Abstract

Herein a propagation-based phase contrast x-ray imaging technique for measuring particle size and number is presented. This is achieved with an algorithm that utilizes the Fourier space signature of the speckle pattern associated with the images of particles. We validate this algorithm using soda-lime glass particles, demonstrating its effectiveness on random and non-randomly packed particles. This technique is then applied to characterise lung alveoli, which are difficult to measure dynamically in vivo with current imaging modalities due to inadequate temporal resolution and/or depth of penetration and field-of-view. We obtain an important result in that our algorithm is able to measure changes in alveolar size on the micron scale during ventilation and shows the presence of alveolar recruitment/de-recruitment in newborn rabbit kittens. This technique will be useful for ventilation management and lung diagnostic procedures.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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2013 (5)

S. Chang, N. Kwon, B. M. Weon, J. Kim, C. K. Rhee, H. S. Choi, Y. Kohmura, M. Yamamoto, T. Ishikawa, and J. H. Je, “Tracking x-ray microscopy for alveolar dynamics in live intact mice,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1304 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. F. T. Leong, A. Fouras, M. S. Islam, M. J. Wallace, S. B. Hooper, and M. J. Kitchen, “High spatiotemporal resolution measurement of regional lung air volumes from 2D phase contrast x-ray images,” Med. Phys. 40(4), 041909 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. B. Garson, E. W. Izaguirre, S. G. Price, and M. A. Anastasio, “Characterization of speckle in lung images acquired with a benchtop in-line x-ray phase-contrast system,” Phys. Med. Biol. 58(12), 4237–4253 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. P. Carnibella, M. J. Kitchen, and A. Fouras, “Decoding the structure of granular and porous materials from speckled phase contrast x-ray images,” Opt. Express 21(16), 19153–19162 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. F. T. Leong, D. M. Paganin, S. B. Hooper, M. L. Siew, and M. J. Kitchen, “Measurement of absolute regional lung air volumes from near-field x-ray speckles,” Opt. Express 21(23), 27905–27923 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

R. P. Carnibella, M. J. Kitchen, and A. Fouras, “Determining particle size distributions from a single projection image,” Opt. Express 20(14), 15962–15968 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Dubsky, S. B. Hooper, K. K. W. Siu, and A. Fouras, “Synchrotron-based dynamic computed tomography of tissue motion for regional lung function measurement,” J. R. Soc. Interface 9(74), 2213–2224 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

D. Schwenninger, H. Runck, S. Schumann, J. Haberstroh, S. Meissner, E. Koch, and J. Guttmann, “Intravital microscopy of subpleural alveoli via transthoracic endoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(4), 046002 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Liu, H. Runck, M. Schneider, X. Tong, and C. A. Stahl, “Morphometry of subpleural alveoli may be greatly biased by local pressure changes induced by the microscopic device,” Respir. Physiol. Neurobiol. 178(2), 283–289 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Kitchen, D. M. Paganin, K. Uesugi, B. J. Allison, R. A. Lewis, S. B. Hooper, and K. M. Pavlov, “Phase contrast image segmentation using a Laue analyser crystal,” Phys. Med. Biol. 56(3), 515–534 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

M. J. Kitchen, A. Habib, A. Fouras, S. Dubsky, R. A. Lewis, M. J. Wallace, and S. B. Hooper, “A new design for high stability pressure-controlled ventilation for small animal lung imaging,” J. Instrum. 5(02), T02002 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Tsao, “Ultrafast imaging: principles, pitfalls, solutions, and applications,” J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 32(2), 252–266 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. J. Wellman, T. Winkler, E. L. V. Costa, G. Musch, R. S. Harris, J. G. Venegas, and M. F. V. Melo, “Measurement of regional specific lung volume change using respiratory-gated PET of inhaled 13N-nitrogen,” J. Nucl. Med. 51(4), 646–653 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

T. E. Gureyev, S. C. Mayo, D. E. Myers, Y. Nesterets, D. M. Paganin, A. Pogany, A. W. Stevenson, and S. W. Wilkins, “Refracting Röntgen’s rays: propagation-based x-ray phase contrast for biomedical imaging,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(10), 102005 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. P. Albert, J. DiRocco, G. B. Allen, J. H. T. Bates, R. Lafollette, B. D. Kubiak, J. Fischer, S. Maroney, and G. F. Nieman, “The role of time and pressure on alveolar recruitment,” J. Appl. Physiol. 106(3), 757–765 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (4)

E. Namati, J. Thiesse, J. de Ryk, and G. McLennan, “Alveolar dynamics during respiration: are the pores of Kohn a pathway to recruitment?” Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. 38(5), 572–578 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Kitchen, R. A. Lewis, M. J. Morgan, M. J. Wallace, M. L. Siew, K. K. W. Siu, A. Habib, A. Fouras, N. Yagi, K. Uesugi, and S. B. Hooper, “Dynamic measures of regional lung air volume using phase contrast x-ray imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(21), 6065–6077 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Cerbino, L. Peverini, M. A. C. Potenza, A. Robert, P. Bösecke, and M. Giglio, “X-ray-scattering information obtained from near-field speckle,” Nat. Phys. 4(3), 238–243 (2008).
[Crossref]

T. E. Gureyev, Y. I. Nesterets, A. W. Stevenson, P. R. Miller, A. Pogany, and S. W. Wilkins, “Some simple rules for contrast, signal-to-noise and resolution in in-line x-ray phase-contrast imaging,” Opt. Express 16(5), 3223–3241 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

S. B. Hooper, M. J. Kitchen, M. J. Wallace, N. Yagi, K. Uesugi, M. J. Morgan, C. Hall, K. K. W. Siu, I. M. Williams, M. Siew, S. C. Irvine, K. Pavlov, and R. A. Lewis, “Imaging lung aeration and lung liquid clearance at birth,” FASEB J. 21(12), 3329–3337 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (4)

J. D. Escolar and A. Escolar, “Lung hysteresis: a morphological view,” Histol. Histopathol. 19(1), 159–166 (2004).
[PubMed]

M. J. Kitchen, D. Paganin, R. A. Lewis, N. Yagi, K. Uesugi, and S. T. Mudie, “On the origin of speckle in x-ray phase contrast images of lung tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 49(18), 4335–4348 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Itoh, M. Nishino, and H. Hatabu, “Architecture of the lung: morphology and function,” J. Thorac. Imaging 19(4), 221–227 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Fichele, N. Woodhouse, A. J. Swift, Z. Said, M. N. J. Paley, L. Kasuboski, G. H. Mills, E. J. R. van Beek, and J. M. Wild, “MRI of helium-3 gas in healthy lungs: posture related variations of alveolar size,” J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 20(2), 331–335 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

2002 (1)

D. Paganin, S. C. Mayo, T. E. Gureyev, P. R. Miller, and S. W. Wilkins, “Simultaneous phase and amplitude extraction from a single defocused image of a homogeneous object,” J. Microsc. 206(1), 33–40 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (3)

F. Ossant, M. Lebertre, L. Pourcelot, and F. Patat, “Ultrasonic characterization of maturation of fetal lung microstructure: an animal study,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 27(2), 157–169 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Brancazio, G. N. Franz, E. L. Petsonk, and D. G. Frazer, “Lung area--volume models in relation to the recruitment--derecruitment of individual lung units,” Ann. Biomed. Eng. 29(3), 252–262 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Goto, K. Takeshita, Y. Suzuki, H. Ohashi, Y. Asano, H. Kimura, T. Matsushita, N. Yagi, M. Isshiki, H. Yamazaki, Y. Yoneda, K. Umetani, and T. Ishikawa, “Construction and commissioning of a 215-m-long beamline at SPring-8,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 467–468(Part 1), 682–685 (2001).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

T. E. Gureyev and S. W. Wilkins, “On x-ray phase retrieval from polychromatic images,” Opt. Commun. 147(4-6), 229–232 (1998).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

L. Vincent and P. Soille, “Watersheds in digital spaces: an efficient algorithm based on immersion simulations,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 13(6), 583–598 (1991).
[Crossref]

1977 (1)

M. M. Hall, V. G. Veeraraghavan, H. Rubin, and P. G. Winchell, “The approximation of symmetric x-ray peaks by Pearson type VII distributions,” J. Appl. Cryst. 10(1), 66–68 (1977).
[Crossref]

1915 (1)

P. Debye, “Zerstreuung von Röntgenstrahlen,” Annalen der Physik 351(6), 809–823 (1915).
[Crossref]

Albert, S. P.

