Abstract

Degradation of the wall of human ascending thoracic aorta has been assessed through Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT). OCT images of the media layer of the aortic wall exhibit micro-structure degradation in case of diseased aortas from aneurysmal vessels. The OCT indicator of degradation depends on the dimension of areas of the media layer where backscattered reflectivity becomes smaller due to a disorder on the morphology of elastin, collagen and smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Efficient pre-processing of the OCT images is required to accurately extract the dimension of degraded areas after an optimized thresholding procedure. OCT results have been validated against conventional histological analysis. The OCT qualitative assessment has achieved a pair sensitivity-specificity of 100%-91.6% in low-high degradation discrimination when a threshold of 4965.88µm2 is selected. This threshold suggests to have physiological meaning. The OCT quantitative evaluation of degradation achieves a correlation of 0.736 between the OCT indicator and the histological score. This in-vitro study can be transferred to the clinical scenario to provide an intraoperative assessment tool to guide cardiovascular surgeons in open repair interventions.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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2014 (3)

R. G. Koch, A. Tsamis, A. D’Amore, W. R. Wagner, S. C. Watkins, T. G. Gleason, and D. A. Vorp, “A custom image-based analysis tool for quantifying elastin and collagen micro-architecture in the wall of the human aorta from multi-photon microscopy,” J. Biomech. 47(5), 935–943 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Cicchi, C. Matthäus, T. Meyer, A. Lattermann, B. Dietzek, B. R. Brehm, J. Popp, and F. S. Pavone, “Characterization of collagen and cholesterol deposition in atherosclerotic arterial tissue using non-linear microscopy,” J. Biophotonics 7(1-2), 135–143 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. S. Cho, S. J. Jang, K. Kim, A. V. Dan-Chin-Yu, M. Shishkov, B. E. Bouma, and W. Y. Oh, “High frame-rate intravascular optical frequency-domain imaging in vivo,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(1), 223–232 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (2)

E. Real, A. Eguizábal, A. Pontón, M. C. Díez, J. Fernando Val-Bernal, M. Mayorga, J. M. Revuelta, J. M. López-Higuera, and O. M. Conde, “Optical coherence tomography assessment of vessel wall degradation in thoracic aortic aneurysms,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(12), 126003 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Tsamis, J. A. Phillippi, R. G. Koch, S. Pasta, A. D’Amore, S. C. Watkins, W. R. Wagner, T. G. Gleason, and D. A. Vorp, “Fiber micro-architecture in the longitudinal-radial and circumferential-radial planes of ascending thoracic aortic aneurysm media,” J. Biomech. 46(16), 2787–2794 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

S. Pasta, J. A. Phillippi, T. G. Gleason, and D. A. Vorp, “Effect of aneurysm on the mechanical dissection properties of the human ascending thoracic aorta,” J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 143(2), 460–467 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Tahara, T. Morooka, Z. Wang, H. G. Bezerra, A. M. Rollins, D. I. Simon, and M. A. Costa, “Intravascular optical coherence tomography detection of atherosclerosis and inflammation in murine aorta,” Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 32(5), 1150–1157 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

L. F. Hiratzka, G. L. Bakris, J. A. Beckman, R. M. Bersin, V. F. Carr, D. E. Casey, K. A. Eagle, L. K. Hermann, E. M. Isselbacher, E. A. Kazerooni, N. T. Kouchoukos, B. W. Lytle, D. M. Milewicz, D. L. Reich, S. Sen, J. A. Shinn, L. G. Svensson, and D. M. Williams, “Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of patients with thoracic aortic disease: executive summary,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 55, 1509–1544 (2010).

E. A. Genina, A. N. Bashkatov, and V. V. Tuchin, “Tissue optical immersion clearing,” Expert Rev. Med. Devices 7(6), 825–842 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. P. Popescu, C. Flueraru, Y. Mao, S. Chang, and M. G. Sowa, “Signal attenuation and box-counting fractal analysis of optical coherence tomography images of arterial tissue,” Biomed. Opt. Express 1(1), 268–277 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

K. C. Hoang, A. Edris, J. Su, D. S. Mukai, S. Mahon, A. D. Petrov, M. Kern, C. Ashan, Z. Chen, B. J. Tromberg, J. Narula, and M. Brenner, “Use of an oxygen-carrying blood substitute to improve intravascular optical coherence tomography imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 034028 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

L. de Figueiredo Borges, R. G. Jaldin, R. R. Dias, N. A. G. Stolf, J. B. Michel, and P. S. Gutierrez, “Collagen is reduced and disrupted in human aneurysms and dissections of ascending aorta,” Hum. Pathol. 39(3), 437–443 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

F. J. van der Meer, D. J. Faber, I. Çilesiz, M. J. C. van Gemert, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “Temperature-dependent optical properties of individual vascular wall components measured by optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 041120 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

J. F. Matthias Bechtel, F. Noack, F. Sayk, A. W. Erasmi, C. Bartels, and H. H. Sievers, “Histopathological grading of ascending aortic aneurysm: comparison of patients with bicuspid versus tricuspid aortic valve,” J. Heart Valve Dis. 12(1), 54–59 (2003).
[PubMed]

N. A. Patel, X. Li, D. L. Stamper, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “Guidance of aortic ablation using optical coherence tomography,” Int. J. Cardiovasc. Imaging 19(2), 171–178 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

H. Yabushita, B. E. Bouma, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, D. H. Kang, E. F. Halpern, and G. J. Tearney, “Characterization of human atherosclerosis by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 106(13), 1640–1645 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (2)

J. G. Fujimoto, S. A. Boppart, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, C. Pitris, and M. E. Brezinski, “High resolution in vivo intra-arterial imaging with optical coherence tomography,” Heart 82(2), 128–133 (1999).
[PubMed]

R. Drezek, A. Dunn, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Light scattering from cells: finite-difference time-domain simulations and goniometric measurements,” Appl. Opt. 38(16), 3651–3661 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography for optical biopsy. Properties and demonstration of vascular pathology,” Circulation 93(6), 1206–1213 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

J. M. Schmitt, A. Knüttel, M. Yadlowsky, and M. A. Eckhaus, “Optical-coherence tomography of a dense tissue: statistics of attenuation and backscattering,” Phys. Med. Biol. 39(10), 1705–1720 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

C. L. Berry, J. A. Sosa-Melgarejo, and S. E. Greenwald, “The relationship between wall tension, lamellar thickness, and intercellular junctions in the fetal and adult aorta: its relevance to the pathology of dissecting aneurysm,” J. Pathol. 169(1), 15–20 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

Y. Masuda, Z. Yamada, N. Morooka, S. Watanabe, and Y. Inagaki, “Prognosis of patients with medically treated aortic dissections,” Circulation 84(5Suppl), III7–III13 (1991).
[PubMed]

1985 (1)

I. Fine, E. Loewinger, A. Weinreb, and D. Weinberger, “Optical properties of the sclera,” Phys. Med. Biol. 30(6), 565–571 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1979 (1)

N. Otsu, “A Threshold Selection Method from Gray-Level Histograms,” IEEE Sys Man Cyb 9(1), 62–66 (1979).
[Crossref]

Aretz, H. T.

H. Yabushita, B. E. Bouma, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, D. H. Kang, E. F. Halpern, and G. J. Tearney, “Characterization of human atherosclerosis by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 106(13), 1640–1645 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ashan, C.

K. C. Hoang, A. Edris, J. Su, D. S. Mukai, S. Mahon, A. D. Petrov, M. Kern, C. Ashan, Z. Chen, B. J. Tromberg, J. Narula, and M. Brenner, “Use of an oxygen-carrying blood substitute to improve intravascular optical coherence tomography imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 034028 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bakris, G. L.

