Abstract

A detailed characterization study is presented of a Raman spectroscopy system designed to maximize the volume of resected cancer tissue in glioma surgery based on in vivo molecular tissue characterization. It consists of a hand-held probe system measuring spectrally resolved inelastically scattered light interacting with tissue, designed and optimized for in vivo measurements. Factors such as linearity of the signal with integration time and laser power, and their impact on signal to noise ratio, are studied leading to optimal data acquisition parameters. The impact of ambient light sources in the operating room is assessed and recommendations made for optimal operating conditions. In vivo Raman spectra of normal brain, cancer and necrotic tissue were measured in 10 patients, demonstrating that real-time inelastic scattering measurements can distinguish necrosis from vital tissue (including tumor and normal brain tissue) with an accuracy of 87%, a sensitivity of 84% and a specificity of 89%.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (2)

Michael Jermyn, Kelvin Mok, Jeanne Mercier, Joannie Desroches, Julien Pichette, Karl Saint-Arnaud, Liane Bernstein, Marie-Christine Guiot, Kevin Petrecca, and Frederic Leblond, “Intraoperative brain cancer detection with Raman spectroscopy in humans,” Sci. Transl. Med. 7, 274ra19 (2015).

A. Goyette, J. Pichette, M.-A. Tremblay, A. Laurence, M. Jermyn, K. Mok, K. D. Paulsen, D. W. Roberts, K. Petrecca, B. C. Wilson, and F. Leblond, “Sub-diffuse interstitial optical tomography to improve the safety of brain needle biopsies: a proof-of-concept study,” Opt. Lett. 40(2), 170–173 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (2)

S. N. Kalkanis, R. E. Kast, M. L. Rosenblum, T. Mikkelsen, S. M. Yurgelevic, K. M. Nelson, A. Raghunathan, L. M. Poisson, and G. W. Auner, “Raman spectroscopy to distinguish grey matter, necrosis, and glioblastoma multiforme in frozen tissue sections,” J. Neurooncol. 116(3), 477–485 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Smulko, N. C. Dingari, J. S. Soares, and I. Barman, “Anatomy of noise in quantitative biological Raman spectroscopy,” Bioanalysis 6(3), 411–421 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

L. Capelle, D. Fontaine, E. Mandonnet, L. Taillandier, J. L. Golmard, L. Bauchet, J. Pallud, P. Peruzzi, M. H. Baron, M. Kujas, J. Guyotat, R. Guillevin, M. Frenay, S. Taillibert, P. Colin, V. Rigau, F. Vandenbos, C. Pinelli, and H. Duffau, “Spontaneous and therapeutic prognostic factors in adult hemispheric World Health Organization Grade II gliomas: a series of 1097 cases: clinical article,” J. Neurosurg. 118(6), 1157–1168 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (4)

W. Stummer, T. Meinel, C. Ewelt, P. Martus, O. Jakobs, J. Felsberg, and G. Reifenberger, “Prospective cohort study of radiotherapy with concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide chemotherapy for glioblastoma patients with no or minimal residual enhancing tumor load after surgery,” J. Neurooncol. 108(1), 89–97 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Bergner, C. Krafft, K. D. Geiger, M. Kirsch, G. Schackert, and J. Popp, “Unsupervised unmixing of Raman microspectroscopic images for morphochemical analysis of non-dried brain tumor specimens,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 403(3), 719–725 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Barman, N. C. Dingari, G. P. Singh, J. S. Soares, R. R. Dasari, and J. M. Smulko, “Investigation of noise-induced instabilities in quantitative biological spectroscopy and its implications for noninvasive glucose monitoring,” Anal. Chem. 84(19), 8149–8156 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. G. Ramírez-Elías, J. Alda, and F. J. González, “Noise and artifact characterization of in vivo Raman spectroscopy skin measurements,” Appl. Spectrosc. 66(6), 650–655 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

I. Barman, C.-R. Kong, G. P. Singh, and R. R. Dasari, “Effect of photobleaching on calibration model development in biological Raman spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(1), 011004 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Henriksson, T. Asklund, and H. S. Poulsen, “Impact of therapy on quality of life, neurocognitive function and their correlates in glioblastoma multiforme: a review,” J. Neurooncol. 104(3), 639–646 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Stummer, J.-C. Tonn, H. M. Mehdorn, U. Nestler, K. Franz, C. Goetz, A. Bink, U. Pichlmeier, and ALA-Glioma Study Group, “Counterbalancing risks and gains from extended resections in malignant glioma surgery: a supplemental analysis from the randomized 5-aminolevulinic acid glioma resection study. Clinical article,” J. Neurosurg. 114(3), 613–623 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

A. Beljebbar, S. Dukic, N. Amharref, and M. Manfait, “Ex vivo and in vivo diagnosis of C6 glioblastoma development by Raman spectroscopy coupled to a microprobe,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 398(1), 477–487 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Abdi and L. J. Williams, “Principal component analysis,” Wiley Interdiscip. Rev. Comput. Stat. 2(4), 433–459 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. O. P. Draga, M. C. M. Grimbergen, P. L. M. Vijverberg, C. F. P. van Swol, T. G. N. Jonges, J. A. Kummer, and J. L. H. Ruud Bosch, “In Vivo Bladder Cancer Diagnosis by High-Volume Raman Spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 82(14), 5993–5999 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

J. S. Smith, E. F. Chang, K. R. Lamborn, S. M. Chang, M. D. Prados, S. Cha, T. Tihan, S. Vandenberg, M. W. McDermott, and M. S. Berger, “Role of Extent of Resection in the Long-Term Outcome of Low-Grade Hemispheric Gliomas,” J. Clin. Oncol. 26(8), 1338–1345 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. N. Kongkham, E. Knifed, M. S. Tamber, and M. Bernstein, “Complications in 622 Cases of Frame-Based Stereotactic Biopsy, a Decreasing Procedure,” Can. J. Neurol. Sci. 35(1), 79–84 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Muragaki, M. Chernov, T. Maruyama, T. Ochiai, T. Taira, O. Kubo, R. Nakamura, H. Iseki, T. Hori, and K. Takakura, “Low-grade glioma on stereotactic biopsy: how often is the diagnosis accurate?” Minim. Invasive Neurosurg. 51(5), 275–279 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

D. N. Louis, H. Ohgaki, O. D. Wiestler, W. K. Cavenee, P. C. Burger, A. Jouvet, B. W. Scheithauer, and P. Kleihues, “The 2007 WHO Classification of Tumours of the Central Nervous System,” Acta Neuropathol. 114(2), 97–109 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Movasaghi, S. Rehman, and I. U. Rehman, “Raman Spectroscopy of Biological Tissues,” Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 42(5), 493–541 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Zhao, H. Lui, D. I. McLean, and H. Zeng, “Automated Autofluorescence Background Subtraction Algorithm for Biomedical Raman Spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc. 61(11), 1225–1232 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

I.-F. Talos, K. H. Zou, L. Ohno-Machado, J. G. Bhagwat, R. Kikinis, P. M. Black, and F. A. Jolesz, “Supratentorial low-grade glioma resectability: statistical predictive analysis based on anatomic MR features and tumor characteristics,” Radiology 239(2), 506–513 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

N. Stone, C. Kendall, J. Smith, P. Crow, and H. Barr, “Raman spectroscopy for identification of epithelial cancers,” Faraday Discuss. 126, 141–157 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

P. Crow, N. Stone, C. A. Kendall, J. S. Uff, J. A. Farmer, H. Barr, and M. P. J. Wright, “The use of Raman spectroscopy to identify and grade prostatic adenocarcinoma in vitro,” Br. J. Cancer 89(1), 106–108 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

P. D. Sawin, P. W. Hitchon, K. A. Follett, and J. C. Torner, “Computed Imaging-Assisted Stereotactic Brain Biopsy: A Risk Analysis of 225 Consecutive Cases,” Surg. Neurol. 49(6), 640–649 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

A. Mahadevan-Jansen and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Raman spectroscopy for the detection of cancers and precancers,” J. Biomed. Opt. 1(1), 31–70 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

M. J. Glantz, P. C. Burger, J. E. Herndon, A. H. Friedman, J. G. Cairncross, N. A. Vick, and S. C. Schold., “Influence of the type of surgery on the histologic diagnosis in patients with anaplastic gliomas,” Neurology 41(11), 1741–1744 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Abdi, H.

H. Abdi and L. J. Williams, “Principal component analysis,” Wiley Interdiscip. Rev. Comput. Stat. 2(4), 433–459 (2010).
[Crossref]

Alda, J.

Amharref, N.

