Abstract

Hemodynamics plays a critical role in the development of atherosclerosis, specifically in regions of curved vasculature such as bifurcations exhibiting irregular blood flow profiles. Carotid atherosclerotic disease can be intervened by stent implantation, but this may result in greater alterations to local blood flow and consequently further complications. This study demonstrates the use of a variant of Doppler optical coherence tomography (DOCT) known as split spectrum DOCT (ssDOCT) to evaluate hemodynamic patterns both before and after stent implantation in the bifurcation junction in the internal carotid artery (ICA). Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models were constructed to simulate blood velocity profiles and compared to the findings achieved through ssDOCT images. Both methods demonstrated noticeable alterations in hemodynamic patterns following stent implantation, with features such as slow velocity regions at the neck of the bifurcation and recirculation zones at the stent struts. Strong correlation between CFD models and ssDOCT images demonstrate the potential of ssDOCT imaging in the optimization of stent implantation in the clinical setting.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
High speed, wide velocity dynamic range Doppler optical coherence tomography (Part IV): split spectrum processing in rotary catheter probes

Barry Vuong, Anthony M.D. Lee, Timothy W.H. Luk, Cuiru Sun, Stephen Lam, Pierre Lane, and Victor X.D. Yang
Opt. Express 22(7) 7399-7415 (2014)

Endovascular optical coherence tomography intensity kurtosis: visualization of vasa vasorum in porcine carotid artery

Kyle H. Y. Cheng, Cuiru Sun, Barry Vuong, Kenneth K. C. Lee, Adrian Mariampillai, Thomas R. Marotta, Julian Spears, Walter J. Montanera, Peter. R. Herman, Tim-Rasmus Kiehl, Beau A. Standish, and Victor X. D. Yang
Biomed. Opt. Express 3(3) 388-399 (2012)

In vivo feasibility of endovascular Doppler optical coherence tomography

Cuiru Sun, Felix Nolte, Kyle H. Y. Cheng, Barry Vuong, Kenneth K. C. Lee, Beau A. Standish, Brian Courtney, Thomas R. Marotta, Adrian Mariampillai, and Victor X. D. Yang
Biomed. Opt. Express 3(10) 2600-2610 (2012)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. J. Saw, “Carotid artery stenting for stroke prevention,” Canadian Journal of Cardiology 30, 22–34 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  2. D. Birchall, A. Zaman, J. Hacker, G. Davies, and D. Mendelow, “Analysis of haemodynamic disturbance in the atherosclerotic carotid artery using computational fluid dynamics,” Eur. J. Radiol. 16, 1074–1083 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  3. T. G. Brott, R. W. Hobson, G. Howard, G. S. Roubin, W. M. Clark, W. Brooks, A. Mackey, M. D. Hill, P. P. Leimgruber, A. J. Sheffet, V. J. Howard, W. S. Moore, J. H. Voeks, L. N. Hopkins, D. E. Cutlip, D. J. Cohen, J. J. Popma, R. D. Ferguson, S. N. Cohen, J. L. Blackshear, F. L. Silver, J. P. Mohr, B. K. Lal, and J. F. Meschia, “Stenting versus endarterectomy for treatment of carotid-artery stenosis,” N. Engl. J. Med. 363, 11–23 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. G. S. Mintz, J. J. Popma, A. D. Pichard, K. M. Kent, L. F. Satler, S. C. Wong, M. K. Hong, J. A. Kovach, and M. B. Leon, “Arterial remodeling after coronary angioplasty a serial intravascular ultrasound study,” Circulation 94, 35–43 (1996).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. V. Dehlaghi, M. T. Shadpoor, and S. Najarian, “Analysis of wall shear stress in stented coronary artery using 3d computational fluid dynamics modeling,” J. Mater. Process. Technol. 197, 174–181 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  6. A. R. Williams, B.-K. Koo, T. J. Gundert, P. J. Fitzgerald, and J. F. LaDisa, “Local hemodynamic changes caused by main branch stent implantation and subsequent virtual side branch balloon angioplasty in a representative coronary bifurcation,” J. Appl. Physiol. 109, 532–540 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. Y. S. Chatzizisis, A. U. Coskun, M. Jonas, E. R. Edelman, C. L. Feldman, and P. H. Stone, “Role of endothelial shear stress in the natural history of coronary atherosclerosis and vascular remodeling: molecular, cellular, and vascular behavior,” J. Am. College Cardiol. 49, 2379–2393 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  8. C. Chaabane, F. Otsuka, R. Virmani, and M.-L. Bochaton-Piallat, “Biological responses in stented arteries,” Cardiovascular Research p. cvt115 (2013).
  9. V. Yang, M. Gordon, B. Qi, J. Pekar, S. Lo, E. Seng-Yue, A. Mok, B. Wilson, and I. Vitkin, “High speed, wide velocity dynamic range doppler optical coherence tomography (part i): System design, signal processing, and performance,” Opt. Express 11, 794–809 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. B. Vuong, A. Lee, T. W. Luk, C. Sun, S. Lam, P. Lane, and V. X. Yang, “High speed, wide velocity dynamic range doppler optical coherence tomography (part iv): split spectrum processing in rotary catheter probes,” Opt. Express 22, 7399–7415 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. C. Sun, F. Nolte, K. H. Cheng, B. Vuong, K. K. Lee, B. A. Standish, B. Courtney, T. R. Marotta, A. Mariampillai, and V. X.D. Yang, “In vivo feasibility of endovascular doppler optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3, 2600–2610 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. V. X.D. Yang, M. L. Gordon, A. Mok, Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, R. S. Cobbold, B. C. Wilson, and I. Alex Vitkin, “Improved phase-resolved optical doppler tomography using the kasai velocity estimator and histogram segmentation,” Opt. Commun. 208, 209–214 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  13. K. H. Cheng, C. Sun, B. Vuong, K. K. Lee, A. Mariampillai, T. R. Marotta, J. Spears, W. J. Montanera, P. R. Herman, T.-R. Kiehl, B. A. Standish, and V. X.D. Yang, “Endovascular optical coherence tomography intensity kurtosis: visualization of vasa vasorum in porcine carotid artery,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3, 388–399 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. M. D. Ford, N. Alperin, S. H. Lee, D. W. Holdsworth, and D. A. Steinman, “Characterization of volumetric flow rate waveforms in the normal internal carotid and vertebral arteries,” Am. J. Neuroradiol. 26, 477 (2005).
  15. R. Vanninen, H. Manninen, and S. Soimakallio, “Imaging of carotid artery stenosis: clinical efficacy and cost-effectiveness,” Physiological Measurement 16, 1975–1983 (1995).
  16. K. C. Koskinas, Y. S. Chatzizisis, A. P. Antoniadis, and G. D. Giannoglou, “Role of endothelial shear stress in stent restenosis and thrombosispathophysiologic mechanisms and implications for clinical translation,” J. Am. College Cardiol. 59, 1337–1349 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  17. D. M. Wootton and D. N. Ku, “Fluid mechanics of vascular systems, diseases, and thrombosis,” Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 1, 299–329 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  18. K. S. Cunningham and A. I. Gotlieb, “The role of shear stress in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis,” Lab. Invest. 85, 9–23 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. A. Reininger, C. Reininger, U. Heinzmann, and L. Wurzinger, “Residence time in niches of stagnant flow determines fibrin clot formation in an arterial branching model–detailed flow analysis and experimental results,” Thromb. Haemostasis 74, 916–922 (1995).
  20. T. L. Poepping, R. N. Rankin, and D. W. Holdsworth, “Flow patterns in carotid bifurcation models using pulsed doppler ultrasound: effect of concentric vs. eccentric stenosis on turbulence and recirculation,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 36, 1125–1134 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. O. Greil, T. Kleinschmidt, W. Weiss, O. Wolf, P. Heider, S. Schaffner, M. Gianotti, T. Schmid, D. Liepsch, and H. Berger, “Flow velocities after carotid artery stenting: Impact of stent design. a fluid dynamics study in a carotid artery model with laser doppler anemometry,” Cardiovascular Intervent. Radiol. 28, 66–76 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  22. G. Nakazawa, S. K. Yazdani, A. V. Finn, M. Vorpahl, F. D. Kolodgie, and R. Virmani, “Pathological findings at bifurcation lesionsthe impact of flow distribution on atherosclerosis and arterial healing after stent implantation,” J. Am. College Cardiol. 55, 1679–1687 (2010).
    [Crossref]