L. F. Hiratzka, G. L. Bakris, J. A. Beckman, R. M. Bersin, V. F. Carr, D. E. Casey, K. A. Eagle, L. K. Hermann, E. M. Isselbacher, E. A. Kazerooni, N. T. Kouchoukos, B. W. Lytle, D. M. Milewicz, D. L. Reich, S. Sen, J. A. Shinn, L. G. Svensson, and D. M. Williams, “Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of patients with thoracic aortic disease: executive summary,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 55, 1509–1544 (2010).

Bartels, C.

J. F. Matthias Bechtel, F. Noack, F. Sayk, A. W. Erasmi, C. Bartels, and H. H. Sievers, “Histopathological grading of ascending aortic aneurysm: comparison of patients with bicuspid versus tricuspid aortic valve,” J. Heart Valve Dis. 12(1), 54–59 (2003).
[PubMed]

Bashkatov, A. N.

E. A. Genina, A. N. Bashkatov, and V. V. Tuchin, “Tissue optical immersion clearing,” Expert Rev. Med. Devices 7(6), 825–842 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beckman, J. A.

L. F. Hiratzka, G. L. Bakris, J. A. Beckman, R. M. Bersin, V. F. Carr, D. E. Casey, K. A. Eagle, L. K. Hermann, E. M. Isselbacher, E. A. Kazerooni, N. T. Kouchoukos, B. W. Lytle, D. M. Milewicz, D. L. Reich, S. Sen, J. A. Shinn, L. G. Svensson, and D. M. Williams, “Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of patients with thoracic aortic disease: executive summary,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 55, 1509–1544 (2010).

Berry, C. L.

C. L. Berry, J. A. Sosa-Melgarejo, and S. E. Greenwald, “The relationship between wall tension, lamellar thickness, and intercellular junctions in the fetal and adult aorta: its relevance to the pathology of dissecting aneurysm,” J. Pathol. 169(1), 15–20 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bersin, R. M.

L. F. Hiratzka, G. L. Bakris, J. A. Beckman, R. M. Bersin, V. F. Carr, D. E. Casey, K. A. Eagle, L. K. Hermann, E. M. Isselbacher, E. A. Kazerooni, N. T. Kouchoukos, B. W. Lytle, D. M. Milewicz, D. L. Reich, S. Sen, J. A. Shinn, L. G. Svensson, and D. M. Williams, “Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of patients with thoracic aortic disease: executive summary,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 55, 1509–1544 (2010).

Bezerra, H. G.

S. Tahara, T. Morooka, Z. Wang, H. G. Bezerra, A. M. Rollins, D. I. Simon, and M. A. Costa, “Intravascular optical coherence tomography detection of atherosclerosis and inflammation in murine aorta,” Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 32(5), 1150–1157 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boppart, S. A.

J. G. Fujimoto, S. A. Boppart, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, C. Pitris, and M. E. Brezinski, “High resolution in vivo intra-arterial imaging with optical coherence tomography,” Heart 82(2), 128–133 (1999).
[PubMed]

Bouma, B. E.

H. S. Cho, S. J. Jang, K. Kim, A. V. Dan-Chin-Yu, M. Shishkov, B. E. Bouma, and W. Y. Oh, “High frame-rate intravascular optical frequency-domain imaging in vivo,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(1), 223–232 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yabushita, B. E. Bouma, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, D. H. Kang, E. F. Halpern, and G. J. Tearney, “Characterization of human atherosclerosis by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 106(13), 1640–1645 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. G. Fujimoto, S. A. Boppart, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, C. Pitris, and M. E. Brezinski, “High resolution in vivo intra-arterial imaging with optical coherence tomography,” Heart 82(2), 128–133 (1999).
[PubMed]

M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography for optical biopsy. Properties and demonstration of vascular pathology,” Circulation 93(6), 1206–1213 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brehm, B. R.

R. Cicchi, C. Matthäus, T. Meyer, A. Lattermann, B. Dietzek, B. R. Brehm, J. Popp, and F. S. Pavone, “Characterization of collagen and cholesterol deposition in atherosclerotic arterial tissue using non-linear microscopy,” J. Biophotonics 7(1-2), 135–143 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brenner, M.

K. C. Hoang, A. Edris, J. Su, D. S. Mukai, S. Mahon, A. D. Petrov, M. Kern, C. Ashan, Z. Chen, B. J. Tromberg, J. Narula, and M. Brenner, “Use of an oxygen-carrying blood substitute to improve intravascular optical coherence tomography imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 034028 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brezinski, M. E.

N. A. Patel, X. Li, D. L. Stamper, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “Guidance of aortic ablation using optical coherence tomography,” Int. J. Cardiovasc. Imaging 19(2), 171–178 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. G. Fujimoto, S. A. Boppart, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, C. Pitris, and M. E. Brezinski, “High resolution in vivo intra-arterial imaging with optical coherence tomography,” Heart 82(2), 128–133 (1999).
[PubMed]

M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography for optical biopsy. Properties and demonstration of vascular pathology,” Circulation 93(6), 1206–1213 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carr, V. F.

L. F. Hiratzka, G. L. Bakris, J. A. Beckman, R. M. Bersin, V. F. Carr, D. E. Casey, K. A. Eagle, L. K. Hermann, E. M. Isselbacher, E. A. Kazerooni, N. T. Kouchoukos, B. W. Lytle, D. M. Milewicz, D. L. Reich, S. Sen, J. A. Shinn, L. G. Svensson, and D. M. Williams, “Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of patients with thoracic aortic disease: executive summary,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 55, 1509–1544 (2010).

Casey, D. E.

L. F. Hiratzka, G. L. Bakris, J. A. Beckman, R. M. Bersin, V. F. Carr, D. E. Casey, K. A. Eagle, L. K. Hermann, E. M. Isselbacher, E. A. Kazerooni, N. T. Kouchoukos, B. W. Lytle, D. M. Milewicz, D. L. Reich, S. Sen, J. A. Shinn, L. G. Svensson, and D. M. Williams, “Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of patients with thoracic aortic disease: executive summary,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 55, 1509–1544 (2010).

Chang, S.

Chen, Z.

K. C. Hoang, A. Edris, J. Su, D. S. Mukai, S. Mahon, A. D. Petrov, M. Kern, C. Ashan, Z. Chen, B. J. Tromberg, J. Narula, and M. Brenner, “Use of an oxygen-carrying blood substitute to improve intravascular optical coherence tomography imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 034028 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cho, H. S.

Cicchi, R.

R. Cicchi, C. Matthäus, T. Meyer, A. Lattermann, B. Dietzek, B. R. Brehm, J. Popp, and F. S. Pavone, “Characterization of collagen and cholesterol deposition in atherosclerotic arterial tissue using non-linear microscopy,” J. Biophotonics 7(1-2), 135–143 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Çilesiz, I.

F. J. van der Meer, D. J. Faber, I. Çilesiz, M. J. C. van Gemert, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “Temperature-dependent optical properties of individual vascular wall components measured by optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 041120 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Conde, O. M.

E. Real, A. Eguizábal, A. Pontón, M. C. Díez, J. Fernando Val-Bernal, M. Mayorga, J. M. Revuelta, J. M. López-Higuera, and O. M. Conde, “Optical coherence tomography assessment of vessel wall degradation in thoracic aortic aneurysms,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(12), 126003 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Costa, M. A.