A. Beljebbar, S. Dukic, N. Amharref, and M. Manfait, “Ex vivo and in vivo diagnosis of C6 glioblastoma development by Raman spectroscopy coupled to a microprobe,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 398(1), 477–487 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Asklund, T.

R. Henriksson, T. Asklund, and H. S. Poulsen, “Impact of therapy on quality of life, neurocognitive function and their correlates in glioblastoma multiforme: a review,” J. Neurooncol. 104(3), 639–646 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Auner, G. W.

S. N. Kalkanis, R. E. Kast, M. L. Rosenblum, T. Mikkelsen, S. M. Yurgelevic, K. M. Nelson, A. Raghunathan, L. M. Poisson, and G. W. Auner, “Raman spectroscopy to distinguish grey matter, necrosis, and glioblastoma multiforme in frozen tissue sections,” J. Neurooncol. 116(3), 477–485 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barman, I.

J. M. Smulko, N. C. Dingari, J. S. Soares, and I. Barman, “Anatomy of noise in quantitative biological Raman spectroscopy,” Bioanalysis 6(3), 411–421 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Barman, N. C. Dingari, G. P. Singh, J. S. Soares, R. R. Dasari, and J. M. Smulko, “Investigation of noise-induced instabilities in quantitative biological spectroscopy and its implications for noninvasive glucose monitoring,” Anal. Chem. 84(19), 8149–8156 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Barman, C.-R. Kong, G. P. Singh, and R. R. Dasari, “Effect of photobleaching on calibration model development in biological Raman spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(1), 011004 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baron, M. H.

L. Capelle, D. Fontaine, E. Mandonnet, L. Taillandier, J. L. Golmard, L. Bauchet, J. Pallud, P. Peruzzi, M. H. Baron, M. Kujas, J. Guyotat, R. Guillevin, M. Frenay, S. Taillibert, P. Colin, V. Rigau, F. Vandenbos, C. Pinelli, and H. Duffau, “Spontaneous and therapeutic prognostic factors in adult hemispheric World Health Organization Grade II gliomas: a series of 1097 cases: clinical article,” J. Neurosurg. 118(6), 1157–1168 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barr, H.

N. Stone, C. Kendall, J. Smith, P. Crow, and H. Barr, “Raman spectroscopy for identification of epithelial cancers,” Faraday Discuss. 126, 141–157 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Crow, N. Stone, C. A. Kendall, J. S. Uff, J. A. Farmer, H. Barr, and M. P. J. Wright, “The use of Raman spectroscopy to identify and grade prostatic adenocarcinoma in vitro,” Br. J. Cancer 89(1), 106–108 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bauchet, L.

L. Capelle, D. Fontaine, E. Mandonnet, L. Taillandier, J. L. Golmard, L. Bauchet, J. Pallud, P. Peruzzi, M. H. Baron, M. Kujas, J. Guyotat, R. Guillevin, M. Frenay, S. Taillibert, P. Colin, V. Rigau, F. Vandenbos, C. Pinelli, and H. Duffau, “Spontaneous and therapeutic prognostic factors in adult hemispheric World Health Organization Grade II gliomas: a series of 1097 cases: clinical article,” J. Neurosurg. 118(6), 1157–1168 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beljebbar, A.

A. Beljebbar, S. Dukic, N. Amharref, and M. Manfait, “Ex vivo and in vivo diagnosis of C6 glioblastoma development by Raman spectroscopy coupled to a microprobe,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 398(1), 477–487 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Berger, M. S.

J. S. Smith, E. F. Chang, K. R. Lamborn, S. M. Chang, M. D. Prados, S. Cha, T. Tihan, S. Vandenberg, M. W. McDermott, and M. S. Berger, “Role of Extent of Resection in the Long-Term Outcome of Low-Grade Hemispheric Gliomas,” J. Clin. Oncol. 26(8), 1338–1345 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bergner, N.

N. Bergner, C. Krafft, K. D. Geiger, M. Kirsch, G. Schackert, and J. Popp, “Unsupervised unmixing of Raman microspectroscopic images for morphochemical analysis of non-dried brain tumor specimens,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 403(3), 719–725 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bernstein, Liane

Michael Jermyn, Kelvin Mok, Jeanne Mercier, Joannie Desroches, Julien Pichette, Karl Saint-Arnaud, Liane Bernstein, Marie-Christine Guiot, Kevin Petrecca, and Frederic Leblond, “Intraoperative brain cancer detection with Raman spectroscopy in humans,” Sci. Transl. Med. 7, 274ra19 (2015).

Bernstein, M.

P. N. Kongkham, E. Knifed, M. S. Tamber, and M. Bernstein, “Complications in 622 Cases of Frame-Based Stereotactic Biopsy, a Decreasing Procedure,” Can. J. Neurol. Sci. 35(1), 79–84 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bhagwat, J. G.

I.-F. Talos, K. H. Zou, L. Ohno-Machado, J. G. Bhagwat, R. Kikinis, P. M. Black, and F. A. Jolesz, “Supratentorial low-grade glioma resectability: statistical predictive analysis based on anatomic MR features and tumor characteristics,” Radiology 239(2), 506–513 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bink, A.

W. Stummer, J.-C. Tonn, H. M. Mehdorn, U. Nestler, K. Franz, C. Goetz, A. Bink, U. Pichlmeier, and ALA-Glioma Study Group, “Counterbalancing risks and gains from extended resections in malignant glioma surgery: a supplemental analysis from the randomized 5-aminolevulinic acid glioma resection study. Clinical article,” J. Neurosurg. 114(3), 613–623 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Black, P. M.

I.-F. Talos, K. H. Zou, L. Ohno-Machado, J. G. Bhagwat, R. Kikinis, P. M. Black, and F. A. Jolesz, “Supratentorial low-grade glioma resectability: statistical predictive analysis based on anatomic MR features and tumor characteristics,” Radiology 239(2), 506–513 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Burger, P. C.

D. N. Louis, H. Ohgaki, O. D. Wiestler, W. K. Cavenee, P. C. Burger, A. Jouvet, B. W. Scheithauer, and P. Kleihues, “The 2007 WHO Classification of Tumours of the Central Nervous System,” Acta Neuropathol. 114(2), 97–109 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Glantz, P. C. Burger, J. E. Herndon, A. H. Friedman, J. G. Cairncross, N. A. Vick, and S. C. Schold., “Influence of the type of surgery on the histologic diagnosis in patients with anaplastic gliomas,” Neurology 41(11), 1741–1744 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cairncross, J. G.

M. J. Glantz, P. C. Burger, J. E. Herndon, A. H. Friedman, J. G. Cairncross, N. A. Vick, and S. C. Schold., “Influence of the type of surgery on the histologic diagnosis in patients with anaplastic gliomas,” Neurology 41(11), 1741–1744 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Capelle, L.

L. Capelle, D. Fontaine, E. Mandonnet, L. Taillandier, J. L. Golmard, L. Bauchet, J. Pallud, P. Peruzzi, M. H. Baron, M. Kujas, J. Guyotat, R. Guillevin, M. Frenay, S. Taillibert, P. Colin, V. Rigau, F. Vandenbos, C. Pinelli, and H. Duffau, “Spontaneous and therapeutic prognostic factors in adult hemispheric World Health Organization Grade II gliomas: a series of 1097 cases: clinical article,” J. Neurosurg. 118(6), 1157–1168 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cavenee, W. K.

D. N. Louis, H. Ohgaki, O. D. Wiestler, W. K. Cavenee, P. C. Burger, A. Jouvet, B. W. Scheithauer, and P. Kleihues, “The 2007 WHO Classification of Tumours of the Central Nervous System,” Acta Neuropathol. 114(2), 97–109 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cha, S.

J. S. Smith, E. F. Chang, K. R. Lamborn, S. M. Chang, M. D. Prados, S. Cha, T. Tihan, S. Vandenberg, M. W. McDermott, and M. S. Berger, “Role of Extent of Resection in the Long-Term Outcome of Low-Grade Hemispheric Gliomas,” J. Clin. Oncol. 26(8), 1338–1345 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, E. F.

J. S. Smith, E. F. Chang, K. R. Lamborn, S. M. Chang, M. D. Prados, S. Cha, T. Tihan, S. Vandenberg, M. W. McDermott, and M. S. Berger, “Role of Extent of Resection in the Long-Term Outcome of Low-Grade Hemispheric Gliomas,” J. Clin. Oncol. 26(8), 1338–1345 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, S. M.

J. S. Smith, E. F. Chang, K. R. Lamborn, S. M. Chang, M. D. Prados, S. Cha, T. Tihan, S. Vandenberg, M. W. McDermott, and M. S. Berger, “Role of Extent of Resection in the Long-Term Outcome of Low-Grade Hemispheric Gliomas,” J. Clin. Oncol. 26(8), 1338–1345 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chernov, M.