S. P. Albert, J. DiRocco, G. B. Allen, J. H. T. Bates, R. Lafollette, B. D. Kubiak, J. Fischer, S. Maroney, and G. F. Nieman, “The role of time and pressure on alveolar recruitment,” J. Appl. Physiol. 106(3), 757–765 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Allen, G. B.

S. P. Albert, J. DiRocco, G. B. Allen, J. H. T. Bates, R. Lafollette, B. D. Kubiak, J. Fischer, S. Maroney, and G. F. Nieman, “The role of time and pressure on alveolar recruitment,” J. Appl. Physiol. 106(3), 757–765 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Allison, B. J.

M. J. Kitchen, D. M. Paganin, K. Uesugi, B. J. Allison, R. A. Lewis, S. B. Hooper, and K. M. Pavlov, “Phase contrast image segmentation using a Laue analyser crystal,” Phys. Med. Biol. 56(3), 515–534 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anastasio, M. A.

A. B. Garson, E. W. Izaguirre, S. G. Price, and M. A. Anastasio, “Characterization of speckle in lung images acquired with a benchtop in-line x-ray phase-contrast system,” Phys. Med. Biol. 58(12), 4237–4253 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Asano, Y.

S. Goto, K. Takeshita, Y. Suzuki, H. Ohashi, Y. Asano, H. Kimura, T. Matsushita, N. Yagi, M. Isshiki, H. Yamazaki, Y. Yoneda, K. Umetani, and T. Ishikawa, “Construction and commissioning of a 215-m-long beamline at SPring-8,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 467–468(Part 1), 682–685 (2001).
[Crossref]

Bates, J. H. T.

S. P. Albert, J. DiRocco, G. B. Allen, J. H. T. Bates, R. Lafollette, B. D. Kubiak, J. Fischer, S. Maroney, and G. F. Nieman, “The role of time and pressure on alveolar recruitment,” J. Appl. Physiol. 106(3), 757–765 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bösecke, P.

R. Cerbino, L. Peverini, M. A. C. Potenza, A. Robert, P. Bösecke, and M. Giglio, “X-ray-scattering information obtained from near-field speckle,” Nat. Phys. 4(3), 238–243 (2008).
[Crossref]

Brancazio, L.

L. Brancazio, G. N. Franz, E. L. Petsonk, and D. G. Frazer, “Lung area--volume models in relation to the recruitment--derecruitment of individual lung units,” Ann. Biomed. Eng. 29(3), 252–262 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carnibella, R. P.

Cerbino, R.

R. Cerbino, L. Peverini, M. A. C. Potenza, A. Robert, P. Bösecke, and M. Giglio, “X-ray-scattering information obtained from near-field speckle,” Nat. Phys. 4(3), 238–243 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chang, S.

S. Chang, N. Kwon, B. M. Weon, J. Kim, C. K. Rhee, H. S. Choi, Y. Kohmura, M. Yamamoto, T. Ishikawa, and J. H. Je, “Tracking x-ray microscopy for alveolar dynamics in live intact mice,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1304 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, H. S.

S. Chang, N. Kwon, B. M. Weon, J. Kim, C. K. Rhee, H. S. Choi, Y. Kohmura, M. Yamamoto, T. Ishikawa, and J. H. Je, “Tracking x-ray microscopy for alveolar dynamics in live intact mice,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1304 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Costa, E. L. V.

T. J. Wellman, T. Winkler, E. L. V. Costa, G. Musch, R. S. Harris, J. G. Venegas, and M. F. V. Melo, “Measurement of regional specific lung volume change using respiratory-gated PET of inhaled 13N-nitrogen,” J. Nucl. Med. 51(4), 646–653 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

de Ryk, J.

E. Namati, J. Thiesse, J. de Ryk, and G. McLennan, “Alveolar dynamics during respiration: are the pores of Kohn a pathway to recruitment?” Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. 38(5), 572–578 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Debye, P.

P. Debye, “Zerstreuung von Röntgenstrahlen,” Annalen der Physik 351(6), 809–823 (1915).
[Crossref]

DiRocco, J.

S. P. Albert, J. DiRocco, G. B. Allen, J. H. T. Bates, R. Lafollette, B. D. Kubiak, J. Fischer, S. Maroney, and G. F. Nieman, “The role of time and pressure on alveolar recruitment,” J. Appl. Physiol. 106(3), 757–765 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dubsky, S.

S. Dubsky, S. B. Hooper, K. K. W. Siu, and A. Fouras, “Synchrotron-based dynamic computed tomography of tissue motion for regional lung function measurement,” J. R. Soc. Interface 9(74), 2213–2224 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Kitchen, A. Habib, A. Fouras, S. Dubsky, R. A. Lewis, M. J. Wallace, and S. B. Hooper, “A new design for high stability pressure-controlled ventilation for small animal lung imaging,” J. Instrum. 5(02), T02002 (2010).
[Crossref]

Escolar, A.

J. D. Escolar and A. Escolar, “Lung hysteresis: a morphological view,” Histol. Histopathol. 19(1), 159–166 (2004).
[PubMed]

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Fischer, J.

S. P. Albert, J. DiRocco, G. B. Allen, J. H. T. Bates, R. Lafollette, B. D. Kubiak, J. Fischer, S. Maroney, and G. F. Nieman, “The role of time and pressure on alveolar recruitment,” J. Appl. Physiol. 106(3), 757–765 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fouras, A.

A. F. T. Leong, A. Fouras, M. S. Islam, M. J. Wallace, S. B. Hooper, and M. J. Kitchen, “High spatiotemporal resolution measurement of regional lung air volumes from 2D phase contrast x-ray images,” Med. Phys. 40(4), 041909 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. P. Carnibella, M. J. Kitchen, and A. Fouras, “Decoding the structure of granular and porous materials from speckled phase contrast x-ray images,” Opt. Express 21(16), 19153–19162 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. P. Carnibella, M. J. Kitchen, and A. Fouras, “Determining particle size distributions from a single projection image,” Opt. Express 20(14), 15962–15968 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Dubsky, S. B. Hooper, K. K. W. Siu, and A. Fouras, “Synchrotron-based dynamic computed tomography of tissue motion for regional lung function measurement,” J. R. Soc. Interface 9(74), 2213–2224 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Kitchen, A. Habib, A. Fouras, S. Dubsky, R. A. Lewis, M. J. Wallace, and S. B. Hooper, “A new design for high stability pressure-controlled ventilation for small animal lung imaging,” J. Instrum. 5(02), T02002 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. J. Kitchen, R. A. Lewis, M. J. Morgan, M. J. Wallace, M. L. Siew, K. K. W. Siu, A. Habib, A. Fouras, N. Yagi, K. Uesugi, and S. B. Hooper, “Dynamic measures of regional lung air volume using phase contrast x-ray imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(21), 6065–6077 (2008).
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Franz, G. N.

L. Brancazio, G. N. Franz, E. L. Petsonk, and D. G. Frazer, “Lung area--volume models in relation to the recruitment--derecruitment of individual lung units,” Ann. Biomed. Eng. 29(3), 252–262 (2001).
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Frazer, D. G.

L. Brancazio, G. N. Franz, E. L. Petsonk, and D. G. Frazer, “Lung area--volume models in relation to the recruitment--derecruitment of individual lung units,” Ann. Biomed. Eng. 29(3), 252–262 (2001).
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Garson, A. B.

