Abstract

We have investigated basic properties of normal gastrointestinal (GI) tract tissues, including glandular stomach (GS), fore stomach (FS), large intestine (LI), small intestine (SI), and esophagus (ESO), from a rat model using terahertz (THz) reflection imaging and spectroscopy. The THz images collected from stratified squamous epithelia (SSE) of FS and ESO show a lower peak-to-peak value compared to those from columnar epithelia (CE) of GS, LI, or SI because the SSE contains less water than CE. The refractive index and absorption coefficient of FS were less than those of GS or LI, both having values similar to those of water. Additionally, we report internal reflection THz signals from ESO, although we were unable to determine the exact interface for this internal reflection.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. S. Y. Huang, Y. X. J. Wang, D. K. W. Yeung, A. T. Ahuja, Y.-T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-Macpherson, “Tissue characterization using terahertz pulsed imaging in reflection geometry,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(1), 149–160 (2009).
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    [Crossref]
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2014 (1)

2013 (4)

2012 (1)

C. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Sun, and E. Pickwell-Macpherson, “The potential of terahertz imaging for cancer diagnosis: A review of investigations to date,” Quant. Imaging Med. Surg. 2(1), 33–45 (2012).
[PubMed]

2011 (5)

C. B. Reid, A. Fitzgerald, G. Reese, R. Goldin, P. Tekkis, P. S. O’Kelly, E. Pickwell-MacPherson, A. P. Gibson, and V. P. Wallace, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of freshly excised human colonic tissues,” Phys. Med. Biol. 56(14), 4333–4353 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. B. Bennett, W. Li, Z. D. Taylor, W. S. Grundfest, and E. R. Brown, “Stratified media model for terahertz reflectometry of the skin,” IEEE Sens. J. 11(5), 1253–1262 (2011).
[Crossref]

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J.-P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz medical imaging: In vivo hydration sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 201–219 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. J. Oh, J. Choi, I. Maeng, J. Y. Park, K. Lee, Y.-M. Huh, J.-S. Suh, S. Haam, and J.-H. Son, “Molecular imaging with terahertz waves,” Opt. Express 19(5), 4009–4016 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. P. J. Parrott, S. M. Y. Sy, T. Blu, V. P. Wallace, and E. Pickwell-Macpherson, “Terahertz pulsed imaging in vivo: measurements and processing methods,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(10), 106010 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

S. Sy, S. Huang, Y.-X. J. Wang, J. Yu, A. T. Ahuja, Y.-T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Terahertz spectroscopy of liver cirrhosis: investigating the origin of contrast,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(24), 7587–7596 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W.-C. Kan, W.-S. Lee, W.-H. Cheung, V. P. Wallace, and E. Pickwell-Macpherson, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of knee cartilage,” Biomed. Opt. Express 1(3), 967–974 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (4)

2006 (1)

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of human breast tumors,” Radiology 239(2), 533–540 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

E. Pickwell, A. J. Fitzgerald, B. E. Cole, P. F. Taday, R. J. Pye, T. Ha, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “Simulating the response of terahertz radiation to basal cell carcinoma using ex vivo spectroscopy measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(6), 064021 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. M. Fischer, M. Hoffmann, H. Helm, R. Wilk, F. Rutz, T. Kleine-Ostmann, M. Koch, and P. U. Jepsen, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy and imaging of artificial RNA,” Opt. Express 13(14), 5205–5215 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

V. P. Wallace, A. J. Fitzgerald, S. Shankar, N. Flanagan, R. Pye, J. Cluff, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of basal cell carcinoma ex vivo and in vivo,” Br. J. Dermatol. 151(2), 424–432 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Pickwell, B. E. Cole, A. J. Fitzgerald, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “In vivo study of human skin using pulsed terahertz radiation,” Phys. Med. Biol. 49(9), 1595–1607 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

R. M. Woodward, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, B. E. Cole, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging of ex vivo basal cell carcinoma,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 120(1), 72–78 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

A. G. Markelz, A. Roitberg, and E. J. Heilweil, “Pulsed terahertz spectroscopy of DNA, bovine serum albumin and collagen between 0.1 and 2.0 THz,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 320(1-2), 42–48 (2000).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

C. Rønne, L. Thrane, P.-O. Astrand, A. Wallqvist, K. V. Mikkelsen, and S. R. Keiding, “Investigation of the temperature dependence of dielectric relaxation in liquid water by THz reflection spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulation,” J. Chem. Phys. 107(14), 5319–5331 (1997).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

T. Sano, O. Kobori, and T. Muto, “Lymph node metastasis from early gastric cancer: endoscopic resection of tumour,” Br. J. Surg. 79(3), 241–244 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ahn, K.-M.