S. Tahara, T. Morooka, Z. Wang, H. G. Bezerra, A. M. Rollins, D. I. Simon, and M. A. Costa, “Intravascular optical coherence tomography detection of atherosclerosis and inflammation in murine aorta,” Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 32(5), 1150–1157 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D’Amore, A.

R. G. Koch, A. Tsamis, A. D’Amore, W. R. Wagner, S. C. Watkins, T. G. Gleason, and D. A. Vorp, “A custom image-based analysis tool for quantifying elastin and collagen micro-architecture in the wall of the human aorta from multi-photon microscopy,” J. Biomech. 47(5), 935–943 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Tsamis, J. A. Phillippi, R. G. Koch, S. Pasta, A. D’Amore, S. C. Watkins, W. R. Wagner, T. G. Gleason, and D. A. Vorp, “Fiber micro-architecture in the longitudinal-radial and circumferential-radial planes of ascending thoracic aortic aneurysm media,” J. Biomech. 46(16), 2787–2794 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dan-Chin-Yu, A. V.

de Figueiredo Borges, L.

L. de Figueiredo Borges, R. G. Jaldin, R. R. Dias, N. A. G. Stolf, J. B. Michel, and P. S. Gutierrez, “Collagen is reduced and disrupted in human aneurysms and dissections of ascending aorta,” Hum. Pathol. 39(3), 437–443 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dias, R. R.

L. de Figueiredo Borges, R. G. Jaldin, R. R. Dias, N. A. G. Stolf, J. B. Michel, and P. S. Gutierrez, “Collagen is reduced and disrupted in human aneurysms and dissections of ascending aorta,” Hum. Pathol. 39(3), 437–443 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dietzek, B.

R. Cicchi, C. Matthäus, T. Meyer, A. Lattermann, B. Dietzek, B. R. Brehm, J. Popp, and F. S. Pavone, “Characterization of collagen and cholesterol deposition in atherosclerotic arterial tissue using non-linear microscopy,” J. Biophotonics 7(1-2), 135–143 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Díez, M. C.

E. Real, A. Eguizábal, A. Pontón, M. C. Díez, J. Fernando Val-Bernal, M. Mayorga, J. M. Revuelta, J. M. López-Higuera, and O. M. Conde, “Optical coherence tomography assessment of vessel wall degradation in thoracic aortic aneurysms,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(12), 126003 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Drezek, R.

Dunn, A.

Eagle, K. A.

L. F. Hiratzka, G. L. Bakris, J. A. Beckman, R. M. Bersin, V. F. Carr, D. E. Casey, K. A. Eagle, L. K. Hermann, E. M. Isselbacher, E. A. Kazerooni, N. T. Kouchoukos, B. W. Lytle, D. M. Milewicz, D. L. Reich, S. Sen, J. A. Shinn, L. G. Svensson, and D. M. Williams, “Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of patients with thoracic aortic disease: executive summary,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 55, 1509–1544 (2010).

Eckhaus, M. A.

J. M. Schmitt, A. Knüttel, M. Yadlowsky, and M. A. Eckhaus, “Optical-coherence tomography of a dense tissue: statistics of attenuation and backscattering,” Phys. Med. Biol. 39(10), 1705–1720 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Edris, A.

K. C. Hoang, A. Edris, J. Su, D. S. Mukai, S. Mahon, A. D. Petrov, M. Kern, C. Ashan, Z. Chen, B. J. Tromberg, J. Narula, and M. Brenner, “Use of an oxygen-carrying blood substitute to improve intravascular optical coherence tomography imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 034028 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eguizábal, A.

E. Real, A. Eguizábal, A. Pontón, M. C. Díez, J. Fernando Val-Bernal, M. Mayorga, J. M. Revuelta, J. M. López-Higuera, and O. M. Conde, “Optical coherence tomography assessment of vessel wall degradation in thoracic aortic aneurysms,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(12), 126003 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Erasmi, A. W.

J. F. Matthias Bechtel, F. Noack, F. Sayk, A. W. Erasmi, C. Bartels, and H. H. Sievers, “Histopathological grading of ascending aortic aneurysm: comparison of patients with bicuspid versus tricuspid aortic valve,” J. Heart Valve Dis. 12(1), 54–59 (2003).
[PubMed]

Faber, D. J.

F. J. van der Meer, D. J. Faber, I. Çilesiz, M. J. C. van Gemert, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “Temperature-dependent optical properties of individual vascular wall components measured by optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 041120 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fernando Val-Bernal, J.

E. Real, A. Eguizábal, A. Pontón, M. C. Díez, J. Fernando Val-Bernal, M. Mayorga, J. M. Revuelta, J. M. López-Higuera, and O. M. Conde, “Optical coherence tomography assessment of vessel wall degradation in thoracic aortic aneurysms,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(12), 126003 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fine, I.

I. Fine, E. Loewinger, A. Weinreb, and D. Weinberger, “Optical properties of the sclera,” Phys. Med. Biol. 30(6), 565–571 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Flueraru, C.

Fujimoto, J. G.

N. A. Patel, X. Li, D. L. Stamper, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “Guidance of aortic ablation using optical coherence tomography,” Int. J. Cardiovasc. Imaging 19(2), 171–178 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. G. Fujimoto, S. A. Boppart, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, C. Pitris, and M. E. Brezinski, “High resolution in vivo intra-arterial imaging with optical coherence tomography,” Heart 82(2), 128–133 (1999).
[PubMed]

M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography for optical biopsy. Properties and demonstration of vascular pathology,” Circulation 93(6), 1206–1213 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Genina, E. A.

E. A. Genina, A. N. Bashkatov, and V. V. Tuchin, “Tissue optical immersion clearing,” Expert Rev. Med. Devices 7(6), 825–842 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gleason, T. G.

R. G. Koch, A. Tsamis, A. D’Amore, W. R. Wagner, S. C. Watkins, T. G. Gleason, and D. A. Vorp, “A custom image-based analysis tool for quantifying elastin and collagen micro-architecture in the wall of the human aorta from multi-photon microscopy,” J. Biomech. 47(5), 935–943 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Tsamis, J. A. Phillippi, R. G. Koch, S. Pasta, A. D’Amore, S. C. Watkins, W. R. Wagner, T. G. Gleason, and D. A. Vorp, “Fiber micro-architecture in the longitudinal-radial and circumferential-radial planes of ascending thoracic aortic aneurysm media,” J. Biomech. 46(16), 2787–2794 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Pasta, J. A. Phillippi, T. G. Gleason, and D. A. Vorp, “Effect of aneurysm on the mechanical dissection properties of the human ascending thoracic aorta,” J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 143(2), 460–467 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Greenwald, S. E.

C. L. Berry, J. A. Sosa-Melgarejo, and S. E. Greenwald, “The relationship between wall tension, lamellar thickness, and intercellular junctions in the fetal and adult aorta: its relevance to the pathology of dissecting aneurysm,” J. Pathol. 169(1), 15–20 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gutierrez, P. S.

L. de Figueiredo Borges, R. G. Jaldin, R. R. Dias, N. A. G. Stolf, J. B. Michel, and P. S. Gutierrez, “Collagen is reduced and disrupted in human aneurysms and dissections of ascending aorta,” Hum. Pathol. 39(3), 437–443 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Halpern, E. F.

H. Yabushita, B. E. Bouma, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, D. H. Kang, E. F. Halpern, and G. J. Tearney, “Characterization of human atherosclerosis by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 106(13), 1640–1645 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hee, M. R.

M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography for optical biopsy. Properties and demonstration of vascular pathology,” Circulation 93(6), 1206–1213 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hermann, L. K.