A. B. Garson, E. W. Izaguirre, S. G. Price, and M. A. Anastasio, “Characterization of speckle in lung images acquired with a benchtop in-line x-ray phase-contrast system,” Phys. Med. Biol. 58(12), 4237–4253 (2013).
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Giglio, M.

R. Cerbino, L. Peverini, M. A. C. Potenza, A. Robert, P. Bösecke, and M. Giglio, “X-ray-scattering information obtained from near-field speckle,” Nat. Phys. 4(3), 238–243 (2008).
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S. Goto, K. Takeshita, Y. Suzuki, H. Ohashi, Y. Asano, H. Kimura, T. Matsushita, N. Yagi, M. Isshiki, H. Yamazaki, Y. Yoneda, K. Umetani, and T. Ishikawa, “Construction and commissioning of a 215-m-long beamline at SPring-8,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 467–468(Part 1), 682–685 (2001).
[Crossref]

Gureyev, T. E.

T. E. Gureyev, S. C. Mayo, D. E. Myers, Y. Nesterets, D. M. Paganin, A. Pogany, A. W. Stevenson, and S. W. Wilkins, “Refracting Röntgen’s rays: propagation-based x-ray phase contrast for biomedical imaging,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(10), 102005 (2009).
[Crossref]

T. E. Gureyev, Y. I. Nesterets, A. W. Stevenson, P. R. Miller, A. Pogany, and S. W. Wilkins, “Some simple rules for contrast, signal-to-noise and resolution in in-line x-ray phase-contrast imaging,” Opt. Express 16(5), 3223–3241 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Paganin, S. C. Mayo, T. E. Gureyev, P. R. Miller, and S. W. Wilkins, “Simultaneous phase and amplitude extraction from a single defocused image of a homogeneous object,” J. Microsc. 206(1), 33–40 (2002).
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T. E. Gureyev and S. W. Wilkins, “On x-ray phase retrieval from polychromatic images,” Opt. Commun. 147(4-6), 229–232 (1998).
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Guttmann, J.

D. Schwenninger, H. Runck, S. Schumann, J. Haberstroh, S. Meissner, E. Koch, and J. Guttmann, “Intravital microscopy of subpleural alveoli via transthoracic endoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(4), 046002 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Haberstroh, J.

D. Schwenninger, H. Runck, S. Schumann, J. Haberstroh, S. Meissner, E. Koch, and J. Guttmann, “Intravital microscopy of subpleural alveoli via transthoracic endoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(4), 046002 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Habib, A.

M. J. Kitchen, A. Habib, A. Fouras, S. Dubsky, R. A. Lewis, M. J. Wallace, and S. B. Hooper, “A new design for high stability pressure-controlled ventilation for small animal lung imaging,” J. Instrum. 5(02), T02002 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. J. Kitchen, R. A. Lewis, M. J. Morgan, M. J. Wallace, M. L. Siew, K. K. W. Siu, A. Habib, A. Fouras, N. Yagi, K. Uesugi, and S. B. Hooper, “Dynamic measures of regional lung air volume using phase contrast x-ray imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(21), 6065–6077 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hall, C.

S. B. Hooper, M. J. Kitchen, M. J. Wallace, N. Yagi, K. Uesugi, M. J. Morgan, C. Hall, K. K. W. Siu, I. M. Williams, M. Siew, S. C. Irvine, K. Pavlov, and R. A. Lewis, “Imaging lung aeration and lung liquid clearance at birth,” FASEB J. 21(12), 3329–3337 (2007).
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Hall, M. M.

M. M. Hall, V. G. Veeraraghavan, H. Rubin, and P. G. Winchell, “The approximation of symmetric x-ray peaks by Pearson type VII distributions,” J. Appl. Cryst. 10(1), 66–68 (1977).
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Harris, R. S.

T. J. Wellman, T. Winkler, E. L. V. Costa, G. Musch, R. S. Harris, J. G. Venegas, and M. F. V. Melo, “Measurement of regional specific lung volume change using respiratory-gated PET of inhaled 13N-nitrogen,” J. Nucl. Med. 51(4), 646–653 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hatabu, H.

H. Itoh, M. Nishino, and H. Hatabu, “Architecture of the lung: morphology and function,” J. Thorac. Imaging 19(4), 221–227 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hooper, S. B.

A. F. T. Leong, A. Fouras, M. S. Islam, M. J. Wallace, S. B. Hooper, and M. J. Kitchen, “High spatiotemporal resolution measurement of regional lung air volumes from 2D phase contrast x-ray images,” Med. Phys. 40(4), 041909 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. F. T. Leong, D. M. Paganin, S. B. Hooper, M. L. Siew, and M. J. Kitchen, “Measurement of absolute regional lung air volumes from near-field x-ray speckles,” Opt. Express 21(23), 27905–27923 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Dubsky, S. B. Hooper, K. K. W. Siu, and A. Fouras, “Synchrotron-based dynamic computed tomography of tissue motion for regional lung function measurement,” J. R. Soc. Interface 9(74), 2213–2224 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Kitchen, D. M. Paganin, K. Uesugi, B. J. Allison, R. A. Lewis, S. B. Hooper, and K. M. Pavlov, “Phase contrast image segmentation using a Laue analyser crystal,” Phys. Med. Biol. 56(3), 515–534 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Kitchen, A. Habib, A. Fouras, S. Dubsky, R. A. Lewis, M. J. Wallace, and S. B. Hooper, “A new design for high stability pressure-controlled ventilation for small animal lung imaging,” J. Instrum. 5(02), T02002 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. J. Kitchen, R. A. Lewis, M. J. Morgan, M. J. Wallace, M. L. Siew, K. K. W. Siu, A. Habib, A. Fouras, N. Yagi, K. Uesugi, and S. B. Hooper, “Dynamic measures of regional lung air volume using phase contrast x-ray imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(21), 6065–6077 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. B. Hooper, M. J. Kitchen, M. J. Wallace, N. Yagi, K. Uesugi, M. J. Morgan, C. Hall, K. K. W. Siu, I. M. Williams, M. Siew, S. C. Irvine, K. Pavlov, and R. A. Lewis, “Imaging lung aeration and lung liquid clearance at birth,” FASEB J. 21(12), 3329–3337 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Irvine, S. C.

S. B. Hooper, M. J. Kitchen, M. J. Wallace, N. Yagi, K. Uesugi, M. J. Morgan, C. Hall, K. K. W. Siu, I. M. Williams, M. Siew, S. C. Irvine, K. Pavlov, and R. A. Lewis, “Imaging lung aeration and lung liquid clearance at birth,” FASEB J. 21(12), 3329–3337 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ishikawa, T.

S. Chang, N. Kwon, B. M. Weon, J. Kim, C. K. Rhee, H. S. Choi, Y. Kohmura, M. Yamamoto, T. Ishikawa, and J. H. Je, “Tracking x-ray microscopy for alveolar dynamics in live intact mice,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1304 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Goto, K. Takeshita, Y. Suzuki, H. Ohashi, Y. Asano, H. Kimura, T. Matsushita, N. Yagi, M. Isshiki, H. Yamazaki, Y. Yoneda, K. Umetani, and T. Ishikawa, “Construction and commissioning of a 215-m-long beamline at SPring-8,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 467–468(Part 1), 682–685 (2001).
[Crossref]

Islam, M. S.

A. F. T. Leong, A. Fouras, M. S. Islam, M. J. Wallace, S. B. Hooper, and M. J. Kitchen, “High spatiotemporal resolution measurement of regional lung air volumes from 2D phase contrast x-ray images,” Med. Phys. 40(4), 041909 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Isshiki, M.

S. Goto, K. Takeshita, Y. Suzuki, H. Ohashi, Y. Asano, H. Kimura, T. Matsushita, N. Yagi, M. Isshiki, H. Yamazaki, Y. Yoneda, K. Umetani, and T. Ishikawa, “Construction and commissioning of a 215-m-long beamline at SPring-8,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 467–468(Part 1), 682–685 (2001).
[Crossref]

Itoh, H.