2014 (2)

2012 (3)

2010 (4)

T. L. Poepping, R. N. Rankin, and D. W. Holdsworth, “Flow patterns in carotid bifurcation models using pulsed doppler ultrasound: effect of concentric vs. eccentric stenosis on turbulence and recirculation,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 36, 1125–1134 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. R. Williams, B.-K. Koo, T. J. Gundert, P. J. Fitzgerald, and J. F. LaDisa, “Local hemodynamic changes caused by main branch stent implantation and subsequent virtual side branch balloon angioplasty in a representative coronary bifurcation,” J. Appl. Physiol. 109, 532–540 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. G. Brott, R. W. Hobson, G. Howard, G. S. Roubin, W. M. Clark, W. Brooks, A. Mackey, M. D. Hill, P. P. Leimgruber, A. J. Sheffet, V. J. Howard, W. S. Moore, J. H. Voeks, L. N. Hopkins, D. E. Cutlip, D. J. Cohen, J. J. Popma, R. D. Ferguson, S. N. Cohen, J. L. Blackshear, F. L. Silver, J. P. Mohr, B. K. Lal, and J. F. Meschia, “Stenting versus endarterectomy for treatment of carotid-artery stenosis,” N. Engl. J. Med. 363, 11–23 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Nakazawa, S. K. Yazdani, A. V. Finn, M. Vorpahl, F. D. Kolodgie, and R. Virmani, “Pathological findings at bifurcation lesionsthe impact of flow distribution on atherosclerosis and arterial healing after stent implantation,” J. Am. College Cardiol. 55, 1679–1687 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

V. Dehlaghi, M. T. Shadpoor, and S. Najarian, “Analysis of wall shear stress in stented coronary artery using 3d computational fluid dynamics modeling,” J. Mater. Process. Technol. 197, 174–181 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

Y. S. Chatzizisis, A. U. Coskun, M. Jonas, E. R. Edelman, C. L. Feldman, and P. H. Stone, “Role of endothelial shear stress in the natural history of coronary atherosclerosis and vascular remodeling: molecular, cellular, and vascular behavior,” J. Am. College Cardiol. 49, 2379–2393 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

D. Birchall, A. Zaman, J. Hacker, G. Davies, and D. Mendelow, “Analysis of haemodynamic disturbance in the atherosclerotic carotid artery using computational fluid dynamics,” Eur. J. Radiol. 16, 1074–1083 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

O. Greil, T. Kleinschmidt, W. Weiss, O. Wolf, P. Heider, S. Schaffner, M. Gianotti, T. Schmid, D. Liepsch, and H. Berger, “Flow velocities after carotid artery stenting: Impact of stent design. a fluid dynamics study in a carotid artery model with laser doppler anemometry,” Cardiovascular Intervent. Radiol. 28, 66–76 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. D. Ford, N. Alperin, S. H. Lee, D. W. Holdsworth, and D. A. Steinman, “Characterization of volumetric flow rate waveforms in the normal internal carotid and vertebral arteries,” Am. J. Neuroradiol. 26, 477 (2005).

2004 (1)

K. S. Cunningham and A. I. Gotlieb, “The role of shear stress in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis,” Lab. Invest. 85, 9–23 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

2002 (1)

V. X.D. Yang, M. L. Gordon, A. Mok, Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, R. S. Cobbold, B. C. Wilson, and I. Alex Vitkin, “Improved phase-resolved optical doppler tomography using the kasai velocity estimator and histogram segmentation,” Opt. Commun. 208, 209–214 (2002).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

D. M. Wootton and D. N. Ku, “Fluid mechanics of vascular systems, diseases, and thrombosis,” Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 1, 299–329 (1999).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

G. S. Mintz, J. J. Popma, A. D. Pichard, K. M. Kent, L. F. Satler, S. C. Wong, M. K. Hong, J. A. Kovach, and M. B. Leon, “Arterial remodeling after coronary angioplasty a serial intravascular ultrasound study,” Circulation 94, 35–43 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1995 (2)

R. Vanninen, H. Manninen, and S. Soimakallio, “Imaging of carotid artery stenosis: clinical efficacy and cost-effectiveness,” Physiological Measurement 16, 1975–1983 (1995).

A. Reininger, C. Reininger, U. Heinzmann, and L. Wurzinger, “Residence time in niches of stagnant flow determines fibrin clot formation in an arterial branching model–detailed flow analysis and experimental results,” Thromb. Haemostasis 74, 916–922 (1995).

Alex Vitkin, I.

V. X.D. Yang, M. L. Gordon, A. Mok, Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, R. S. Cobbold, B. C. Wilson, and I. Alex Vitkin, “Improved phase-resolved optical doppler tomography using the kasai velocity estimator and histogram segmentation,” Opt. Commun. 208, 209–214 (2002).
[Crossref]

Alperin, N.

M. D. Ford, N. Alperin, S. H. Lee, D. W. Holdsworth, and D. A. Steinman, “Characterization of volumetric flow rate waveforms in the normal internal carotid and vertebral arteries,” Am. J. Neuroradiol. 26, 477 (2005).

Antoniadis, A. P.

K. C. Koskinas, Y. S. Chatzizisis, A. P. Antoniadis, and G. D. Giannoglou, “Role of endothelial shear stress in stent restenosis and thrombosispathophysiologic mechanisms and implications for clinical translation,” J. Am. College Cardiol. 59, 1337–1349 (2012).
[Crossref]

Berger, H.

O. Greil, T. Kleinschmidt, W. Weiss, O. Wolf, P. Heider, S. Schaffner, M. Gianotti, T. Schmid, D. Liepsch, and H. Berger, “Flow velocities after carotid artery stenting: Impact of stent design. a fluid dynamics study in a carotid artery model with laser doppler anemometry,” Cardiovascular Intervent. Radiol. 28, 66–76 (2005).
[Crossref]

Birchall, D.

D. Birchall, A. Zaman, J. Hacker, G. Davies, and D. Mendelow, “Analysis of haemodynamic disturbance in the atherosclerotic carotid artery using computational fluid dynamics,” Eur. J. Radiol. 16, 1074–1083 (2006).
[Crossref]

Blackshear, J. L.

T. G. Brott, R. W. Hobson, G. Howard, G. S. Roubin, W. M. Clark, W. Brooks, A. Mackey, M. D. Hill, P. P. Leimgruber, A. J. Sheffet, V. J. Howard, W. S. Moore, J. H. Voeks, L. N. Hopkins, D. E. Cutlip, D. J. Cohen, J. J. Popma, R. D. Ferguson, S. N. Cohen, J. L. Blackshear, F. L. Silver, J. P. Mohr, B. K. Lal, and J. F. Meschia, “Stenting versus endarterectomy for treatment of carotid-artery stenosis,” N. Engl. J. Med. 363, 11–23 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bochaton-Piallat, M.-L.

C. Chaabane, F. Otsuka, R. Virmani, and M.-L. Bochaton-Piallat, “Biological responses in stented arteries,” Cardiovascular Research p. cvt115 (2013).

Brooks, W.

T. G. Brott, R. W. Hobson, G. Howard, G. S. Roubin, W. M. Clark, W. Brooks, A. Mackey, M. D. Hill, P. P. Leimgruber, A. J. Sheffet, V. J. Howard, W. S. Moore, J. H. Voeks, L. N. Hopkins, D. E. Cutlip, D. J. Cohen, J. J. Popma, R. D. Ferguson, S. N. Cohen, J. L. Blackshear, F. L. Silver, J. P. Mohr, B. K. Lal, and J. F. Meschia, “Stenting versus endarterectomy for treatment of carotid-artery stenosis,” N. Engl. J. Med. 363, 11–23 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brott, T. G.

