Abstract

This is a comprehensive study of a large range of biometric and optical parameters in people with type 1 diabetes. The parameters of 74 people with type 1 diabetes and an age matched control group were assessed. Most of the people with diabetes had low levels of neuropathy, retinopathy and nephropathy. Marginal or no significant differences were found between groups for corneal shape, corneal thickness, pupil size, and pupil decentrations. Relative to the control group, the diabetes group demonstrated smaller anterior chamber depths, more curved lenses, greater lens thickness and lower lens equivalent refractive index. While the optics of diabetic eyes make them appear as older eyes than those of people of the same age without diabetes, the differences did not increase significantly with age. Age-related changes in the optics of the eyes of people with diabetes need not be accelerated if the diabetes is well controlled.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. N. Busted, T. Olsen, and O. Schmitz, “Clinical observations on the corneal thickness and the corneal endothelium in diabetes mellitus,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 65(10), 687–690 (1981).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. L. I. Larsson, W. M. Bourne, J. M. Pach, and R. F. Brubaker, “Structure and function of the corneal endothelium in diabetes mellitus type I and type II,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 114(1), 9–14 (1996).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. J. Lee, B. Oum, H. Choi, J. Lee, and B. Cho, “Differences in corneal thickness and corneal endothelium related to duration in diabetes,” Eye 20(3), 315–318 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. Y. Ozdamar, B. Cankaya, S. Ozalp, G. Acaroglu, J. Karakaya, and S. S. Özkan, “Is there a correlation between diabetes mellitus and central corneal thickness?” J. Glaucoma 19(9), 613–616 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. A. M. Roszkowska, C. G. Tringali, P. Colosi, C. A. Squeri, and G. Ferreri, “Corneal endothelium evaluation in type I and type II diabetes mellitus,” Ophthalmologica 213(4), 258–261 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  7. D. H. W. Su, T. Y. Wong, W. L. Wong, S. M. Saw, D. T. H. Tan, S. Y. Shen, S. C. Loon, P. J. Foster, and T. Aung, “Diabetes, hyperglycemia, and central corneal thickness: The Singapore Malay Eye Study,” Ophthalmol. 115(6), 964–968 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  8. N. G. M. Wiemer, M. Dubbelman, P. J. Kostense, P. J. Ringens, and B. C. P. Polak, “The influence of chronic diabetes mellitus on the thickness and the shape of the anterior and posterior surface of the cornea,” Cornea 26(10), 1165–1170 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. K. Inoue, S. Kato, Y. Inoue, S. Amano, and T. Oshika, “The corneal endothelium and thickness in type II diabetes mellitus,” Jpn. J. Ophthalmol. 46(1), 65–69 (2002).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. G. M. Keoleian, J. M. Pach, D. O. Hodge, S. D. Trocme, and W. M. Bourne, “Structural and functional studies of the corneal endothelium in diabetes mellitus,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 113(1), 64–70 (1992).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. M. Ziadi, P. Moiroux, P. d’Athis, A. Bron, J. M. Brun, and C. Creuzot-Garcher, “Assessment of induced corneal hypoxia in diabetic patients,” Cornea 21(5), 453–457 (2002).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. B. Winn, D. Whitaker, D. B. Elliott, and N. J. Phillips, “Factors affecting light-adapted pupil size in normal human subjects,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 35(3), 1132–1137 (1994).
    [PubMed]
  13. A. B. Watson and J. I. Yellott, “A unified formula for light-adapted pupil size,” J. Vision 12(10), 1–16 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  14. A. B. Hreidarsson, “Pupil size in insulin-dependent diabetes: relationship to duration, metabolic control, and long-term manifestations,” Diabetes 31(5), 442–448 (1982).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. A. Zaczek and C. Zetterström, “The effect of phenylephrine and pilocarpine on pupil size and aqueous flare intensity in patients with diabetes mellitus,” Acta Ophthalmol. Scand. 76(4), 413–416 (1998).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. H.-L. Lei, K.-J. Yang, C.-C. Sun, C.-H. Chen, B.-Y. Huang, S. C. Ng, and L. Yeung, “Obtained mydriasis in long-term type 2 diabetic patients,” J. Ocul. Pharmacol. Ther. 27(6), 599–602 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. D. Pittasch, R. Lobmann, W. Behrens-Baumann, and H. Lehnert, “Pupil signs of sympathetic autonomic neuropathy in patients with Type 1 diabetes,” Diabetes Care 25(9), 1545–1550 (2002).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. Y. Yang, Y. Yu, and K. Yao, “Pupillary dysfunction in Type 2 diabetes mellitus to refine the early diagnosis of diabetic autonomic neuropathy,” Neuro-Ophthalmology 30(1), 17–21 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  19. M. Cahill, P. Eustace, and V. de Jesus, “Pupillary autonomic denervation with increasing duration of diabetes mellitus,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 85(10), 1225–1230 (2001).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. D. A. Atchison, E. L. Markwell, S. Kasthurirangan, J. M. Pope, G. Smith, and P. G. Swann, “Age-related changes in optical and biometric characteristics of emmetropic eyes,” J. Vision 8(4), 1–20 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  21. M. Dubbelman and G. Van der Heijde, “The shape of the aging human lens: curvature, equivalent refractive index and the lens paradox,” Vision Res. 41(14), 1867–1877 (2001).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. N. G. M. Wiemer, M. Dubbelman, P. J. Kostense, P. J. Ringens, and B. C. P. Polak, “The influence of diabetes mellitus type 1 and 2 on the thickness, shape, and equivalent refractive index of the human crystalline lens,” Ophthalmology 115(10), 1679–1686 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. N. G. M. Wiemer, M. Dubbelman, E. A. Hermans, P. J. Ringens, and B. C. P. Polak, “Changes in the internal structure of the human crystalline lens with diabetes mellitus type 1 and type 2,” Ophthalmology 115(11), 2017–2023 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. J. M. Sparrow, A. J. Bron, N. A. P. Brown, and H. A. W. Neil, “Biometry of the crystalline lens in early-onset diabetes,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 74(11), 654–660 (1990).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. N. Løgstrup, A. Sjølie, K. Kyvik, and A. Green, “Lens thickness and insulin dependent diabetes mellitus: a population based twin study,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 80(5), 405–408 (1996).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. A. Bron, J. Sparrow, N. Brown, J. Harding, and R. Blakytny, “The lens in diabetes,” Eye 7(2), 260–275 (1993).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  27. H. C. Fledelius and K. Miyamoto, “Diabetic myopia - is it lens-induced?” Acta Ophthalmol. 65(4), 469–473 (1987).
    [Crossref]
  28. S. M. Saw, T. Y. Wong, S. Ting, A. W. P. Foong, and P. J. Foster, “The relationship between anterior chamber depth and the presence of diabetes in the Tanjong Pagar Survey,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 144(2), 325–326 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  29. L. Pierro, R. Brancato, E. Zaganelli, L. Guarisco, and G. Calori, “Correlation of lens thickness with blood glucose control in diabetes mellitus,” Acta Ophthalmol. Scand. 74(6), 539–541 (1996).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  30. N. Løgstrup, A. K. Sjølie, K. O. Kyvik, and A. Green, “Long term influence of insulin dependent diabetes mellitus on refraction and its components: a population based twin study,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 81(5), 343–349 (1997).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  31. N. Brown and J. Hungerford, “The influence of the size of the lens in ocular disease,” Trans. Ophthalmol. Soc. U. K. 102(3), 359–363 (1982).
    [PubMed]
  32. J. Cavallerano, “A review of non-retinal ocular complications of diabetes mellitus,” J. Am. Optom. Assoc. 61(7), 533–543 (1990).
    [PubMed]
  33. S. Moss, R. Klein, and B. Klein, “Accommodative ability in younger-onset diabetes,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 105(4), 508–512 (1987).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  34. M. Spafford and J. Lovasik, “Clinical evaluation of ocular and visual functions in insulin-dependent juvenile diabetics,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 63(7), 505–519 (1986).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  35. S. Yamamoto, E. Adachi-Usami, and N. Kuroda, “Accommodation power determined with transient pattern visual evoked cortical potentials in diabetes,” Doc. Ophthalmol. 72(1), 31–37 (1989).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  36. Adnan, N. Efron, A. Mathur, K. Edwards, N. Pritchard, M. Suheimat, and D. A. Atchison, “Amplitude of accommodation in type 1 diabetes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 55, 7014–7018 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  37. C. I. Braun, W. E. Benson, N. A. Remaley, E. Y. Chew, and F. L. Ferris, “Accommodative amplitudes in the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study: ETDRS Report Number 21,” Retina 15(4), 275–281 (1995).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  38. W. Pawelski and H. Gliem, “Studies on the amplitude of accommodation in diabetics [Untersuchungen ber die Akkommodationsbreite bei Diabetikern],” Ophthalmologica 163(4), 216–226 (1971).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  39. M. Lutze and G. H. Bresnick, “Lenses of diabetic patients “yellow” at an accelerated rate similar to older normals,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 32(1), 194–199 (1991).
    [PubMed]
  40. N. P. Davies and A. B. Morland, “Color matching in diabetes: optical density of the crystalline lens and macular pigments,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 43(1), 281–289 (2002).
    [PubMed]
  41. M. Shahidi, N. P. Blair, M. Mori, and R. Zelkha, “Optical section retinal imaging and wavefront sensing in diabetes,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 81(10), 778–784 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  42. A. K. Valeshabad, J. Wanek, P. Grant, J. I. Lim, F. Y. Chau, R. Zelkha, N. Camardo, and M. Shahidi, “Wavefront error correction with adaptive optics in diabetic retinopathy,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 91(10), 1238–1243 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  43. N. Pritchard, K. Edwards, C. Dehghani, H. Fadavi, M. Jeziorska, A. Marshall, I. N. Petropoulos, G. Ponirakis, A. W. Russell, G. P. Sampson, A. M. Shahidi, S. Srinivasan, M. Tavakoli, D. Vagenas, R. A. Malik, and N. Efron, “Longitudinal assessment of neuropathy in type 1 diabetes using novel ophthalmic markers (LANDMark): Study design and baseline characteristics,” Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract. 104(2), 248–256 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  44. T. O. Salmon, R. W. West, W. Gasser, and T. Kenmore, “Measurement of refractive errors in young myopes using the COAS Shack-Hartmann aberrometer,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 80(1), 6–14 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  45. J. Tabernero, D. A. Atchison, and E. L. Markwell, “Aberrations and pupil location under corneal topography and Hartmann-Shack illumination conditions,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50(4), 1964–1970 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  46. A. Mathur, D. A. Atchison, and J. Tabernero, “Effect of age on components of peripheral ocular aberrations,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 89(7), 967–976 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  47. J. Tabernero, A. Benito, V. Nourrit, and P. Artal, “Instrument for measuring the misalignments of ocular surfaces,” Opt. Express 14(22), 10945–10956 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  48. D. A. Atchison and G. Smith, “Chromatic dispersions of the ocular media of human eyes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22(1), 29–37 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  49. H. Saunders, “Age-dependence of human refractive errors,” Ophthalmic. Physiol. Opt. 1(3), 159–174 (1981).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  50. H. Saunders, “A longitudinal study of the age-dependence of human ocular refraction,” Ophthalmic. Physiol. Opt. 6(1), 39–46 (1986).
    [PubMed]