L. F. Hiratzka, G. L. Bakris, J. A. Beckman, R. M. Bersin, V. F. Carr, D. E. Casey, K. A. Eagle, L. K. Hermann, E. M. Isselbacher, E. A. Kazerooni, N. T. Kouchoukos, B. W. Lytle, D. M. Milewicz, D. L. Reich, S. Sen, J. A. Shinn, L. G. Svensson, and D. M. Williams, “Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of patients with thoracic aortic disease: executive summary,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 55, 1509–1544 (2010).

Hiratzka, L. F.

L. F. Hiratzka, G. L. Bakris, J. A. Beckman, R. M. Bersin, V. F. Carr, D. E. Casey, K. A. Eagle, L. K. Hermann, E. M. Isselbacher, E. A. Kazerooni, N. T. Kouchoukos, B. W. Lytle, D. M. Milewicz, D. L. Reich, S. Sen, J. A. Shinn, L. G. Svensson, and D. M. Williams, “Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of patients with thoracic aortic disease: executive summary,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 55, 1509–1544 (2010).

Hoang, K. C.

K. C. Hoang, A. Edris, J. Su, D. S. Mukai, S. Mahon, A. D. Petrov, M. Kern, C. Ashan, Z. Chen, B. J. Tromberg, J. Narula, and M. Brenner, “Use of an oxygen-carrying blood substitute to improve intravascular optical coherence tomography imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 034028 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Houser, S. L.

H. Yabushita, B. E. Bouma, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, D. H. Kang, E. F. Halpern, and G. J. Tearney, “Characterization of human atherosclerosis by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 106(13), 1640–1645 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Inagaki, Y.

Y. Masuda, Z. Yamada, N. Morooka, S. Watanabe, and Y. Inagaki, “Prognosis of patients with medically treated aortic dissections,” Circulation 84(5Suppl), III7–III13 (1991).
[PubMed]

Isselbacher, E. M.

L. F. Hiratzka, G. L. Bakris, J. A. Beckman, R. M. Bersin, V. F. Carr, D. E. Casey, K. A. Eagle, L. K. Hermann, E. M. Isselbacher, E. A. Kazerooni, N. T. Kouchoukos, B. W. Lytle, D. M. Milewicz, D. L. Reich, S. Sen, J. A. Shinn, L. G. Svensson, and D. M. Williams, “Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of patients with thoracic aortic disease: executive summary,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 55, 1509–1544 (2010).

Izatt, J. A.

M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography for optical biopsy. Properties and demonstration of vascular pathology,” Circulation 93(6), 1206–1213 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jaldin, R. G.

L. de Figueiredo Borges, R. G. Jaldin, R. R. Dias, N. A. G. Stolf, J. B. Michel, and P. S. Gutierrez, “Collagen is reduced and disrupted in human aneurysms and dissections of ascending aorta,” Hum. Pathol. 39(3), 437–443 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jang, I. K.

H. Yabushita, B. E. Bouma, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, D. H. Kang, E. F. Halpern, and G. J. Tearney, “Characterization of human atherosclerosis by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 106(13), 1640–1645 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jang, S. J.

Kang, D. H.

H. Yabushita, B. E. Bouma, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, D. H. Kang, E. F. Halpern, and G. J. Tearney, “Characterization of human atherosclerosis by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 106(13), 1640–1645 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kauffman, C. R.

H. Yabushita, B. E. Bouma, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, D. H. Kang, E. F. Halpern, and G. J. Tearney, “Characterization of human atherosclerosis by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 106(13), 1640–1645 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kazerooni, E. A.

L. F. Hiratzka, G. L. Bakris, J. A. Beckman, R. M. Bersin, V. F. Carr, D. E. Casey, K. A. Eagle, L. K. Hermann, E. M. Isselbacher, E. A. Kazerooni, N. T. Kouchoukos, B. W. Lytle, D. M. Milewicz, D. L. Reich, S. Sen, J. A. Shinn, L. G. Svensson, and D. M. Williams, “Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of patients with thoracic aortic disease: executive summary,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 55, 1509–1544 (2010).

Kern, M.

K. C. Hoang, A. Edris, J. Su, D. S. Mukai, S. Mahon, A. D. Petrov, M. Kern, C. Ashan, Z. Chen, B. J. Tromberg, J. Narula, and M. Brenner, “Use of an oxygen-carrying blood substitute to improve intravascular optical coherence tomography imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 034028 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, K.

Knüttel, A.

J. M. Schmitt, A. Knüttel, M. Yadlowsky, and M. A. Eckhaus, “Optical-coherence tomography of a dense tissue: statistics of attenuation and backscattering,” Phys. Med. Biol. 39(10), 1705–1720 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Koch, R. G.

R. G. Koch, A. Tsamis, A. D’Amore, W. R. Wagner, S. C. Watkins, T. G. Gleason, and D. A. Vorp, “A custom image-based analysis tool for quantifying elastin and collagen micro-architecture in the wall of the human aorta from multi-photon microscopy,” J. Biomech. 47(5), 935–943 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Tsamis, J. A. Phillippi, R. G. Koch, S. Pasta, A. D’Amore, S. C. Watkins, W. R. Wagner, T. G. Gleason, and D. A. Vorp, “Fiber micro-architecture in the longitudinal-radial and circumferential-radial planes of ascending thoracic aortic aneurysm media,” J. Biomech. 46(16), 2787–2794 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kouchoukos, N. T.

L. F. Hiratzka, G. L. Bakris, J. A. Beckman, R. M. Bersin, V. F. Carr, D. E. Casey, K. A. Eagle, L. K. Hermann, E. M. Isselbacher, E. A. Kazerooni, N. T. Kouchoukos, B. W. Lytle, D. M. Milewicz, D. L. Reich, S. Sen, J. A. Shinn, L. G. Svensson, and D. M. Williams, “Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of patients with thoracic aortic disease: executive summary,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 55, 1509–1544 (2010).

Lattermann, A.

R. Cicchi, C. Matthäus, T. Meyer, A. Lattermann, B. Dietzek, B. R. Brehm, J. Popp, and F. S. Pavone, “Characterization of collagen and cholesterol deposition in atherosclerotic arterial tissue using non-linear microscopy,” J. Biophotonics 7(1-2), 135–143 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, X.

N. A. Patel, X. Li, D. L. Stamper, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “Guidance of aortic ablation using optical coherence tomography,” Int. J. Cardiovasc. Imaging 19(2), 171–178 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Loewinger, E.

I. Fine, E. Loewinger, A. Weinreb, and D. Weinberger, “Optical properties of the sclera,” Phys. Med. Biol. 30(6), 565–571 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

López-Higuera, J. M.

E. Real, A. Eguizábal, A. Pontón, M. C. Díez, J. Fernando Val-Bernal, M. Mayorga, J. M. Revuelta, J. M. López-Higuera, and O. M. Conde, “Optical coherence tomography assessment of vessel wall degradation in thoracic aortic aneurysms,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(12), 126003 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lytle, B. W.

L. F. Hiratzka, G. L. Bakris, J. A. Beckman, R. M. Bersin, V. F. Carr, D. E. Casey, K. A. Eagle, L. K. Hermann, E. M. Isselbacher, E. A. Kazerooni, N. T. Kouchoukos, B. W. Lytle, D. M. Milewicz, D. L. Reich, S. Sen, J. A. Shinn, L. G. Svensson, and D. M. Williams, “Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of patients with thoracic aortic disease: executive summary,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 55, 1509–1544 (2010).

Mahon, S.