T. G. Brott, R. W. Hobson, G. Howard, G. S. Roubin, W. M. Clark, W. Brooks, A. Mackey, M. D. Hill, P. P. Leimgruber, A. J. Sheffet, V. J. Howard, W. S. Moore, J. H. Voeks, L. N. Hopkins, D. E. Cutlip, D. J. Cohen, J. J. Popma, R. D. Ferguson, S. N. Cohen, J. L. Blackshear, F. L. Silver, J. P. Mohr, B. K. Lal, and J. F. Meschia, “Stenting versus endarterectomy for treatment of carotid-artery stenosis,” N. Engl. J. Med. 363, 11–23 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chaabane, C.

C. Chaabane, F. Otsuka, R. Virmani, and M.-L. Bochaton-Piallat, “Biological responses in stented arteries,” Cardiovascular Research p. cvt115 (2013).

Chatzizisis, Y. S.

K. C. Koskinas, Y. S. Chatzizisis, A. P. Antoniadis, and G. D. Giannoglou, “Role of endothelial shear stress in stent restenosis and thrombosispathophysiologic mechanisms and implications for clinical translation,” J. Am. College Cardiol. 59, 1337–1349 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. S. Chatzizisis, A. U. Coskun, M. Jonas, E. R. Edelman, C. L. Feldman, and P. H. Stone, “Role of endothelial shear stress in the natural history of coronary atherosclerosis and vascular remodeling: molecular, cellular, and vascular behavior,” J. Am. College Cardiol. 49, 2379–2393 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chen, Z.

V. X.D. Yang, M. L. Gordon, A. Mok, Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, R. S. Cobbold, B. C. Wilson, and I. Alex Vitkin, “Improved phase-resolved optical doppler tomography using the kasai velocity estimator and histogram segmentation,” Opt. Commun. 208, 209–214 (2002).
[Crossref]

Cheng, K. H.

Clark, W. M.

T. G. Brott, R. W. Hobson, G. Howard, G. S. Roubin, W. M. Clark, W. Brooks, A. Mackey, M. D. Hill, P. P. Leimgruber, A. J. Sheffet, V. J. Howard, W. S. Moore, J. H. Voeks, L. N. Hopkins, D. E. Cutlip, D. J. Cohen, J. J. Popma, R. D. Ferguson, S. N. Cohen, J. L. Blackshear, F. L. Silver, J. P. Mohr, B. K. Lal, and J. F. Meschia, “Stenting versus endarterectomy for treatment of carotid-artery stenosis,” N. Engl. J. Med. 363, 11–23 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cobbold, R. S.

V. X.D. Yang, M. L. Gordon, A. Mok, Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, R. S. Cobbold, B. C. Wilson, and I. Alex Vitkin, “Improved phase-resolved optical doppler tomography using the kasai velocity estimator and histogram segmentation,” Opt. Commun. 208, 209–214 (2002).
[Crossref]

Cohen, D. J.

T. G. Brott, R. W. Hobson, G. Howard, G. S. Roubin, W. M. Clark, W. Brooks, A. Mackey, M. D. Hill, P. P. Leimgruber, A. J. Sheffet, V. J. Howard, W. S. Moore, J. H. Voeks, L. N. Hopkins, D. E. Cutlip, D. J. Cohen, J. J. Popma, R. D. Ferguson, S. N. Cohen, J. L. Blackshear, F. L. Silver, J. P. Mohr, B. K. Lal, and J. F. Meschia, “Stenting versus endarterectomy for treatment of carotid-artery stenosis,” N. Engl. J. Med. 363, 11–23 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cohen, S. N.

T. G. Brott, R. W. Hobson, G. Howard, G. S. Roubin, W. M. Clark, W. Brooks, A. Mackey, M. D. Hill, P. P. Leimgruber, A. J. Sheffet, V. J. Howard, W. S. Moore, J. H. Voeks, L. N. Hopkins, D. E. Cutlip, D. J. Cohen, J. J. Popma, R. D. Ferguson, S. N. Cohen, J. L. Blackshear, F. L. Silver, J. P. Mohr, B. K. Lal, and J. F. Meschia, “Stenting versus endarterectomy for treatment of carotid-artery stenosis,” N. Engl. J. Med. 363, 11–23 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Coskun, A. U.

Y. S. Chatzizisis, A. U. Coskun, M. Jonas, E. R. Edelman, C. L. Feldman, and P. H. Stone, “Role of endothelial shear stress in the natural history of coronary atherosclerosis and vascular remodeling: molecular, cellular, and vascular behavior,” J. Am. College Cardiol. 49, 2379–2393 (2007).
[Crossref]

Courtney, B.

Cunningham, K. S.

K. S. Cunningham and A. I. Gotlieb, “The role of shear stress in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis,” Lab. Invest. 85, 9–23 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cutlip, D. E.

T. G. Brott, R. W. Hobson, G. Howard, G. S. Roubin, W. M. Clark, W. Brooks, A. Mackey, M. D. Hill, P. P. Leimgruber, A. J. Sheffet, V. J. Howard, W. S. Moore, J. H. Voeks, L. N. Hopkins, D. E. Cutlip, D. J. Cohen, J. J. Popma, R. D. Ferguson, S. N. Cohen, J. L. Blackshear, F. L. Silver, J. P. Mohr, B. K. Lal, and J. F. Meschia, “Stenting versus endarterectomy for treatment of carotid-artery stenosis,” N. Engl. J. Med. 363, 11–23 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Davies, G.

D. Birchall, A. Zaman, J. Hacker, G. Davies, and D. Mendelow, “Analysis of haemodynamic disturbance in the atherosclerotic carotid artery using computational fluid dynamics,” Eur. J. Radiol. 16, 1074–1083 (2006).
[Crossref]

Dehlaghi, V.

V. Dehlaghi, M. T. Shadpoor, and S. Najarian, “Analysis of wall shear stress in stented coronary artery using 3d computational fluid dynamics modeling,” J. Mater. Process. Technol. 197, 174–181 (2008).
[Crossref]

Edelman, E. R.

Y. S. Chatzizisis, A. U. Coskun, M. Jonas, E. R. Edelman, C. L. Feldman, and P. H. Stone, “Role of endothelial shear stress in the natural history of coronary atherosclerosis and vascular remodeling: molecular, cellular, and vascular behavior,” J. Am. College Cardiol. 49, 2379–2393 (2007).
[Crossref]

Feldman, C. L.

Y. S. Chatzizisis, A. U. Coskun, M. Jonas, E. R. Edelman, C. L. Feldman, and P. H. Stone, “Role of endothelial shear stress in the natural history of coronary atherosclerosis and vascular remodeling: molecular, cellular, and vascular behavior,” J. Am. College Cardiol. 49, 2379–2393 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ferguson, R. D.

T. G. Brott, R. W. Hobson, G. Howard, G. S. Roubin, W. M. Clark, W. Brooks, A. Mackey, M. D. Hill, P. P. Leimgruber, A. J. Sheffet, V. J. Howard, W. S. Moore, J. H. Voeks, L. N. Hopkins, D. E. Cutlip, D. J. Cohen, J. J. Popma, R. D. Ferguson, S. N. Cohen, J. L. Blackshear, F. L. Silver, J. P. Mohr, B. K. Lal, and J. F. Meschia, “Stenting versus endarterectomy for treatment of carotid-artery stenosis,” N. Engl. J. Med. 363, 11–23 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Finn, A. V.