Y. Muragaki, M. Chernov, T. Maruyama, T. Ochiai, T. Taira, O. Kubo, R. Nakamura, H. Iseki, T. Hori, and K. Takakura, “Low-grade glioma on stereotactic biopsy: how often is the diagnosis accurate?” Minim. Invasive Neurosurg. 51(5), 275–279 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Colin, P.

L. Capelle, D. Fontaine, E. Mandonnet, L. Taillandier, J. L. Golmard, L. Bauchet, J. Pallud, P. Peruzzi, M. H. Baron, M. Kujas, J. Guyotat, R. Guillevin, M. Frenay, S. Taillibert, P. Colin, V. Rigau, F. Vandenbos, C. Pinelli, and H. Duffau, “Spontaneous and therapeutic prognostic factors in adult hemispheric World Health Organization Grade II gliomas: a series of 1097 cases: clinical article,” J. Neurosurg. 118(6), 1157–1168 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Crow, P.

N. Stone, C. Kendall, J. Smith, P. Crow, and H. Barr, “Raman spectroscopy for identification of epithelial cancers,” Faraday Discuss. 126, 141–157 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Crow, N. Stone, C. A. Kendall, J. S. Uff, J. A. Farmer, H. Barr, and M. P. J. Wright, “The use of Raman spectroscopy to identify and grade prostatic adenocarcinoma in vitro,” Br. J. Cancer 89(1), 106–108 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dasari, R. R.

I. Barman, N. C. Dingari, G. P. Singh, J. S. Soares, R. R. Dasari, and J. M. Smulko, “Investigation of noise-induced instabilities in quantitative biological spectroscopy and its implications for noninvasive glucose monitoring,” Anal. Chem. 84(19), 8149–8156 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Barman, C.-R. Kong, G. P. Singh, and R. R. Dasari, “Effect of photobleaching on calibration model development in biological Raman spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(1), 011004 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Desroches, Joannie

Michael Jermyn, Kelvin Mok, Jeanne Mercier, Joannie Desroches, Julien Pichette, Karl Saint-Arnaud, Liane Bernstein, Marie-Christine Guiot, Kevin Petrecca, and Frederic Leblond, “Intraoperative brain cancer detection with Raman spectroscopy in humans,” Sci. Transl. Med. 7, 274ra19 (2015).

Dingari, N. C.

J. M. Smulko, N. C. Dingari, J. S. Soares, and I. Barman, “Anatomy of noise in quantitative biological Raman spectroscopy,” Bioanalysis 6(3), 411–421 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Barman, N. C. Dingari, G. P. Singh, J. S. Soares, R. R. Dasari, and J. M. Smulko, “Investigation of noise-induced instabilities in quantitative biological spectroscopy and its implications for noninvasive glucose monitoring,” Anal. Chem. 84(19), 8149–8156 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Draga, R. O. P.

R. O. P. Draga, M. C. M. Grimbergen, P. L. M. Vijverberg, C. F. P. van Swol, T. G. N. Jonges, J. A. Kummer, and J. L. H. Ruud Bosch, “In Vivo Bladder Cancer Diagnosis by High-Volume Raman Spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 82(14), 5993–5999 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Duffau, H.

L. Capelle, D. Fontaine, E. Mandonnet, L. Taillandier, J. L. Golmard, L. Bauchet, J. Pallud, P. Peruzzi, M. H. Baron, M. Kujas, J. Guyotat, R. Guillevin, M. Frenay, S. Taillibert, P. Colin, V. Rigau, F. Vandenbos, C. Pinelli, and H. Duffau, “Spontaneous and therapeutic prognostic factors in adult hemispheric World Health Organization Grade II gliomas: a series of 1097 cases: clinical article,” J. Neurosurg. 118(6), 1157–1168 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dukic, S.

A. Beljebbar, S. Dukic, N. Amharref, and M. Manfait, “Ex vivo and in vivo diagnosis of C6 glioblastoma development by Raman spectroscopy coupled to a microprobe,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 398(1), 477–487 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ewelt, C.

W. Stummer, T. Meinel, C. Ewelt, P. Martus, O. Jakobs, J. Felsberg, and G. Reifenberger, “Prospective cohort study of radiotherapy with concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide chemotherapy for glioblastoma patients with no or minimal residual enhancing tumor load after surgery,” J. Neurooncol. 108(1), 89–97 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Farmer, J. A.

P. Crow, N. Stone, C. A. Kendall, J. S. Uff, J. A. Farmer, H. Barr, and M. P. J. Wright, “The use of Raman spectroscopy to identify and grade prostatic adenocarcinoma in vitro,” Br. J. Cancer 89(1), 106–108 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Felsberg, J.

W. Stummer, T. Meinel, C. Ewelt, P. Martus, O. Jakobs, J. Felsberg, and G. Reifenberger, “Prospective cohort study of radiotherapy with concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide chemotherapy for glioblastoma patients with no or minimal residual enhancing tumor load after surgery,” J. Neurooncol. 108(1), 89–97 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Follett, K. A.

P. D. Sawin, P. W. Hitchon, K. A. Follett, and J. C. Torner, “Computed Imaging-Assisted Stereotactic Brain Biopsy: A Risk Analysis of 225 Consecutive Cases,” Surg. Neurol. 49(6), 640–649 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fontaine, D.

L. Capelle, D. Fontaine, E. Mandonnet, L. Taillandier, J. L. Golmard, L. Bauchet, J. Pallud, P. Peruzzi, M. H. Baron, M. Kujas, J. Guyotat, R. Guillevin, M. Frenay, S. Taillibert, P. Colin, V. Rigau, F. Vandenbos, C. Pinelli, and H. Duffau, “Spontaneous and therapeutic prognostic factors in adult hemispheric World Health Organization Grade II gliomas: a series of 1097 cases: clinical article,” J. Neurosurg. 118(6), 1157–1168 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Franz, K.

W. Stummer, J.-C. Tonn, H. M. Mehdorn, U. Nestler, K. Franz, C. Goetz, A. Bink, U. Pichlmeier, and ALA-Glioma Study Group, “Counterbalancing risks and gains from extended resections in malignant glioma surgery: a supplemental analysis from the randomized 5-aminolevulinic acid glioma resection study. Clinical article,” J. Neurosurg. 114(3), 613–623 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Frenay, M.

L. Capelle, D. Fontaine, E. Mandonnet, L. Taillandier, J. L. Golmard, L. Bauchet, J. Pallud, P. Peruzzi, M. H. Baron, M. Kujas, J. Guyotat, R. Guillevin, M. Frenay, S. Taillibert, P. Colin, V. Rigau, F. Vandenbos, C. Pinelli, and H. Duffau, “Spontaneous and therapeutic prognostic factors in adult hemispheric World Health Organization Grade II gliomas: a series of 1097 cases: clinical article,” J. Neurosurg. 118(6), 1157–1168 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Friedman, A. H.

M. J. Glantz, P. C. Burger, J. E. Herndon, A. H. Friedman, J. G. Cairncross, N. A. Vick, and S. C. Schold., “Influence of the type of surgery on the histologic diagnosis in patients with anaplastic gliomas,” Neurology 41(11), 1741–1744 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Geiger, K. D.

N. Bergner, C. Krafft, K. D. Geiger, M. Kirsch, G. Schackert, and J. Popp, “Unsupervised unmixing of Raman microspectroscopic images for morphochemical analysis of non-dried brain tumor specimens,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 403(3), 719–725 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Glantz, M. J.

M. J. Glantz, P. C. Burger, J. E. Herndon, A. H. Friedman, J. G. Cairncross, N. A. Vick, and S. C. Schold., “Influence of the type of surgery on the histologic diagnosis in patients with anaplastic gliomas,” Neurology 41(11), 1741–1744 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Goetz, C.

W. Stummer, J.-C. Tonn, H. M. Mehdorn, U. Nestler, K. Franz, C. Goetz, A. Bink, U. Pichlmeier, and ALA-Glioma Study Group, “Counterbalancing risks and gains from extended resections in malignant glioma surgery: a supplemental analysis from the randomized 5-aminolevulinic acid glioma resection study. Clinical article,” J. Neurosurg. 114(3), 613–623 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Golmard, J. L.