2014 (3)

Adnan, N. Efron, A. Mathur, K. Edwards, N. Pritchard, M. Suheimat, and D. A. Atchison, “Amplitude of accommodation in type 1 diabetes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 55, 7014–7018 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. K. Valeshabad, J. Wanek, P. Grant, J. I. Lim, F. Y. Chau, R. Zelkha, N. Camardo, and M. Shahidi, “Wavefront error correction with adaptive optics in diabetic retinopathy,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 91(10), 1238–1243 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. Pritchard, K. Edwards, C. Dehghani, H. Fadavi, M. Jeziorska, A. Marshall, I. N. Petropoulos, G. Ponirakis, A. W. Russell, G. P. Sampson, A. M. Shahidi, S. Srinivasan, M. Tavakoli, D. Vagenas, R. A. Malik, and N. Efron, “Longitudinal assessment of neuropathy in type 1 diabetes using novel ophthalmic markers (LANDMark): Study design and baseline characteristics,” Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract. 104(2), 248–256 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

M. A. Sekeroglu and H. Taylan Sekeroglu, “Refraction paradox in diabetics: An extreme case of transient hyperopia,” J. Diabetes 5(3), 325–326 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

A. B. Watson and J. I. Yellott, “A unified formula for light-adapted pupil size,” J. Vision 12(10), 1–16 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Mathur, D. A. Atchison, and J. Tabernero, “Effect of age on components of peripheral ocular aberrations,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 89(7), 967–976 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

H.-L. Lei, K.-J. Yang, C.-C. Sun, C.-H. Chen, B.-Y. Huang, S. C. Ng, and L. Yeung, “Obtained mydriasis in long-term type 2 diabetic patients,” J. Ocul. Pharmacol. Ther. 27(6), 599–602 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

Y. Ozdamar, B. Cankaya, S. Ozalp, G. Acaroglu, J. Karakaya, and S. S. Özkan, “Is there a correlation between diabetes mellitus and central corneal thickness?” J. Glaucoma 19(9), 613–616 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

J. Tabernero, D. A. Atchison, and E. L. Markwell, “Aberrations and pupil location under corneal topography and Hartmann-Shack illumination conditions,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50(4), 1964–1970 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (4)

D. H. W. Su, T. Y. Wong, W. L. Wong, S. M. Saw, D. T. H. Tan, S. Y. Shen, S. C. Loon, P. J. Foster, and T. Aung, “Diabetes, hyperglycemia, and central corneal thickness: The Singapore Malay Eye Study,” Ophthalmol. 115(6), 964–968 (2008).
[Crossref]

D. A. Atchison, E. L. Markwell, S. Kasthurirangan, J. M. Pope, G. Smith, and P. G. Swann, “Age-related changes in optical and biometric characteristics of emmetropic eyes,” J. Vision 8(4), 1–20 (2008).
[Crossref]

N. G. M. Wiemer, M. Dubbelman, P. J. Kostense, P. J. Ringens, and B. C. P. Polak, “The influence of diabetes mellitus type 1 and 2 on the thickness, shape, and equivalent refractive index of the human crystalline lens,” Ophthalmology 115(10), 1679–1686 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. G. M. Wiemer, M. Dubbelman, E. A. Hermans, P. J. Ringens, and B. C. P. Polak, “Changes in the internal structure of the human crystalline lens with diabetes mellitus type 1 and type 2,” Ophthalmology 115(11), 2017–2023 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

S. M. Saw, T. Y. Wong, S. Ting, A. W. P. Foong, and P. J. Foster, “The relationship between anterior chamber depth and the presence of diabetes in the Tanjong Pagar Survey,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 144(2), 325–326 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. G. M. Wiemer, M. Dubbelman, P. J. Kostense, P. J. Ringens, and B. C. P. Polak, “The influence of chronic diabetes mellitus on the thickness and the shape of the anterior and posterior surface of the cornea,” Cornea 26(10), 1165–1170 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

Y. Yang, Y. Yu, and K. Yao, “Pupillary dysfunction in Type 2 diabetes mellitus to refine the early diagnosis of diabetic autonomic neuropathy,” Neuro-Ophthalmology 30(1), 17–21 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Tabernero, A. Benito, V. Nourrit, and P. Artal, “Instrument for measuring the misalignments of ocular surfaces,” Opt. Express 14(22), 10945–10956 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

D. A. Atchison and G. Smith, “Chromatic dispersions of the ocular media of human eyes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22(1), 29–37 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Lee, B. Oum, H. Choi, J. Lee, and B. Cho, “Differences in corneal thickness and corneal endothelium related to duration in diabetes,” Eye 20(3), 315–318 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

M. Shahidi, N. P. Blair, M. Mori, and R. Zelkha, “Optical section retinal imaging and wavefront sensing in diabetes,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 81(10), 778–784 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

T. O. Salmon, R. W. West, W. Gasser, and T. Kenmore, “Measurement of refractive errors in young myopes using the COAS Shack-Hartmann aberrometer,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 80(1), 6–14 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (4)

N. P. Davies and A. B. Morland, “Color matching in diabetes: optical density of the crystalline lens and macular pigments,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 43(1), 281–289 (2002).
[PubMed]

K. Inoue, S. Kato, Y. Inoue, S. Amano, and T. Oshika, “The corneal endothelium and thickness in type II diabetes mellitus,” Jpn. J. Ophthalmol. 46(1), 65–69 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Ziadi, P. Moiroux, P. d’Athis, A. Bron, J. M. Brun, and C. Creuzot-Garcher, “Assessment of induced corneal hypoxia in diabetic patients,” Cornea 21(5), 453–457 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Pittasch, R. Lobmann, W. Behrens-Baumann, and H. Lehnert, “Pupil signs of sympathetic autonomic neuropathy in patients with Type 1 diabetes,” Diabetes Care 25(9), 1545–1550 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

M. Cahill, P. Eustace, and V. de Jesus, “Pupillary autonomic denervation with increasing duration of diabetes mellitus,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 85(10), 1225–1230 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Dubbelman and G. Van der Heijde, “The shape of the aging human lens: curvature, equivalent refractive index and the lens paradox,” Vision Res. 41(14), 1867–1877 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

A. M. Roszkowska, C. G. Tringali, P. Colosi, C. A. Squeri, and G. Ferreri, “Corneal endothelium evaluation in type I and type II diabetes mellitus,” Ophthalmologica 213(4), 258–261 (2000).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

A. Zaczek and C. Zetterström, “The effect of phenylephrine and pilocarpine on pupil size and aqueous flare intensity in patients with diabetes mellitus,” Acta Ophthalmol. Scand. 76(4), 413–416 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

N. Løgstrup, A. K. Sjølie, K. O. Kyvik, and A. Green, “Long term influence of insulin dependent diabetes mellitus on refraction and its components: a population based twin study,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 81(5), 343–349 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1996 (3)

L. Pierro, R. Brancato, E. Zaganelli, L. Guarisco, and G. Calori, “Correlation of lens thickness with blood glucose control in diabetes mellitus,” Acta Ophthalmol. Scand. 74(6), 539–541 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Løgstrup, A. Sjølie, K. Kyvik, and A. Green, “Lens thickness and insulin dependent diabetes mellitus: a population based twin study,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 80(5), 405–408 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. I. Larsson, W. M. Bourne, J. M. Pach, and R. F. Brubaker, “Structure and function of the corneal endothelium in diabetes mellitus type I and type II,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 114(1), 9–14 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

C. I. Braun, W. E. Benson, N. A. Remaley, E. Y. Chew, and F. L. Ferris, “Accommodative amplitudes in the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study: ETDRS Report Number 21,” Retina 15(4), 275–281 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

B. Winn, D. Whitaker, D. B. Elliott, and N. J. Phillips, “Factors affecting light-adapted pupil size in normal human subjects,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 35(3), 1132–1137 (1994).
[PubMed]

1993 (1)

A. Bron, J. Sparrow, N. Brown, J. Harding, and R. Blakytny, “The lens in diabetes,” Eye 7(2), 260–275 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

G. M. Keoleian, J. M. Pach, D. O. Hodge, S. D. Trocme, and W. M. Bourne, “Structural and functional studies of the corneal endothelium in diabetes mellitus,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 113(1), 64–70 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

M. Lutze and G. H. Bresnick, “Lenses of diabetic patients “yellow” at an accelerated rate similar to older normals,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 32(1), 194–199 (1991).
[PubMed]

1990 (2)

J. M. Sparrow, A. J. Bron, N. A. P. Brown, and H. A. W. Neil, “Biometry of the crystalline lens in early-onset diabetes,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 74(11), 654–660 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Cavallerano, “A review of non-retinal ocular complications of diabetes mellitus,” J. Am. Optom. Assoc. 61(7), 533–543 (1990).
[PubMed]

1989 (1)