G. Nakazawa, S. K. Yazdani, A. V. Finn, M. Vorpahl, F. D. Kolodgie, and R. Virmani, “Pathological findings at bifurcation lesionsthe impact of flow distribution on atherosclerosis and arterial healing after stent implantation,” J. Am. College Cardiol. 55, 1679–1687 (2010).
[Crossref]

Fitzgerald, P. J.

A. R. Williams, B.-K. Koo, T. J. Gundert, P. J. Fitzgerald, and J. F. LaDisa, “Local hemodynamic changes caused by main branch stent implantation and subsequent virtual side branch balloon angioplasty in a representative coronary bifurcation,” J. Appl. Physiol. 109, 532–540 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ford, M. D.

M. D. Ford, N. Alperin, S. H. Lee, D. W. Holdsworth, and D. A. Steinman, “Characterization of volumetric flow rate waveforms in the normal internal carotid and vertebral arteries,” Am. J. Neuroradiol. 26, 477 (2005).

Giannoglou, G. D.

K. C. Koskinas, Y. S. Chatzizisis, A. P. Antoniadis, and G. D. Giannoglou, “Role of endothelial shear stress in stent restenosis and thrombosispathophysiologic mechanisms and implications for clinical translation,” J. Am. College Cardiol. 59, 1337–1349 (2012).
[Crossref]

Gianotti, M.

O. Greil, T. Kleinschmidt, W. Weiss, O. Wolf, P. Heider, S. Schaffner, M. Gianotti, T. Schmid, D. Liepsch, and H. Berger, “Flow velocities after carotid artery stenting: Impact of stent design. a fluid dynamics study in a carotid artery model with laser doppler anemometry,” Cardiovascular Intervent. Radiol. 28, 66–76 (2005).
[Crossref]

Gordon, M.

Gordon, M. L.

V. X.D. Yang, M. L. Gordon, A. Mok, Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, R. S. Cobbold, B. C. Wilson, and I. Alex Vitkin, “Improved phase-resolved optical doppler tomography using the kasai velocity estimator and histogram segmentation,” Opt. Commun. 208, 209–214 (2002).
[Crossref]

Gotlieb, A. I.

K. S. Cunningham and A. I. Gotlieb, “The role of shear stress in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis,” Lab. Invest. 85, 9–23 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Greil, O.

O. Greil, T. Kleinschmidt, W. Weiss, O. Wolf, P. Heider, S. Schaffner, M. Gianotti, T. Schmid, D. Liepsch, and H. Berger, “Flow velocities after carotid artery stenting: Impact of stent design. a fluid dynamics study in a carotid artery model with laser doppler anemometry,” Cardiovascular Intervent. Radiol. 28, 66–76 (2005).
[Crossref]

Gundert, T. J.

A. R. Williams, B.-K. Koo, T. J. Gundert, P. J. Fitzgerald, and J. F. LaDisa, “Local hemodynamic changes caused by main branch stent implantation and subsequent virtual side branch balloon angioplasty in a representative coronary bifurcation,” J. Appl. Physiol. 109, 532–540 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hacker, J.

D. Birchall, A. Zaman, J. Hacker, G. Davies, and D. Mendelow, “Analysis of haemodynamic disturbance in the atherosclerotic carotid artery using computational fluid dynamics,” Eur. J. Radiol. 16, 1074–1083 (2006).
[Crossref]

Heider, P.

O. Greil, T. Kleinschmidt, W. Weiss, O. Wolf, P. Heider, S. Schaffner, M. Gianotti, T. Schmid, D. Liepsch, and H. Berger, “Flow velocities after carotid artery stenting: Impact of stent design. a fluid dynamics study in a carotid artery model with laser doppler anemometry,” Cardiovascular Intervent. Radiol. 28, 66–76 (2005).
[Crossref]

Heinzmann, U.

A. Reininger, C. Reininger, U. Heinzmann, and L. Wurzinger, “Residence time in niches of stagnant flow determines fibrin clot formation in an arterial branching model–detailed flow analysis and experimental results,” Thromb. Haemostasis 74, 916–922 (1995).

Herman, P. R.

Hill, M. D.

T. G. Brott, R. W. Hobson, G. Howard, G. S. Roubin, W. M. Clark, W. Brooks, A. Mackey, M. D. Hill, P. P. Leimgruber, A. J. Sheffet, V. J. Howard, W. S. Moore, J. H. Voeks, L. N. Hopkins, D. E. Cutlip, D. J. Cohen, J. J. Popma, R. D. Ferguson, S. N. Cohen, J. L. Blackshear, F. L. Silver, J. P. Mohr, B. K. Lal, and J. F. Meschia, “Stenting versus endarterectomy for treatment of carotid-artery stenosis,” N. Engl. J. Med. 363, 11–23 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hobson, R. W.

T. G. Brott, R. W. Hobson, G. Howard, G. S. Roubin, W. M. Clark, W. Brooks, A. Mackey, M. D. Hill, P. P. Leimgruber, A. J. Sheffet, V. J. Howard, W. S. Moore, J. H. Voeks, L. N. Hopkins, D. E. Cutlip, D. J. Cohen, J. J. Popma, R. D. Ferguson, S. N. Cohen, J. L. Blackshear, F. L. Silver, J. P. Mohr, B. K. Lal, and J. F. Meschia, “Stenting versus endarterectomy for treatment of carotid-artery stenosis,” N. Engl. J. Med. 363, 11–23 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Holdsworth, D. W.

T. L. Poepping, R. N. Rankin, and D. W. Holdsworth, “Flow patterns in carotid bifurcation models using pulsed doppler ultrasound: effect of concentric vs. eccentric stenosis on turbulence and recirculation,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 36, 1125–1134 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. D. Ford, N. Alperin, S. H. Lee, D. W. Holdsworth, and D. A. Steinman, “Characterization of volumetric flow rate waveforms in the normal internal carotid and vertebral arteries,” Am. J. Neuroradiol. 26, 477 (2005).

Hong, M. K.

G. S. Mintz, J. J. Popma, A. D. Pichard, K. M. Kent, L. F. Satler, S. C. Wong, M. K. Hong, J. A. Kovach, and M. B. Leon, “Arterial remodeling after coronary angioplasty a serial intravascular ultrasound study,” Circulation 94, 35–43 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hopkins, L. N.

T. G. Brott, R. W. Hobson, G. Howard, G. S. Roubin, W. M. Clark, W. Brooks, A. Mackey, M. D. Hill, P. P. Leimgruber, A. J. Sheffet, V. J. Howard, W. S. Moore, J. H. Voeks, L. N. Hopkins, D. E. Cutlip, D. J. Cohen, J. J. Popma, R. D. Ferguson, S. N. Cohen, J. L. Blackshear, F. L. Silver, J. P. Mohr, B. K. Lal, and J. F. Meschia, “Stenting versus endarterectomy for treatment of carotid-artery stenosis,” N. Engl. J. Med. 363, 11–23 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Howard, G.

T. G. Brott, R. W. Hobson, G. Howard, G. S. Roubin, W. M. Clark, W. Brooks, A. Mackey, M. D. Hill, P. P. Leimgruber, A. J. Sheffet, V. J. Howard, W. S. Moore, J. H. Voeks, L. N. Hopkins, D. E. Cutlip, D. J. Cohen, J. J. Popma, R. D. Ferguson, S. N. Cohen, J. L. Blackshear, F. L. Silver, J. P. Mohr, B. K. Lal, and J. F. Meschia, “Stenting versus endarterectomy for treatment of carotid-artery stenosis,” N. Engl. J. Med. 363, 11–23 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Howard, V. J.

T. G. Brott, R. W. Hobson, G. Howard, G. S. Roubin, W. M. Clark, W. Brooks, A. Mackey, M. D. Hill, P. P. Leimgruber, A. J. Sheffet, V. J. Howard, W. S. Moore, J. H. Voeks, L. N. Hopkins, D. E. Cutlip, D. J. Cohen, J. J. Popma, R. D. Ferguson, S. N. Cohen, J. L. Blackshear, F. L. Silver, J. P. Mohr, B. K. Lal, and J. F. Meschia, “Stenting versus endarterectomy for treatment of carotid-artery stenosis,” N. Engl. J. Med. 363, 11–23 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jonas, M.