H. Itoh, M. Nishino, and H. Hatabu, “Architecture of the lung: morphology and function,” J. Thorac. Imaging 19(4), 221–227 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Izaguirre, E. W.

A. B. Garson, E. W. Izaguirre, S. G. Price, and M. A. Anastasio, “Characterization of speckle in lung images acquired with a benchtop in-line x-ray phase-contrast system,” Phys. Med. Biol. 58(12), 4237–4253 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Je, J. H.

S. Chang, N. Kwon, B. M. Weon, J. Kim, C. K. Rhee, H. S. Choi, Y. Kohmura, M. Yamamoto, T. Ishikawa, and J. H. Je, “Tracking x-ray microscopy for alveolar dynamics in live intact mice,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1304 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kasuboski, L.

S. Fichele, N. Woodhouse, A. J. Swift, Z. Said, M. N. J. Paley, L. Kasuboski, G. H. Mills, E. J. R. van Beek, and J. M. Wild, “MRI of helium-3 gas in healthy lungs: posture related variations of alveolar size,” J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 20(2), 331–335 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, J.

S. Chang, N. Kwon, B. M. Weon, J. Kim, C. K. Rhee, H. S. Choi, Y. Kohmura, M. Yamamoto, T. Ishikawa, and J. H. Je, “Tracking x-ray microscopy for alveolar dynamics in live intact mice,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1304 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kimura, H.

S. Goto, K. Takeshita, Y. Suzuki, H. Ohashi, Y. Asano, H. Kimura, T. Matsushita, N. Yagi, M. Isshiki, H. Yamazaki, Y. Yoneda, K. Umetani, and T. Ishikawa, “Construction and commissioning of a 215-m-long beamline at SPring-8,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 467–468(Part 1), 682–685 (2001).
[Crossref]

Kitchen, M. J.

A. F. T. Leong, A. Fouras, M. S. Islam, M. J. Wallace, S. B. Hooper, and M. J. Kitchen, “High spatiotemporal resolution measurement of regional lung air volumes from 2D phase contrast x-ray images,” Med. Phys. 40(4), 041909 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. P. Carnibella, M. J. Kitchen, and A. Fouras, “Decoding the structure of granular and porous materials from speckled phase contrast x-ray images,” Opt. Express 21(16), 19153–19162 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. F. T. Leong, D. M. Paganin, S. B. Hooper, M. L. Siew, and M. J. Kitchen, “Measurement of absolute regional lung air volumes from near-field x-ray speckles,” Opt. Express 21(23), 27905–27923 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. P. Carnibella, M. J. Kitchen, and A. Fouras, “Determining particle size distributions from a single projection image,” Opt. Express 20(14), 15962–15968 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Kitchen, D. M. Paganin, K. Uesugi, B. J. Allison, R. A. Lewis, S. B. Hooper, and K. M. Pavlov, “Phase contrast image segmentation using a Laue analyser crystal,” Phys. Med. Biol. 56(3), 515–534 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Kitchen, A. Habib, A. Fouras, S. Dubsky, R. A. Lewis, M. J. Wallace, and S. B. Hooper, “A new design for high stability pressure-controlled ventilation for small animal lung imaging,” J. Instrum. 5(02), T02002 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. J. Kitchen, R. A. Lewis, M. J. Morgan, M. J. Wallace, M. L. Siew, K. K. W. Siu, A. Habib, A. Fouras, N. Yagi, K. Uesugi, and S. B. Hooper, “Dynamic measures of regional lung air volume using phase contrast x-ray imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(21), 6065–6077 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. B. Hooper, M. J. Kitchen, M. J. Wallace, N. Yagi, K. Uesugi, M. J. Morgan, C. Hall, K. K. W. Siu, I. M. Williams, M. Siew, S. C. Irvine, K. Pavlov, and R. A. Lewis, “Imaging lung aeration and lung liquid clearance at birth,” FASEB J. 21(12), 3329–3337 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Kitchen, D. Paganin, R. A. Lewis, N. Yagi, K. Uesugi, and S. T. Mudie, “On the origin of speckle in x-ray phase contrast images of lung tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 49(18), 4335–4348 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Koch, E.

D. Schwenninger, H. Runck, S. Schumann, J. Haberstroh, S. Meissner, E. Koch, and J. Guttmann, “Intravital microscopy of subpleural alveoli via transthoracic endoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(4), 046002 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kohmura, Y.

S. Chang, N. Kwon, B. M. Weon, J. Kim, C. K. Rhee, H. S. Choi, Y. Kohmura, M. Yamamoto, T. Ishikawa, and J. H. Je, “Tracking x-ray microscopy for alveolar dynamics in live intact mice,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1304 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kubiak, B. D.

S. P. Albert, J. DiRocco, G. B. Allen, J. H. T. Bates, R. Lafollette, B. D. Kubiak, J. Fischer, S. Maroney, and G. F. Nieman, “The role of time and pressure on alveolar recruitment,” J. Appl. Physiol. 106(3), 757–765 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kwon, N.

S. Chang, N. Kwon, B. M. Weon, J. Kim, C. K. Rhee, H. S. Choi, Y. Kohmura, M. Yamamoto, T. Ishikawa, and J. H. Je, “Tracking x-ray microscopy for alveolar dynamics in live intact mice,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1304 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lafollette, R.

S. P. Albert, J. DiRocco, G. B. Allen, J. H. T. Bates, R. Lafollette, B. D. Kubiak, J. Fischer, S. Maroney, and G. F. Nieman, “The role of time and pressure on alveolar recruitment,” J. Appl. Physiol. 106(3), 757–765 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lebertre, M.

F. Ossant, M. Lebertre, L. Pourcelot, and F. Patat, “Ultrasonic characterization of maturation of fetal lung microstructure: an animal study,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 27(2), 157–169 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leong, A. F. T.

A. F. T. Leong, A. Fouras, M. S. Islam, M. J. Wallace, S. B. Hooper, and M. J. Kitchen, “High spatiotemporal resolution measurement of regional lung air volumes from 2D phase contrast x-ray images,” Med. Phys. 40(4), 041909 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. F. T. Leong, D. M. Paganin, S. B. Hooper, M. L. Siew, and M. J. Kitchen, “Measurement of absolute regional lung air volumes from near-field x-ray speckles,” Opt. Express 21(23), 27905–27923 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lewis, R. A.

M. J. Kitchen, D. M. Paganin, K. Uesugi, B. J. Allison, R. A. Lewis, S. B. Hooper, and K. M. Pavlov, “Phase contrast image segmentation using a Laue analyser crystal,” Phys. Med. Biol. 56(3), 515–534 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Kitchen, A. Habib, A. Fouras, S. Dubsky, R. A. Lewis, M. J. Wallace, and S. B. Hooper, “A new design for high stability pressure-controlled ventilation for small animal lung imaging,” J. Instrum. 5(02), T02002 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. J. Kitchen, R. A. Lewis, M. J. Morgan, M. J. Wallace, M. L. Siew, K. K. W. Siu, A. Habib, A. Fouras, N. Yagi, K. Uesugi, and S. B. Hooper, “Dynamic measures of regional lung air volume using phase contrast x-ray imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(21), 6065–6077 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. B. Hooper, M. J. Kitchen, M. J. Wallace, N. Yagi, K. Uesugi, M. J. Morgan, C. Hall, K. K. W. Siu, I. M. Williams, M. Siew, S. C. Irvine, K. Pavlov, and R. A. Lewis, “Imaging lung aeration and lung liquid clearance at birth,” FASEB J. 21(12), 3329–3337 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Kitchen, D. Paganin, R. A. Lewis, N. Yagi, K. Uesugi, and S. T. Mudie, “On the origin of speckle in x-ray phase contrast images of lung tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 49(18), 4335–4348 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, H.

H. Liu, H. Runck, M. Schneider, X. Tong, and C. A. Stahl, “Morphometry of subpleural alveoli may be greatly biased by local pressure changes induced by the microscopic device,” Respir. Physiol. Neurobiol. 178(2), 283–289 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maroney, S.