S. Yamamoto, E. Adachi-Usami, and N. Kuroda, “Accommodation power determined with transient pattern visual evoked cortical potentials in diabetes,” Doc. Ophthalmol. 72(1), 31–37 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1987 (2)

S. Moss, R. Klein, and B. Klein, “Accommodative ability in younger-onset diabetes,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 105(4), 508–512 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. C. Fledelius and K. Miyamoto, “Diabetic myopia - is it lens-induced?” Acta Ophthalmol. 65(4), 469–473 (1987).
[Crossref]

1986 (2)

M. Spafford and J. Lovasik, “Clinical evaluation of ocular and visual functions in insulin-dependent juvenile diabetics,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 63(7), 505–519 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Saunders, “A longitudinal study of the age-dependence of human ocular refraction,” Ophthalmic. Physiol. Opt. 6(1), 39–46 (1986).
[PubMed]

1982 (2)

N. Brown and J. Hungerford, “The influence of the size of the lens in ocular disease,” Trans. Ophthalmol. Soc. U. K. 102(3), 359–363 (1982).
[PubMed]

A. B. Hreidarsson, “Pupil size in insulin-dependent diabetes: relationship to duration, metabolic control, and long-term manifestations,” Diabetes 31(5), 442–448 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1981 (2)

N. Busted, T. Olsen, and O. Schmitz, “Clinical observations on the corneal thickness and the corneal endothelium in diabetes mellitus,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 65(10), 687–690 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Saunders, “Age-dependence of human refractive errors,” Ophthalmic. Physiol. Opt. 1(3), 159–174 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1971 (1)

W. Pawelski and H. Gliem, “Studies on the amplitude of accommodation in diabetics [Untersuchungen ber die Akkommodationsbreite bei Diabetikern],” Ophthalmologica 163(4), 216–226 (1971).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Acaroglu, G.

Y. Ozdamar, B. Cankaya, S. Ozalp, G. Acaroglu, J. Karakaya, and S. S. Özkan, “Is there a correlation between diabetes mellitus and central corneal thickness?” J. Glaucoma 19(9), 613–616 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adachi-Usami, E.

S. Yamamoto, E. Adachi-Usami, and N. Kuroda, “Accommodation power determined with transient pattern visual evoked cortical potentials in diabetes,” Doc. Ophthalmol. 72(1), 31–37 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adnan,

Adnan, N. Efron, A. Mathur, K. Edwards, N. Pritchard, M. Suheimat, and D. A. Atchison, “Amplitude of accommodation in type 1 diabetes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 55, 7014–7018 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Amano, S.

K. Inoue, S. Kato, Y. Inoue, S. Amano, and T. Oshika, “The corneal endothelium and thickness in type II diabetes mellitus,” Jpn. J. Ophthalmol. 46(1), 65–69 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Artal, P.

Atchison, D. A.

Adnan, N. Efron, A. Mathur, K. Edwards, N. Pritchard, M. Suheimat, and D. A. Atchison, “Amplitude of accommodation in type 1 diabetes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 55, 7014–7018 (2014).
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D. A. Atchison, E. L. Markwell, S. Kasthurirangan, J. M. Pope, G. Smith, and P. G. Swann, “Age-related changes in optical and biometric characteristics of emmetropic eyes,” J. Vision 8(4), 1–20 (2008).
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D. A. Atchison and G. Smith, “Chromatic dispersions of the ocular media of human eyes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22(1), 29–37 (2005).
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Aung, T.

D. H. W. Su, T. Y. Wong, W. L. Wong, S. M. Saw, D. T. H. Tan, S. Y. Shen, S. C. Loon, P. J. Foster, and T. Aung, “Diabetes, hyperglycemia, and central corneal thickness: The Singapore Malay Eye Study,” Ophthalmol. 115(6), 964–968 (2008).
[Crossref]

Behrens-Baumann, W.

D. Pittasch, R. Lobmann, W. Behrens-Baumann, and H. Lehnert, “Pupil signs of sympathetic autonomic neuropathy in patients with Type 1 diabetes,” Diabetes Care 25(9), 1545–1550 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Benito, A.

Benson, W. E.

C. I. Braun, W. E. Benson, N. A. Remaley, E. Y. Chew, and F. L. Ferris, “Accommodative amplitudes in the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study: ETDRS Report Number 21,” Retina 15(4), 275–281 (1995).
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M. Shahidi, N. P. Blair, M. Mori, and R. Zelkha, “Optical section retinal imaging and wavefront sensing in diabetes,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 81(10), 778–784 (2004).
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A. Bron, J. Sparrow, N. Brown, J. Harding, and R. Blakytny, “The lens in diabetes,” Eye 7(2), 260–275 (1993).
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Bourne, W. M.

L. I. Larsson, W. M. Bourne, J. M. Pach, and R. F. Brubaker, “Structure and function of the corneal endothelium in diabetes mellitus type I and type II,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 114(1), 9–14 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. M. Keoleian, J. M. Pach, D. O. Hodge, S. D. Trocme, and W. M. Bourne, “Structural and functional studies of the corneal endothelium in diabetes mellitus,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 113(1), 64–70 (1992).
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Brancato, R.

L. Pierro, R. Brancato, E. Zaganelli, L. Guarisco, and G. Calori, “Correlation of lens thickness with blood glucose control in diabetes mellitus,” Acta Ophthalmol. Scand. 74(6), 539–541 (1996).
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Braun, C. I.

C. I. Braun, W. E. Benson, N. A. Remaley, E. Y. Chew, and F. L. Ferris, “Accommodative amplitudes in the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study: ETDRS Report Number 21,” Retina 15(4), 275–281 (1995).
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M. Lutze and G. H. Bresnick, “Lenses of diabetic patients “yellow” at an accelerated rate similar to older normals,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 32(1), 194–199 (1991).
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Bron, A.

M. Ziadi, P. Moiroux, P. d’Athis, A. Bron, J. M. Brun, and C. Creuzot-Garcher, “Assessment of induced corneal hypoxia in diabetic patients,” Cornea 21(5), 453–457 (2002).
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A. Bron, J. Sparrow, N. Brown, J. Harding, and R. Blakytny, “The lens in diabetes,” Eye 7(2), 260–275 (1993).
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Bron, A. J.

J. M. Sparrow, A. J. Bron, N. A. P. Brown, and H. A. W. Neil, “Biometry of the crystalline lens in early-onset diabetes,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 74(11), 654–660 (1990).
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Brown, N.

A. Bron, J. Sparrow, N. Brown, J. Harding, and R. Blakytny, “The lens in diabetes,” Eye 7(2), 260–275 (1993).
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N. Brown and J. Hungerford, “The influence of the size of the lens in ocular disease,” Trans. Ophthalmol. Soc. U. K. 102(3), 359–363 (1982).
[PubMed]

Brown, N. A. P.

J. M. Sparrow, A. J. Bron, N. A. P. Brown, and H. A. W. Neil, “Biometry of the crystalline lens in early-onset diabetes,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 74(11), 654–660 (1990).
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Brubaker, R. F.

L. I. Larsson, W. M. Bourne, J. M. Pach, and R. F. Brubaker, “Structure and function of the corneal endothelium in diabetes mellitus type I and type II,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 114(1), 9–14 (1996).
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Brun, J. M.

M. Ziadi, P. Moiroux, P. d’Athis, A. Bron, J. M. Brun, and C. Creuzot-Garcher, “Assessment of induced corneal hypoxia in diabetic patients,” Cornea 21(5), 453–457 (2002).
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N. Busted, T. Olsen, and O. Schmitz, “Clinical observations on the corneal thickness and the corneal endothelium in diabetes mellitus,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 65(10), 687–690 (1981).
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Cahill, M.

M. Cahill, P. Eustace, and V. de Jesus, “Pupillary autonomic denervation with increasing duration of diabetes mellitus,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 85(10), 1225–1230 (2001).
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Calori, G.

L. Pierro, R. Brancato, E. Zaganelli, L. Guarisco, and G. Calori, “Correlation of lens thickness with blood glucose control in diabetes mellitus,” Acta Ophthalmol. Scand. 74(6), 539–541 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Camardo, N.

A. K. Valeshabad, J. Wanek, P. Grant, J. I. Lim, F. Y. Chau, R. Zelkha, N. Camardo, and M. Shahidi, “Wavefront error correction with adaptive optics in diabetic retinopathy,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 91(10), 1238–1243 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cankaya, B.

Y. Ozdamar, B. Cankaya, S. Ozalp, G. Acaroglu, J. Karakaya, and S. S. Özkan, “Is there a correlation between diabetes mellitus and central corneal thickness?” J. Glaucoma 19(9), 613–616 (2010).
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J. Cavallerano, “A review of non-retinal ocular complications of diabetes mellitus,” J. Am. Optom. Assoc. 61(7), 533–543 (1990).
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Chau, F. Y.

A. K. Valeshabad, J. Wanek, P. Grant, J. I. Lim, F. Y. Chau, R. Zelkha, N. Camardo, and M. Shahidi, “Wavefront error correction with adaptive optics in diabetic retinopathy,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 91(10), 1238–1243 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, C.-H.

H.-L. Lei, K.-J. Yang, C.-C. Sun, C.-H. Chen, B.-Y. Huang, S. C. Ng, and L. Yeung, “Obtained mydriasis in long-term type 2 diabetic patients,” J. Ocul. Pharmacol. Ther. 27(6), 599–602 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chew, E. Y.

C. I. Braun, W. E. Benson, N. A. Remaley, E. Y. Chew, and F. L. Ferris, “Accommodative amplitudes in the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study: ETDRS Report Number 21,” Retina 15(4), 275–281 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cho, B.

J. Lee, B. Oum, H. Choi, J. Lee, and B. Cho, “Differences in corneal thickness and corneal endothelium related to duration in diabetes,” Eye 20(3), 315–318 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, H.

J. Lee, B. Oum, H. Choi, J. Lee, and B. Cho, “Differences in corneal thickness and corneal endothelium related to duration in diabetes,” Eye 20(3), 315–318 (2005).
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Colosi, P.

A. M. Roszkowska, C. G. Tringali, P. Colosi, C. A. Squeri, and G. Ferreri, “Corneal endothelium evaluation in type I and type II diabetes mellitus,” Ophthalmologica 213(4), 258–261 (2000).
[Crossref]

Creuzot-Garcher, C.