Y. S. Chatzizisis, A. U. Coskun, M. Jonas, E. R. Edelman, C. L. Feldman, and P. H. Stone, “Role of endothelial shear stress in the natural history of coronary atherosclerosis and vascular remodeling: molecular, cellular, and vascular behavior,” J. Am. College Cardiol. 49, 2379–2393 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kent, K. M.

G. S. Mintz, J. J. Popma, A. D. Pichard, K. M. Kent, L. F. Satler, S. C. Wong, M. K. Hong, J. A. Kovach, and M. B. Leon, “Arterial remodeling after coronary angioplasty a serial intravascular ultrasound study,” Circulation 94, 35–43 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kiehl, T.-R.

Kleinschmidt, T.

O. Greil, T. Kleinschmidt, W. Weiss, O. Wolf, P. Heider, S. Schaffner, M. Gianotti, T. Schmid, D. Liepsch, and H. Berger, “Flow velocities after carotid artery stenting: Impact of stent design. a fluid dynamics study in a carotid artery model with laser doppler anemometry,” Cardiovascular Intervent. Radiol. 28, 66–76 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kolodgie, F. D.

G. Nakazawa, S. K. Yazdani, A. V. Finn, M. Vorpahl, F. D. Kolodgie, and R. Virmani, “Pathological findings at bifurcation lesionsthe impact of flow distribution on atherosclerosis and arterial healing after stent implantation,” J. Am. College Cardiol. 55, 1679–1687 (2010).
[Crossref]

Koo, B.-K.

A. R. Williams, B.-K. Koo, T. J. Gundert, P. J. Fitzgerald, and J. F. LaDisa, “Local hemodynamic changes caused by main branch stent implantation and subsequent virtual side branch balloon angioplasty in a representative coronary bifurcation,” J. Appl. Physiol. 109, 532–540 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Koskinas, K. C.

K. C. Koskinas, Y. S. Chatzizisis, A. P. Antoniadis, and G. D. Giannoglou, “Role of endothelial shear stress in stent restenosis and thrombosispathophysiologic mechanisms and implications for clinical translation,” J. Am. College Cardiol. 59, 1337–1349 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kovach, J. A.

G. S. Mintz, J. J. Popma, A. D. Pichard, K. M. Kent, L. F. Satler, S. C. Wong, M. K. Hong, J. A. Kovach, and M. B. Leon, “Arterial remodeling after coronary angioplasty a serial intravascular ultrasound study,” Circulation 94, 35–43 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ku, D. N.

D. M. Wootton and D. N. Ku, “Fluid mechanics of vascular systems, diseases, and thrombosis,” Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 1, 299–329 (1999).
[Crossref]

LaDisa, J. F.

A. R. Williams, B.-K. Koo, T. J. Gundert, P. J. Fitzgerald, and J. F. LaDisa, “Local hemodynamic changes caused by main branch stent implantation and subsequent virtual side branch balloon angioplasty in a representative coronary bifurcation,” J. Appl. Physiol. 109, 532–540 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lal, B. K.

T. G. Brott, R. W. Hobson, G. Howard, G. S. Roubin, W. M. Clark, W. Brooks, A. Mackey, M. D. Hill, P. P. Leimgruber, A. J. Sheffet, V. J. Howard, W. S. Moore, J. H. Voeks, L. N. Hopkins, D. E. Cutlip, D. J. Cohen, J. J. Popma, R. D. Ferguson, S. N. Cohen, J. L. Blackshear, F. L. Silver, J. P. Mohr, B. K. Lal, and J. F. Meschia, “Stenting versus endarterectomy for treatment of carotid-artery stenosis,” N. Engl. J. Med. 363, 11–23 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lam, S.

Lane, P.

Lee, A.

Lee, K. K.

Lee, S. H.

M. D. Ford, N. Alperin, S. H. Lee, D. W. Holdsworth, and D. A. Steinman, “Characterization of volumetric flow rate waveforms in the normal internal carotid and vertebral arteries,” Am. J. Neuroradiol. 26, 477 (2005).

Leimgruber, P. P.

T. G. Brott, R. W. Hobson, G. Howard, G. S. Roubin, W. M. Clark, W. Brooks, A. Mackey, M. D. Hill, P. P. Leimgruber, A. J. Sheffet, V. J. Howard, W. S. Moore, J. H. Voeks, L. N. Hopkins, D. E. Cutlip, D. J. Cohen, J. J. Popma, R. D. Ferguson, S. N. Cohen, J. L. Blackshear, F. L. Silver, J. P. Mohr, B. K. Lal, and J. F. Meschia, “Stenting versus endarterectomy for treatment of carotid-artery stenosis,” N. Engl. J. Med. 363, 11–23 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leon, M. B.

G. S. Mintz, J. J. Popma, A. D. Pichard, K. M. Kent, L. F. Satler, S. C. Wong, M. K. Hong, J. A. Kovach, and M. B. Leon, “Arterial remodeling after coronary angioplasty a serial intravascular ultrasound study,” Circulation 94, 35–43 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liepsch, D.

O. Greil, T. Kleinschmidt, W. Weiss, O. Wolf, P. Heider, S. Schaffner, M. Gianotti, T. Schmid, D. Liepsch, and H. Berger, “Flow velocities after carotid artery stenting: Impact of stent design. a fluid dynamics study in a carotid artery model with laser doppler anemometry,” Cardiovascular Intervent. Radiol. 28, 66–76 (2005).
[Crossref]

Lo, S.

Luk, T. W.

Mackey, A.

T. G. Brott, R. W. Hobson, G. Howard, G. S. Roubin, W. M. Clark, W. Brooks, A. Mackey, M. D. Hill, P. P. Leimgruber, A. J. Sheffet, V. J. Howard, W. S. Moore, J. H. Voeks, L. N. Hopkins, D. E. Cutlip, D. J. Cohen, J. J. Popma, R. D. Ferguson, S. N. Cohen, J. L. Blackshear, F. L. Silver, J. P. Mohr, B. K. Lal, and J. F. Meschia, “Stenting versus endarterectomy for treatment of carotid-artery stenosis,” N. Engl. J. Med. 363, 11–23 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Manninen, H.

R. Vanninen, H. Manninen, and S. Soimakallio, “Imaging of carotid artery stenosis: clinical efficacy and cost-effectiveness,” Physiological Measurement 16, 1975–1983 (1995).

Mariampillai, A.

Marotta, T. R.

Mendelow, D.

D. Birchall, A. Zaman, J. Hacker, G. Davies, and D. Mendelow, “Analysis of haemodynamic disturbance in the atherosclerotic carotid artery using computational fluid dynamics,” Eur. J. Radiol. 16, 1074–1083 (2006).
[Crossref]

Meschia, J. F.

T. G. Brott, R. W. Hobson, G. Howard, G. S. Roubin, W. M. Clark, W. Brooks, A. Mackey, M. D. Hill, P. P. Leimgruber, A. J. Sheffet, V. J. Howard, W. S. Moore, J. H. Voeks, L. N. Hopkins, D. E. Cutlip, D. J. Cohen, J. J. Popma, R. D. Ferguson, S. N. Cohen, J. L. Blackshear, F. L. Silver, J. P. Mohr, B. K. Lal, and J. F. Meschia, “Stenting versus endarterectomy for treatment of carotid-artery stenosis,” N. Engl. J. Med. 363, 11–23 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mintz, G. S.

G. S. Mintz, J. J. Popma, A. D. Pichard, K. M. Kent, L. F. Satler, S. C. Wong, M. K. Hong, J. A. Kovach, and M. B. Leon, “Arterial remodeling after coronary angioplasty a serial intravascular ultrasound study,” Circulation 94, 35–43 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mohr, J. P.

