiehl, B. C. Wilson, M. G. Fehlings, and V. X. D. Yang, “Speckle variance optical coherence tomography of the rodent spinal cord: in vivo feasibility,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(5), 911–919 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Iftimia, R. D. Ferguson, M. Mujat, A. H. Patel, E. Z. Zhang, W. Fox, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Combined reflectance confocal microscopy/optical coherence tomography imaging for skin burn assessment,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(5), 680–695 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. C. Hendargo, R. Estrada, S. J. Chiu, C. Tomasi, S. Farsiu, and J. A. Izatt, “Automated non-rigid registration and mosaicing for robust imaging of distinct retinal capillary beds using speckle variance optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(6), 803–821 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. T. Tsai, C. H. Yang, S. C. Shen, Y. J. Lee, F. Y. Chang, and C. S. Feng, “Monitoring of wound healing process of human skin after fractional laser treatments with optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(11), 2362–2375 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. H. Choi, H. Hiro-Oka, K. Shimizu, and K. Ohbayashi, “Spectral domain optical coherence tomography of multi-MHz A-scan rates at 1310 nm range and real-time 4D-display up to 41 volumes/second,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(12), 3067–3086 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Bradu and A. G. Podoleanu, “Imaging the eye fundus with real-time en-face spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(4), 1233–1249 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Wieser, W. Draxinger, T. Klein, S. Karpf, T. Pfeiffer, and R. Huber, “High definition live 3D-OCT in vivo: design and evaluation of a 4D OCT engine with 1 GVoxel/s,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(9), 2963–2977 (2014).
[Crossref]

Circ. Cardiovasc. Interv. (1)

T. Lee, T. Yonetsu, K. Koura, K. Hishikari, T. Murai, T. Iwai, T. Takagi, Y. Iesaka, H. Fujiwara, M. Isobe, and T. Kakuta, “Impact of coronary plaque morphology assessed by optical coherence tomography on cardiac troponin elevation in patients with elective stent implantation,” Circ. Cardiovasc. Interv. 4(4), 378–386 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dermatol. Sin. (3)

T. H. Chen, S. H. Wang, L. H. Su, Y. L. Hsu, T. H. Tsai, Y. J. Hsu, and Y. J. Chang, “Comparison of visual effects of immersion fluids for dermoscopic examination of acral volar melanocytic lesions,” Dermatol. Sin. 32(2), 69–74 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. F. Hsiao, Y. C. Lin, C. C. Huang, and Y. H. Wu, “Efficacy and safety of a single treatment using a 10,600-nm carbon dioxide fractional laser for mild-to-moderate atrophic acne scars in Asian skin,” Dermatol. Sin. 31(2), 59–63 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Charkhchian, A. Beheshti, A. A. Zangivand, and A. Sedighi, “Nail disorder among patients on maintenance hemodialysis,” Dermatol. Sin. 31(1), 7–10 (2013).
[Crossref]

Eur. Heart J. (1)

F. Prati, E. Regar, G. S. Mintz, E. Arbustini, C. Di Mario, I. K. Jang, T. Akasaka, M. Costa, G. Guagliumi, E. Grube, Y. Ozaki, F. Pinto, and P. W. J. Serruys, “Expert review document on methodology, terminology, and clinical applications of optical coherence tomography: physical principles, methodology of image acquisition, and clinical application for assessment of coronary arteries and atherosclerosis,” Eur. Heart J. 31(4), 401–415 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. (1)

E. H. Lim, H. R. Kim, Y. O. Park, Y. Lee, Y. J. Seo, C. D. Kim, J. H. Lee, and M. Im, “Toenail onychomycosis treated with a fractional carbon-dioxide laser and topical antifungal cream,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 70(5), 918–923 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (5)

O. F. Stumpp, V. P. Bedi, D. Wyatt, D. Lac, Z. Rahman, and K. F. Chan, “In vivo confocal imaging of epidermal cell migration and dermal changes post nonablative fractional resurfacing: study of the wound healing process with corroborated histopathologic evidence,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024018 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Deka, W. W. Wu, and F. J. Kao, “In vivo wound healing diagnosis with second harmonic and fluorescence lifetime imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(6), 061222 (2013).
[Crossref]