L. Capelle, D. Fontaine, E. Mandonnet, L. Taillandier, J. L. Golmard, L. Bauchet, J. Pallud, P. Peruzzi, M. H. Baron, M. Kujas, J. Guyotat, R. Guillevin, M. Frenay, S. Taillibert, P. Colin, V. Rigau, F. Vandenbos, C. Pinelli, and H. Duffau, “Spontaneous and therapeutic prognostic factors in adult hemispheric World Health Organization Grade II gliomas: a series of 1097 cases: clinical article,” J. Neurosurg. 118(6), 1157–1168 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

González, F. J.

Goyette, A.

Grimbergen, M. C. M.

R. O. P. Draga, M. C. M. Grimbergen, P. L. M. Vijverberg, C. F. P. van Swol, T. G. N. Jonges, J. A. Kummer, and J. L. H. Ruud Bosch, “In Vivo Bladder Cancer Diagnosis by High-Volume Raman Spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 82(14), 5993–5999 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guillevin, R.

L. Capelle, D. Fontaine, E. Mandonnet, L. Taillandier, J. L. Golmard, L. Bauchet, J. Pallud, P. Peruzzi, M. H. Baron, M. Kujas, J. Guyotat, R. Guillevin, M. Frenay, S. Taillibert, P. Colin, V. Rigau, F. Vandenbos, C. Pinelli, and H. Duffau, “Spontaneous and therapeutic prognostic factors in adult hemispheric World Health Organization Grade II gliomas: a series of 1097 cases: clinical article,” J. Neurosurg. 118(6), 1157–1168 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guiot, Marie-Christine

Michael Jermyn, Kelvin Mok, Jeanne Mercier, Joannie Desroches, Julien Pichette, Karl Saint-Arnaud, Liane Bernstein, Marie-Christine Guiot, Kevin Petrecca, and Frederic Leblond, “Intraoperative brain cancer detection with Raman spectroscopy in humans,” Sci. Transl. Med. 7, 274ra19 (2015).

Guyotat, J.

L. Capelle, D. Fontaine, E. Mandonnet, L. Taillandier, J. L. Golmard, L. Bauchet, J. Pallud, P. Peruzzi, M. H. Baron, M. Kujas, J. Guyotat, R. Guillevin, M. Frenay, S. Taillibert, P. Colin, V. Rigau, F. Vandenbos, C. Pinelli, and H. Duffau, “Spontaneous and therapeutic prognostic factors in adult hemispheric World Health Organization Grade II gliomas: a series of 1097 cases: clinical article,” J. Neurosurg. 118(6), 1157–1168 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Henriksson, R.

R. Henriksson, T. Asklund, and H. S. Poulsen, “Impact of therapy on quality of life, neurocognitive function and their correlates in glioblastoma multiforme: a review,” J. Neurooncol. 104(3), 639–646 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Herndon, J. E.

M. J. Glantz, P. C. Burger, J. E. Herndon, A. H. Friedman, J. G. Cairncross, N. A. Vick, and S. C. Schold., “Influence of the type of surgery on the histologic diagnosis in patients with anaplastic gliomas,” Neurology 41(11), 1741–1744 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hitchon, P. W.

P. D. Sawin, P. W. Hitchon, K. A. Follett, and J. C. Torner, “Computed Imaging-Assisted Stereotactic Brain Biopsy: A Risk Analysis of 225 Consecutive Cases,” Surg. Neurol. 49(6), 640–649 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hori, T.

Y. Muragaki, M. Chernov, T. Maruyama, T. Ochiai, T. Taira, O. Kubo, R. Nakamura, H. Iseki, T. Hori, and K. Takakura, “Low-grade glioma on stereotactic biopsy: how often is the diagnosis accurate?” Minim. Invasive Neurosurg. 51(5), 275–279 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Iseki, H.

Y. Muragaki, M. Chernov, T. Maruyama, T. Ochiai, T. Taira, O. Kubo, R. Nakamura, H. Iseki, T. Hori, and K. Takakura, “Low-grade glioma on stereotactic biopsy: how often is the diagnosis accurate?” Minim. Invasive Neurosurg. 51(5), 275–279 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jakobs, O.

W. Stummer, T. Meinel, C. Ewelt, P. Martus, O. Jakobs, J. Felsberg, and G. Reifenberger, “Prospective cohort study of radiotherapy with concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide chemotherapy for glioblastoma patients with no or minimal residual enhancing tumor load after surgery,” J. Neurooncol. 108(1), 89–97 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jermyn, M.

Jermyn, Michael

Michael Jermyn, Kelvin Mok, Jeanne Mercier, Joannie Desroches, Julien Pichette, Karl Saint-Arnaud, Liane Bernstein, Marie-Christine Guiot, Kevin Petrecca, and Frederic Leblond, “Intraoperative brain cancer detection with Raman spectroscopy in humans,” Sci. Transl. Med. 7, 274ra19 (2015).

Jolesz, F. A.

I.-F. Talos, K. H. Zou, L. Ohno-Machado, J. G. Bhagwat, R. Kikinis, P. M. Black, and F. A. Jolesz, “Supratentorial low-grade glioma resectability: statistical predictive analysis based on anatomic MR features and tumor characteristics,” Radiology 239(2), 506–513 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jonges, T. G. N.

R. O. P. Draga, M. C. M. Grimbergen, P. L. M. Vijverberg, C. F. P. van Swol, T. G. N. Jonges, J. A. Kummer, and J. L. H. Ruud Bosch, “In Vivo Bladder Cancer Diagnosis by High-Volume Raman Spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 82(14), 5993–5999 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jouvet, A.

D. N. Louis, H. Ohgaki, O. D. Wiestler, W. K. Cavenee, P. C. Burger, A. Jouvet, B. W. Scheithauer, and P. Kleihues, “The 2007 WHO Classification of Tumours of the Central Nervous System,” Acta Neuropathol. 114(2), 97–109 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kalkanis, S. N.

S. N. Kalkanis, R. E. Kast, M. L. Rosenblum, T. Mikkelsen, S. M. Yurgelevic, K. M. Nelson, A. Raghunathan, L. M. Poisson, and G. W. Auner, “Raman spectroscopy to distinguish grey matter, necrosis, and glioblastoma multiforme in frozen tissue sections,” J. Neurooncol. 116(3), 477–485 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kast, R. E.

S. N. Kalkanis, R. E. Kast, M. L. Rosenblum, T. Mikkelsen, S. M. Yurgelevic, K. M. Nelson, A. Raghunathan, L. M. Poisson, and G. W. Auner, “Raman spectroscopy to distinguish grey matter, necrosis, and glioblastoma multiforme in frozen tissue sections,” J. Neurooncol. 116(3), 477–485 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kendall, C.

N. Stone, C. Kendall, J. Smith, P. Crow, and H. Barr, “Raman spectroscopy for identification of epithelial cancers,” Faraday Discuss. 126, 141–157 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kendall, C. A.

P. Crow, N. Stone, C. A. Kendall, J. S. Uff, J. A. Farmer, H. Barr, and M. P. J. Wright, “The use of Raman spectroscopy to identify and grade prostatic adenocarcinoma in vitro,” Br. J. Cancer 89(1), 106–108 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kikinis, R.

I.-F. Talos, K. H. Zou, L. Ohno-Machado, J. G. Bhagwat, R. Kikinis, P. M. Black, and F. A. Jolesz, “Supratentorial low-grade glioma resectability: statistical predictive analysis based on anatomic MR features and tumor characteristics,” Radiology 239(2), 506–513 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kirsch, M.

N. Bergner, C. Krafft, K. D. Geiger, M. Kirsch, G. Schackert, and J. Popp, “Unsupervised unmixing of Raman microspectroscopic images for morphochemical analysis of non-dried brain tumor specimens,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 403(3), 719–725 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kleihues, P.

D. N. Louis, H. Ohgaki, O. D. Wiestler, W. K. Cavenee, P. C. Burger, A. Jouvet, B. W. Scheithauer, and P. Kleihues, “The 2007 WHO Classification of Tumours of the Central Nervous System,” Acta Neuropathol. 114(2), 97–109 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Knifed, E.

P. N. Kongkham, E. Knifed, M. S. Tamber, and M. Bernstein, “Complications in 622 Cases of Frame-Based Stereotactic Biopsy, a Decreasing Procedure,” Can. J. Neurol. Sci. 35(1), 79–84 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kong, C.-R.

I. Barman, C.-R. Kong, G. P. Singh, and R. R. Dasari, “Effect of photobleaching on calibration model development in biological Raman spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(1), 011004 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kongkham, P. N.

P. N. Kongkham, E. Knifed, M. S. Tamber, and M. Bernstein, “Complications in 622 Cases of Frame-Based Stereotactic Biopsy, a Decreasing Procedure,” Can. J. Neurol. Sci. 35(1), 79–84 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Krafft, C.