K. C. Hoang, A. Edris, J. Su, D. S. Mukai, S. Mahon, A. D. Petrov, M. Kern, C. Ashan, Z. Chen, B. J. Tromberg, J. Narula, and M. Brenner, “Use of an oxygen-carrying blood substitute to improve intravascular optical coherence tomography imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 034028 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mao, Y.

Masuda, Y.

Y. Masuda, Z. Yamada, N. Morooka, S. Watanabe, and Y. Inagaki, “Prognosis of patients with medically treated aortic dissections,” Circulation 84(5Suppl), III7–III13 (1991).
[PubMed]

Matthäus, C.

R. Cicchi, C. Matthäus, T. Meyer, A. Lattermann, B. Dietzek, B. R. Brehm, J. Popp, and F. S. Pavone, “Characterization of collagen and cholesterol deposition in atherosclerotic arterial tissue using non-linear microscopy,” J. Biophotonics 7(1-2), 135–143 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Matthias Bechtel, J. F.

J. F. Matthias Bechtel, F. Noack, F. Sayk, A. W. Erasmi, C. Bartels, and H. H. Sievers, “Histopathological grading of ascending aortic aneurysm: comparison of patients with bicuspid versus tricuspid aortic valve,” J. Heart Valve Dis. 12(1), 54–59 (2003).
[PubMed]

Mayorga, M.

E. Real, A. Eguizábal, A. Pontón, M. C. Díez, J. Fernando Val-Bernal, M. Mayorga, J. M. Revuelta, J. M. López-Higuera, and O. M. Conde, “Optical coherence tomography assessment of vessel wall degradation in thoracic aortic aneurysms,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(12), 126003 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Meyer, T.

R. Cicchi, C. Matthäus, T. Meyer, A. Lattermann, B. Dietzek, B. R. Brehm, J. Popp, and F. S. Pavone, “Characterization of collagen and cholesterol deposition in atherosclerotic arterial tissue using non-linear microscopy,” J. Biophotonics 7(1-2), 135–143 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Michel, J. B.

L. de Figueiredo Borges, R. G. Jaldin, R. R. Dias, N. A. G. Stolf, J. B. Michel, and P. S. Gutierrez, “Collagen is reduced and disrupted in human aneurysms and dissections of ascending aorta,” Hum. Pathol. 39(3), 437–443 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Milewicz, D. M.

L. F. Hiratzka, G. L. Bakris, J. A. Beckman, R. M. Bersin, V. F. Carr, D. E. Casey, K. A. Eagle, L. K. Hermann, E. M. Isselbacher, E. A. Kazerooni, N. T. Kouchoukos, B. W. Lytle, D. M. Milewicz, D. L. Reich, S. Sen, J. A. Shinn, L. G. Svensson, and D. M. Williams, “Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of patients with thoracic aortic disease: executive summary,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 55, 1509–1544 (2010).

Morooka, N.

Y. Masuda, Z. Yamada, N. Morooka, S. Watanabe, and Y. Inagaki, “Prognosis of patients with medically treated aortic dissections,” Circulation 84(5Suppl), III7–III13 (1991).
[PubMed]

Morooka, T.

S. Tahara, T. Morooka, Z. Wang, H. G. Bezerra, A. M. Rollins, D. I. Simon, and M. A. Costa, “Intravascular optical coherence tomography detection of atherosclerosis and inflammation in murine aorta,” Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 32(5), 1150–1157 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mukai, D. S.

K. C. Hoang, A. Edris, J. Su, D. S. Mukai, S. Mahon, A. D. Petrov, M. Kern, C. Ashan, Z. Chen, B. J. Tromberg, J. Narula, and M. Brenner, “Use of an oxygen-carrying blood substitute to improve intravascular optical coherence tomography imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 034028 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Narula, J.

K. C. Hoang, A. Edris, J. Su, D. S. Mukai, S. Mahon, A. D. Petrov, M. Kern, C. Ashan, Z. Chen, B. J. Tromberg, J. Narula, and M. Brenner, “Use of an oxygen-carrying blood substitute to improve intravascular optical coherence tomography imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 034028 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Noack, F.

J. F. Matthias Bechtel, F. Noack, F. Sayk, A. W. Erasmi, C. Bartels, and H. H. Sievers, “Histopathological grading of ascending aortic aneurysm: comparison of patients with bicuspid versus tricuspid aortic valve,” J. Heart Valve Dis. 12(1), 54–59 (2003).
[PubMed]

Oh, W. Y.

Otsu, N.

N. Otsu, “A Threshold Selection Method from Gray-Level Histograms,” IEEE Sys Man Cyb 9(1), 62–66 (1979).
[Crossref]

Pasta, S.

A. Tsamis, J. A. Phillippi, R. G. Koch, S. Pasta, A. D’Amore, S. C. Watkins, W. R. Wagner, T. G. Gleason, and D. A. Vorp, “Fiber micro-architecture in the longitudinal-radial and circumferential-radial planes of ascending thoracic aortic aneurysm media,” J. Biomech. 46(16), 2787–2794 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Pasta, J. A. Phillippi, T. G. Gleason, and D. A. Vorp, “Effect of aneurysm on the mechanical dissection properties of the human ascending thoracic aorta,” J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 143(2), 460–467 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Patel, N. A.

N. A. Patel, X. Li, D. L. Stamper, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “Guidance of aortic ablation using optical coherence tomography,” Int. J. Cardiovasc. Imaging 19(2), 171–178 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pavone, F. S.

R. Cicchi, C. Matthäus, T. Meyer, A. Lattermann, B. Dietzek, B. R. Brehm, J. Popp, and F. S. Pavone, “Characterization of collagen and cholesterol deposition in atherosclerotic arterial tissue using non-linear microscopy,” J. Biophotonics 7(1-2), 135–143 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Petrov, A. D.

K. C. Hoang, A. Edris, J. Su, D. S. Mukai, S. Mahon, A. D. Petrov, M. Kern, C. Ashan, Z. Chen, B. J. Tromberg, J. Narula, and M. Brenner, “Use of an oxygen-carrying blood substitute to improve intravascular optical coherence tomography imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 034028 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phillippi, J. A.

A. Tsamis, J. A. Phillippi, R. G. Koch, S. Pasta, A. D’Amore, S. C. Watkins, W. R. Wagner, T. G. Gleason, and D. A. Vorp, “Fiber micro-architecture in the longitudinal-radial and circumferential-radial planes of ascending thoracic aortic aneurysm media,” J. Biomech. 46(16), 2787–2794 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Pasta, J. A. Phillippi, T. G. Gleason, and D. A. Vorp, “Effect of aneurysm on the mechanical dissection properties of the human ascending thoracic aorta,” J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 143(2), 460–467 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pitris, C.

J. G. Fujimoto, S. A. Boppart, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, C. Pitris, and M. E. Brezinski, “High resolution in vivo intra-arterial imaging with optical coherence tomography,” Heart 82(2), 128–133 (1999).
[PubMed]

Pontón, A.

E. Real, A. Eguizábal, A. Pontón, M. C. Díez, J. Fernando Val-Bernal, M. Mayorga, J. M. Revuelta, J. M. López-Higuera, and O. M. Conde, “Optical coherence tomography assessment of vessel wall degradation in thoracic aortic aneurysms,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(12), 126003 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Popescu, D. P.

Popp, J.

R. Cicchi, C. Matthäus, T. Meyer, A. Lattermann, B. Dietzek, B. R. Brehm, J. Popp, and F. S. Pavone, “Characterization of collagen and cholesterol deposition in atherosclerotic arterial tissue using non-linear microscopy,” J. Biophotonics 7(1-2), 135–143 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Real, E.