M. Ziadi, P. Moiroux, P. d’Athis, A. Bron, J. M. Brun, and C. Creuzot-Garcher, “Assessment of induced corneal hypoxia in diabetic patients,” Cornea 21(5), 453–457 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

d’Athis, P.

M. Ziadi, P. Moiroux, P. d’Athis, A. Bron, J. M. Brun, and C. Creuzot-Garcher, “Assessment of induced corneal hypoxia in diabetic patients,” Cornea 21(5), 453–457 (2002).
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Davies, N. P.

N. P. Davies and A. B. Morland, “Color matching in diabetes: optical density of the crystalline lens and macular pigments,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 43(1), 281–289 (2002).
[PubMed]

de Jesus, V.

M. Cahill, P. Eustace, and V. de Jesus, “Pupillary autonomic denervation with increasing duration of diabetes mellitus,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 85(10), 1225–1230 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dehghani, C.

N. Pritchard, K. Edwards, C. Dehghani, H. Fadavi, M. Jeziorska, A. Marshall, I. N. Petropoulos, G. Ponirakis, A. W. Russell, G. P. Sampson, A. M. Shahidi, S. Srinivasan, M. Tavakoli, D. Vagenas, R. A. Malik, and N. Efron, “Longitudinal assessment of neuropathy in type 1 diabetes using novel ophthalmic markers (LANDMark): Study design and baseline characteristics,” Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract. 104(2), 248–256 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dubbelman, M.

N. G. M. Wiemer, M. Dubbelman, E. A. Hermans, P. J. Ringens, and B. C. P. Polak, “Changes in the internal structure of the human crystalline lens with diabetes mellitus type 1 and type 2,” Ophthalmology 115(11), 2017–2023 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. G. M. Wiemer, M. Dubbelman, P. J. Kostense, P. J. Ringens, and B. C. P. Polak, “The influence of diabetes mellitus type 1 and 2 on the thickness, shape, and equivalent refractive index of the human crystalline lens,” Ophthalmology 115(10), 1679–1686 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. G. M. Wiemer, M. Dubbelman, P. J. Kostense, P. J. Ringens, and B. C. P. Polak, “The influence of chronic diabetes mellitus on the thickness and the shape of the anterior and posterior surface of the cornea,” Cornea 26(10), 1165–1170 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Dubbelman and G. Van der Heijde, “The shape of the aging human lens: curvature, equivalent refractive index and the lens paradox,” Vision Res. 41(14), 1867–1877 (2001).
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Edwards, K.

Adnan, N. Efron, A. Mathur, K. Edwards, N. Pritchard, M. Suheimat, and D. A. Atchison, “Amplitude of accommodation in type 1 diabetes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 55, 7014–7018 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Pritchard, K. Edwards, C. Dehghani, H. Fadavi, M. Jeziorska, A. Marshall, I. N. Petropoulos, G. Ponirakis, A. W. Russell, G. P. Sampson, A. M. Shahidi, S. Srinivasan, M. Tavakoli, D. Vagenas, R. A. Malik, and N. Efron, “Longitudinal assessment of neuropathy in type 1 diabetes using novel ophthalmic markers (LANDMark): Study design and baseline characteristics,” Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract. 104(2), 248–256 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Efron, N.

N. Pritchard, K. Edwards, C. Dehghani, H. Fadavi, M. Jeziorska, A. Marshall, I. N. Petropoulos, G. Ponirakis, A. W. Russell, G. P. Sampson, A. M. Shahidi, S. Srinivasan, M. Tavakoli, D. Vagenas, R. A. Malik, and N. Efron, “Longitudinal assessment of neuropathy in type 1 diabetes using novel ophthalmic markers (LANDMark): Study design and baseline characteristics,” Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract. 104(2), 248–256 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adnan, N. Efron, A. Mathur, K. Edwards, N. Pritchard, M. Suheimat, and D. A. Atchison, “Amplitude of accommodation in type 1 diabetes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 55, 7014–7018 (2014).
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Elliott, D. B.

B. Winn, D. Whitaker, D. B. Elliott, and N. J. Phillips, “Factors affecting light-adapted pupil size in normal human subjects,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 35(3), 1132–1137 (1994).
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Eustace, P.

M. Cahill, P. Eustace, and V. de Jesus, “Pupillary autonomic denervation with increasing duration of diabetes mellitus,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 85(10), 1225–1230 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fadavi, H.

N. Pritchard, K. Edwards, C. Dehghani, H. Fadavi, M. Jeziorska, A. Marshall, I. N. Petropoulos, G. Ponirakis, A. W. Russell, G. P. Sampson, A. M. Shahidi, S. Srinivasan, M. Tavakoli, D. Vagenas, R. A. Malik, and N. Efron, “Longitudinal assessment of neuropathy in type 1 diabetes using novel ophthalmic markers (LANDMark): Study design and baseline characteristics,” Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract. 104(2), 248–256 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ferreri, G.

A. M. Roszkowska, C. G. Tringali, P. Colosi, C. A. Squeri, and G. Ferreri, “Corneal endothelium evaluation in type I and type II diabetes mellitus,” Ophthalmologica 213(4), 258–261 (2000).
[Crossref]

Ferris, F. L.

C. I. Braun, W. E. Benson, N. A. Remaley, E. Y. Chew, and F. L. Ferris, “Accommodative amplitudes in the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study: ETDRS Report Number 21,” Retina 15(4), 275–281 (1995).
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Fledelius, H. C.

H. C. Fledelius and K. Miyamoto, “Diabetic myopia - is it lens-induced?” Acta Ophthalmol. 65(4), 469–473 (1987).
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Foong, A. W. P.

S. M. Saw, T. Y. Wong, S. Ting, A. W. P. Foong, and P. J. Foster, “The relationship between anterior chamber depth and the presence of diabetes in the Tanjong Pagar Survey,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 144(2), 325–326 (2007).
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Foster, P. J.

D. H. W. Su, T. Y. Wong, W. L. Wong, S. M. Saw, D. T. H. Tan, S. Y. Shen, S. C. Loon, P. J. Foster, and T. Aung, “Diabetes, hyperglycemia, and central corneal thickness: The Singapore Malay Eye Study,” Ophthalmol. 115(6), 964–968 (2008).
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S. M. Saw, T. Y. Wong, S. Ting, A. W. P. Foong, and P. J. Foster, “The relationship between anterior chamber depth and the presence of diabetes in the Tanjong Pagar Survey,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 144(2), 325–326 (2007).
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Gasser, W.

T. O. Salmon, R. W. West, W. Gasser, and T. Kenmore, “Measurement of refractive errors in young myopes using the COAS Shack-Hartmann aberrometer,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 80(1), 6–14 (2003).
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Gliem, H.

W. Pawelski and H. Gliem, “Studies on the amplitude of accommodation in diabetics [Untersuchungen ber die Akkommodationsbreite bei Diabetikern],” Ophthalmologica 163(4), 216–226 (1971).
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Grant, P.

A. K. Valeshabad, J. Wanek, P. Grant, J. I. Lim, F. Y. Chau, R. Zelkha, N. Camardo, and M. Shahidi, “Wavefront error correction with adaptive optics in diabetic retinopathy,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 91(10), 1238–1243 (2014).
[Crossref]

Green, A.

N. Løgstrup, A. K. Sjølie, K. O. Kyvik, and A. Green, “Long term influence of insulin dependent diabetes mellitus on refraction and its components: a population based twin study,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 81(5), 343–349 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Løgstrup, A. Sjølie, K. Kyvik, and A. Green, “Lens thickness and insulin dependent diabetes mellitus: a population based twin study,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 80(5), 405–408 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guarisco, L.

L. Pierro, R. Brancato, E. Zaganelli, L. Guarisco, and G. Calori, “Correlation of lens thickness with blood glucose control in diabetes mellitus,” Acta Ophthalmol. Scand. 74(6), 539–541 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Harding, J.

A. Bron, J. Sparrow, N. Brown, J. Harding, and R. Blakytny, “The lens in diabetes,” Eye 7(2), 260–275 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hermans, E. A.

N. G. M. Wiemer, M. Dubbelman, E. A. Hermans, P. J. Ringens, and B. C. P. Polak, “Changes in the internal structure of the human crystalline lens with diabetes mellitus type 1 and type 2,” Ophthalmology 115(11), 2017–2023 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hodge, D. O.

G. M. Keoleian, J. M. Pach, D. O. Hodge, S. D. Trocme, and W. M. Bourne, “Structural and functional studies of the corneal endothelium in diabetes mellitus,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 113(1), 64–70 (1992).
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Hreidarsson, A. B.

A. B. Hreidarsson, “Pupil size in insulin-dependent diabetes: relationship to duration, metabolic control, and long-term manifestations,” Diabetes 31(5), 442–448 (1982).
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Huang, B.-Y.

H.-L. Lei, K.-J. Yang, C.-C. Sun, C.-H. Chen, B.-Y. Huang, S. C. Ng, and L. Yeung, “Obtained mydriasis in long-term type 2 diabetic patients,” J. Ocul. Pharmacol. Ther. 27(6), 599–602 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hungerford, J.

N. Brown and J. Hungerford, “The influence of the size of the lens in ocular disease,” Trans. Ophthalmol. Soc. U. K. 102(3), 359–363 (1982).
[PubMed]

Inoue, K.

K. Inoue, S. Kato, Y. Inoue, S. Amano, and T. Oshika, “The corneal endothelium and thickness in type II diabetes mellitus,” Jpn. J. Ophthalmol. 46(1), 65–69 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Inoue, Y.

K. Inoue, S. Kato, Y. Inoue, S. Amano, and T. Oshika, “The corneal endothelium and thickness in type II diabetes mellitus,” Jpn. J. Ophthalmol. 46(1), 65–69 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jeziorska, M.