T. G. Brott, R. W. Hobson, G. Howard, G. S. Roubin, W. M. Clark, W. Brooks, A. Mackey, M. D. Hill, P. P. Leimgruber, A. J. Sheffet, V. J. Howard, W. S. Moore, J. H. Voeks, L. N. Hopkins, D. E. Cutlip, D. J. Cohen, J. J. Popma, R. D. Ferguson, S. N. Cohen, J. L. Blackshear, F. L. Silver, J. P. Mohr, B. K. Lal, and J. F. Meschia, “Stenting versus endarterectomy for treatment of carotid-artery stenosis,” N. Engl. J. Med. 363, 11–23 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mok, A.

V. Yang, M. Gordon, B. Qi, J. Pekar, S. Lo, E. Seng-Yue, A. Mok, B. Wilson, and I. Vitkin, “High speed, wide velocity dynamic range doppler optical coherence tomography (part i): System design, signal processing, and performance,” Opt. Express 11, 794–809 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. X.D. Yang, M. L. Gordon, A. Mok, Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, R. S. Cobbold, B. C. Wilson, and I. Alex Vitkin, “Improved phase-resolved optical doppler tomography using the kasai velocity estimator and histogram segmentation,” Opt. Commun. 208, 209–214 (2002).
[Crossref]

Montanera, W. J.

Moore, W. S.

T. G. Brott, R. W. Hobson, G. Howard, G. S. Roubin, W. M. Clark, W. Brooks, A. Mackey, M. D. Hill, P. P. Leimgruber, A. J. Sheffet, V. J. Howard, W. S. Moore, J. H. Voeks, L. N. Hopkins, D. E. Cutlip, D. J. Cohen, J. J. Popma, R. D. Ferguson, S. N. Cohen, J. L. Blackshear, F. L. Silver, J. P. Mohr, B. K. Lal, and J. F. Meschia, “Stenting versus endarterectomy for treatment of carotid-artery stenosis,” N. Engl. J. Med. 363, 11–23 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Najarian, S.

V. Dehlaghi, M. T. Shadpoor, and S. Najarian, “Analysis of wall shear stress in stented coronary artery using 3d computational fluid dynamics modeling,” J. Mater. Process. Technol. 197, 174–181 (2008).
[Crossref]

Nakazawa, G.

G. Nakazawa, S. K. Yazdani, A. V. Finn, M. Vorpahl, F. D. Kolodgie, and R. Virmani, “Pathological findings at bifurcation lesionsthe impact of flow distribution on atherosclerosis and arterial healing after stent implantation,” J. Am. College Cardiol. 55, 1679–1687 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nolte, F.

Otsuka, F.

C. Chaabane, F. Otsuka, R. Virmani, and M.-L. Bochaton-Piallat, “Biological responses in stented arteries,” Cardiovascular Research p. cvt115 (2013).

Pekar, J.

Pichard, A. D.

G. S. Mintz, J. J. Popma, A. D. Pichard, K. M. Kent, L. F. Satler, S. C. Wong, M. K. Hong, J. A. Kovach, and M. B. Leon, “Arterial remodeling after coronary angioplasty a serial intravascular ultrasound study,” Circulation 94, 35–43 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Poepping, T. L.

T. L. Poepping, R. N. Rankin, and D. W. Holdsworth, “Flow patterns in carotid bifurcation models using pulsed doppler ultrasound: effect of concentric vs. eccentric stenosis on turbulence and recirculation,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 36, 1125–1134 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Popma, J. J.

T. G. Brott, R. W. Hobson, G. Howard, G. S. Roubin, W. M. Clark, W. Brooks, A. Mackey, M. D. Hill, P. P. Leimgruber, A. J. Sheffet, V. J. Howard, W. S. Moore, J. H. Voeks, L. N. Hopkins, D. E. Cutlip, D. J. Cohen, J. J. Popma, R. D. Ferguson, S. N. Cohen, J. L. Blackshear, F. L. Silver, J. P. Mohr, B. K. Lal, and J. F. Meschia, “Stenting versus endarterectomy for treatment of carotid-artery stenosis,” N. Engl. J. Med. 363, 11–23 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. S. Mintz, J. J. Popma, A. D. Pichard, K. M. Kent, L. F. Satler, S. C. Wong, M. K. Hong, J. A. Kovach, and M. B. Leon, “Arterial remodeling after coronary angioplasty a serial intravascular ultrasound study,” Circulation 94, 35–43 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qi, B.

Rankin, R. N.

T. L. Poepping, R. N. Rankin, and D. W. Holdsworth, “Flow patterns in carotid bifurcation models using pulsed doppler ultrasound: effect of concentric vs. eccentric stenosis on turbulence and recirculation,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 36, 1125–1134 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reininger, A.

A. Reininger, C. Reininger, U. Heinzmann, and L. Wurzinger, “Residence time in niches of stagnant flow determines fibrin clot formation in an arterial branching model–detailed flow analysis and experimental results,” Thromb. Haemostasis 74, 916–922 (1995).

Reininger, C.

A. Reininger, C. Reininger, U. Heinzmann, and L. Wurzinger, “Residence time in niches of stagnant flow determines fibrin clot formation in an arterial branching model–detailed flow analysis and experimental results,” Thromb. Haemostasis 74, 916–922 (1995).

Roubin, G. S.

T. G. Brott, R. W. Hobson, G. Howard, G. S. Roubin, W. M. Clark, W. Brooks, A. Mackey, M. D. Hill, P. P. Leimgruber, A. J. Sheffet, V. J. Howard, W. S. Moore, J. H. Voeks, L. N. Hopkins, D. E. Cutlip, D. J. Cohen, J. J. Popma, R. D. Ferguson, S. N. Cohen, J. L. Blackshear, F. L. Silver, J. P. Mohr, B. K. Lal, and J. F. Meschia, “Stenting versus endarterectomy for treatment of carotid-artery stenosis,” N. Engl. J. Med. 363, 11–23 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Satler, L. F.

G. S. Mintz, J. J. Popma, A. D. Pichard, K. M. Kent, L. F. Satler, S. C. Wong, M. K. Hong, J. A. Kovach, and M. B. Leon, “Arterial remodeling after coronary angioplasty a serial intravascular ultrasound study,” Circulation 94, 35–43 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Saw, J.

J. Saw, “Carotid artery stenting for stroke prevention,” Canadian Journal of Cardiology 30, 22–34 (2014).
[Crossref]

Schaffner, S.

O. Greil, T. Kleinschmidt, W. Weiss, O. Wolf, P. Heider, S. Schaffner, M. Gianotti, T. Schmid, D. Liepsch, and H. Berger, “Flow velocities after carotid artery stenting: Impact of stent design. a fluid dynamics study in a carotid artery model with laser doppler anemometry,” Cardiovascular Intervent. Radiol. 28, 66–76 (2005).
[Crossref]

Schmid, T.

O. Greil, T. Kleinschmidt, W. Weiss, O. Wolf, P. Heider, S. Schaffner, M. Gianotti, T. Schmid, D. Liepsch, and H. Berger, “Flow velocities after carotid artery stenting: Impact of stent design. a fluid dynamics study in a carotid artery model with laser doppler anemometry,” Cardiovascular Intervent. Radiol. 28, 66–76 (2005).
[Crossref]

Seng-Yue, E.

Shadpoor, M. T.

V. Dehlaghi, M. T. Shadpoor, and S. Najarian, “Analysis of wall shear stress in stented coronary artery using 3d computational fluid dynamics modeling,” J. Mater. Process. Technol. 197, 174–181 (2008).
[Crossref]

Sheffet, A. J.