Ahuja, A. T.

S. Sy, S. Huang, Y.-X. J. Wang, J. Yu, A. T. Ahuja, Y.-T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Terahertz spectroscopy of liver cirrhosis: investigating the origin of contrast,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(24), 7587–7596 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Y. Huang, Y. X. J. Wang, D. K. W. Yeung, A. T. Ahuja, Y.-T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-Macpherson, “Tissue characterization using terahertz pulsed imaging in reflection geometry,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(1), 149–160 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arnone, D. D.

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of human breast tumors,” Radiology 239(2), 533–540 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. P. Wallace, A. J. Fitzgerald, S. Shankar, N. Flanagan, R. Pye, J. Cluff, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of basal cell carcinoma ex vivo and in vivo,” Br. J. Dermatol. 151(2), 424–432 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Woodward, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, B. E. Cole, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging of ex vivo basal cell carcinoma,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 120(1), 72–78 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ashworth, P. C.

Astrand, P.-O.

C. Rønne, L. Thrane, P.-O. Astrand, A. Wallqvist, K. V. Mikkelsen, and S. R. Keiding, “Investigation of the temperature dependence of dielectric relaxation in liquid water by THz reflection spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulation,” J. Chem. Phys. 107(14), 5319–5331 (1997).
[Crossref]

Ayesheshim, A. K.

Bajwa, N.

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J.-P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz medical imaging: In vivo hydration sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 201–219 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bennett, D. B.

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J.-P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz medical imaging: In vivo hydration sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 201–219 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. B. Bennett, W. Li, Z. D. Taylor, W. S. Grundfest, and E. R. Brown, “Stratified media model for terahertz reflectometry of the skin,” IEEE Sens. J. 11(5), 1253–1262 (2011).
[Crossref]

Blu, T.

E. P. J. Parrott, S. M. Y. Sy, T. Blu, V. P. Wallace, and E. Pickwell-Macpherson, “Terahertz pulsed imaging in vivo: measurements and processing methods,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(10), 106010 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bobrow, L.

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of human breast tumors,” Radiology 239(2), 533–540 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brown, E. R.

D. B. Bennett, W. Li, Z. D. Taylor, W. S. Grundfest, and E. R. Brown, “Stratified media model for terahertz reflectometry of the skin,” IEEE Sens. J. 11(5), 1253–1262 (2011).
[Crossref]

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J.-P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz medical imaging: In vivo hydration sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 201–219 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

Cheung, W.-H.

Choi, J.

Cluff, J.

V. P. Wallace, A. J. Fitzgerald, S. Shankar, N. Flanagan, R. Pye, J. Cluff, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of basal cell carcinoma ex vivo and in vivo,” Br. J. Dermatol. 151(2), 424–432 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cole, B. E.

E. Pickwell, A. J. Fitzgerald, B. E. Cole, P. F. Taday, R. J. Pye, T. Ha, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “Simulating the response of terahertz radiation to basal cell carcinoma using ex vivo spectroscopy measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(6), 064021 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Pickwell, B. E. Cole, A. J. Fitzgerald, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “In vivo study of human skin using pulsed terahertz radiation,” Phys. Med. Biol. 49(9), 1595–1607 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Woodward, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, B. E. Cole, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging of ex vivo basal cell carcinoma,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 120(1), 72–78 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Culjat, M. O.

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J.-P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz medical imaging: In vivo hydration sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 201–219 (2011).
[Crossref]

Fan, S.

C. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Sun, and E. Pickwell-Macpherson, “The potential of terahertz imaging for cancer diagnosis: A review of investigations to date,” Quant. Imaging Med. Surg. 2(1), 33–45 (2012).
[PubMed]

Fischer, B. M.

Fitzgerald, A.