N. Pritchard, K. Edwards, C. Dehghani, H. Fadavi, M. Jeziorska, A. Marshall, I. N. Petropoulos, G. Ponirakis, A. W. Russell, G. P. Sampson, A. M. Shahidi, S. Srinivasan, M. Tavakoli, D. Vagenas, R. A. Malik, and N. Efron, “Longitudinal assessment of neuropathy in type 1 diabetes using novel ophthalmic markers (LANDMark): Study design and baseline characteristics,” Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract. 104(2), 248–256 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Karakaya, J.

Y. Ozdamar, B. Cankaya, S. Ozalp, G. Acaroglu, J. Karakaya, and S. S. Özkan, “Is there a correlation between diabetes mellitus and central corneal thickness?” J. Glaucoma 19(9), 613–616 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kasthurirangan, S.

D. A. Atchison, E. L. Markwell, S. Kasthurirangan, J. M. Pope, G. Smith, and P. G. Swann, “Age-related changes in optical and biometric characteristics of emmetropic eyes,” J. Vision 8(4), 1–20 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kato, S.

K. Inoue, S. Kato, Y. Inoue, S. Amano, and T. Oshika, “The corneal endothelium and thickness in type II diabetes mellitus,” Jpn. J. Ophthalmol. 46(1), 65–69 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kenmore, T.

T. O. Salmon, R. W. West, W. Gasser, and T. Kenmore, “Measurement of refractive errors in young myopes using the COAS Shack-Hartmann aberrometer,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 80(1), 6–14 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Keoleian, G. M.

G. M. Keoleian, J. M. Pach, D. O. Hodge, S. D. Trocme, and W. M. Bourne, “Structural and functional studies of the corneal endothelium in diabetes mellitus,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 113(1), 64–70 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Klein, B.

S. Moss, R. Klein, and B. Klein, “Accommodative ability in younger-onset diabetes,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 105(4), 508–512 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Klein, R.

S. Moss, R. Klein, and B. Klein, “Accommodative ability in younger-onset diabetes,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 105(4), 508–512 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kostense, P. J.

N. G. M. Wiemer, M. Dubbelman, P. J. Kostense, P. J. Ringens, and B. C. P. Polak, “The influence of diabetes mellitus type 1 and 2 on the thickness, shape, and equivalent refractive index of the human crystalline lens,” Ophthalmology 115(10), 1679–1686 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. G. M. Wiemer, M. Dubbelman, P. J. Kostense, P. J. Ringens, and B. C. P. Polak, “The influence of chronic diabetes mellitus on the thickness and the shape of the anterior and posterior surface of the cornea,” Cornea 26(10), 1165–1170 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kuroda, N.

S. Yamamoto, E. Adachi-Usami, and N. Kuroda, “Accommodation power determined with transient pattern visual evoked cortical potentials in diabetes,” Doc. Ophthalmol. 72(1), 31–37 (1989).
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Kyvik, K.

N. Løgstrup, A. Sjølie, K. Kyvik, and A. Green, “Lens thickness and insulin dependent diabetes mellitus: a population based twin study,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 80(5), 405–408 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kyvik, K. O.

N. Løgstrup, A. K. Sjølie, K. O. Kyvik, and A. Green, “Long term influence of insulin dependent diabetes mellitus on refraction and its components: a population based twin study,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 81(5), 343–349 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Larsson, L. I.

L. I. Larsson, W. M. Bourne, J. M. Pach, and R. F. Brubaker, “Structure and function of the corneal endothelium in diabetes mellitus type I and type II,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 114(1), 9–14 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, J.

J. Lee, B. Oum, H. Choi, J. Lee, and B. Cho, “Differences in corneal thickness and corneal endothelium related to duration in diabetes,” Eye 20(3), 315–318 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Lee, B. Oum, H. Choi, J. Lee, and B. Cho, “Differences in corneal thickness and corneal endothelium related to duration in diabetes,” Eye 20(3), 315–318 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lehnert, H.

D. Pittasch, R. Lobmann, W. Behrens-Baumann, and H. Lehnert, “Pupil signs of sympathetic autonomic neuropathy in patients with Type 1 diabetes,” Diabetes Care 25(9), 1545–1550 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lei, H.-L.

H.-L. Lei, K.-J. Yang, C.-C. Sun, C.-H. Chen, B.-Y. Huang, S. C. Ng, and L. Yeung, “Obtained mydriasis in long-term type 2 diabetic patients,” J. Ocul. Pharmacol. Ther. 27(6), 599–602 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lim, J. I.

A. K. Valeshabad, J. Wanek, P. Grant, J. I. Lim, F. Y. Chau, R. Zelkha, N. Camardo, and M. Shahidi, “Wavefront error correction with adaptive optics in diabetic retinopathy,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 91(10), 1238–1243 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lobmann, R.

D. Pittasch, R. Lobmann, W. Behrens-Baumann, and H. Lehnert, “Pupil signs of sympathetic autonomic neuropathy in patients with Type 1 diabetes,” Diabetes Care 25(9), 1545–1550 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Løgstrup, N.

N. Løgstrup, A. K. Sjølie, K. O. Kyvik, and A. Green, “Long term influence of insulin dependent diabetes mellitus on refraction and its components: a population based twin study,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 81(5), 343–349 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Løgstrup, A. Sjølie, K. Kyvik, and A. Green, “Lens thickness and insulin dependent diabetes mellitus: a population based twin study,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 80(5), 405–408 (1996).
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D. H. W. Su, T. Y. Wong, W. L. Wong, S. M. Saw, D. T. H. Tan, S. Y. Shen, S. C. Loon, P. J. Foster, and T. Aung, “Diabetes, hyperglycemia, and central corneal thickness: The Singapore Malay Eye Study,” Ophthalmol. 115(6), 964–968 (2008).
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J. Tabernero, D. A. Atchison, and E. L. Markwell, “Aberrations and pupil location under corneal topography and Hartmann-Shack illumination conditions,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50(4), 1964–1970 (2009).
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N. Pritchard, K. Edwards, C. Dehghani, H. Fadavi, M. Jeziorska, A. Marshall, I. N. Petropoulos, G. Ponirakis, A. W. Russell, G. P. Sampson, A. M. Shahidi, S. Srinivasan, M. Tavakoli, D. Vagenas, R. A. Malik, and N. Efron, “Longitudinal assessment of neuropathy in type 1 diabetes using novel ophthalmic markers (LANDMark): Study design and baseline characteristics,” Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract. 104(2), 248–256 (2014).
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H.-L. Lei, K.-J. Yang, C.-C. Sun, C.-H. Chen, B.-Y. Huang, S. C. Ng, and L. Yeung, “Obtained mydriasis in long-term type 2 diabetic patients,” J. Ocul. Pharmacol. Ther. 27(6), 599–602 (2011).
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N. Pritchard, K. Edwards, C. Dehghani, H. Fadavi, M. Jeziorska, A. Marshall, I. N. Petropoulos, G. Ponirakis, A. W. Russell, G. P. Sampson, A. M. Shahidi, S. Srinivasan, M. Tavakoli, D. Vagenas, R. A. Malik, and N. Efron, “Longitudinal assessment of neuropathy in type 1 diabetes using novel ophthalmic markers (LANDMark): Study design and baseline characteristics,” Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract. 104(2), 248–256 (2014).
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B. Winn, D. Whitaker, D. B. Elliott, and N. J. Phillips, “Factors affecting light-adapted pupil size in normal human subjects,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 35(3), 1132–1137 (1994).
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D. Pittasch, R. Lobmann, W. Behrens-Baumann, and H. Lehnert, “Pupil signs of sympathetic autonomic neuropathy in patients with Type 1 diabetes,” Diabetes Care 25(9), 1545–1550 (2002).
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N. G. M. Wiemer, M. Dubbelman, E. A. Hermans, P. J. Ringens, and B. C. P. Polak, “Changes in the internal structure of the human crystalline lens with diabetes mellitus type 1 and type 2,” Ophthalmology 115(11), 2017–2023 (2008).
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N. G. M. Wiemer, M. Dubbelman, P. J. Kostense, P. J. Ringens, and B. C. P. Polak, “The influence of diabetes mellitus type 1 and 2 on the thickness, shape, and equivalent refractive index of the human crystalline lens,” Ophthalmology 115(10), 1679–1686 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. G. M. Wiemer, M. Dubbelman, P. J. Kostense, P. J. Ringens, and B. C. P. Polak, “The influence of chronic diabetes mellitus on the thickness and the shape of the anterior and posterior surface of the cornea,” Cornea 26(10), 1165–1170 (2007).
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N. Pritchard, K. Edwards, C. Dehghani, H. Fadavi, M. Jeziorska, A. Marshall, I. N. Petropoulos, G. Ponirakis, A. W. Russell, G. P. Sampson, A. M. Shahidi, S. Srinivasan, M. Tavakoli, D. Vagenas, R. A. Malik, and N. Efron, “Longitudinal assessment of neuropathy in type 1 diabetes using novel ophthalmic markers (LANDMark): Study design and baseline characteristics,” Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract. 104(2), 248–256 (2014).
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D. A. Atchison, E. L. Markwell, S. Kasthurirangan, J. M. Pope, G. Smith, and P. G. Swann, “Age-related changes in optical and biometric characteristics of emmetropic eyes,” J. Vision 8(4), 1–20 (2008).
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Pritchard, N.

Adnan, N. Efron, A. Mathur, K. Edwards, N. Pritchard, M. Suheimat, and D. A. Atchison, “Amplitude of accommodation in type 1 diabetes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 55, 7014–7018 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Pritchard, K. Edwards, C. Dehghani, H. Fadavi, M. Jeziorska, A. Marshall, I. N. Petropoulos, G. Ponirakis, A. W. Russell, G. P. Sampson, A. M. Shahidi, S. Srinivasan, M. Tavakoli, D. Vagenas, R. A. Malik, and N. Efron, “Longitudinal assessment of neuropathy in type 1 diabetes using novel ophthalmic markers (LANDMark): Study design and baseline characteristics,” Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract. 104(2), 248–256 (2014).
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C. I. Braun, W. E. Benson, N. A. Remaley, E. Y. Chew, and F. L. Ferris, “Accommodative amplitudes in the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study: ETDRS Report Number 21,” Retina 15(4), 275–281 (1995).
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N. G. M. Wiemer, M. Dubbelman, P. J. Kostense, P. J. Ringens, and B. C. P. Polak, “The influence of diabetes mellitus type 1 and 2 on the thickness, shape, and equivalent refractive index of the human crystalline lens,” Ophthalmology 115(10), 1679–1686 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. G. M. Wiemer, M. Dubbelman, E. A. Hermans, P. J. Ringens, and B. C. P. Polak, “Changes in the internal structure of the human crystalline lens with diabetes mellitus type 1 and type 2,” Ophthalmology 115(11), 2017–2023 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. G. M. Wiemer, M. Dubbelman, P. J. Kostense, P. J. Ringens, and B. C. P. Polak, “The influence of chronic diabetes mellitus on the thickness and the shape of the anterior and posterior surface of the cornea,” Cornea 26(10), 1165–1170 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Roszkowska, A. M.