N. Bergner, C. Krafft, K. D. Geiger, M. Kirsch, G. Schackert, and J. Popp, “Unsupervised unmixing of Raman microspectroscopic images for morphochemical analysis of non-dried brain tumor specimens,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 403(3), 719–725 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kubo, O.

Y. Muragaki, M. Chernov, T. Maruyama, T. Ochiai, T. Taira, O. Kubo, R. Nakamura, H. Iseki, T. Hori, and K. Takakura, “Low-grade glioma on stereotactic biopsy: how often is the diagnosis accurate?” Minim. Invasive Neurosurg. 51(5), 275–279 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kujas, M.

L. Capelle, D. Fontaine, E. Mandonnet, L. Taillandier, J. L. Golmard, L. Bauchet, J. Pallud, P. Peruzzi, M. H. Baron, M. Kujas, J. Guyotat, R. Guillevin, M. Frenay, S. Taillibert, P. Colin, V. Rigau, F. Vandenbos, C. Pinelli, and H. Duffau, “Spontaneous and therapeutic prognostic factors in adult hemispheric World Health Organization Grade II gliomas: a series of 1097 cases: clinical article,” J. Neurosurg. 118(6), 1157–1168 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kummer, J. A.

R. O. P. Draga, M. C. M. Grimbergen, P. L. M. Vijverberg, C. F. P. van Swol, T. G. N. Jonges, J. A. Kummer, and J. L. H. Ruud Bosch, “In Vivo Bladder Cancer Diagnosis by High-Volume Raman Spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 82(14), 5993–5999 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lamborn, K. R.

J. S. Smith, E. F. Chang, K. R. Lamborn, S. M. Chang, M. D. Prados, S. Cha, T. Tihan, S. Vandenberg, M. W. McDermott, and M. S. Berger, “Role of Extent of Resection in the Long-Term Outcome of Low-Grade Hemispheric Gliomas,” J. Clin. Oncol. 26(8), 1338–1345 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Laurence, A.

Leblond, F.

Leblond, Frederic

Michael Jermyn, Kelvin Mok, Jeanne Mercier, Joannie Desroches, Julien Pichette, Karl Saint-Arnaud, Liane Bernstein, Marie-Christine Guiot, Kevin Petrecca, and Frederic Leblond, “Intraoperative brain cancer detection with Raman spectroscopy in humans,” Sci. Transl. Med. 7, 274ra19 (2015).

Louis, D. N.

D. N. Louis, H. Ohgaki, O. D. Wiestler, W. K. Cavenee, P. C. Burger, A. Jouvet, B. W. Scheithauer, and P. Kleihues, “The 2007 WHO Classification of Tumours of the Central Nervous System,” Acta Neuropathol. 114(2), 97–109 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lui, H.

Mahadevan-Jansen, A.

A. Mahadevan-Jansen and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Raman spectroscopy for the detection of cancers and precancers,” J. Biomed. Opt. 1(1), 31–70 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mandonnet, E.

L. Capelle, D. Fontaine, E. Mandonnet, L. Taillandier, J. L. Golmard, L. Bauchet, J. Pallud, P. Peruzzi, M. H. Baron, M. Kujas, J. Guyotat, R. Guillevin, M. Frenay, S. Taillibert, P. Colin, V. Rigau, F. Vandenbos, C. Pinelli, and H. Duffau, “Spontaneous and therapeutic prognostic factors in adult hemispheric World Health Organization Grade II gliomas: a series of 1097 cases: clinical article,” J. Neurosurg. 118(6), 1157–1168 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Manfait, M.

A. Beljebbar, S. Dukic, N. Amharref, and M. Manfait, “Ex vivo and in vivo diagnosis of C6 glioblastoma development by Raman spectroscopy coupled to a microprobe,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 398(1), 477–487 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Martus, P.

W. Stummer, T. Meinel, C. Ewelt, P. Martus, O. Jakobs, J. Felsberg, and G. Reifenberger, “Prospective cohort study of radiotherapy with concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide chemotherapy for glioblastoma patients with no or minimal residual enhancing tumor load after surgery,” J. Neurooncol. 108(1), 89–97 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maruyama, T.

Y. Muragaki, M. Chernov, T. Maruyama, T. Ochiai, T. Taira, O. Kubo, R. Nakamura, H. Iseki, T. Hori, and K. Takakura, “Low-grade glioma on stereotactic biopsy: how often is the diagnosis accurate?” Minim. Invasive Neurosurg. 51(5), 275–279 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McDermott, M. W.

J. S. Smith, E. F. Chang, K. R. Lamborn, S. M. Chang, M. D. Prados, S. Cha, T. Tihan, S. Vandenberg, M. W. McDermott, and M. S. Berger, “Role of Extent of Resection in the Long-Term Outcome of Low-Grade Hemispheric Gliomas,” J. Clin. Oncol. 26(8), 1338–1345 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McLean, D. I.

Mehdorn, H. M.

W. Stummer, J.-C. Tonn, H. M. Mehdorn, U. Nestler, K. Franz, C. Goetz, A. Bink, U. Pichlmeier, and ALA-Glioma Study Group, “Counterbalancing risks and gains from extended resections in malignant glioma surgery: a supplemental analysis from the randomized 5-aminolevulinic acid glioma resection study. Clinical article,” J. Neurosurg. 114(3), 613–623 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Meinel, T.

W. Stummer, T. Meinel, C. Ewelt, P. Martus, O. Jakobs, J. Felsberg, and G. Reifenberger, “Prospective cohort study of radiotherapy with concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide chemotherapy for glioblastoma patients with no or minimal residual enhancing tumor load after surgery,” J. Neurooncol. 108(1), 89–97 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mercier, Jeanne

Michael Jermyn, Kelvin Mok, Jeanne Mercier, Joannie Desroches, Julien Pichette, Karl Saint-Arnaud, Liane Bernstein, Marie-Christine Guiot, Kevin Petrecca, and Frederic Leblond, “Intraoperative brain cancer detection with Raman spectroscopy in humans,” Sci. Transl. Med. 7, 274ra19 (2015).

Mikkelsen, T.

S. N. Kalkanis, R. E. Kast, M. L. Rosenblum, T. Mikkelsen, S. M. Yurgelevic, K. M. Nelson, A. Raghunathan, L. M. Poisson, and G. W. Auner, “Raman spectroscopy to distinguish grey matter, necrosis, and glioblastoma multiforme in frozen tissue sections,” J. Neurooncol. 116(3), 477–485 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mok, K.

Mok, Kelvin

Michael Jermyn, Kelvin Mok, Jeanne Mercier, Joannie Desroches, Julien Pichette, Karl Saint-Arnaud, Liane Bernstein, Marie-Christine Guiot, Kevin Petrecca, and Frederic Leblond, “Intraoperative brain cancer detection with Raman spectroscopy in humans,” Sci. Transl. Med. 7, 274ra19 (2015).

Movasaghi, Z.

Z. Movasaghi, S. Rehman, and I. U. Rehman, “Raman Spectroscopy of Biological Tissues,” Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 42(5), 493–541 (2007).
[Crossref]

Muragaki, Y.

Y. Muragaki, M. Chernov, T. Maruyama, T. Ochiai, T. Taira, O. Kubo, R. Nakamura, H. Iseki, T. Hori, and K. Takakura, “Low-grade glioma on stereotactic biopsy: how often is the diagnosis accurate?” Minim. Invasive Neurosurg. 51(5), 275–279 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nakamura, R.

Y. Muragaki, M. Chernov, T. Maruyama, T. Ochiai, T. Taira, O. Kubo, R. Nakamura, H. Iseki, T. Hori, and K. Takakura, “Low-grade glioma on stereotactic biopsy: how often is the diagnosis accurate?” Minim. Invasive Neurosurg. 51(5), 275–279 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nelson, K. M.

S. N. Kalkanis, R. E. Kast, M. L. Rosenblum, T. Mikkelsen, S. M. Yurgelevic, K. M. Nelson, A. Raghunathan, L. M. Poisson, and G. W. Auner, “Raman spectroscopy to distinguish grey matter, necrosis, and glioblastoma multiforme in frozen tissue sections,” J. Neurooncol. 116(3), 477–485 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nestler, U.

W. Stummer, J.-C. Tonn, H. M. Mehdorn, U. Nestler, K. Franz, C. Goetz, A. Bink, U. Pichlmeier, and ALA-Glioma Study Group, “Counterbalancing risks and gains from extended resections in malignant glioma surgery: a supplemental analysis from the randomized 5-aminolevulinic acid glioma resection study. Clinical article,” J. Neurosurg. 114(3), 613–623 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ochiai, T.