C. B. Reid, A. Fitzgerald, G. Reese, R. Goldin, P. Tekkis, P. S. O’Kelly, E. Pickwell-MacPherson, A. P. Gibson, and V. P. Wallace, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of freshly excised human colonic tissues,” Phys. Med. Biol. 56(14), 4333–4353 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fitzgerald, A. J.

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of human breast tumors,” Radiology 239(2), 533–540 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Pickwell, A. J. Fitzgerald, B. E. Cole, P. F. Taday, R. J. Pye, T. Ha, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “Simulating the response of terahertz radiation to basal cell carcinoma using ex vivo spectroscopy measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(6), 064021 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. P. Wallace, A. J. Fitzgerald, S. Shankar, N. Flanagan, R. Pye, J. Cluff, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of basal cell carcinoma ex vivo and in vivo,” Br. J. Dermatol. 151(2), 424–432 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Pickwell, B. E. Cole, A. J. Fitzgerald, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “In vivo study of human skin using pulsed terahertz radiation,” Phys. Med. Biol. 49(9), 1595–1607 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Flanagan, N.

V. P. Wallace, A. J. Fitzgerald, S. Shankar, N. Flanagan, R. Pye, J. Cluff, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of basal cell carcinoma ex vivo and in vivo,” Br. J. Dermatol. 151(2), 424–432 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fogen, D.

Gibson, A. P.

C. B. Reid, A. Fitzgerald, G. Reese, R. Goldin, P. Tekkis, P. S. O’Kelly, E. Pickwell-MacPherson, A. P. Gibson, and V. P. Wallace, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of freshly excised human colonic tissues,” Phys. Med. Biol. 56(14), 4333–4353 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Goldin, R.

C. B. Reid, A. Fitzgerald, G. Reese, R. Goldin, P. Tekkis, P. S. O’Kelly, E. Pickwell-MacPherson, A. P. Gibson, and V. P. Wallace, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of freshly excised human colonic tissues,” Phys. Med. Biol. 56(14), 4333–4353 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Golubov, A.

Grundfest, W. S.

D. B. Bennett, W. Li, Z. D. Taylor, W. S. Grundfest, and E. R. Brown, “Stratified media model for terahertz reflectometry of the skin,” IEEE Sens. J. 11(5), 1253–1262 (2011).
[Crossref]

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J.-P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz medical imaging: In vivo hydration sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 201–219 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ha, T.

E. Pickwell, A. J. Fitzgerald, B. E. Cole, P. F. Taday, R. J. Pye, T. Ha, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “Simulating the response of terahertz radiation to basal cell carcinoma using ex vivo spectroscopy measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(6), 064021 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Haam, S.

Hegmann, F. A.

Heilweil, E. J.

A. G. Markelz, A. Roitberg, and E. J. Heilweil, “Pulsed terahertz spectroscopy of DNA, bovine serum albumin and collagen between 0.1 and 2.0 THz,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 320(1-2), 42–48 (2000).
[Crossref]

Helm, H.

Hoffmann, M.

Huang, S.

S. Sy, S. Huang, Y.-X. J. Wang, J. Yu, A. T. Ahuja, Y.-T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Terahertz spectroscopy of liver cirrhosis: investigating the origin of contrast,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(24), 7587–7596 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Huang, P. C. Ashworth, K. W. C. Kan, Y. Chen, V. P. Wallace, Y.-T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Improved sample characterization in terahertz reflection imaging and spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 17(5), 3848–3854 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, S. Y.

S. Y. Huang, Y. X. J. Wang, D. K. W. Yeung, A. T. Ahuja, Y.-T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-Macpherson, “Tissue characterization using terahertz pulsed imaging in reflection geometry,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(1), 149–160 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hubschman, J.-P.

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J.-P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz medical imaging: In vivo hydration sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 201–219 (2011).
[Crossref]

Huh, Y. M.

Huh, Y.-M.

Jeon, T.-I.

Jeong, K.

Jeong, K. Y.

Jepsen, P. U.

Ji, Y. B.

Jimenez-Linan, M.

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of human breast tumors,” Radiology 239(2), 533–540 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kan, K. W. C.

Kan, W.-C.

Kang, J.

Kang, S. G.

Kealey, C. P.

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J.-P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz medical imaging: In vivo hydration sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 201–219 (2011).
[Crossref]

Keiding, S. R.