A. M. Roszkowska, C. G. Tringali, P. Colosi, C. A. Squeri, and G. Ferreri, “Corneal endothelium evaluation in type I and type II diabetes mellitus,” Ophthalmologica 213(4), 258–261 (2000).
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Russell, A. W.

N. Pritchard, K. Edwards, C. Dehghani, H. Fadavi, M. Jeziorska, A. Marshall, I. N. Petropoulos, G. Ponirakis, A. W. Russell, G. P. Sampson, A. M. Shahidi, S. Srinivasan, M. Tavakoli, D. Vagenas, R. A. Malik, and N. Efron, “Longitudinal assessment of neuropathy in type 1 diabetes using novel ophthalmic markers (LANDMark): Study design and baseline characteristics,” Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract. 104(2), 248–256 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Salmon, T. O.

T. O. Salmon, R. W. West, W. Gasser, and T. Kenmore, “Measurement of refractive errors in young myopes using the COAS Shack-Hartmann aberrometer,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 80(1), 6–14 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sampson, G. P.

N. Pritchard, K. Edwards, C. Dehghani, H. Fadavi, M. Jeziorska, A. Marshall, I. N. Petropoulos, G. Ponirakis, A. W. Russell, G. P. Sampson, A. M. Shahidi, S. Srinivasan, M. Tavakoli, D. Vagenas, R. A. Malik, and N. Efron, “Longitudinal assessment of neuropathy in type 1 diabetes using novel ophthalmic markers (LANDMark): Study design and baseline characteristics,” Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract. 104(2), 248–256 (2014).
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H. Saunders, “Age-dependence of human refractive errors,” Ophthalmic. Physiol. Opt. 1(3), 159–174 (1981).
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D. H. W. Su, T. Y. Wong, W. L. Wong, S. M. Saw, D. T. H. Tan, S. Y. Shen, S. C. Loon, P. J. Foster, and T. Aung, “Diabetes, hyperglycemia, and central corneal thickness: The Singapore Malay Eye Study,” Ophthalmol. 115(6), 964–968 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. M. Saw, T. Y. Wong, S. Ting, A. W. P. Foong, and P. J. Foster, “The relationship between anterior chamber depth and the presence of diabetes in the Tanjong Pagar Survey,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 144(2), 325–326 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schmitz, O.

N. Busted, T. Olsen, and O. Schmitz, “Clinical observations on the corneal thickness and the corneal endothelium in diabetes mellitus,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 65(10), 687–690 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sekeroglu, M. A.

M. A. Sekeroglu and H. Taylan Sekeroglu, “Refraction paradox in diabetics: An extreme case of transient hyperopia,” J. Diabetes 5(3), 325–326 (2013).
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Shahidi, A. M.

N. Pritchard, K. Edwards, C. Dehghani, H. Fadavi, M. Jeziorska, A. Marshall, I. N. Petropoulos, G. Ponirakis, A. W. Russell, G. P. Sampson, A. M. Shahidi, S. Srinivasan, M. Tavakoli, D. Vagenas, R. A. Malik, and N. Efron, “Longitudinal assessment of neuropathy in type 1 diabetes using novel ophthalmic markers (LANDMark): Study design and baseline characteristics,” Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract. 104(2), 248–256 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shahidi, M.

A. K. Valeshabad, J. Wanek, P. Grant, J. I. Lim, F. Y. Chau, R. Zelkha, N. Camardo, and M. Shahidi, “Wavefront error correction with adaptive optics in diabetic retinopathy,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 91(10), 1238–1243 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Shahidi, N. P. Blair, M. Mori, and R. Zelkha, “Optical section retinal imaging and wavefront sensing in diabetes,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 81(10), 778–784 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shen, S. Y.

D. H. W. Su, T. Y. Wong, W. L. Wong, S. M. Saw, D. T. H. Tan, S. Y. Shen, S. C. Loon, P. J. Foster, and T. Aung, “Diabetes, hyperglycemia, and central corneal thickness: The Singapore Malay Eye Study,” Ophthalmol. 115(6), 964–968 (2008).
[Crossref]

Sjølie, A.

N. Løgstrup, A. Sjølie, K. Kyvik, and A. Green, “Lens thickness and insulin dependent diabetes mellitus: a population based twin study,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 80(5), 405–408 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sjølie, A. K.

N. Løgstrup, A. K. Sjølie, K. O. Kyvik, and A. Green, “Long term influence of insulin dependent diabetes mellitus on refraction and its components: a population based twin study,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 81(5), 343–349 (1997).
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Smith, G.

D. A. Atchison, E. L. Markwell, S. Kasthurirangan, J. M. Pope, G. Smith, and P. G. Swann, “Age-related changes in optical and biometric characteristics of emmetropic eyes,” J. Vision 8(4), 1–20 (2008).
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D. A. Atchison and G. Smith, “Chromatic dispersions of the ocular media of human eyes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22(1), 29–37 (2005).
[Crossref]

Spafford, M.

M. Spafford and J. Lovasik, “Clinical evaluation of ocular and visual functions in insulin-dependent juvenile diabetics,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 63(7), 505–519 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sparrow, J.

A. Bron, J. Sparrow, N. Brown, J. Harding, and R. Blakytny, “The lens in diabetes,” Eye 7(2), 260–275 (1993).
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Sparrow, J. M.

J. M. Sparrow, A. J. Bron, N. A. P. Brown, and H. A. W. Neil, “Biometry of the crystalline lens in early-onset diabetes,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 74(11), 654–660 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Squeri, C. A.

A. M. Roszkowska, C. G. Tringali, P. Colosi, C. A. Squeri, and G. Ferreri, “Corneal endothelium evaluation in type I and type II diabetes mellitus,” Ophthalmologica 213(4), 258–261 (2000).
[Crossref]

Srinivasan, S.

N. Pritchard, K. Edwards, C. Dehghani, H. Fadavi, M. Jeziorska, A. Marshall, I. N. Petropoulos, G. Ponirakis, A. W. Russell, G. P. Sampson, A. M. Shahidi, S. Srinivasan, M. Tavakoli, D. Vagenas, R. A. Malik, and N. Efron, “Longitudinal assessment of neuropathy in type 1 diabetes using novel ophthalmic markers (LANDMark): Study design and baseline characteristics,” Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract. 104(2), 248–256 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Su, D. H. W.

D. H. W. Su, T. Y. Wong, W. L. Wong, S. M. Saw, D. T. H. Tan, S. Y. Shen, S. C. Loon, P. J. Foster, and T. Aung, “Diabetes, hyperglycemia, and central corneal thickness: The Singapore Malay Eye Study,” Ophthalmol. 115(6), 964–968 (2008).
[Crossref]

Suheimat, M.

Adnan, N. Efron, A. Mathur, K. Edwards, N. Pritchard, M. Suheimat, and D. A. Atchison, “Amplitude of accommodation in type 1 diabetes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 55, 7014–7018 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, C.-C.

H.-L. Lei, K.-J. Yang, C.-C. Sun, C.-H. Chen, B.-Y. Huang, S. C. Ng, and L. Yeung, “Obtained mydriasis in long-term type 2 diabetic patients,” J. Ocul. Pharmacol. Ther. 27(6), 599–602 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Swann, P. G.

D. A. Atchison, E. L. Markwell, S. Kasthurirangan, J. M. Pope, G. Smith, and P. G. Swann, “Age-related changes in optical and biometric characteristics of emmetropic eyes,” J. Vision 8(4), 1–20 (2008).
[Crossref]

Tabernero, J.

A. Mathur, D. A. Atchison, and J. Tabernero, “Effect of age on components of peripheral ocular aberrations,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 89(7), 967–976 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Tabernero, D. A. Atchison, and E. L. Markwell, “Aberrations and pupil location under corneal topography and Hartmann-Shack illumination conditions,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50(4), 1964–1970 (2009).
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J. Tabernero, A. Benito, V. Nourrit, and P. Artal, “Instrument for measuring the misalignments of ocular surfaces,” Opt. Express 14(22), 10945–10956 (2006).
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D. H. W. Su, T. Y. Wong, W. L. Wong, S. M. Saw, D. T. H. Tan, S. Y. Shen, S. C. Loon, P. J. Foster, and T. Aung, “Diabetes, hyperglycemia, and central corneal thickness: The Singapore Malay Eye Study,” Ophthalmol. 115(6), 964–968 (2008).
[Crossref]

Tavakoli, M.

N. Pritchard, K. Edwards, C. Dehghani, H. Fadavi, M. Jeziorska, A. Marshall, I. N. Petropoulos, G. Ponirakis, A. W. Russell, G. P. Sampson, A. M. Shahidi, S. Srinivasan, M. Tavakoli, D. Vagenas, R. A. Malik, and N. Efron, “Longitudinal assessment of neuropathy in type 1 diabetes using novel ophthalmic markers (LANDMark): Study design and baseline characteristics,” Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract. 104(2), 248–256 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Taylan Sekeroglu, H.

M. A. Sekeroglu and H. Taylan Sekeroglu, “Refraction paradox in diabetics: An extreme case of transient hyperopia,” J. Diabetes 5(3), 325–326 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ting, S.

S. M. Saw, T. Y. Wong, S. Ting, A. W. P. Foong, and P. J. Foster, “The relationship between anterior chamber depth and the presence of diabetes in the Tanjong Pagar Survey,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 144(2), 325–326 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tringali, C. G.