E. Real, A. Eguizábal, A. Pontón, M. C. Díez, J. Fernando Val-Bernal, M. Mayorga, J. M. Revuelta, J. M. López-Higuera, and O. M. Conde, “Optical coherence tomography assessment of vessel wall degradation in thoracic aortic aneurysms,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(12), 126003 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reich, D. L.

L. F. Hiratzka, G. L. Bakris, J. A. Beckman, R. M. Bersin, V. F. Carr, D. E. Casey, K. A. Eagle, L. K. Hermann, E. M. Isselbacher, E. A. Kazerooni, N. T. Kouchoukos, B. W. Lytle, D. M. Milewicz, D. L. Reich, S. Sen, J. A. Shinn, L. G. Svensson, and D. M. Williams, “Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of patients with thoracic aortic disease: executive summary,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 55, 1509–1544 (2010).

Revuelta, J. M.

E. Real, A. Eguizábal, A. Pontón, M. C. Díez, J. Fernando Val-Bernal, M. Mayorga, J. M. Revuelta, J. M. López-Higuera, and O. M. Conde, “Optical coherence tomography assessment of vessel wall degradation in thoracic aortic aneurysms,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(12), 126003 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Richards-Kortum, R.

Rollins, A. M.

S. Tahara, T. Morooka, Z. Wang, H. G. Bezerra, A. M. Rollins, D. I. Simon, and M. A. Costa, “Intravascular optical coherence tomography detection of atherosclerosis and inflammation in murine aorta,” Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 32(5), 1150–1157 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sayk, F.

J. F. Matthias Bechtel, F. Noack, F. Sayk, A. W. Erasmi, C. Bartels, and H. H. Sievers, “Histopathological grading of ascending aortic aneurysm: comparison of patients with bicuspid versus tricuspid aortic valve,” J. Heart Valve Dis. 12(1), 54–59 (2003).
[PubMed]

Schlendorf, K. H.

H. Yabushita, B. E. Bouma, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, D. H. Kang, E. F. Halpern, and G. J. Tearney, “Characterization of human atherosclerosis by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 106(13), 1640–1645 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schmitt, J. M.

J. M. Schmitt, A. Knüttel, M. Yadlowsky, and M. A. Eckhaus, “Optical-coherence tomography of a dense tissue: statistics of attenuation and backscattering,” Phys. Med. Biol. 39(10), 1705–1720 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sen, S.

L. F. Hiratzka, G. L. Bakris, J. A. Beckman, R. M. Bersin, V. F. Carr, D. E. Casey, K. A. Eagle, L. K. Hermann, E. M. Isselbacher, E. A. Kazerooni, N. T. Kouchoukos, B. W. Lytle, D. M. Milewicz, D. L. Reich, S. Sen, J. A. Shinn, L. G. Svensson, and D. M. Williams, “Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of patients with thoracic aortic disease: executive summary,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 55, 1509–1544 (2010).

Shinn, J. A.

L. F. Hiratzka, G. L. Bakris, J. A. Beckman, R. M. Bersin, V. F. Carr, D. E. Casey, K. A. Eagle, L. K. Hermann, E. M. Isselbacher, E. A. Kazerooni, N. T. Kouchoukos, B. W. Lytle, D. M. Milewicz, D. L. Reich, S. Sen, J. A. Shinn, L. G. Svensson, and D. M. Williams, “Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of patients with thoracic aortic disease: executive summary,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 55, 1509–1544 (2010).

Shishkov, M.

H. S. Cho, S. J. Jang, K. Kim, A. V. Dan-Chin-Yu, M. Shishkov, B. E. Bouma, and W. Y. Oh, “High frame-rate intravascular optical frequency-domain imaging in vivo,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(1), 223–232 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yabushita, B. E. Bouma, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, D. H. Kang, E. F. Halpern, and G. J. Tearney, “Characterization of human atherosclerosis by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 106(13), 1640–1645 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sievers, H. H.

J. F. Matthias Bechtel, F. Noack, F. Sayk, A. W. Erasmi, C. Bartels, and H. H. Sievers, “Histopathological grading of ascending aortic aneurysm: comparison of patients with bicuspid versus tricuspid aortic valve,” J. Heart Valve Dis. 12(1), 54–59 (2003).
[PubMed]

Simon, D. I.

S. Tahara, T. Morooka, Z. Wang, H. G. Bezerra, A. M. Rollins, D. I. Simon, and M. A. Costa, “Intravascular optical coherence tomography detection of atherosclerosis and inflammation in murine aorta,” Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 32(5), 1150–1157 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sosa-Melgarejo, J. A.

C. L. Berry, J. A. Sosa-Melgarejo, and S. E. Greenwald, “The relationship between wall tension, lamellar thickness, and intercellular junctions in the fetal and adult aorta: its relevance to the pathology of dissecting aneurysm,” J. Pathol. 169(1), 15–20 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Southern, J. F.

M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography for optical biopsy. Properties and demonstration of vascular pathology,” Circulation 93(6), 1206–1213 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sowa, M. G.

Stamper, D. L.

N. A. Patel, X. Li, D. L. Stamper, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “Guidance of aortic ablation using optical coherence tomography,” Int. J. Cardiovasc. Imaging 19(2), 171–178 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stolf, N. A. G.

L. de Figueiredo Borges, R. G. Jaldin, R. R. Dias, N. A. G. Stolf, J. B. Michel, and P. S. Gutierrez, “Collagen is reduced and disrupted in human aneurysms and dissections of ascending aorta,” Hum. Pathol. 39(3), 437–443 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Su, J.

K. C. Hoang, A. Edris, J. Su, D. S. Mukai, S. Mahon, A. D. Petrov, M. Kern, C. Ashan, Z. Chen, B. J. Tromberg, J. Narula, and M. Brenner, “Use of an oxygen-carrying blood substitute to improve intravascular optical coherence tomography imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 034028 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Svensson, L. G.

L. F. Hiratzka, G. L. Bakris, J. A. Beckman, R. M. Bersin, V. F. Carr, D. E. Casey, K. A. Eagle, L. K. Hermann, E. M. Isselbacher, E. A. Kazerooni, N. T. Kouchoukos, B. W. Lytle, D. M. Milewicz, D. L. Reich, S. Sen, J. A. Shinn, L. G. Svensson, and D. M. Williams, “Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of patients with thoracic aortic disease: executive summary,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 55, 1509–1544 (2010).

Swanson, E. A.

M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography for optical biopsy. Properties and demonstration of vascular pathology,” Circulation 93(6), 1206–1213 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tahara, S.

S. Tahara, T. Morooka, Z. Wang, H. G. Bezerra, A. M. Rollins, D. I. Simon, and M. A. Costa, “Intravascular optical coherence tomography detection of atherosclerosis and inflammation in murine aorta,” Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 32(5), 1150–1157 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tearney, G. J.

H. Yabushita, B. E. Bouma, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, D. H. Kang, E. F. Halpern, and G. J. Tearney, “Characterization of human atherosclerosis by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 106(13), 1640–1645 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. G. Fujimoto, S. A. Boppart, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, C. Pitris, and M. E. Brezinski, “High resolution in vivo intra-arterial imaging with optical coherence tomography,” Heart 82(2), 128–133 (1999).
[PubMed]

M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography for optical biopsy. Properties and demonstration of vascular pathology,” Circulation 93(6), 1206–1213 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tromberg, B. J.