Y. Muragaki, M. Chernov, T. Maruyama, T. Ochiai, T. Taira, O. Kubo, R. Nakamura, H. Iseki, T. Hori, and K. Takakura, “Low-grade glioma on stereotactic biopsy: how often is the diagnosis accurate?” Minim. Invasive Neurosurg. 51(5), 275–279 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ohgaki, H.

D. N. Louis, H. Ohgaki, O. D. Wiestler, W. K. Cavenee, P. C. Burger, A. Jouvet, B. W. Scheithauer, and P. Kleihues, “The 2007 WHO Classification of Tumours of the Central Nervous System,” Acta Neuropathol. 114(2), 97–109 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ohno-Machado, L.

I.-F. Talos, K. H. Zou, L. Ohno-Machado, J. G. Bhagwat, R. Kikinis, P. M. Black, and F. A. Jolesz, “Supratentorial low-grade glioma resectability: statistical predictive analysis based on anatomic MR features and tumor characteristics,” Radiology 239(2), 506–513 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pallud, J.

L. Capelle, D. Fontaine, E. Mandonnet, L. Taillandier, J. L. Golmard, L. Bauchet, J. Pallud, P. Peruzzi, M. H. Baron, M. Kujas, J. Guyotat, R. Guillevin, M. Frenay, S. Taillibert, P. Colin, V. Rigau, F. Vandenbos, C. Pinelli, and H. Duffau, “Spontaneous and therapeutic prognostic factors in adult hemispheric World Health Organization Grade II gliomas: a series of 1097 cases: clinical article,” J. Neurosurg. 118(6), 1157–1168 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Paulsen, K. D.

Peruzzi, P.

L. Capelle, D. Fontaine, E. Mandonnet, L. Taillandier, J. L. Golmard, L. Bauchet, J. Pallud, P. Peruzzi, M. H. Baron, M. Kujas, J. Guyotat, R. Guillevin, M. Frenay, S. Taillibert, P. Colin, V. Rigau, F. Vandenbos, C. Pinelli, and H. Duffau, “Spontaneous and therapeutic prognostic factors in adult hemispheric World Health Organization Grade II gliomas: a series of 1097 cases: clinical article,” J. Neurosurg. 118(6), 1157–1168 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Petrecca, K.

Petrecca, Kevin

Michael Jermyn, Kelvin Mok, Jeanne Mercier, Joannie Desroches, Julien Pichette, Karl Saint-Arnaud, Liane Bernstein, Marie-Christine Guiot, Kevin Petrecca, and Frederic Leblond, “Intraoperative brain cancer detection with Raman spectroscopy in humans,” Sci. Transl. Med. 7, 274ra19 (2015).

Pichette, J.

Pichette, Julien

Michael Jermyn, Kelvin Mok, Jeanne Mercier, Joannie Desroches, Julien Pichette, Karl Saint-Arnaud, Liane Bernstein, Marie-Christine Guiot, Kevin Petrecca, and Frederic Leblond, “Intraoperative brain cancer detection with Raman spectroscopy in humans,” Sci. Transl. Med. 7, 274ra19 (2015).

Pichlmeier, U.

W. Stummer, J.-C. Tonn, H. M. Mehdorn, U. Nestler, K. Franz, C. Goetz, A. Bink, U. Pichlmeier, and ALA-Glioma Study Group, “Counterbalancing risks and gains from extended resections in malignant glioma surgery: a supplemental analysis from the randomized 5-aminolevulinic acid glioma resection study. Clinical article,” J. Neurosurg. 114(3), 613–623 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pinelli, C.

L. Capelle, D. Fontaine, E. Mandonnet, L. Taillandier, J. L. Golmard, L. Bauchet, J. Pallud, P. Peruzzi, M. H. Baron, M. Kujas, J. Guyotat, R. Guillevin, M. Frenay, S. Taillibert, P. Colin, V. Rigau, F. Vandenbos, C. Pinelli, and H. Duffau, “Spontaneous and therapeutic prognostic factors in adult hemispheric World Health Organization Grade II gliomas: a series of 1097 cases: clinical article,” J. Neurosurg. 118(6), 1157–1168 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Poisson, L. M.

S. N. Kalkanis, R. E. Kast, M. L. Rosenblum, T. Mikkelsen, S. M. Yurgelevic, K. M. Nelson, A. Raghunathan, L. M. Poisson, and G. W. Auner, “Raman spectroscopy to distinguish grey matter, necrosis, and glioblastoma multiforme in frozen tissue sections,” J. Neurooncol. 116(3), 477–485 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Popp, J.

N. Bergner, C. Krafft, K. D. Geiger, M. Kirsch, G. Schackert, and J. Popp, “Unsupervised unmixing of Raman microspectroscopic images for morphochemical analysis of non-dried brain tumor specimens,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 403(3), 719–725 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Poulsen, H. S.

R. Henriksson, T. Asklund, and H. S. Poulsen, “Impact of therapy on quality of life, neurocognitive function and their correlates in glioblastoma multiforme: a review,” J. Neurooncol. 104(3), 639–646 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Prados, M. D.

J. S. Smith, E. F. Chang, K. R. Lamborn, S. M. Chang, M. D. Prados, S. Cha, T. Tihan, S. Vandenberg, M. W. McDermott, and M. S. Berger, “Role of Extent of Resection in the Long-Term Outcome of Low-Grade Hemispheric Gliomas,” J. Clin. Oncol. 26(8), 1338–1345 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Raghunathan, A.

S. N. Kalkanis, R. E. Kast, M. L. Rosenblum, T. Mikkelsen, S. M. Yurgelevic, K. M. Nelson, A. Raghunathan, L. M. Poisson, and G. W. Auner, “Raman spectroscopy to distinguish grey matter, necrosis, and glioblastoma multiforme in frozen tissue sections,” J. Neurooncol. 116(3), 477–485 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ramírez-Elías, M. G.

Rehman, I. U.

Z. Movasaghi, S. Rehman, and I. U. Rehman, “Raman Spectroscopy of Biological Tissues,” Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 42(5), 493–541 (2007).
[Crossref]

Rehman, S.

Z. Movasaghi, S. Rehman, and I. U. Rehman, “Raman Spectroscopy of Biological Tissues,” Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 42(5), 493–541 (2007).
[Crossref]

Reifenberger, G.

W. Stummer, T. Meinel, C. Ewelt, P. Martus, O. Jakobs, J. Felsberg, and G. Reifenberger, “Prospective cohort study of radiotherapy with concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide chemotherapy for glioblastoma patients with no or minimal residual enhancing tumor load after surgery,” J. Neurooncol. 108(1), 89–97 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Richards-Kortum, R. R.

A. Mahadevan-Jansen and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Raman spectroscopy for the detection of cancers and precancers,” J. Biomed. Opt. 1(1), 31–70 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rigau, V.

L. Capelle, D. Fontaine, E. Mandonnet, L. Taillandier, J. L. Golmard, L. Bauchet, J. Pallud, P. Peruzzi, M. H. Baron, M. Kujas, J. Guyotat, R. Guillevin, M. Frenay, S. Taillibert, P. Colin, V. Rigau, F. Vandenbos, C. Pinelli, and H. Duffau, “Spontaneous and therapeutic prognostic factors in adult hemispheric World Health Organization Grade II gliomas: a series of 1097 cases: clinical article,” J. Neurosurg. 118(6), 1157–1168 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Roberts, D. W.

Rosenblum, M. L.

S. N. Kalkanis, R. E. Kast, M. L. Rosenblum, T. Mikkelsen, S. M. Yurgelevic, K. M. Nelson, A. Raghunathan, L. M. Poisson, and G. W. Auner, “Raman spectroscopy to distinguish grey matter, necrosis, and glioblastoma multiforme in frozen tissue sections,” J. Neurooncol. 116(3), 477–485 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ruud Bosch, J. L. H.

R. O. P. Draga, M. C. M. Grimbergen, P. L. M. Vijverberg, C. F. P. van Swol, T. G. N. Jonges, J. A. Kummer, and J. L. H. Ruud Bosch, “In Vivo Bladder Cancer Diagnosis by High-Volume Raman Spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 82(14), 5993–5999 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Saint-Arnaud, Karl

Michael Jermyn, Kelvin Mok, Jeanne Mercier, Joannie Desroches, Julien Pichette, Karl Saint-Arnaud, Liane Bernstein, Marie-Christine Guiot, Kevin Petrecca, and Frederic Leblond, “Intraoperative brain cancer detection with Raman spectroscopy in humans,” Sci. Transl. Med. 7, 274ra19 (2015).

Sawin, P. D.