C. Rønne, L. Thrane, P.-O. Astrand, A. Wallqvist, K. V. Mikkelsen, and S. R. Keiding, “Investigation of the temperature dependence of dielectric relaxation in liquid water by THz reflection spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulation,” J. Chem. Phys. 107(14), 5319–5331 (1997).
[Crossref]

Kim, S. H.

K. Y. Jeong, Y. M. Huh, S. H. Kim, Y. Park, J. H. Son, S. J. Oh, and J. S. Suh, “Characterization of blood using terahertz waves,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(10), 107008 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, S.-H.

Kleine-Ostmann, T.

Kobori, O.

T. Sano, O. Kobori, and T. Muto, “Lymph node metastasis from early gastric cancer: endoscopic resection of tumour,” Br. J. Surg. 79(3), 241–244 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Koch, M.

Kovalchuk, O.

Lee, E. S.

Lee, H.

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J.-P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz medical imaging: In vivo hydration sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 201–219 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lee, K.

Lee, W.-S.

Li, W.

D. B. Bennett, W. Li, Z. D. Taylor, W. S. Grundfest, and E. R. Brown, “Stratified media model for terahertz reflectometry of the skin,” IEEE Sens. J. 11(5), 1253–1262 (2011).
[Crossref]

Linfield, E. H.

R. M. Woodward, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, B. E. Cole, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging of ex vivo basal cell carcinoma,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 120(1), 72–78 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maeng, I.

Markelz, A. G.

A. G. Markelz, A. Roitberg, and E. J. Heilweil, “Pulsed terahertz spectroscopy of DNA, bovine serum albumin and collagen between 0.1 and 2.0 THz,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 320(1-2), 42–48 (2000).
[Crossref]

Mikkelsen, K. V.

C. Rønne, L. Thrane, P.-O. Astrand, A. Wallqvist, K. V. Mikkelsen, and S. R. Keiding, “Investigation of the temperature dependence of dielectric relaxation in liquid water by THz reflection spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulation,” J. Chem. Phys. 107(14), 5319–5331 (1997).
[Crossref]

Muto, T.

T. Sano, O. Kobori, and T. Muto, “Lymph node metastasis from early gastric cancer: endoscopic resection of tumour,” Br. J. Surg. 79(3), 241–244 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Noh, S. K.

O’Kelly, P. S.

C. B. Reid, A. Fitzgerald, G. Reese, R. Goldin, P. Tekkis, P. S. O’Kelly, E. Pickwell-MacPherson, A. P. Gibson, and V. P. Wallace, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of freshly excised human colonic tissues,” Phys. Med. Biol. 56(14), 4333–4353 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Oh, S. J.

Park, C. S.

Park, D. W.

Park, J. Y.

Park, Y.

K. Y. Jeong, Y. M. Huh, S. H. Kim, Y. Park, J. H. Son, S. J. Oh, and J. S. Suh, “Characterization of blood using terahertz waves,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(10), 107008 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. Oh, S.-H. Kim, K. Jeong, Y. Park, Y.-M. Huh, J.-H. Son, and J.-S. Suh, “Measurement depth enhancement in terahertz imaging of biological tissues,” Opt. Express 21(18), 21299–21305 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, Y. J.

Parrott, E. P. J.

E. P. J. Parrott, S. M. Y. Sy, T. Blu, V. P. Wallace, and E. Pickwell-Macpherson, “Terahertz pulsed imaging in vivo: measurements and processing methods,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(10), 106010 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pepper, M.

E. Pickwell, A. J. Fitzgerald, B. E. Cole, P. F. Taday, R. J. Pye, T. Ha, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “Simulating the response of terahertz radiation to basal cell carcinoma using ex vivo spectroscopy measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(6), 064021 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Pickwell, B. E. Cole, A. J. Fitzgerald, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “In vivo study of human skin using pulsed terahertz radiation,” Phys. Med. Biol. 49(9), 1595–1607 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Woodward, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, B. E. Cole, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging of ex vivo basal cell carcinoma,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 120(1), 72–78 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pickwell, E.

E. Pickwell, A. J. Fitzgerald, B. E. Cole, P. F. Taday, R. J. Pye, T. Ha, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “Simulating the response of terahertz radiation to basal cell carcinoma using ex vivo spectroscopy measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(6), 064021 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Pickwell, B. E. Cole, A. J. Fitzgerald, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “In vivo study of human skin using pulsed terahertz radiation,” Phys. Med. Biol. 49(9), 1595–1607 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pickwell-Macpherson, E.

C. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Sun, and E. Pickwell-Macpherson, “The potential of terahertz imaging for cancer diagnosis: A review of investigations to date,” Quant. Imaging Med. Surg. 2(1), 33–45 (2012).
[PubMed]

C. B. Reid, A. Fitzgerald, G. Reese, R. Goldin, P. Tekkis, P. S. O’Kelly, E. Pickwell-MacPherson, A. P. Gibson, and V. P. Wallace, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of freshly excised human colonic tissues,” Phys. Med. Biol. 56(14), 4333–4353 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. P. J. Parrott, S. M. Y. Sy, T. Blu, V. P. Wallace, and E. Pickwell-Macpherson, “Terahertz pulsed imaging in vivo: measurements and processing methods,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(10), 106010 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Sy, S. Huang, Y.-X. J. Wang, J. Yu, A. T. Ahuja, Y.-T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Terahertz spectroscopy of liver cirrhosis: investigating the origin of contrast,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(24), 7587–7596 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W.-C. Kan, W.-S. Lee, W.-H. Cheung, V. P. Wallace, and E. Pickwell-Macpherson, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of knee cartilage,” Biomed. Opt. Express 1(3), 967–974 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Y. Huang, Y. X. J. Wang, D. K. W. Yeung, A. T. Ahuja, Y.-T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-Macpherson, “Tissue characterization using terahertz pulsed imaging in reflection geometry,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(1), 149–160 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Huang, P. C. Ashworth, K. W. C. Kan, Y. Chen, V. P. Wallace, Y.-T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Improved sample characterization in terahertz reflection imaging and spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 17(5), 3848–3854 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Purushotham, A. D.

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of human breast tumors,” Radiology 239(2), 533–540 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pye, R.

V. P. Wallace, A. J. Fitzgerald, S. Shankar, N. Flanagan, R. Pye, J. Cluff, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of basal cell carcinoma ex vivo and in vivo,” Br. J. Dermatol. 151(2), 424–432 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pye, R. J.

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of human breast tumors,” Radiology 239(2), 533–540 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Pickwell, A. J. Fitzgerald, B. E. Cole, P. F. Taday, R. J. Pye, T. Ha, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “Simulating the response of terahertz radiation to basal cell carcinoma using ex vivo spectroscopy measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(6), 064021 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Woodward, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, B. E. Cole, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging of ex vivo basal cell carcinoma,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 120(1), 72–78 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reese, G.

C. B. Reid, A. Fitzgerald, G. Reese, R. Goldin, P. Tekkis, P. S. O’Kelly, E. Pickwell-MacPherson, A. P. Gibson, and V. P. Wallace, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of freshly excised human colonic tissues,” Phys. Med. Biol. 56(14), 4333–4353 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reid, C. B.

C. B. Reid, A. Fitzgerald, G. Reese, R. Goldin, P. Tekkis, P. S. O’Kelly, E. Pickwell-MacPherson, A. P. Gibson, and V. P. Wallace, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of freshly excised human colonic tissues,” Phys. Med. Biol. 56(14), 4333–4353 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rodriguez-Juarez, R.

Roitberg, A.

A. G. Markelz, A. Roitberg, and E. J. Heilweil, “Pulsed terahertz spectroscopy of DNA, bovine serum albumin and collagen between 0.1 and 2.0 THz,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 320(1-2), 42–48 (2000).
[Crossref]

Rønne, C.

C. Rønne, L. Thrane, P.-O. Astrand, A. Wallqvist, K. V. Mikkelsen, and S. R. Keiding, “Investigation of the temperature dependence of dielectric relaxation in liquid water by THz reflection spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulation,” J. Chem. Phys. 107(14), 5319–5331 (1997).
[Crossref]

Rutz, F.

Sano, T.

T. Sano, O. Kobori, and T. Muto, “Lymph node metastasis from early gastric cancer: endoscopic resection of tumour,” Br. J. Surg. 79(3), 241–244 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shankar, S.