K. C. Hoang, A. Edris, J. Su, D. S. Mukai, S. Mahon, A. D. Petrov, M. Kern, C. Ashan, Z. Chen, B. J. Tromberg, J. Narula, and M. Brenner, “Use of an oxygen-carrying blood substitute to improve intravascular optical coherence tomography imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 034028 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tsamis, A.

R. G. Koch, A. Tsamis, A. D’Amore, W. R. Wagner, S. C. Watkins, T. G. Gleason, and D. A. Vorp, “A custom image-based analysis tool for quantifying elastin and collagen micro-architecture in the wall of the human aorta from multi-photon microscopy,” J. Biomech. 47(5), 935–943 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Tsamis, J. A. Phillippi, R. G. Koch, S. Pasta, A. D’Amore, S. C. Watkins, W. R. Wagner, T. G. Gleason, and D. A. Vorp, “Fiber micro-architecture in the longitudinal-radial and circumferential-radial planes of ascending thoracic aortic aneurysm media,” J. Biomech. 46(16), 2787–2794 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tuchin, V. V.

E. A. Genina, A. N. Bashkatov, and V. V. Tuchin, “Tissue optical immersion clearing,” Expert Rev. Med. Devices 7(6), 825–842 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

van der Meer, F. J.

F. J. van der Meer, D. J. Faber, I. Çilesiz, M. J. C. van Gemert, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “Temperature-dependent optical properties of individual vascular wall components measured by optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 041120 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

van Gemert, M. J. C.

F. J. van der Meer, D. J. Faber, I. Çilesiz, M. J. C. van Gemert, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “Temperature-dependent optical properties of individual vascular wall components measured by optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 041120 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

van Leeuwen, T. G.

F. J. van der Meer, D. J. Faber, I. Çilesiz, M. J. C. van Gemert, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “Temperature-dependent optical properties of individual vascular wall components measured by optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 041120 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vorp, D. A.

R. G. Koch, A. Tsamis, A. D’Amore, W. R. Wagner, S. C. Watkins, T. G. Gleason, and D. A. Vorp, “A custom image-based analysis tool for quantifying elastin and collagen micro-architecture in the wall of the human aorta from multi-photon microscopy,” J. Biomech. 47(5), 935–943 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Tsamis, J. A. Phillippi, R. G. Koch, S. Pasta, A. D’Amore, S. C. Watkins, W. R. Wagner, T. G. Gleason, and D. A. Vorp, “Fiber micro-architecture in the longitudinal-radial and circumferential-radial planes of ascending thoracic aortic aneurysm media,” J. Biomech. 46(16), 2787–2794 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Pasta, J. A. Phillippi, T. G. Gleason, and D. A. Vorp, “Effect of aneurysm on the mechanical dissection properties of the human ascending thoracic aorta,” J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 143(2), 460–467 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wagner, W. R.

R. G. Koch, A. Tsamis, A. D’Amore, W. R. Wagner, S. C. Watkins, T. G. Gleason, and D. A. Vorp, “A custom image-based analysis tool for quantifying elastin and collagen micro-architecture in the wall of the human aorta from multi-photon microscopy,” J. Biomech. 47(5), 935–943 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Tsamis, J. A. Phillippi, R. G. Koch, S. Pasta, A. D’Amore, S. C. Watkins, W. R. Wagner, T. G. Gleason, and D. A. Vorp, “Fiber micro-architecture in the longitudinal-radial and circumferential-radial planes of ascending thoracic aortic aneurysm media,” J. Biomech. 46(16), 2787–2794 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Z.

S. Tahara, T. Morooka, Z. Wang, H. G. Bezerra, A. M. Rollins, D. I. Simon, and M. A. Costa, “Intravascular optical coherence tomography detection of atherosclerosis and inflammation in murine aorta,” Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 32(5), 1150–1157 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Watanabe, S.

Y. Masuda, Z. Yamada, N. Morooka, S. Watanabe, and Y. Inagaki, “Prognosis of patients with medically treated aortic dissections,” Circulation 84(5Suppl), III7–III13 (1991).
[PubMed]

Watkins, S. C.

R. G. Koch, A. Tsamis, A. D’Amore, W. R. Wagner, S. C. Watkins, T. G. Gleason, and D. A. Vorp, “A custom image-based analysis tool for quantifying elastin and collagen micro-architecture in the wall of the human aorta from multi-photon microscopy,” J. Biomech. 47(5), 935–943 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Tsamis, J. A. Phillippi, R. G. Koch, S. Pasta, A. D’Amore, S. C. Watkins, W. R. Wagner, T. G. Gleason, and D. A. Vorp, “Fiber micro-architecture in the longitudinal-radial and circumferential-radial planes of ascending thoracic aortic aneurysm media,” J. Biomech. 46(16), 2787–2794 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weinberger, D.

I. Fine, E. Loewinger, A. Weinreb, and D. Weinberger, “Optical properties of the sclera,” Phys. Med. Biol. 30(6), 565–571 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weinreb, A.

I. Fine, E. Loewinger, A. Weinreb, and D. Weinberger, “Optical properties of the sclera,” Phys. Med. Biol. 30(6), 565–571 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Williams, D. M.

L. F. Hiratzka, G. L. Bakris, J. A. Beckman, R. M. Bersin, V. F. Carr, D. E. Casey, K. A. Eagle, L. K. Hermann, E. M. Isselbacher, E. A. Kazerooni, N. T. Kouchoukos, B. W. Lytle, D. M. Milewicz, D. L. Reich, S. Sen, J. A. Shinn, L. G. Svensson, and D. M. Williams, “Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of patients with thoracic aortic disease: executive summary,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 55, 1509–1544 (2010).

Yabushita, H.

H. Yabushita, B. E. Bouma, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, D. H. Kang, E. F. Halpern, and G. J. Tearney, “Characterization of human atherosclerosis by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 106(13), 1640–1645 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yadlowsky, M.

J. M. Schmitt, A. Knüttel, M. Yadlowsky, and M. A. Eckhaus, “Optical-coherence tomography of a dense tissue: statistics of attenuation and backscattering,” Phys. Med. Biol. 39(10), 1705–1720 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yamada, Z.

Y. Masuda, Z. Yamada, N. Morooka, S. Watanabe, and Y. Inagaki, “Prognosis of patients with medically treated aortic dissections,” Circulation 84(5Suppl), III7–III13 (1991).
[PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. (1)

S. Tahara, T. Morooka, Z. Wang, H. G. Bezerra, A. M. Rollins, D. I. Simon, and M. A. Costa, “Intravascular optical coherence tomography detection of atherosclerosis and inflammation in murine aorta,” Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 32(5), 1150–1157 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biomed. Opt. Express (2)

Circulation (3)

Y. Masuda, Z. Yamada, N. Morooka, S. Watanabe, and Y. Inagaki, “Prognosis of patients with medically treated aortic dissections,” Circulation 84(5Suppl), III7–III13 (1991).
[PubMed]

M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography for optical biopsy. Properties and demonstration of vascular pathology,” Circulation 93(6), 1206–1213 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yabushita, B. E. Bouma, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, D. H. Kang, E. F. Halpern, and G. J. Tearney, “Characterization of human atherosclerosis by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 106(13), 1640–1645 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Expert Rev. Med. Devices (1)

E. A. Genina, A. N. Bashkatov, and V. V. Tuchin, “Tissue optical immersion clearing,” Expert Rev. Med. Devices 7(6), 825–842 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Heart (1)

J. G. Fujimoto, S. A. Boppart, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, C. Pitris, and M. E. Brezinski, “High resolution in vivo intra-arterial imaging with optical coherence tomography,” Heart 82(2), 128–133 (1999).
[PubMed]