S. P. Albert, J. DiRocco, G. B. Allen, J. H. T. Bates, R. Lafollette, B. D. Kubiak, J. Fischer, S. Maroney, and G. F. Nieman, “The role of time and pressure on alveolar recruitment,” J. Appl. Physiol. 106(3), 757–765 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Matsushita, T.

S. Goto, K. Takeshita, Y. Suzuki, H. Ohashi, Y. Asano, H. Kimura, T. Matsushita, N. Yagi, M. Isshiki, H. Yamazaki, Y. Yoneda, K. Umetani, and T. Ishikawa, “Construction and commissioning of a 215-m-long beamline at SPring-8,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 467–468(Part 1), 682–685 (2001).
[Crossref]

Mayo, S. C.

T. E. Gureyev, S. C. Mayo, D. E. Myers, Y. Nesterets, D. M. Paganin, A. Pogany, A. W. Stevenson, and S. W. Wilkins, “Refracting Röntgen’s rays: propagation-based x-ray phase contrast for biomedical imaging,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(10), 102005 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. Paganin, S. C. Mayo, T. E. Gureyev, P. R. Miller, and S. W. Wilkins, “Simultaneous phase and amplitude extraction from a single defocused image of a homogeneous object,” J. Microsc. 206(1), 33–40 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McLennan, G.

E. Namati, J. Thiesse, J. de Ryk, and G. McLennan, “Alveolar dynamics during respiration: are the pores of Kohn a pathway to recruitment?” Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. 38(5), 572–578 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Meissner, S.

D. Schwenninger, H. Runck, S. Schumann, J. Haberstroh, S. Meissner, E. Koch, and J. Guttmann, “Intravital microscopy of subpleural alveoli via transthoracic endoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(4), 046002 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Melo, M. F. V.

T. J. Wellman, T. Winkler, E. L. V. Costa, G. Musch, R. S. Harris, J. G. Venegas, and M. F. V. Melo, “Measurement of regional specific lung volume change using respiratory-gated PET of inhaled 13N-nitrogen,” J. Nucl. Med. 51(4), 646–653 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Miller, P. R.

T. E. Gureyev, Y. I. Nesterets, A. W. Stevenson, P. R. Miller, A. Pogany, and S. W. Wilkins, “Some simple rules for contrast, signal-to-noise and resolution in in-line x-ray phase-contrast imaging,” Opt. Express 16(5), 3223–3241 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Paganin, S. C. Mayo, T. E. Gureyev, P. R. Miller, and S. W. Wilkins, “Simultaneous phase and amplitude extraction from a single defocused image of a homogeneous object,” J. Microsc. 206(1), 33–40 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mills, G. H.

S. Fichele, N. Woodhouse, A. J. Swift, Z. Said, M. N. J. Paley, L. Kasuboski, G. H. Mills, E. J. R. van Beek, and J. M. Wild, “MRI of helium-3 gas in healthy lungs: posture related variations of alveolar size,” J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 20(2), 331–335 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Morgan, M. J.

M. J. Kitchen, R. A. Lewis, M. J. Morgan, M. J. Wallace, M. L. Siew, K. K. W. Siu, A. Habib, A. Fouras, N. Yagi, K. Uesugi, and S. B. Hooper, “Dynamic measures of regional lung air volume using phase contrast x-ray imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(21), 6065–6077 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. B. Hooper, M. J. Kitchen, M. J. Wallace, N. Yagi, K. Uesugi, M. J. Morgan, C. Hall, K. K. W. Siu, I. M. Williams, M. Siew, S. C. Irvine, K. Pavlov, and R. A. Lewis, “Imaging lung aeration and lung liquid clearance at birth,” FASEB J. 21(12), 3329–3337 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mudie, S. T.

M. J. Kitchen, D. Paganin, R. A. Lewis, N. Yagi, K. Uesugi, and S. T. Mudie, “On the origin of speckle in x-ray phase contrast images of lung tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 49(18), 4335–4348 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Musch, G.

T. J. Wellman, T. Winkler, E. L. V. Costa, G. Musch, R. S. Harris, J. G. Venegas, and M. F. V. Melo, “Measurement of regional specific lung volume change using respiratory-gated PET of inhaled 13N-nitrogen,” J. Nucl. Med. 51(4), 646–653 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Myers, D. E.

T. E. Gureyev, S. C. Mayo, D. E. Myers, Y. Nesterets, D. M. Paganin, A. Pogany, A. W. Stevenson, and S. W. Wilkins, “Refracting Röntgen’s rays: propagation-based x-ray phase contrast for biomedical imaging,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(10), 102005 (2009).
[Crossref]

Namati, E.

E. Namati, J. Thiesse, J. de Ryk, and G. McLennan, “Alveolar dynamics during respiration: are the pores of Kohn a pathway to recruitment?” Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. 38(5), 572–578 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nesterets, Y.

T. E. Gureyev, S. C. Mayo, D. E. Myers, Y. Nesterets, D. M. Paganin, A. Pogany, A. W. Stevenson, and S. W. Wilkins, “Refracting Röntgen’s rays: propagation-based x-ray phase contrast for biomedical imaging,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(10), 102005 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nesterets, Y. I.

Nieman, G. F.

S. P. Albert, J. DiRocco, G. B. Allen, J. H. T. Bates, R. Lafollette, B. D. Kubiak, J. Fischer, S. Maroney, and G. F. Nieman, “The role of time and pressure on alveolar recruitment,” J. Appl. Physiol. 106(3), 757–765 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nishino, M.

H. Itoh, M. Nishino, and H. Hatabu, “Architecture of the lung: morphology and function,” J. Thorac. Imaging 19(4), 221–227 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nugent, K.

Ohashi, H.

S. Goto, K. Takeshita, Y. Suzuki, H. Ohashi, Y. Asano, H. Kimura, T. Matsushita, N. Yagi, M. Isshiki, H. Yamazaki, Y. Yoneda, K. Umetani, and T. Ishikawa, “Construction and commissioning of a 215-m-long beamline at SPring-8,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 467–468(Part 1), 682–685 (2001).
[Crossref]

Ossant, F.

F. Ossant, M. Lebertre, L. Pourcelot, and F. Patat, “Ultrasonic characterization of maturation of fetal lung microstructure: an animal study,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 27(2), 157–169 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Paganin, D.

M. J. Kitchen, D. Paganin, R. A. Lewis, N. Yagi, K. Uesugi, and S. T. Mudie, “On the origin of speckle in x-ray phase contrast images of lung tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 49(18), 4335–4348 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Paganin, S. C. Mayo, T. E. Gureyev, P. R. Miller, and S. W. Wilkins, “Simultaneous phase and amplitude extraction from a single defocused image of a homogeneous object,” J. Microsc. 206(1), 33–40 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Paganin, D. M.

A. F. T. Leong, D. M. Paganin, S. B. Hooper, M. L. Siew, and M. J. Kitchen, “Measurement of absolute regional lung air volumes from near-field x-ray speckles,” Opt. Express 21(23), 27905–27923 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Kitchen, D. M. Paganin, K. Uesugi, B. J. Allison, R. A. Lewis, S. B. Hooper, and K. M. Pavlov, “Phase contrast image segmentation using a Laue analyser crystal,” Phys. Med. Biol. 56(3), 515–534 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. E. Gureyev, S. C. Mayo, D. E. Myers, Y. Nesterets, D. M. Paganin, A. Pogany, A. W. Stevenson, and S. W. Wilkins, “Refracting Röntgen’s rays: propagation-based x-ray phase contrast for biomedical imaging,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(10), 102005 (2009).
[Crossref]

Paley, M. N. J.

S. Fichele, N. Woodhouse, A. J. Swift, Z. Said, M. N. J. Paley, L. Kasuboski, G. H. Mills, E. J. R. van Beek, and J. M. Wild, “MRI of helium-3 gas in healthy lungs: posture related variations of alveolar size,” J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 20(2), 331–335 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Patat, F.