V. P. Wallace, A. J. Fitzgerald, S. Shankar, N. Flanagan, R. Pye, J. Cluff, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of basal cell carcinoma ex vivo and in vivo,” Br. J. Dermatol. 151(2), 424–432 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sim, Y. C.

Singh, R. S.

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J.-P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz medical imaging: In vivo hydration sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 201–219 (2011).
[Crossref]

Son, J. H.

Son, J.-H.

Stojadinovic, A.

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J.-P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz medical imaging: In vivo hydration sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 201–219 (2011).
[Crossref]

Suh, J. S.

Suh, J.-S.

Sun, Y.

C. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Sun, and E. Pickwell-Macpherson, “The potential of terahertz imaging for cancer diagnosis: A review of investigations to date,” Quant. Imaging Med. Surg. 2(1), 33–45 (2012).
[PubMed]

Sy, S.

S. Sy, S. Huang, Y.-X. J. Wang, J. Yu, A. T. Ahuja, Y.-T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Terahertz spectroscopy of liver cirrhosis: investigating the origin of contrast,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(24), 7587–7596 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sy, S. M. Y.

E. P. J. Parrott, S. M. Y. Sy, T. Blu, V. P. Wallace, and E. Pickwell-Macpherson, “Terahertz pulsed imaging in vivo: measurements and processing methods,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(10), 106010 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Taday, P. F.

E. Pickwell, A. J. Fitzgerald, B. E. Cole, P. F. Taday, R. J. Pye, T. Ha, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “Simulating the response of terahertz radiation to basal cell carcinoma using ex vivo spectroscopy measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(6), 064021 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Taylor, Z. D.

D. B. Bennett, W. Li, Z. D. Taylor, W. S. Grundfest, and E. R. Brown, “Stratified media model for terahertz reflectometry of the skin,” IEEE Sens. J. 11(5), 1253–1262 (2011).
[Crossref]

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J.-P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz medical imaging: In vivo hydration sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 201–219 (2011).
[Crossref]

Tekkis, P.

C. B. Reid, A. Fitzgerald, G. Reese, R. Goldin, P. Tekkis, P. S. O’Kelly, E. Pickwell-MacPherson, A. P. Gibson, and V. P. Wallace, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of freshly excised human colonic tissues,” Phys. Med. Biol. 56(14), 4333–4353 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tewari, P.

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J.-P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz medical imaging: In vivo hydration sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 201–219 (2011).
[Crossref]

Thrane, L.

C. Rønne, L. Thrane, P.-O. Astrand, A. Wallqvist, K. V. Mikkelsen, and S. R. Keiding, “Investigation of the temperature dependence of dielectric relaxation in liquid water by THz reflection spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulation,” J. Chem. Phys. 107(14), 5319–5331 (1997).
[Crossref]

Titova, L. V.

Wallace, V. P.

C. B. Reid, A. Fitzgerald, G. Reese, R. Goldin, P. Tekkis, P. S. O’Kelly, E. Pickwell-MacPherson, A. P. Gibson, and V. P. Wallace, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of freshly excised human colonic tissues,” Phys. Med. Biol. 56(14), 4333–4353 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. P. J. Parrott, S. M. Y. Sy, T. Blu, V. P. Wallace, and E. Pickwell-Macpherson, “Terahertz pulsed imaging in vivo: measurements and processing methods,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(10), 106010 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W.-C. Kan, W.-S. Lee, W.-H. Cheung, V. P. Wallace, and E. Pickwell-Macpherson, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of knee cartilage,” Biomed. Opt. Express 1(3), 967–974 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Huang, P. C. Ashworth, K. W. C. Kan, Y. Chen, V. P. Wallace, Y.-T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Improved sample characterization in terahertz reflection imaging and spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 17(5), 3848–3854 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of human breast tumors,” Radiology 239(2), 533–540 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Pickwell, A. J. Fitzgerald, B. E. Cole, P. F. Taday, R. J. Pye, T. Ha, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “Simulating the response of terahertz radiation to basal cell carcinoma using ex vivo spectroscopy measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(6), 064021 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. P. Wallace, A. J. Fitzgerald, S. Shankar, N. Flanagan, R. Pye, J. Cluff, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of basal cell carcinoma ex vivo and in vivo,” Br. J. Dermatol. 151(2), 424–432 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Pickwell, B. E. Cole, A. J. Fitzgerald, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “In vivo study of human skin using pulsed terahertz radiation,” Phys. Med. Biol. 49(9), 1595–1607 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Woodward, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, B. E. Cole, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging of ex vivo basal cell carcinoma,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 120(1), 72–78 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wallqvist, A.