Hum. Pathol. (1)

L. de Figueiredo Borges, R. G. Jaldin, R. R. Dias, N. A. G. Stolf, J. B. Michel, and P. S. Gutierrez, “Collagen is reduced and disrupted in human aneurysms and dissections of ascending aorta,” Hum. Pathol. 39(3), 437–443 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

IEEE Sys Man Cyb (1)

N. Otsu, “A Threshold Selection Method from Gray-Level Histograms,” IEEE Sys Man Cyb 9(1), 62–66 (1979).
[Crossref]

Int. J. Cardiovasc. Imaging (1)

N. A. Patel, X. Li, D. L. Stamper, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “Guidance of aortic ablation using optical coherence tomography,” Int. J. Cardiovasc. Imaging 19(2), 171–178 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (1)

L. F. Hiratzka, G. L. Bakris, J. A. Beckman, R. M. Bersin, V. F. Carr, D. E. Casey, K. A. Eagle, L. K. Hermann, E. M. Isselbacher, E. A. Kazerooni, N. T. Kouchoukos, B. W. Lytle, D. M. Milewicz, D. L. Reich, S. Sen, J. A. Shinn, L. G. Svensson, and D. M. Williams, “Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of patients with thoracic aortic disease: executive summary,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 55, 1509–1544 (2010).

J. Biomech. (2)

R. G. Koch, A. Tsamis, A. D’Amore, W. R. Wagner, S. C. Watkins, T. G. Gleason, and D. A. Vorp, “A custom image-based analysis tool for quantifying elastin and collagen micro-architecture in the wall of the human aorta from multi-photon microscopy,” J. Biomech. 47(5), 935–943 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Tsamis, J. A. Phillippi, R. G. Koch, S. Pasta, A. D’Amore, S. C. Watkins, W. R. Wagner, T. G. Gleason, and D. A. Vorp, “Fiber micro-architecture in the longitudinal-radial and circumferential-radial planes of ascending thoracic aortic aneurysm media,” J. Biomech. 46(16), 2787–2794 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (3)

K. C. Hoang, A. Edris, J. Su, D. S. Mukai, S. Mahon, A. D. Petrov, M. Kern, C. Ashan, Z. Chen, B. J. Tromberg, J. Narula, and M. Brenner, “Use of an oxygen-carrying blood substitute to improve intravascular optical coherence tomography imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 034028 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. J. van der Meer, D. J. Faber, I. Çilesiz, M. J. C. van Gemert, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “Temperature-dependent optical properties of individual vascular wall components measured by optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 041120 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Real, A. Eguizábal, A. Pontón, M. C. Díez, J. Fernando Val-Bernal, M. Mayorga, J. M. Revuelta, J. M. López-Higuera, and O. M. Conde, “Optical coherence tomography assessment of vessel wall degradation in thoracic aortic aneurysms,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(12), 126003 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Biophotonics (1)

R. Cicchi, C. Matthäus, T. Meyer, A. Lattermann, B. Dietzek, B. R. Brehm, J. Popp, and F. S. Pavone, “Characterization of collagen and cholesterol deposition in atherosclerotic arterial tissue using non-linear microscopy,” J. Biophotonics 7(1-2), 135–143 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Heart Valve Dis. (1)

J. F. Matthias Bechtel, F. Noack, F. Sayk, A. W. Erasmi, C. Bartels, and H. H. Sievers, “Histopathological grading of ascending aortic aneurysm: comparison of patients with bicuspid versus tricuspid aortic valve,” J. Heart Valve Dis. 12(1), 54–59 (2003).
[PubMed]

J. Pathol. (1)

C. L. Berry, J. A. Sosa-Melgarejo, and S. E. Greenwald, “The relationship between wall tension, lamellar thickness, and intercellular junctions in the fetal and adult aorta: its relevance to the pathology of dissecting aneurysm,” J. Pathol. 169(1), 15–20 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. (1)

S. Pasta, J. A. Phillippi, T. G. Gleason, and D. A. Vorp, “Effect of aneurysm on the mechanical dissection properties of the human ascending thoracic aorta,” J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 143(2), 460–467 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Med. Biol. (2)

J. M. Schmitt, A. Knüttel, M. Yadlowsky, and M. A. Eckhaus, “Optical-coherence tomography of a dense tissue: statistics of attenuation and backscattering,” Phys. Med. Biol. 39(10), 1705–1720 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Fine, E. Loewinger, A. Weinreb, and D. Weinberger, “Optical properties of the sclera,” Phys. Med. Biol. 30(6), 565–571 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (2)

P. Kovesi, “Phase Preserving Denoising of Images,” The Australian Pattern Recognition Society Conference: DICTA’99 212–217 (1999).

P. Kovesi, MATLAB and Octave Functions for Computer Vision and Image Processing,” Csse,May 2000, < http://www.csse.uwa.edu.au/~pk/research/matlabfns/ >, (12 November 2013).

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Sample processing schematic. Every sample is divided into several Regions Of Interest (ROI). On every ROI, 5 OCT B-scans were obtained.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Histological images for score grading. Different staining techniques are applied to visualize different degradation effects. Category 1 (a,b,c) and 2 (d,e,f) are shown for comparison.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 OCT image pre-processing flowchart. On every B-scan (a), a noise filter is applied (b). A segmentation procedure is applied to distinguish the air-tissue interface and penetration limit sensitivity (c). After that, the segmented region (d) has its mean corrected in vertical and horizontal axes (e). Finally, a binarization algorithm is applied (f).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Description of the thresholding procedure. Typical histogram for conventional thresholding (a) compared with histogram of OCT B-scans (b). After applying the noise filter (c), the foreground (d) and background (e) of B-scans are used to establish a threshold based on the histogram of both of them (f).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Comparison of category 1 (upper) and category 2 (lower) B-scans. After the air tissue interface detection, the surface angle is computed (a, d). Anomaly areas are detected as a result of the processing algorithm (b,e). For every individual anomaly detected, the angle of the major axis is calculated in relation to the surface (c,f).
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Qualitative analysis results (left) considering the maximum anomaly area (blue continuous line) on every B-scan per sample, the mean anomaly area (red dashed line) of every B-scan per sample. Misclassifications on the best case (Maximum anomaly area, 120 pixels threshold) are due to high noise (b) and low sensitivity (c) on one sample and to sample superficial defects (d) when compared with the typical B-scan measured in good conditions (a).
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Representation of the histological score versus the OCT quantification parameter. Samples 7 and 17 are discarded as they were misclassified during the qualitative analysis.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Performance of the OCT degradation indicator: (a) relation between the original histological score and the reduced semi-score; (b) representation of the histological reduced semi-score versus the OCT quantification parameter. Samples 7 and 17 are discarded as they were misclassified during the qualitative analysis.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Shape and orientation of OCT detected anomalies: with respect to the sample surface: (a) shape of small anomalies in terms of eccentricity; (b) distribution of orientation for anomalies greater than 120 pixels.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Comparison of necrosis and fibrosis seen with histology (a) and OCT (b) at the same scale. Both images are from the same sample but do not represent the same exact position.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 Degradation on the 3 ROIs of a sample (left) quantified for every individual B-scan as the maximum anomaly size present on the B-scan. Each ROI is colored with the mean color of its degradation map (right).

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Histological quantification of individual disorders, computed 0 to 3, and resulting histological score. Mean values per category are shown for comparison.

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Table 2 Dimensions of severe degradation anomalies for the histological semi-quantitative grading scheme.

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