F. Ossant, M. Lebertre, L. Pourcelot, and F. Patat, “Ultrasonic characterization of maturation of fetal lung microstructure: an animal study,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 27(2), 157–169 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pavlov, K.

S. B. Hooper, M. J. Kitchen, M. J. Wallace, N. Yagi, K. Uesugi, M. J. Morgan, C. Hall, K. K. W. Siu, I. M. Williams, M. Siew, S. C. Irvine, K. Pavlov, and R. A. Lewis, “Imaging lung aeration and lung liquid clearance at birth,” FASEB J. 21(12), 3329–3337 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pavlov, K. M.

M. J. Kitchen, D. M. Paganin, K. Uesugi, B. J. Allison, R. A. Lewis, S. B. Hooper, and K. M. Pavlov, “Phase contrast image segmentation using a Laue analyser crystal,” Phys. Med. Biol. 56(3), 515–534 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Petsonk, E. L.

L. Brancazio, G. N. Franz, E. L. Petsonk, and D. G. Frazer, “Lung area--volume models in relation to the recruitment--derecruitment of individual lung units,” Ann. Biomed. Eng. 29(3), 252–262 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Peverini, L.

R. Cerbino, L. Peverini, M. A. C. Potenza, A. Robert, P. Bösecke, and M. Giglio, “X-ray-scattering information obtained from near-field speckle,” Nat. Phys. 4(3), 238–243 (2008).
[Crossref]

Pogany, A.

T. E. Gureyev, S. C. Mayo, D. E. Myers, Y. Nesterets, D. M. Paganin, A. Pogany, A. W. Stevenson, and S. W. Wilkins, “Refracting Röntgen’s rays: propagation-based x-ray phase contrast for biomedical imaging,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(10), 102005 (2009).
[Crossref]

T. E. Gureyev, Y. I. Nesterets, A. W. Stevenson, P. R. Miller, A. Pogany, and S. W. Wilkins, “Some simple rules for contrast, signal-to-noise and resolution in in-line x-ray phase-contrast imaging,” Opt. Express 16(5), 3223–3241 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Potenza, M. A. C.

R. Cerbino, L. Peverini, M. A. C. Potenza, A. Robert, P. Bösecke, and M. Giglio, “X-ray-scattering information obtained from near-field speckle,” Nat. Phys. 4(3), 238–243 (2008).
[Crossref]

Pourcelot, L.

F. Ossant, M. Lebertre, L. Pourcelot, and F. Patat, “Ultrasonic characterization of maturation of fetal lung microstructure: an animal study,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 27(2), 157–169 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Price, S. G.

A. B. Garson, E. W. Izaguirre, S. G. Price, and M. A. Anastasio, “Characterization of speckle in lung images acquired with a benchtop in-line x-ray phase-contrast system,” Phys. Med. Biol. 58(12), 4237–4253 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rhee, C. K.

S. Chang, N. Kwon, B. M. Weon, J. Kim, C. K. Rhee, H. S. Choi, Y. Kohmura, M. Yamamoto, T. Ishikawa, and J. H. Je, “Tracking x-ray microscopy for alveolar dynamics in live intact mice,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1304 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Robert, A.

R. Cerbino, L. Peverini, M. A. C. Potenza, A. Robert, P. Bösecke, and M. Giglio, “X-ray-scattering information obtained from near-field speckle,” Nat. Phys. 4(3), 238–243 (2008).
[Crossref]

Roberts, A.

Rubin, H.

M. M. Hall, V. G. Veeraraghavan, H. Rubin, and P. G. Winchell, “The approximation of symmetric x-ray peaks by Pearson type VII distributions,” J. Appl. Cryst. 10(1), 66–68 (1977).
[Crossref]

Runck, H.

D. Schwenninger, H. Runck, S. Schumann, J. Haberstroh, S. Meissner, E. Koch, and J. Guttmann, “Intravital microscopy of subpleural alveoli via transthoracic endoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(4), 046002 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Liu, H. Runck, M. Schneider, X. Tong, and C. A. Stahl, “Morphometry of subpleural alveoli may be greatly biased by local pressure changes induced by the microscopic device,” Respir. Physiol. Neurobiol. 178(2), 283–289 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Said, Z.

S. Fichele, N. Woodhouse, A. J. Swift, Z. Said, M. N. J. Paley, L. Kasuboski, G. H. Mills, E. J. R. van Beek, and J. M. Wild, “MRI of helium-3 gas in healthy lungs: posture related variations of alveolar size,” J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 20(2), 331–335 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schneider, M.

H. Liu, H. Runck, M. Schneider, X. Tong, and C. A. Stahl, “Morphometry of subpleural alveoli may be greatly biased by local pressure changes induced by the microscopic device,” Respir. Physiol. Neurobiol. 178(2), 283–289 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schumann, S.

D. Schwenninger, H. Runck, S. Schumann, J. Haberstroh, S. Meissner, E. Koch, and J. Guttmann, “Intravital microscopy of subpleural alveoli via transthoracic endoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(4), 046002 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schwenninger, D.

D. Schwenninger, H. Runck, S. Schumann, J. Haberstroh, S. Meissner, E. Koch, and J. Guttmann, “Intravital microscopy of subpleural alveoli via transthoracic endoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(4), 046002 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Siew, M.

S. B. Hooper, M. J. Kitchen, M. J. Wallace, N. Yagi, K. Uesugi, M. J. Morgan, C. Hall, K. K. W. Siu, I. M. Williams, M. Siew, S. C. Irvine, K. Pavlov, and R. A. Lewis, “Imaging lung aeration and lung liquid clearance at birth,” FASEB J. 21(12), 3329–3337 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Siew, M. L.

A. F. T. Leong, D. M. Paganin, S. B. Hooper, M. L. Siew, and M. J. Kitchen, “Measurement of absolute regional lung air volumes from near-field x-ray speckles,” Opt. Express 21(23), 27905–27923 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Kitchen, R. A. Lewis, M. J. Morgan, M. J. Wallace, M. L. Siew, K. K. W. Siu, A. Habib, A. Fouras, N. Yagi, K. Uesugi, and S. B. Hooper, “Dynamic measures of regional lung air volume using phase contrast x-ray imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(21), 6065–6077 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Siu, K. K. W.

S. Dubsky, S. B. Hooper, K. K. W. Siu, and A. Fouras, “Synchrotron-based dynamic computed tomography of tissue motion for regional lung function measurement,” J. R. Soc. Interface 9(74), 2213–2224 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Kitchen, R. A. Lewis, M. J. Morgan, M. J. Wallace, M. L. Siew, K. K. W. Siu, A. Habib, A. Fouras, N. Yagi, K. Uesugi, and S. B. Hooper, “Dynamic measures of regional lung air volume using phase contrast x-ray imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(21), 6065–6077 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. B. Hooper, M. J. Kitchen, M. J. Wallace, N. Yagi, K. Uesugi, M. J. Morgan, C. Hall, K. K. W. Siu, I. M. Williams, M. Siew, S. C. Irvine, K. Pavlov, and R. A. Lewis, “Imaging lung aeration and lung liquid clearance at birth,” FASEB J. 21(12), 3329–3337 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Soille, P.

L. Vincent and P. Soille, “Watersheds in digital spaces: an efficient algorithm based on immersion simulations,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 13(6), 583–598 (1991).
[Crossref]

Stahl, C. A.

H. Liu, H. Runck, M. Schneider, X. Tong, and C. A. Stahl, “Morphometry of subpleural alveoli may be greatly biased by local pressure changes induced by the microscopic device,” Respir. Physiol. Neurobiol. 178(2), 283–289 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stevenson, A. W.