C. Rønne, L. Thrane, P.-O. Astrand, A. Wallqvist, K. V. Mikkelsen, and S. R. Keiding, “Investigation of the temperature dependence of dielectric relaxation in liquid water by THz reflection spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulation,” J. Chem. Phys. 107(14), 5319–5331 (1997).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y. X. J.

S. Y. Huang, Y. X. J. Wang, D. K. W. Yeung, A. T. Ahuja, Y.-T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-Macpherson, “Tissue characterization using terahertz pulsed imaging in reflection geometry,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(1), 149–160 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.-X. J.

S. Sy, S. Huang, Y.-X. J. Wang, J. Yu, A. T. Ahuja, Y.-T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Terahertz spectroscopy of liver cirrhosis: investigating the origin of contrast,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(24), 7587–7596 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wilk, R.

Woodward, R. M.

R. M. Woodward, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, B. E. Cole, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging of ex vivo basal cell carcinoma,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 120(1), 72–78 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, J.

Yeung, D. K. W.

S. Y. Huang, Y. X. J. Wang, D. K. W. Yeung, A. T. Ahuja, Y.-T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-Macpherson, “Tissue characterization using terahertz pulsed imaging in reflection geometry,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(1), 149–160 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, C.

C. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Sun, and E. Pickwell-Macpherson, “The potential of terahertz imaging for cancer diagnosis: A review of investigations to date,” Quant. Imaging Med. Surg. 2(1), 33–45 (2012).
[PubMed]

Yu, J.

S. Sy, S. Huang, Y.-X. J. Wang, J. Yu, A. T. Ahuja, Y.-T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Terahertz spectroscopy of liver cirrhosis: investigating the origin of contrast,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(24), 7587–7596 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y.-T.

S. Sy, S. Huang, Y.-X. J. Wang, J. Yu, A. T. Ahuja, Y.-T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Terahertz spectroscopy of liver cirrhosis: investigating the origin of contrast,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(24), 7587–7596 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Y. Huang, Y. X. J. Wang, D. K. W. Yeung, A. T. Ahuja, Y.-T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-Macpherson, “Tissue characterization using terahertz pulsed imaging in reflection geometry,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(1), 149–160 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Huang, P. C. Ashworth, K. W. C. Kan, Y. Chen, V. P. Wallace, Y.-T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Improved sample characterization in terahertz reflection imaging and spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 17(5), 3848–3854 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biomed. Opt. Express (4)

Br. J. Dermatol. (1)

V. P. Wallace, A. J. Fitzgerald, S. Shankar, N. Flanagan, R. Pye, J. Cluff, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of basal cell carcinoma ex vivo and in vivo,” Br. J. Dermatol. 151(2), 424–432 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Br. J. Surg. (1)

T. Sano, O. Kobori, and T. Muto, “Lymph node metastasis from early gastric cancer: endoscopic resection of tumour,” Br. J. Surg. 79(3), 241–244 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

A. G. Markelz, A. Roitberg, and E. J. Heilweil, “Pulsed terahertz spectroscopy of DNA, bovine serum albumin and collagen between 0.1 and 2.0 THz,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 320(1-2), 42–48 (2000).
[Crossref]

IEEE Sens. J. (1)

D. B. Bennett, W. Li, Z. D. Taylor, W. S. Grundfest, and E. R. Brown, “Stratified media model for terahertz reflectometry of the skin,” IEEE Sens. J. 11(5), 1253–1262 (2011).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. (1)

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J.-P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz medical imaging: In vivo hydration sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 201–219 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Biomed. Opt. (3)

E. Pickwell, A. J. Fitzgerald, B. E. Cole, P. F. Taday, R. J. Pye, T. Ha, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “Simulating the response of terahertz radiation to basal cell carcinoma using ex vivo spectroscopy measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(6), 064021 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. P. J. Parrott, S. M. Y. Sy, T. Blu, V. P. Wallace, and E. Pickwell-Macpherson, “Terahertz pulsed imaging in vivo: measurements and processing methods,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(10), 106010 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Y. Jeong, Y. M. Huh, S. H. Kim, Y. Park, J. H. Son, S. J. Oh, and J. S. Suh, “Characterization of blood using terahertz waves,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(10), 107008 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