A. M. Roszkowska, C. G. Tringali, P. Colosi, C. A. Squeri, and G. Ferreri, “Corneal endothelium evaluation in type I and type II diabetes mellitus,” Ophthalmologica 213(4), 258–261 (2000).
[Crossref]

Trocme, S. D.

G. M. Keoleian, J. M. Pach, D. O. Hodge, S. D. Trocme, and W. M. Bourne, “Structural and functional studies of the corneal endothelium in diabetes mellitus,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 113(1), 64–70 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vagenas, D.

N. Pritchard, K. Edwards, C. Dehghani, H. Fadavi, M. Jeziorska, A. Marshall, I. N. Petropoulos, G. Ponirakis, A. W. Russell, G. P. Sampson, A. M. Shahidi, S. Srinivasan, M. Tavakoli, D. Vagenas, R. A. Malik, and N. Efron, “Longitudinal assessment of neuropathy in type 1 diabetes using novel ophthalmic markers (LANDMark): Study design and baseline characteristics,” Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract. 104(2), 248–256 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Valeshabad, A. K.

A. K. Valeshabad, J. Wanek, P. Grant, J. I. Lim, F. Y. Chau, R. Zelkha, N. Camardo, and M. Shahidi, “Wavefront error correction with adaptive optics in diabetic retinopathy,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 91(10), 1238–1243 (2014).
[Crossref]

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M. Dubbelman and G. Van der Heijde, “The shape of the aging human lens: curvature, equivalent refractive index and the lens paradox,” Vision Res. 41(14), 1867–1877 (2001).
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Wanek, J.

A. K. Valeshabad, J. Wanek, P. Grant, J. I. Lim, F. Y. Chau, R. Zelkha, N. Camardo, and M. Shahidi, “Wavefront error correction with adaptive optics in diabetic retinopathy,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 91(10), 1238–1243 (2014).
[Crossref]

Watson, A. B.

A. B. Watson and J. I. Yellott, “A unified formula for light-adapted pupil size,” J. Vision 12(10), 1–16 (2012).
[Crossref]

West, R. W.

T. O. Salmon, R. W. West, W. Gasser, and T. Kenmore, “Measurement of refractive errors in young myopes using the COAS Shack-Hartmann aberrometer,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 80(1), 6–14 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Whitaker, D.

B. Winn, D. Whitaker, D. B. Elliott, and N. J. Phillips, “Factors affecting light-adapted pupil size in normal human subjects,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 35(3), 1132–1137 (1994).
[PubMed]

Wiemer, N. G. M.

N. G. M. Wiemer, M. Dubbelman, P. J. Kostense, P. J. Ringens, and B. C. P. Polak, “The influence of diabetes mellitus type 1 and 2 on the thickness, shape, and equivalent refractive index of the human crystalline lens,” Ophthalmology 115(10), 1679–1686 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. G. M. Wiemer, M. Dubbelman, E. A. Hermans, P. J. Ringens, and B. C. P. Polak, “Changes in the internal structure of the human crystalline lens with diabetes mellitus type 1 and type 2,” Ophthalmology 115(11), 2017–2023 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. G. M. Wiemer, M. Dubbelman, P. J. Kostense, P. J. Ringens, and B. C. P. Polak, “The influence of chronic diabetes mellitus on the thickness and the shape of the anterior and posterior surface of the cornea,” Cornea 26(10), 1165–1170 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Winn, B.

B. Winn, D. Whitaker, D. B. Elliott, and N. J. Phillips, “Factors affecting light-adapted pupil size in normal human subjects,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 35(3), 1132–1137 (1994).
[PubMed]

Wong, T. Y.

D. H. W. Su, T. Y. Wong, W. L. Wong, S. M. Saw, D. T. H. Tan, S. Y. Shen, S. C. Loon, P. J. Foster, and T. Aung, “Diabetes, hyperglycemia, and central corneal thickness: The Singapore Malay Eye Study,” Ophthalmol. 115(6), 964–968 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. M. Saw, T. Y. Wong, S. Ting, A. W. P. Foong, and P. J. Foster, “The relationship between anterior chamber depth and the presence of diabetes in the Tanjong Pagar Survey,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 144(2), 325–326 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wong, W. L.

D. H. W. Su, T. Y. Wong, W. L. Wong, S. M. Saw, D. T. H. Tan, S. Y. Shen, S. C. Loon, P. J. Foster, and T. Aung, “Diabetes, hyperglycemia, and central corneal thickness: The Singapore Malay Eye Study,” Ophthalmol. 115(6), 964–968 (2008).
[Crossref]

Yamamoto, S.

S. Yamamoto, E. Adachi-Usami, and N. Kuroda, “Accommodation power determined with transient pattern visual evoked cortical potentials in diabetes,” Doc. Ophthalmol. 72(1), 31–37 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, K.-J.

H.-L. Lei, K.-J. Yang, C.-C. Sun, C.-H. Chen, B.-Y. Huang, S. C. Ng, and L. Yeung, “Obtained mydriasis in long-term type 2 diabetic patients,” J. Ocul. Pharmacol. Ther. 27(6), 599–602 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, Y.

Y. Yang, Y. Yu, and K. Yao, “Pupillary dysfunction in Type 2 diabetes mellitus to refine the early diagnosis of diabetic autonomic neuropathy,” Neuro-Ophthalmology 30(1), 17–21 (2006).
[Crossref]

Yao, K.

Y. Yang, Y. Yu, and K. Yao, “Pupillary dysfunction in Type 2 diabetes mellitus to refine the early diagnosis of diabetic autonomic neuropathy,” Neuro-Ophthalmology 30(1), 17–21 (2006).
[Crossref]

Yellott, J. I.

A. B. Watson and J. I. Yellott, “A unified formula for light-adapted pupil size,” J. Vision 12(10), 1–16 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yeung, L.

H.-L. Lei, K.-J. Yang, C.-C. Sun, C.-H. Chen, B.-Y. Huang, S. C. Ng, and L. Yeung, “Obtained mydriasis in long-term type 2 diabetic patients,” J. Ocul. Pharmacol. Ther. 27(6), 599–602 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, Y.

Y. Yang, Y. Yu, and K. Yao, “Pupillary dysfunction in Type 2 diabetes mellitus to refine the early diagnosis of diabetic autonomic neuropathy,” Neuro-Ophthalmology 30(1), 17–21 (2006).
[Crossref]

Zaczek, A.

A. Zaczek and C. Zetterström, “The effect of phenylephrine and pilocarpine on pupil size and aqueous flare intensity in patients with diabetes mellitus,” Acta Ophthalmol. Scand. 76(4), 413–416 (1998).
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Zaganelli, E.

L. Pierro, R. Brancato, E. Zaganelli, L. Guarisco, and G. Calori, “Correlation of lens thickness with blood glucose control in diabetes mellitus,” Acta Ophthalmol. Scand. 74(6), 539–541 (1996).
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Zelkha, R.

A. K. Valeshabad, J. Wanek, P. Grant, J. I. Lim, F. Y. Chau, R. Zelkha, N. Camardo, and M. Shahidi, “Wavefront error correction with adaptive optics in diabetic retinopathy,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 91(10), 1238–1243 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Shahidi, N. P. Blair, M. Mori, and R. Zelkha, “Optical section retinal imaging and wavefront sensing in diabetes,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 81(10), 778–784 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zetterström, C.

A. Zaczek and C. Zetterström, “The effect of phenylephrine and pilocarpine on pupil size and aqueous flare intensity in patients with diabetes mellitus,” Acta Ophthalmol. Scand. 76(4), 413–416 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ziadi, M.

M. Ziadi, P. Moiroux, P. d’Athis, A. Bron, J. M. Brun, and C. Creuzot-Garcher, “Assessment of induced corneal hypoxia in diabetic patients,” Cornea 21(5), 453–457 (2002).
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Acta Ophthalmol. (1)

H. C. Fledelius and K. Miyamoto, “Diabetic myopia - is it lens-induced?” Acta Ophthalmol. 65(4), 469–473 (1987).
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Acta Ophthalmol. Scand. (2)

L. Pierro, R. Brancato, E. Zaganelli, L. Guarisco, and G. Calori, “Correlation of lens thickness with blood glucose control in diabetes mellitus,” Acta Ophthalmol. Scand. 74(6), 539–541 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Zaczek and C. Zetterström, “The effect of phenylephrine and pilocarpine on pupil size and aqueous flare intensity in patients with diabetes mellitus,” Acta Ophthalmol. Scand. 76(4), 413–416 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Am. J. Ophthalmol. (2)

G. M. Keoleian, J. M. Pach, D. O. Hodge, S. D. Trocme, and W. M. Bourne, “Structural and functional studies of the corneal endothelium in diabetes mellitus,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 113(1), 64–70 (1992).
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S. M. Saw, T. Y. Wong, S. Ting, A. W. P. Foong, and P. J. Foster, “The relationship between anterior chamber depth and the presence of diabetes in the Tanjong Pagar Survey,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 144(2), 325–326 (2007).
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Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. (1)

M. Spafford and J. Lovasik, “Clinical evaluation of ocular and visual functions in insulin-dependent juvenile diabetics,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 63(7), 505–519 (1986).
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Arch. Ophthalmol. (2)

L. I. Larsson, W. M. Bourne, J. M. Pach, and R. F. Brubaker, “Structure and function of the corneal endothelium in diabetes mellitus type I and type II,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 114(1), 9–14 (1996).
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S. Moss, R. Klein, and B. Klein, “Accommodative ability in younger-onset diabetes,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 105(4), 508–512 (1987).
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Br. J. Ophthalmol. (5)