P. D. Sawin, P. W. Hitchon, K. A. Follett, and J. C. Torner, “Computed Imaging-Assisted Stereotactic Brain Biopsy: A Risk Analysis of 225 Consecutive Cases,” Surg. Neurol. 49(6), 640–649 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schackert, G.

N. Bergner, C. Krafft, K. D. Geiger, M. Kirsch, G. Schackert, and J. Popp, “Unsupervised unmixing of Raman microspectroscopic images for morphochemical analysis of non-dried brain tumor specimens,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 403(3), 719–725 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Scheithauer, B. W.

D. N. Louis, H. Ohgaki, O. D. Wiestler, W. K. Cavenee, P. C. Burger, A. Jouvet, B. W. Scheithauer, and P. Kleihues, “The 2007 WHO Classification of Tumours of the Central Nervous System,” Acta Neuropathol. 114(2), 97–109 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schold, S. C.

M. J. Glantz, P. C. Burger, J. E. Herndon, A. H. Friedman, J. G. Cairncross, N. A. Vick, and S. C. Schold., “Influence of the type of surgery on the histologic diagnosis in patients with anaplastic gliomas,” Neurology 41(11), 1741–1744 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Singh, G. P.

I. Barman, N. C. Dingari, G. P. Singh, J. S. Soares, R. R. Dasari, and J. M. Smulko, “Investigation of noise-induced instabilities in quantitative biological spectroscopy and its implications for noninvasive glucose monitoring,” Anal. Chem. 84(19), 8149–8156 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Barman, C.-R. Kong, G. P. Singh, and R. R. Dasari, “Effect of photobleaching on calibration model development in biological Raman spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(1), 011004 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smith, J.

N. Stone, C. Kendall, J. Smith, P. Crow, and H. Barr, “Raman spectroscopy for identification of epithelial cancers,” Faraday Discuss. 126, 141–157 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smith, J. S.

J. S. Smith, E. F. Chang, K. R. Lamborn, S. M. Chang, M. D. Prados, S. Cha, T. Tihan, S. Vandenberg, M. W. McDermott, and M. S. Berger, “Role of Extent of Resection in the Long-Term Outcome of Low-Grade Hemispheric Gliomas,” J. Clin. Oncol. 26(8), 1338–1345 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smulko, J. M.

J. M. Smulko, N. C. Dingari, J. S. Soares, and I. Barman, “Anatomy of noise in quantitative biological Raman spectroscopy,” Bioanalysis 6(3), 411–421 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Barman, N. C. Dingari, G. P. Singh, J. S. Soares, R. R. Dasari, and J. M. Smulko, “Investigation of noise-induced instabilities in quantitative biological spectroscopy and its implications for noninvasive glucose monitoring,” Anal. Chem. 84(19), 8149–8156 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Soares, J. S.

J. M. Smulko, N. C. Dingari, J. S. Soares, and I. Barman, “Anatomy of noise in quantitative biological Raman spectroscopy,” Bioanalysis 6(3), 411–421 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Barman, N. C. Dingari, G. P. Singh, J. S. Soares, R. R. Dasari, and J. M. Smulko, “Investigation of noise-induced instabilities in quantitative biological spectroscopy and its implications for noninvasive glucose monitoring,” Anal. Chem. 84(19), 8149–8156 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stone, N.

N. Stone, C. Kendall, J. Smith, P. Crow, and H. Barr, “Raman spectroscopy for identification of epithelial cancers,” Faraday Discuss. 126, 141–157 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Crow, N. Stone, C. A. Kendall, J. S. Uff, J. A. Farmer, H. Barr, and M. P. J. Wright, “The use of Raman spectroscopy to identify and grade prostatic adenocarcinoma in vitro,” Br. J. Cancer 89(1), 106–108 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stummer, W.

W. Stummer, T. Meinel, C. Ewelt, P. Martus, O. Jakobs, J. Felsberg, and G. Reifenberger, “Prospective cohort study of radiotherapy with concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide chemotherapy for glioblastoma patients with no or minimal residual enhancing tumor load after surgery,” J. Neurooncol. 108(1), 89–97 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Stummer, J.-C. Tonn, H. M. Mehdorn, U. Nestler, K. Franz, C. Goetz, A. Bink, U. Pichlmeier, and ALA-Glioma Study Group, “Counterbalancing risks and gains from extended resections in malignant glioma surgery: a supplemental analysis from the randomized 5-aminolevulinic acid glioma resection study. Clinical article,” J. Neurosurg. 114(3), 613–623 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Taillandier, L.

L. Capelle, D. Fontaine, E. Mandonnet, L. Taillandier, J. L. Golmard, L. Bauchet, J. Pallud, P. Peruzzi, M. H. Baron, M. Kujas, J. Guyotat, R. Guillevin, M. Frenay, S. Taillibert, P. Colin, V. Rigau, F. Vandenbos, C. Pinelli, and H. Duffau, “Spontaneous and therapeutic prognostic factors in adult hemispheric World Health Organization Grade II gliomas: a series of 1097 cases: clinical article,” J. Neurosurg. 118(6), 1157–1168 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Taillibert, S.

L. Capelle, D. Fontaine, E. Mandonnet, L. Taillandier, J. L. Golmard, L. Bauchet, J. Pallud, P. Peruzzi, M. H. Baron, M. Kujas, J. Guyotat, R. Guillevin, M. Frenay, S. Taillibert, P. Colin, V. Rigau, F. Vandenbos, C. Pinelli, and H. Duffau, “Spontaneous and therapeutic prognostic factors in adult hemispheric World Health Organization Grade II gliomas: a series of 1097 cases: clinical article,” J. Neurosurg. 118(6), 1157–1168 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Taira, T.

Y. Muragaki, M. Chernov, T. Maruyama, T. Ochiai, T. Taira, O. Kubo, R. Nakamura, H. Iseki, T. Hori, and K. Takakura, “Low-grade glioma on stereotactic biopsy: how often is the diagnosis accurate?” Minim. Invasive Neurosurg. 51(5), 275–279 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Takakura, K.

Y. Muragaki, M. Chernov, T. Maruyama, T. Ochiai, T. Taira, O. Kubo, R. Nakamura, H. Iseki, T. Hori, and K. Takakura, “Low-grade glioma on stereotactic biopsy: how often is the diagnosis accurate?” Minim. Invasive Neurosurg. 51(5), 275–279 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Talos, I.-F.

I.-F. Talos, K. H. Zou, L. Ohno-Machado, J. G. Bhagwat, R. Kikinis, P. M. Black, and F. A. Jolesz, “Supratentorial low-grade glioma resectability: statistical predictive analysis based on anatomic MR features and tumor characteristics,” Radiology 239(2), 506–513 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tamber, M. S.

P. N. Kongkham, E. Knifed, M. S. Tamber, and M. Bernstein, “Complications in 622 Cases of Frame-Based Stereotactic Biopsy, a Decreasing Procedure,” Can. J. Neurol. Sci. 35(1), 79–84 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tihan, T.

J. S. Smith, E. F. Chang, K. R. Lamborn, S. M. Chang, M. D. Prados, S. Cha, T. Tihan, S. Vandenberg, M. W. McDermott, and M. S. Berger, “Role of Extent of Resection in the Long-Term Outcome of Low-Grade Hemispheric Gliomas,” J. Clin. Oncol. 26(8), 1338–1345 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tonn, J.-C.

W. Stummer, J.-C. Tonn, H. M. Mehdorn, U. Nestler, K. Franz, C. Goetz, A. Bink, U. Pichlmeier, and ALA-Glioma Study Group, “Counterbalancing risks and gains from extended resections in malignant glioma surgery: a supplemental analysis from the randomized 5-aminolevulinic acid glioma resection study. Clinical article,” J. Neurosurg. 114(3), 613–623 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Torner, J. C.

P. D. Sawin, P. W. Hitchon, K. A. Follett, and J. C. Torner, “Computed Imaging-Assisted Stereotactic Brain Biopsy: A Risk Analysis of 225 Consecutive Cases,” Surg. Neurol. 49(6), 640–649 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tremblay, M.-A.

Uff, J. S.

P. Crow, N. Stone, C. A. Kendall, J. S. Uff, J. A. Farmer, H. Barr, and M. P. J. Wright, “The use of Raman spectroscopy to identify and grade prostatic adenocarcinoma in vitro,” Br. J. Cancer 89(1), 106–108 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

van Swol, C. F. P.

R. O. P. Draga, M. C. M. Grimbergen, P. L. M. Vijverberg, C. F. P. van Swol, T. G. N. Jonges, J. A. Kummer, and J. L. H. Ruud Bosch, “In Vivo Bladder Cancer Diagnosis by High-Volume Raman Spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 82(14), 5993–5999 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vandenberg, S.