T. G. Brott, R. W. Hobson, G. Howard, G. S. Roubin, W. M. Clark, W. Brooks, A. Mackey, M. D. Hill, P. P. Leimgruber, A. J. Sheffet, V. J. Howard, W. S. Moore, J. H. Voeks, L. N. Hopkins, D. E. Cutlip, D. J. Cohen, J. J. Popma, R. D. Ferguson, S. N. Cohen, J. L. Blackshear, F. L. Silver, J. P. Mohr, B. K. Lal, and J. F. Meschia, “Stenting versus endarterectomy for treatment of carotid-artery stenosis,” N. Engl. J. Med. 363, 11–23 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Silver, F. L.

T. G. Brott, R. W. Hobson, G. Howard, G. S. Roubin, W. M. Clark, W. Brooks, A. Mackey, M. D. Hill, P. P. Leimgruber, A. J. Sheffet, V. J. Howard, W. S. Moore, J. H. Voeks, L. N. Hopkins, D. E. Cutlip, D. J. Cohen, J. J. Popma, R. D. Ferguson, S. N. Cohen, J. L. Blackshear, F. L. Silver, J. P. Mohr, B. K. Lal, and J. F. Meschia, “Stenting versus endarterectomy for treatment of carotid-artery stenosis,” N. Engl. J. Med. 363, 11–23 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Soimakallio, S.

R. Vanninen, H. Manninen, and S. Soimakallio, “Imaging of carotid artery stenosis: clinical efficacy and cost-effectiveness,” Physiological Measurement 16, 1975–1983 (1995).

Spears, J.

Standish, B. A.

Steinman, D. A.

M. D. Ford, N. Alperin, S. H. Lee, D. W. Holdsworth, and D. A. Steinman, “Characterization of volumetric flow rate waveforms in the normal internal carotid and vertebral arteries,” Am. J. Neuroradiol. 26, 477 (2005).

Stone, P. H.

Y. S. Chatzizisis, A. U. Coskun, M. Jonas, E. R. Edelman, C. L. Feldman, and P. H. Stone, “Role of endothelial shear stress in the natural history of coronary atherosclerosis and vascular remodeling: molecular, cellular, and vascular behavior,” J. Am. College Cardiol. 49, 2379–2393 (2007).
[Crossref]

Sun, C.

Vanninen, R.

R. Vanninen, H. Manninen, and S. Soimakallio, “Imaging of carotid artery stenosis: clinical efficacy and cost-effectiveness,” Physiological Measurement 16, 1975–1983 (1995).

Virmani, R.

G. Nakazawa, S. K. Yazdani, A. V. Finn, M. Vorpahl, F. D. Kolodgie, and R. Virmani, “Pathological findings at bifurcation lesionsthe impact of flow distribution on atherosclerosis and arterial healing after stent implantation,” J. Am. College Cardiol. 55, 1679–1687 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. Chaabane, F. Otsuka, R. Virmani, and M.-L. Bochaton-Piallat, “Biological responses in stented arteries,” Cardiovascular Research p. cvt115 (2013).

Vitkin, I.

Voeks, J. H.

T. G. Brott, R. W. Hobson, G. Howard, G. S. Roubin, W. M. Clark, W. Brooks, A. Mackey, M. D. Hill, P. P. Leimgruber, A. J. Sheffet, V. J. Howard, W. S. Moore, J. H. Voeks, L. N. Hopkins, D. E. Cutlip, D. J. Cohen, J. J. Popma, R. D. Ferguson, S. N. Cohen, J. L. Blackshear, F. L. Silver, J. P. Mohr, B. K. Lal, and J. F. Meschia, “Stenting versus endarterectomy for treatment of carotid-artery stenosis,” N. Engl. J. Med. 363, 11–23 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vorpahl, M.

G. Nakazawa, S. K. Yazdani, A. V. Finn, M. Vorpahl, F. D. Kolodgie, and R. Virmani, “Pathological findings at bifurcation lesionsthe impact of flow distribution on atherosclerosis and arterial healing after stent implantation,” J. Am. College Cardiol. 55, 1679–1687 (2010).
[Crossref]

Vuong, B.

Weiss, W.

O. Greil, T. Kleinschmidt, W. Weiss, O. Wolf, P. Heider, S. Schaffner, M. Gianotti, T. Schmid, D. Liepsch, and H. Berger, “Flow velocities after carotid artery stenting: Impact of stent design. a fluid dynamics study in a carotid artery model with laser doppler anemometry,” Cardiovascular Intervent. Radiol. 28, 66–76 (2005).
[Crossref]

Williams, A. R.

A. R. Williams, B.-K. Koo, T. J. Gundert, P. J. Fitzgerald, and J. F. LaDisa, “Local hemodynamic changes caused by main branch stent implantation and subsequent virtual side branch balloon angioplasty in a representative coronary bifurcation,” J. Appl. Physiol. 109, 532–540 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wilson, B.

Wilson, B. C.

V. X.D. Yang, M. L. Gordon, A. Mok, Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, R. S. Cobbold, B. C. Wilson, and I. Alex Vitkin, “Improved phase-resolved optical doppler tomography using the kasai velocity estimator and histogram segmentation,” Opt. Commun. 208, 209–214 (2002).
[Crossref]

Wolf, O.

O. Greil, T. Kleinschmidt, W. Weiss, O. Wolf, P. Heider, S. Schaffner, M. Gianotti, T. Schmid, D. Liepsch, and H. Berger, “Flow velocities after carotid artery stenting: Impact of stent design. a fluid dynamics study in a carotid artery model with laser doppler anemometry,” Cardiovascular Intervent. Radiol. 28, 66–76 (2005).
[Crossref]

Wong, S. C.

G. S. Mintz, J. J. Popma, A. D. Pichard, K. M. Kent, L. F. Satler, S. C. Wong, M. K. Hong, J. A. Kovach, and M. B. Leon, “Arterial remodeling after coronary angioplasty a serial intravascular ultrasound study,” Circulation 94, 35–43 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wootton, D. M.

D. M. Wootton and D. N. Ku, “Fluid mechanics of vascular systems, diseases, and thrombosis,” Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 1, 299–329 (1999).
[Crossref]

Wurzinger, L.

A. Reininger, C. Reininger, U. Heinzmann, and L. Wurzinger, “Residence time in niches of stagnant flow determines fibrin clot formation in an arterial branching model–detailed flow analysis and experimental results,” Thromb. Haemostasis 74, 916–922 (1995).

Yang, V.

Yang, V. X.

Yang, V. X.D.

Yazdani, S. K.

G. Nakazawa, S. K. Yazdani, A. V. Finn, M. Vorpahl, F. D. Kolodgie, and R. Virmani, “Pathological findings at bifurcation lesionsthe impact of flow distribution on atherosclerosis and arterial healing after stent implantation,” J. Am. College Cardiol. 55, 1679–1687 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zaman, A.

D. Birchall, A. Zaman, J. Hacker, G. Davies, and D. Mendelow, “Analysis of haemodynamic disturbance in the atherosclerotic carotid artery using computational fluid dynamics,” Eur. J. Radiol. 16, 1074–1083 (2006).
[Crossref]

Zhao, Y.

V. X.D. Yang, M. L. Gordon, A. Mok, Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, R. S. Cobbold, B. C. Wilson, and I. Alex Vitkin, “Improved phase-resolved optical doppler tomography using the kasai velocity estimator and histogram segmentation,” Opt. Commun. 208, 209–214 (2002).
[Crossref]

Am. J. Neuroradiol. (1)

M. D. Ford, N. Alperin, S. H. Lee, D. W. Holdsworth, and D. A. Steinman, “Characterization of volumetric flow rate waveforms in the normal internal carotid and vertebral arteries,” Am. J. Neuroradiol. 26, 477 (2005).

Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. (1)

D. M. Wootton and D. N. Ku, “Fluid mechanics of vascular systems, diseases, and thrombosis,” Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 1, 299–329 (1999).
[Crossref]

Biomed. Opt. Express (2)

Canadian Journal of Cardiology (1)

J. Saw, “Carotid artery stenting for stroke prevention,” Canadian Journal of Cardiology 30, 22–34 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cardiovascular Intervent. Radiol. (1)

O. Greil, T. Kleinschmidt, W. Weiss, O. Wolf, P. Heider, S. Schaffner, M. Gianotti, T. Schmid, D. Liepsch, and H. Berger, “Flow velocities after carotid artery stenting: Impact of stent design. a fluid dynamics study in a carotid artery model with laser doppler anemometry,” Cardiovascular Intervent. Radiol. 28, 66–76 (2005).
[Crossref]

Circulation (1)

G. S. Mintz, J. J. Popma, A. D. Pichard, K. M. Kent, L. F. Satler, S. C. Wong, M. K. Hong, J. A. Kovach, and M. B. Leon, “Arterial remodeling after coronary angioplasty a serial intravascular ultrasound study,” Circulation 94, 35–43 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eur. J. Radiol. (1)

D. Birchall, A. Zaman, J. Hacker, G. Davies, and D. Mendelow, “Analysis of haemodynamic disturbance in the atherosclerotic carotid artery using computational fluid dynamics,” Eur. J. Radiol. 16, 1074–1083 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Am. College Cardiol. (3)

Y. S. Chatzizisis, A. U. Coskun, M. Jonas, E. R. Edelman, C. L. Feldman, and P. H. Stone, “Role of endothelial shear stress in the natural history of coronary atherosclerosis and vascular remodeling: molecular, cellular, and vascular behavior,” J. Am. College Cardiol. 49, 2379–2393 (2007).
[Crossref]

G. Nakazawa, S. K. Yazdani, A. V. Finn, M. Vorpahl, F. D. Kolodgie, and R. Virmani, “Pathological findings at bifurcation lesionsthe impact of flow distribution on atherosclerosis and arterial healing after stent implantation,” J. Am. College Cardiol. 55, 1679–1687 (2010).
[Crossref]

K. C. Koskinas, Y. S. Chatzizisis, A. P. Antoniadis, and G. D. Giannoglou, “Role of endothelial shear stress in stent restenosis and thrombosispathophysiologic mechanisms and implications for clinical translation,” J. Am. College Cardiol. 59, 1337–1349 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Physiol. (1)

A. R. Williams, B.-K. Koo, T. J. Gundert, P. J. Fitzgerald, and J. F. LaDisa, “Local hemodynamic changes caused by main branch stent implantation and subsequent virtual side branch balloon angioplasty in a representative coronary bifurcation,” J. Appl. Physiol. 109, 532–540 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Mater. Process. Technol. (1)

V. Dehlaghi, M. T. Shadpoor, and S. Najarian, “Analysis of wall shear stress in stented coronary artery using 3d computational fluid dynamics modeling,” J. Mater. Process. Technol. 197, 174–181 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lab. Invest. (1)

K. S. Cunningham and A. I. Gotlieb, “The role of shear stress in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis,” Lab. Invest. 85, 9–23 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Engl. J. Med. (1)

T. G. Brott, R. W. Hobson, G. Howard, G. S. Roubin, W. M. Clark, W. Brooks, A. Mackey, M. D. Hill, P. P. Leimgruber, A. J. Sheffet, V. J. Howard, W. S. Moore, J. H. Voeks, L. N. Hopkins, D. E. Cutlip, D. J. Cohen, J. J. Popma, R. D. Ferguson, S. N. Cohen, J. L. Blackshear, F. L. Silver, J. P. Mohr, B. K. Lal, and J. F. Meschia, “Stenting versus endarterectomy for treatment of carotid-artery stenosis,” N. Engl. J. Med. 363, 11–23 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

V. X.D. Yang, M. L. Gordon, A. Mok, Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, R. S. Cobbold, B. C. Wilson, and I. Alex Vitkin, “Improved phase-resolved optical doppler tomography using the kasai velocity estimator and histogram segmentation,” Opt. Commun. 208, 209–214 (2002).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Physiological Measurement (1)

R. Vanninen, H. Manninen, and S. Soimakallio, “Imaging of carotid artery stenosis: clinical efficacy and cost-effectiveness,” Physiological Measurement 16, 1975–1983 (1995).

Thromb. Haemostasis (1)

A. Reininger, C. Reininger, U. Heinzmann, and L. Wurzinger, “Residence time in niches of stagnant flow determines fibrin clot formation in an arterial branching model–detailed flow analysis and experimental results,” Thromb. Haemostasis 74, 916–922 (1995).

Ultrasound Med. Biol. (1)

T. L. Poepping, R. N. Rankin, and D. W. Holdsworth, “Flow patterns in carotid bifurcation models using pulsed doppler ultrasound: effect of concentric vs. eccentric stenosis on turbulence and recirculation,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 36, 1125–1134 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (1)

C. Chaabane, F. Otsuka, R. Virmani, and M.-L. Bochaton-Piallat, “Biological responses in stented arteries,” Cardiovascular Research p. cvt115 (2013).

Supplementary Material (1)

» Media 1: AVI (68220 KB)     

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 a) Fluoroscopic image of the stent placement. b) Contrast was injected into the artery in order to visualize the gross flow distribution of the vessel after stent implantation. Scale bar: 10 mm. c) Magnified view of the region marked with dashed box in a), showing details of catheter and guidewire positions. d) Magnified view with contrast injection, showing blood in-flow, mild spasm distal to the stent edge in an out-flow branch. Notice in this particular setting, the OCT imaging catheter and its guidewire are placed through the stent in one of the out-flow branches. Scale bar: 3 mm.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 a) Structural OCT image in the transverse plane, demonstrating the parent vessel (*pv), side branch (*b), and the stent struts with shadows. b) Reconstructed longitudinal plane of the blood vessel from OCT pull-back imaging was employed as a reference for the 3D geometry of the CFD model. c) The velocity distribution before stent implantation with the OCT catheter from the CFD simulation of the carotid artery in the transverse plane with flow velocity contours. d) Streamlines overlaid on the CFD simulated velocity distribution with the OCT catheter in the longitudinal plane. e) The CFD simulation of the velocity distribution before stent placement without the OCT catheter. f) The corresponding streamlines that was overlaid on the CFD simulated velocity distribution without the OCT catheter in the longitudinal plane. Scale bar: 1 mm.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 a) The velocity distribution from the CFD simulation with the OCT catheter present after stent implantation covering the bifurcation in the longitudinal plane. Streamlines were overlaid onto the velocity distribution. An eddy was observed close to the stent strut near the entrance of the bifurcation (dashed region). b) The corresponding CFD simulation without the OCT catheter within the lumen wall. Similarly, an eddy current was also observed around the stent strut near the entrance of the bifurcation (dashed region) c) Contralateral to the position of the OCT catheter, a recirculation zone near a stent strut was observed. d) The CFD simulation was re-sliced to view the distribution in the transverse plane without the OCT catheter. e) The corresponding CFD simulation without the OCT catheter image. Scale bar: 1 mm.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 a) In vivo structural OCT image of the carotid artery before stent deployment. b) The corresponding ssDOCT image. Scale bar: 1 mm. c) Magnification at the neck of the carotid artery (dashed box) Scale bar: 0.5 mm.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 a) In vivo structural OCT image of the ICA after stent implantation. b) The corresponding ssDOCT image. A magnification of the ssDOCT image revealed phase contours that envelop the stent struts. Scale bar: 1 mm.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 a) In vivo structural OCT image of a protruded stent strut at the neck of the side branch. b) The corresponding ssDOCT image, where the dashed box indicates the protruded stent strut. c) This magnified region of interest depicts a slow velocity profile (triangle) d) After 1.25s, it was noted that there was a formation of an eddy current (arrow). e) At 1.55s from the initial frame, low to stagnant velocity measurements were observed (*). Scale bar: 1 mm.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 a) In vivo structural OCT image of the ICA after stent deployment. b) The corresponding ssDOCT image. c) In vivo structural OCT image of backflow (arrows) from the side branch to the parent vessel. d) The corresponding ssDOCT image of the backflow (see Media 1). Scale bar: 1 mm.

Metrics