T. E. Gureyev, S. C. Mayo, D. E. Myers, Y. Nesterets, D. M. Paganin, A. Pogany, A. W. Stevenson, and S. W. Wilkins, “Refracting Röntgen’s rays: propagation-based x-ray phase contrast for biomedical imaging,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(10), 102005 (2009).
[Crossref]

T. E. Gureyev, Y. I. Nesterets, A. W. Stevenson, P. R. Miller, A. Pogany, and S. W. Wilkins, “Some simple rules for contrast, signal-to-noise and resolution in in-line x-ray phase-contrast imaging,” Opt. Express 16(5), 3223–3241 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Suzuki, Y.

S. Goto, K. Takeshita, Y. Suzuki, H. Ohashi, Y. Asano, H. Kimura, T. Matsushita, N. Yagi, M. Isshiki, H. Yamazaki, Y. Yoneda, K. Umetani, and T. Ishikawa, “Construction and commissioning of a 215-m-long beamline at SPring-8,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 467–468(Part 1), 682–685 (2001).
[Crossref]

Swift, A. J.

S. Fichele, N. Woodhouse, A. J. Swift, Z. Said, M. N. J. Paley, L. Kasuboski, G. H. Mills, E. J. R. van Beek, and J. M. Wild, “MRI of helium-3 gas in healthy lungs: posture related variations of alveolar size,” J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 20(2), 331–335 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Takeshita, K.

S. Goto, K. Takeshita, Y. Suzuki, H. Ohashi, Y. Asano, H. Kimura, T. Matsushita, N. Yagi, M. Isshiki, H. Yamazaki, Y. Yoneda, K. Umetani, and T. Ishikawa, “Construction and commissioning of a 215-m-long beamline at SPring-8,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 467–468(Part 1), 682–685 (2001).
[Crossref]

Thiesse, J.

E. Namati, J. Thiesse, J. de Ryk, and G. McLennan, “Alveolar dynamics during respiration: are the pores of Kohn a pathway to recruitment?” Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. 38(5), 572–578 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tong, X.

H. Liu, H. Runck, M. Schneider, X. Tong, and C. A. Stahl, “Morphometry of subpleural alveoli may be greatly biased by local pressure changes induced by the microscopic device,” Respir. Physiol. Neurobiol. 178(2), 283–289 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tran, C.

Tsao, J.

J. Tsao, “Ultrafast imaging: principles, pitfalls, solutions, and applications,” J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 32(2), 252–266 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Uesugi, K.

M. J. Kitchen, D. M. Paganin, K. Uesugi, B. J. Allison, R. A. Lewis, S. B. Hooper, and K. M. Pavlov, “Phase contrast image segmentation using a Laue analyser crystal,” Phys. Med. Biol. 56(3), 515–534 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Kitchen, R. A. Lewis, M. J. Morgan, M. J. Wallace, M. L. Siew, K. K. W. Siu, A. Habib, A. Fouras, N. Yagi, K. Uesugi, and S. B. Hooper, “Dynamic measures of regional lung air volume using phase contrast x-ray imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(21), 6065–6077 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. B. Hooper, M. J. Kitchen, M. J. Wallace, N. Yagi, K. Uesugi, M. J. Morgan, C. Hall, K. K. W. Siu, I. M. Williams, M. Siew, S. C. Irvine, K. Pavlov, and R. A. Lewis, “Imaging lung aeration and lung liquid clearance at birth,” FASEB J. 21(12), 3329–3337 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Kitchen, D. Paganin, R. A. Lewis, N. Yagi, K. Uesugi, and S. T. Mudie, “On the origin of speckle in x-ray phase contrast images of lung tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 49(18), 4335–4348 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Umetani, K.

S. Goto, K. Takeshita, Y. Suzuki, H. Ohashi, Y. Asano, H. Kimura, T. Matsushita, N. Yagi, M. Isshiki, H. Yamazaki, Y. Yoneda, K. Umetani, and T. Ishikawa, “Construction and commissioning of a 215-m-long beamline at SPring-8,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 467–468(Part 1), 682–685 (2001).
[Crossref]

van Beek, E. J. R.

S. Fichele, N. Woodhouse, A. J. Swift, Z. Said, M. N. J. Paley, L. Kasuboski, G. H. Mills, E. J. R. van Beek, and J. M. Wild, “MRI of helium-3 gas in healthy lungs: posture related variations of alveolar size,” J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 20(2), 331–335 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Veeraraghavan, V. G.

M. M. Hall, V. G. Veeraraghavan, H. Rubin, and P. G. Winchell, “The approximation of symmetric x-ray peaks by Pearson type VII distributions,” J. Appl. Cryst. 10(1), 66–68 (1977).
[Crossref]

Venegas, J. G.

T. J. Wellman, T. Winkler, E. L. V. Costa, G. Musch, R. S. Harris, J. G. Venegas, and M. F. V. Melo, “Measurement of regional specific lung volume change using respiratory-gated PET of inhaled 13N-nitrogen,” J. Nucl. Med. 51(4), 646–653 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vincent, L.

L. Vincent and P. Soille, “Watersheds in digital spaces: an efficient algorithm based on immersion simulations,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 13(6), 583–598 (1991).
[Crossref]

Wallace, M. J.

A. F. T. Leong, A. Fouras, M. S. Islam, M. J. Wallace, S. B. Hooper, and M. J. Kitchen, “High spatiotemporal resolution measurement of regional lung air volumes from 2D phase contrast x-ray images,” Med. Phys. 40(4), 041909 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Kitchen, A. Habib, A. Fouras, S. Dubsky, R. A. Lewis, M. J. Wallace, and S. B. Hooper, “A new design for high stability pressure-controlled ventilation for small animal lung imaging,” J. Instrum. 5(02), T02002 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. J. Kitchen, R. A. Lewis, M. J. Morgan, M. J. Wallace, M. L. Siew, K. K. W. Siu, A. Habib, A. Fouras, N. Yagi, K. Uesugi, and S. B. Hooper, “Dynamic measures of regional lung air volume using phase contrast x-ray imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(21), 6065–6077 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. B. Hooper, M. J. Kitchen, M. J. Wallace, N. Yagi, K. Uesugi, M. J. Morgan, C. Hall, K. K. W. Siu, I. M. Williams, M. Siew, S. C. Irvine, K. Pavlov, and R. A. Lewis, “Imaging lung aeration and lung liquid clearance at birth,” FASEB J. 21(12), 3329–3337 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wellman, T. J.

T. J. Wellman, T. Winkler, E. L. V. Costa, G. Musch, R. S. Harris, J. G. Venegas, and M. F. V. Melo, “Measurement of regional specific lung volume change using respiratory-gated PET of inhaled 13N-nitrogen,” J. Nucl. Med. 51(4), 646–653 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weon, B. M.

S. Chang, N. Kwon, B. M. Weon, J. Kim, C. K. Rhee, H. S. Choi, Y. Kohmura, M. Yamamoto, T. Ishikawa, and J. H. Je, “Tracking x-ray microscopy for alveolar dynamics in live intact mice,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1304 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wild, J. M.

S. Fichele, N. Woodhouse, A. J. Swift, Z. Said, M. N. J. Paley, L. Kasuboski, G. H. Mills, E. J. R. van Beek, and J. M. Wild, “MRI of helium-3 gas in healthy lungs: posture related variations of alveolar size,” J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 20(2), 331–335 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wilkins, S. W.

T. E. Gureyev, S. C. Mayo, D. E. Myers, Y. Nesterets, D. M. Paganin, A. Pogany, A. W. Stevenson, and S. W. Wilkins, “Refracting Röntgen’s rays: propagation-based x-ray phase contrast for biomedical imaging,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(10), 102005 (2009).
[Crossref]

T. E. Gureyev, Y. I. Nesterets, A. W. Stevenson, P. R. Miller, A. Pogany, and S. W. Wilkins, “Some simple rules for contrast, signal-to-noise and resolution in in-line x-ray phase-contrast imaging,” Opt. Express 16(5), 3223–3241 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Paganin, S. C. Mayo, T. E. Gureyev, P. R. Miller, and S. W. Wilkins, “Simultaneous phase and amplitude extraction from a single defocused image of a homogeneous object,” J. Microsc. 206(1), 33–40 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. E. Gureyev and S. W. Wilkins, “On x-ray phase retrieval from polychromatic images,” Opt. Commun. 147(4-6), 229–232 (1998).
[Crossref]

Williams, I. M.