N. Busted, T. Olsen, and O. Schmitz, “Clinical observations on the corneal thickness and the corneal endothelium in diabetes mellitus,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 65(10), 687–690 (1981).
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N. Løgstrup, A. K. Sjølie, K. O. Kyvik, and A. Green, “Long term influence of insulin dependent diabetes mellitus on refraction and its components: a population based twin study,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 81(5), 343–349 (1997).
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M. Cahill, P. Eustace, and V. de Jesus, “Pupillary autonomic denervation with increasing duration of diabetes mellitus,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 85(10), 1225–1230 (2001).
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J. M. Sparrow, A. J. Bron, N. A. P. Brown, and H. A. W. Neil, “Biometry of the crystalline lens in early-onset diabetes,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 74(11), 654–660 (1990).
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N. Løgstrup, A. Sjølie, K. Kyvik, and A. Green, “Lens thickness and insulin dependent diabetes mellitus: a population based twin study,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 80(5), 405–408 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cornea (2)

N. G. M. Wiemer, M. Dubbelman, P. J. Kostense, P. J. Ringens, and B. C. P. Polak, “The influence of chronic diabetes mellitus on the thickness and the shape of the anterior and posterior surface of the cornea,” Cornea 26(10), 1165–1170 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Ziadi, P. Moiroux, P. d’Athis, A. Bron, J. M. Brun, and C. Creuzot-Garcher, “Assessment of induced corneal hypoxia in diabetic patients,” Cornea 21(5), 453–457 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Diabetes (1)

A. B. Hreidarsson, “Pupil size in insulin-dependent diabetes: relationship to duration, metabolic control, and long-term manifestations,” Diabetes 31(5), 442–448 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Diabetes Care (1)

D. Pittasch, R. Lobmann, W. Behrens-Baumann, and H. Lehnert, “Pupil signs of sympathetic autonomic neuropathy in patients with Type 1 diabetes,” Diabetes Care 25(9), 1545–1550 (2002).
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Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract. (1)

N. Pritchard, K. Edwards, C. Dehghani, H. Fadavi, M. Jeziorska, A. Marshall, I. N. Petropoulos, G. Ponirakis, A. W. Russell, G. P. Sampson, A. M. Shahidi, S. Srinivasan, M. Tavakoli, D. Vagenas, R. A. Malik, and N. Efron, “Longitudinal assessment of neuropathy in type 1 diabetes using novel ophthalmic markers (LANDMark): Study design and baseline characteristics,” Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract. 104(2), 248–256 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Doc. Ophthalmol. (1)

S. Yamamoto, E. Adachi-Usami, and N. Kuroda, “Accommodation power determined with transient pattern visual evoked cortical potentials in diabetes,” Doc. Ophthalmol. 72(1), 31–37 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eye (2)

A. Bron, J. Sparrow, N. Brown, J. Harding, and R. Blakytny, “The lens in diabetes,” Eye 7(2), 260–275 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Lee, B. Oum, H. Choi, J. Lee, and B. Cho, “Differences in corneal thickness and corneal endothelium related to duration in diabetes,” Eye 20(3), 315–318 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (5)

B. Winn, D. Whitaker, D. B. Elliott, and N. J. Phillips, “Factors affecting light-adapted pupil size in normal human subjects,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 35(3), 1132–1137 (1994).
[PubMed]

Adnan, N. Efron, A. Mathur, K. Edwards, N. Pritchard, M. Suheimat, and D. A. Atchison, “Amplitude of accommodation in type 1 diabetes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 55, 7014–7018 (2014).
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M. Lutze and G. H. Bresnick, “Lenses of diabetic patients “yellow” at an accelerated rate similar to older normals,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 32(1), 194–199 (1991).
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N. P. Davies and A. B. Morland, “Color matching in diabetes: optical density of the crystalline lens and macular pigments,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 43(1), 281–289 (2002).
[PubMed]

J. Tabernero, D. A. Atchison, and E. L. Markwell, “Aberrations and pupil location under corneal topography and Hartmann-Shack illumination conditions,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50(4), 1964–1970 (2009).
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J. Am. Optom. Assoc. (1)

J. Cavallerano, “A review of non-retinal ocular complications of diabetes mellitus,” J. Am. Optom. Assoc. 61(7), 533–543 (1990).
[PubMed]

J. Diabetes (1)

M. A. Sekeroglu and H. Taylan Sekeroglu, “Refraction paradox in diabetics: An extreme case of transient hyperopia,” J. Diabetes 5(3), 325–326 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Glaucoma (1)

Y. Ozdamar, B. Cankaya, S. Ozalp, G. Acaroglu, J. Karakaya, and S. S. Özkan, “Is there a correlation between diabetes mellitus and central corneal thickness?” J. Glaucoma 19(9), 613–616 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Ocul. Pharmacol. Ther. (1)

H.-L. Lei, K.-J. Yang, C.-C. Sun, C.-H. Chen, B.-Y. Huang, S. C. Ng, and L. Yeung, “Obtained mydriasis in long-term type 2 diabetic patients,” J. Ocul. Pharmacol. Ther. 27(6), 599–602 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Vision (2)

A. B. Watson and J. I. Yellott, “A unified formula for light-adapted pupil size,” J. Vision 12(10), 1–16 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. A. Atchison, E. L. Markwell, S. Kasthurirangan, J. M. Pope, G. Smith, and P. G. Swann, “Age-related changes in optical and biometric characteristics of emmetropic eyes,” J. Vision 8(4), 1–20 (2008).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

K. Inoue, S. Kato, Y. Inoue, S. Amano, and T. Oshika, “The corneal endothelium and thickness in type II diabetes mellitus,” Jpn. J. Ophthalmol. 46(1), 65–69 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Neuro-Ophthalmology (1)

Y. Yang, Y. Yu, and K. Yao, “Pupillary dysfunction in Type 2 diabetes mellitus to refine the early diagnosis of diabetic autonomic neuropathy,” Neuro-Ophthalmology 30(1), 17–21 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ophthalmic. Physiol. Opt. (2)

H. Saunders, “Age-dependence of human refractive errors,” Ophthalmic. Physiol. Opt. 1(3), 159–174 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Saunders, “A longitudinal study of the age-dependence of human ocular refraction,” Ophthalmic. Physiol. Opt. 6(1), 39–46 (1986).
[PubMed]

Ophthalmol. (1)

D. H. W. Su, T. Y. Wong, W. L. Wong, S. M. Saw, D. T. H. Tan, S. Y. Shen, S. C. Loon, P. J. Foster, and T. Aung, “Diabetes, hyperglycemia, and central corneal thickness: The Singapore Malay Eye Study,” Ophthalmol. 115(6), 964–968 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ophthalmologica (2)

A. M. Roszkowska, C. G. Tringali, P. Colosi, C. A. Squeri, and G. Ferreri, “Corneal endothelium evaluation in type I and type II diabetes mellitus,” Ophthalmologica 213(4), 258–261 (2000).
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W. Pawelski and H. Gliem, “Studies on the amplitude of accommodation in diabetics [Untersuchungen ber die Akkommodationsbreite bei Diabetikern],” Ophthalmologica 163(4), 216–226 (1971).
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Ophthalmology (2)

N. G. M. Wiemer, M. Dubbelman, P. J. Kostense, P. J. Ringens, and B. C. P. Polak, “The influence of diabetes mellitus type 1 and 2 on the thickness, shape, and equivalent refractive index of the human crystalline lens,” Ophthalmology 115(10), 1679–1686 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. G. M. Wiemer, M. Dubbelman, E. A. Hermans, P. J. Ringens, and B. C. P. Polak, “Changes in the internal structure of the human crystalline lens with diabetes mellitus type 1 and type 2,” Ophthalmology 115(11), 2017–2023 (2008).
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Opt. Express (1)

Optom. Vis. Sci. (4)

A. Mathur, D. A. Atchison, and J. Tabernero, “Effect of age on components of peripheral ocular aberrations,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 89(7), 967–976 (2012).
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T. O. Salmon, R. W. West, W. Gasser, and T. Kenmore, “Measurement of refractive errors in young myopes using the COAS Shack-Hartmann aberrometer,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 80(1), 6–14 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Shahidi, N. P. Blair, M. Mori, and R. Zelkha, “Optical section retinal imaging and wavefront sensing in diabetes,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 81(10), 778–784 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. K. Valeshabad, J. Wanek, P. Grant, J. I. Lim, F. Y. Chau, R. Zelkha, N. Camardo, and M. Shahidi, “Wavefront error correction with adaptive optics in diabetic retinopathy,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 91(10), 1238–1243 (2014).
[Crossref]

Retina (1)

C. I. Braun, W. E. Benson, N. A. Remaley, E. Y. Chew, and F. L. Ferris, “Accommodative amplitudes in the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study: ETDRS Report Number 21,” Retina 15(4), 275–281 (1995).
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Trans. Ophthalmol. Soc. U. K. (1)

N. Brown and J. Hungerford, “The influence of the size of the lens in ocular disease,” Trans. Ophthalmol. Soc. U. K. 102(3), 359–363 (1982).
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Vision Res. (1)

M. Dubbelman and G. Van der Heijde, “The shape of the aging human lens: curvature, equivalent refractive index and the lens paradox,” Vision Res. 41(14), 1867–1877 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Phakometer
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Diabetes duration as a function of age.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Relationships between parameters and age for diabetes and control groups. (a) spherical equivalent refraction, (b) anterior corneal asphericity; (c) corneal central thickness, (d) pupil diameter, (e) anterior chamber depth, (f) anterior lens radius of curvature, (g) posterior lens radius of curvature, (h) lens central thickness, (i) lens equivalent refractive index, and (j) lens equivalent power. Fits for diabetes type 1 participants are included from the Wiemer et al. study [22] in (f), (h) and (i).

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Parameters of participant groups. P-values are bolded where there are significantly differences between groups. Errors are 95% confidence intervals.

Tables Icon

Table 2 Multiple regression fits for the whole group and for the diabetes group alone. No coefficients appear where both diabetes duration and age are not significant factors.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

X 2 + ( 1 + Q ) Z 2 2 Z R = 0
MF = MF 1 + MF 2 + MF 3 = ( V the V exp ) 3 + ( h 3 the h 3 exp ) 2 + ( h 4 the h 4 exp ) 2
R x 890 = R x 550 + 0.839
n L 555 = 1.0262 n L 890 0.0273
F e = F L 1 + F L 2 t L n L F L 1 F L 2
F L 1 = ( n L n a ) / r L 1 , F L 2 = ( n v n L ) / r L 2

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