J. S. Smith, E. F. Chang, K. R. Lamborn, S. M. Chang, M. D. Prados, S. Cha, T. Tihan, S. Vandenberg, M. W. McDermott, and M. S. Berger, “Role of Extent of Resection in the Long-Term Outcome of Low-Grade Hemispheric Gliomas,” J. Clin. Oncol. 26(8), 1338–1345 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vandenbos, F.

L. Capelle, D. Fontaine, E. Mandonnet, L. Taillandier, J. L. Golmard, L. Bauchet, J. Pallud, P. Peruzzi, M. H. Baron, M. Kujas, J. Guyotat, R. Guillevin, M. Frenay, S. Taillibert, P. Colin, V. Rigau, F. Vandenbos, C. Pinelli, and H. Duffau, “Spontaneous and therapeutic prognostic factors in adult hemispheric World Health Organization Grade II gliomas: a series of 1097 cases: clinical article,” J. Neurosurg. 118(6), 1157–1168 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vick, N. A.

M. J. Glantz, P. C. Burger, J. E. Herndon, A. H. Friedman, J. G. Cairncross, N. A. Vick, and S. C. Schold., “Influence of the type of surgery on the histologic diagnosis in patients with anaplastic gliomas,” Neurology 41(11), 1741–1744 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vijverberg, P. L. M.

R. O. P. Draga, M. C. M. Grimbergen, P. L. M. Vijverberg, C. F. P. van Swol, T. G. N. Jonges, J. A. Kummer, and J. L. H. Ruud Bosch, “In Vivo Bladder Cancer Diagnosis by High-Volume Raman Spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 82(14), 5993–5999 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wiestler, O. D.

D. N. Louis, H. Ohgaki, O. D. Wiestler, W. K. Cavenee, P. C. Burger, A. Jouvet, B. W. Scheithauer, and P. Kleihues, “The 2007 WHO Classification of Tumours of the Central Nervous System,” Acta Neuropathol. 114(2), 97–109 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Williams, L. J.

H. Abdi and L. J. Williams, “Principal component analysis,” Wiley Interdiscip. Rev. Comput. Stat. 2(4), 433–459 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wilson, B. C.

Wright, M. P. J.

P. Crow, N. Stone, C. A. Kendall, J. S. Uff, J. A. Farmer, H. Barr, and M. P. J. Wright, “The use of Raman spectroscopy to identify and grade prostatic adenocarcinoma in vitro,” Br. J. Cancer 89(1), 106–108 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yurgelevic, S. M.

S. N. Kalkanis, R. E. Kast, M. L. Rosenblum, T. Mikkelsen, S. M. Yurgelevic, K. M. Nelson, A. Raghunathan, L. M. Poisson, and G. W. Auner, “Raman spectroscopy to distinguish grey matter, necrosis, and glioblastoma multiforme in frozen tissue sections,” J. Neurooncol. 116(3), 477–485 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zeng, H.

Zhao, J.

Zou, K. H.

I.-F. Talos, K. H. Zou, L. Ohno-Machado, J. G. Bhagwat, R. Kikinis, P. M. Black, and F. A. Jolesz, “Supratentorial low-grade glioma resectability: statistical predictive analysis based on anatomic MR features and tumor characteristics,” Radiology 239(2), 506–513 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Acta Neuropathol. (1)

D. N. Louis, H. Ohgaki, O. D. Wiestler, W. K. Cavenee, P. C. Burger, A. Jouvet, B. W. Scheithauer, and P. Kleihues, “The 2007 WHO Classification of Tumours of the Central Nervous System,” Acta Neuropathol. 114(2), 97–109 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anal. Bioanal. Chem. (2)

A. Beljebbar, S. Dukic, N. Amharref, and M. Manfait, “Ex vivo and in vivo diagnosis of C6 glioblastoma development by Raman spectroscopy coupled to a microprobe,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 398(1), 477–487 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Bergner, C. Krafft, K. D. Geiger, M. Kirsch, G. Schackert, and J. Popp, “Unsupervised unmixing of Raman microspectroscopic images for morphochemical analysis of non-dried brain tumor specimens,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 403(3), 719–725 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anal. Chem. (2)

R. O. P. Draga, M. C. M. Grimbergen, P. L. M. Vijverberg, C. F. P. van Swol, T. G. N. Jonges, J. A. Kummer, and J. L. H. Ruud Bosch, “In Vivo Bladder Cancer Diagnosis by High-Volume Raman Spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 82(14), 5993–5999 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Barman, N. C. Dingari, G. P. Singh, J. S. Soares, R. R. Dasari, and J. M. Smulko, “Investigation of noise-induced instabilities in quantitative biological spectroscopy and its implications for noninvasive glucose monitoring,” Anal. Chem. 84(19), 8149–8156 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Spectrosc. (2)

Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. (1)

Z. Movasaghi, S. Rehman, and I. U. Rehman, “Raman Spectroscopy of Biological Tissues,” Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 42(5), 493–541 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bioanalysis (1)

J. M. Smulko, N. C. Dingari, J. S. Soares, and I. Barman, “Anatomy of noise in quantitative biological Raman spectroscopy,” Bioanalysis 6(3), 411–421 (2014).
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Br. J. Cancer (1)

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Supplementary Material (1)

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Raman spectroscopy system for intraoperative detection (A) Photograph of the hand-held contact probe, with the attached neuronavigation tracking unit. (B) Illustration of the probe being used intraoperatively, with the neuronavigation system showing the location of the tip of the probe (cross hairs) on the preoperative MR images.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (A) Intensity of 3 peaks on the Raman spectrum of Tylenol as a function of integration time, with linear fit and corresponding R2 value for each curve, (B) Ratios of Raman intensity peaks as a function of integration time. (C) Intensity of 3 peaks as a function of laser power, demonstrating linearity in the 40 to 60 mW range with corresponding R2 value associated with a linear fit performed in that range. (D) Ratios of Raman intensity peaks as a function of laser power.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Raman spectrum of a solid phantom (polyurethane), illustrating the definition of peak height for the SNR evaluation.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Signal to noise ratio of three different peaks on the spectra of the solid phantom, as a function of integration time (laser intensity kept fixed), calculated with Eq. (3) on (A) raw spectra and (B) Raman spectra, with the background subtracted using the fifth order polynomial fit.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Signal to noise ratio of three different peaks on the spectra of the solid phantom, as a function of the camera temperature.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Sources of ambient light in the operating room: (A) surgical lights (Dr Mach, model 380, Germany) (B) fluorescent light sources (C) liquid-crystal display (LCD) monitors (D) white-light source from the OPMI Pentero surgical microscope (Zeiss, Oberkochen, Germany) (E) windows with a view to the exterior of the OR (F) neuronavigation system (Medtronic) infrared sources.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (A) Representative spectra acquired on veal brain under the ambient light conditions that caused the largest spectral artifacts not specific to inelastic scattering. An offset has been added along the intensity axis to clearly separate all spectra. (B) PCA scatter plot of score 1 versus score 2 of Raman spectra of veal brain for every ambient light conditions considered: no lights (o), LCD monitor ( + ), IR source of the neuronavigation system ON (*), Microscope blue and white light with different intensities (>), surgical lights HD (x), surgical lights LD (square), surgical lights LI (diamond), surgical lights HI (^), fluorescent lights (v), external lights (<). K-means cluster analysis was used to group observations into 5 clusters, and the one including all the measurements with the condition “no lights” is represented by the circle. The radius of that circle is the largest distance between a point in the cluster and the centroïd of that cluster. This is shown more clearly in the zoom of this section of the plot.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Image grabbed from the video (see Media 1) showing the surgeon handling the probe.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Spectra of normal brain, cancer and necrotic tissue, averaged over all measurements.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Spectra illustrating the different steps associated with the data preprocessing procedure: (A) Raman spectrum of Acteminophen acquired with the probe and used as a reference for calibration of the wave number axis (x-axis), (B) Correction factor to account for the system response, obtained from the calibrated white light lamp and a reflectance standard, (C) Spectrum of the lamp used as a reference for calibration of the x-axis, (D) Raw Raman spectrum from human grey matter (black line) with the corresponding polynomial fit used to remove the background.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 Comparison of the Raman spectra of veal brain (blue) and human brain (green) for (A) raw spectra and (B) spectra with the background removed.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Ambient light sources and corresponding symbols, used in Fig. 7

Equations (3)

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R = I m e a s u r e d I t r u e
S N R = S ¯ σ y .
S N R S ¯ .

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