S. B. Hooper, M. J. Kitchen, M. J. Wallace, N. Yagi, K. Uesugi, M. J. Morgan, C. Hall, K. K. W. Siu, I. M. Williams, M. Siew, S. C. Irvine, K. Pavlov, and R. A. Lewis, “Imaging lung aeration and lung liquid clearance at birth,” FASEB J. 21(12), 3329–3337 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Winchell, P. G.

M. M. Hall, V. G. Veeraraghavan, H. Rubin, and P. G. Winchell, “The approximation of symmetric x-ray peaks by Pearson type VII distributions,” J. Appl. Cryst. 10(1), 66–68 (1977).
[Crossref]

Winkler, T.

T. J. Wellman, T. Winkler, E. L. V. Costa, G. Musch, R. S. Harris, J. G. Venegas, and M. F. V. Melo, “Measurement of regional specific lung volume change using respiratory-gated PET of inhaled 13N-nitrogen,” J. Nucl. Med. 51(4), 646–653 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Woodhouse, N.

S. Fichele, N. Woodhouse, A. J. Swift, Z. Said, M. N. J. Paley, L. Kasuboski, G. H. Mills, E. J. R. van Beek, and J. M. Wild, “MRI of helium-3 gas in healthy lungs: posture related variations of alveolar size,” J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 20(2), 331–335 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yagi, N.

M. J. Kitchen, R. A. Lewis, M. J. Morgan, M. J. Wallace, M. L. Siew, K. K. W. Siu, A. Habib, A. Fouras, N. Yagi, K. Uesugi, and S. B. Hooper, “Dynamic measures of regional lung air volume using phase contrast x-ray imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(21), 6065–6077 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. B. Hooper, M. J. Kitchen, M. J. Wallace, N. Yagi, K. Uesugi, M. J. Morgan, C. Hall, K. K. W. Siu, I. M. Williams, M. Siew, S. C. Irvine, K. Pavlov, and R. A. Lewis, “Imaging lung aeration and lung liquid clearance at birth,” FASEB J. 21(12), 3329–3337 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Kitchen, D. Paganin, R. A. Lewis, N. Yagi, K. Uesugi, and S. T. Mudie, “On the origin of speckle in x-ray phase contrast images of lung tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 49(18), 4335–4348 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Goto, K. Takeshita, Y. Suzuki, H. Ohashi, Y. Asano, H. Kimura, T. Matsushita, N. Yagi, M. Isshiki, H. Yamazaki, Y. Yoneda, K. Umetani, and T. Ishikawa, “Construction and commissioning of a 215-m-long beamline at SPring-8,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 467–468(Part 1), 682–685 (2001).
[Crossref]

Yamamoto, M.

S. Chang, N. Kwon, B. M. Weon, J. Kim, C. K. Rhee, H. S. Choi, Y. Kohmura, M. Yamamoto, T. Ishikawa, and J. H. Je, “Tracking x-ray microscopy for alveolar dynamics in live intact mice,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1304 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yamazaki, H.

S. Goto, K. Takeshita, Y. Suzuki, H. Ohashi, Y. Asano, H. Kimura, T. Matsushita, N. Yagi, M. Isshiki, H. Yamazaki, Y. Yoneda, K. Umetani, and T. Ishikawa, “Construction and commissioning of a 215-m-long beamline at SPring-8,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 467–468(Part 1), 682–685 (2001).
[Crossref]

Yoneda, Y.

S. Goto, K. Takeshita, Y. Suzuki, H. Ohashi, Y. Asano, H. Kimura, T. Matsushita, N. Yagi, M. Isshiki, H. Yamazaki, Y. Yoneda, K. Umetani, and T. Ishikawa, “Construction and commissioning of a 215-m-long beamline at SPring-8,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 467–468(Part 1), 682–685 (2001).
[Crossref]

Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. (1)

E. Namati, J. Thiesse, J. de Ryk, and G. McLennan, “Alveolar dynamics during respiration: are the pores of Kohn a pathway to recruitment?” Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. 38(5), 572–578 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ann. Biomed. Eng. (1)

L. Brancazio, G. N. Franz, E. L. Petsonk, and D. G. Frazer, “Lung area--volume models in relation to the recruitment--derecruitment of individual lung units,” Ann. Biomed. Eng. 29(3), 252–262 (2001).
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Annalen der Physik (1)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 19.8 × 22.8 mm2 2D propagation-based phase contrast x-ray (PB-PCX) image of the chest at (a) low and (b) high lung air volumes of the same rabbit kitten. These PB-PCX images were one of 1800 projections used to reconstruct 27.6 × 26.4 mm2 CT slices as shown in (c) and (d), respectively. ODD = 1 m. Energy = 24 keV. Exposure time per projection = 50 ms. (See section 3 for further experimental details).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 3.83 × 3.83 mm2 propagation-based phase contrast x-ray images of 150-180 µm sized (a) single glass particle, (b) multiple glass particles and (c) a 1 mm thick container of glass particles with volume packing density 55% . (d) shows the corresponding power spectra of (a)-(c), after deconvolving to remove the detector point spread function, dividing by their contact image, normalizing against the total pixels in the image and the number of microspheres. ODD = 15 cm. Energy = 30 keV. Exposure time = 1 s.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Evaluating the accuracy of calculating the number and mean radius of microspheres from propagation-based phase contrast x-ray images of (a) 1 mm thick container filled separately with different sized microspheres at 15 cm object-to-detector distance (ODD) and (b) containers with variable thickness filled with 150-180 µm sized microspheres, and a single layer of 150-180 um microspheres, at various ODDs.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Distribution of alveolar dimensions determined from 7.5 mm3 regions centred about the two CT slices in Figs. 1(c) and 1(d), respectively, using 3D granulometry. (b) The average alveoli size was measured both from PSArea and PSPeak and was compared with that measured from 3D granulometry for several rabbit kittens. (c) The alveolar number was approximated by manually counting the number of alveoli surface profiles from one transaxial slice per CT of a ventilating kitten and plotted against the total lung air volume determined by intensity thresholding the entire CT.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Lung air volumes from PB-PCX chest images of a kitten mechanically ventilated (a) from its first breath, and (c) over a single respiratory cycle several breaths after its first. The corresponding calculation of number and mean radius of alveoli are shown in (b) and (d).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 The number and mean radius of glass particles calculated from the propagation-based phase contrast x-ray images in Figs. 2(a)-2(c) compared with the expected values shown in brackets.

Equations (10)

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| F{ I( r ,z=L) I( r ,z=0) 1 } | 2 = L 2 δ 2 k 4 | F{ T( r ) } | 2 .
N F = a 2 Lλ ,
T ˜ ( r )=V( r ) n=0 N r δ( r r n )G( r )d r ,
| F { T ˜ ( r ) } 2 |= | V T ˜ ( r ) e i2π k r d r | 2 ,
| F{ T ˜ ( r ) } | 2 = | F{ G( r ) } | 2 [ N+ n=1 nm m=1 cos( 2π k D nm ) ],
| F{ T ˜ ( r ) } | 2 ¯ = | F{ G( r ) } | 2 [ N+ n=1 nm m=1 sin( | k || D nm | ) | k || D nm | ].
| F{ I( x,y,z=L ) I( x,y,z=0 ) 1 } | 2 = L 2 δ 2 k 4 N | 4π R 3 ( k R ) 2 [ sin( k R ) k R cos( k R ) ] | 2 ×[ 1+ V ρ( D ) sin( k D ) k D dV ].
| F{ I( x,y,z=L ) I( x,y,z=0 ) 1 } | 2 = L 2 δ 2 k 4 N | 4π R 3 ( k R ) 2 [ sin( k R ) k R cos( k R ) ] | 2 .
P S Area =34 π 2 L 2 δ 2 NR.
V L = 4 3 N R 3 ,

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