E. Sattler, R. Kästle, and J. Welzel, “Optical coherence tomography in dermatology,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(6), 061224 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. M. Srinivas, J. F. de Boer, H. Park, K. Keikhanzadeh, H. E. Huang, J. Zhang, W. Q. Jung, Z. P. Chen, and J. S. Nelson, “Determination of burn depth by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(1), 207–212 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. M. Liew, R. A. McLaughlin, P. Gong, F. M. Wood, and D. D. Sampson, “In vivo assessment of human burn scars through automated quantification of vascularity using optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(6), 061213 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Biophotonics (2)

V. Prabhu, S. B. S. Rao, S. Chandra, P. Kumar, L. Rao, V. Guddattu, K. Satyamoorthy, and K. K. Mahato, “Spectroscopic and histological evaluation of wound healing progression following Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT),” J. Biophotonics 5(2), 168–184 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Alex, J. Weingast, M. Weinigel, M. Kellner-Höfer, R. Nemecek, M. Binder, H. Pehamberger, K. König, and W. Drexler, “Three-dimensional multiphoton/optical coherence tomography for diagnostic applications in dermatology,” J. Biophotonics 6(4), 352–362 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Control. Release (4)

W. R. Lee, S. C. Shen, S. A. Al-Suwayeh, H. H. Yang, C. Y. Yuan, and J. Y. Fang, “Laser-assisted topical drug delivery by using a low-fluence fractional laser: Imiquimod and macromolecules,” J. Control. Release 153(3), 240–248 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Vandelli, M. Romagnoli, A. Monti, M. Gozzi, P. Guerra, F. Rivasi, and F. Forni, “Microwave-treated gelatin microspheres as drug delivery system,” J. Control. Release 96(1), 67–84 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. van der Maaden, W. Jiskoot, and J. Bouwstra, “Microneedle technologies for (trans)dermal drug and vaccine delivery,” J. Control. Release 161(2), 645–655 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Rattanapak, J. Birchall, K. Young, M. Ishii, I. Meglinski, T. Rades, and S. Hook, “Transcutaneous immunization using microneedles and cubosomes: Mechanistic investigations using Optical Coherence Tomography and Two-Photon Microscopy,” J. Control. Release 172(3), 894–903 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Invest. Dermatol. (1)

S. Sakai, M. Yamanari, A. Miyazawa, M. Matsumoto, N. Nakagawa, T. Sugawara, K. Kawabata, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, “In vivo three-dimensional birefringence analysis shows collagen differences between young and old photo-aged human skin,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 128(7), 1641–1647 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lasers Surg. Med. (5)

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Supplementary Material (1)

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic diagram of OCT system. FC: fiber coupler; CIR: circulator; G: two-axis galvanometer; SMF: single-mode fiber, DC: dispersion compensator, M: mirror, and OB: objective lens. The physical area of OCT imaging was set to be approximately 2.5 × 2.5 mm2.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Top-view and (b) side-view images of a finger nail treated with a pulse energy of 30 mJ. (c) Top-view and (d) side-view images of a finger nail treated with a pulse energy of 40 mJ. The pictures show clearly demarcated and cylindrical MAZs that extended into the nail plate.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a)-(d) 2D OCT images of four nails after AFL exposures with energies of 20, 30, 40, and 50 mJ. (e)-(h) En-face images at the nail surface, which were obtained from 3D OCT images of (a)-(d). (i)-(l) paraffin embedded H&E histology images of the same nails in (a)-(d). The white arrows indicate the induced MAZ structures.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Plot of mean MAZ depths, and (b) plot of mean MAZ diameter following CO2 fractional laser treatment of finger nails at various pulse energies of 20, 30, 40, and 50 mJ.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Time-resolved SV-OCT images of the nail without fractional laser exposure obtained (a) before dropping the normal saline, and after dropping the normal saline at (b) 60 s, (c) 120 s, (d) 180 s, (e) 240 s, and (f) 300 s. The white arrow indicates the nail plate (the dark stripe), and the yellow arrow represents the image artifact in our system.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Time-resolved SV-OCT images the nail after fractional laser exposure obtained (a) before dropping normal saline, and after dropping normal saline at (b) 0.4 s, (c) 0.8 s, (d) 2 s, (e)4 s, (f)8 s, (g)16 s, (h)34 s, (i)38 s, (j)42 s, (k)60 s, (l)80 s, (m)100 s, (n)120 s, and (o)140 s. The successive diffusion process for a period of 140 s can be found in Media 1.

Equations (1)

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