C. Rønne, L. Thrane, P.-O. Astrand, A. Wallqvist, K. V. Mikkelsen, and S. R. Keiding, “Investigation of the temperature dependence of dielectric relaxation in liquid water by THz reflection spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulation,” J. Chem. Phys. 107(14), 5319–5331 (1997).
[Crossref]

J. Invest. Dermatol. (1)

R. M. Woodward, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, B. E. Cole, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging of ex vivo basal cell carcinoma,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 120(1), 72–78 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (6)

Phys. Med. Biol. (4)

S. Y. Huang, Y. X. J. Wang, D. K. W. Yeung, A. T. Ahuja, Y.-T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-Macpherson, “Tissue characterization using terahertz pulsed imaging in reflection geometry,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(1), 149–160 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Sy, S. Huang, Y.-X. J. Wang, J. Yu, A. T. Ahuja, Y.-T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Terahertz spectroscopy of liver cirrhosis: investigating the origin of contrast,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(24), 7587–7596 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Pickwell, B. E. Cole, A. J. Fitzgerald, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “In vivo study of human skin using pulsed terahertz radiation,” Phys. Med. Biol. 49(9), 1595–1607 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. B. Reid, A. Fitzgerald, G. Reese, R. Goldin, P. Tekkis, P. S. O’Kelly, E. Pickwell-MacPherson, A. P. Gibson, and V. P. Wallace, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of freshly excised human colonic tissues,” Phys. Med. Biol. 56(14), 4333–4353 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Quant. Imaging Med. Surg. (1)

C. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Sun, and E. Pickwell-Macpherson, “The potential of terahertz imaging for cancer diagnosis: A review of investigations to date,” Quant. Imaging Med. Surg. 2(1), 33–45 (2012).
[PubMed]

Radiology (1)

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of human breast tumors,” Radiology 239(2), 533–540 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (2)

S. J. Oh, Y.-M. Huh, S.-H. Kim, J. M. Yang, K. Y. Jeong, Y. J. Park, C. Kang, J.-H. Son, and J.-S. Suh, “Terahertz pulse imaging of fresh brain tumor,” Infrared, Millimeter and Terahertz Waves (IRMMW-THz), 36th International Conference on, Houston, USA, 2–7 Oct. 2011.
[Crossref]

E. Berry, A. J. Fitzgerald, N. N. Zinov’ev, G. C. Walker, S. Homer-Vanniasinkam, C. D. Sudworth, R. E. Miles, J. M. Chamberlain, and M. A. Smith, “Optical properties of tissue measured using terahertz pulsed imaging,” Proc. SPIE: Med. Imag., 5030, 459–470 (2003).
[Crossref]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic diagram of the experimental setup. Five GI tract samples were placed on a quartz window and covered with polyethylene wrap to prevent dehydration.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Optical photograph of five GI tract samples from a rat model. (b) Reflected 2D THz image with peak-to-peak values. (c) Normalized and averaged reflection peak-to-peak values for five GI tract tissues (from three different rats) analyzed at points marked in (a).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Measured time-domain THz signals reflected from points marked on LI, GS, FS (Fig. 2(a)), and water. Analysis of water was used to verify the presence of secondary THz signals reflected from internal interfaces within samples. The inset shows an expanded time window (23 to 28 ps). (b) Measured THz spectra of (a). (c)-(e) H & E stained photographs of LI, GS, and FS, respectively.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Measured refractive indices of water and three GI tract samples. (b) Measured absorption coefficients of water and three GI tract samples. The refractive indices and absorption coefficients of LI and GS are greater than those of FS due to a difference in water content.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a), (b) Measured time-domain THz signals reflected from points marked on ESO and SI in Fig. 2. (c), (d) Reflection signals from ESO and SI subtracted from those of water. Black arrows indicate secondary reflection signals from internal structures within the ESO. The four secondary signals indicated with a green circle were reflected from the interface between serosa of the ESO and the air. (e), (f) H & E stained photographs of ESO and SI.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Constituent layers of five GI tract tissues in a rat model

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