Abstract

We analyze the physics behind the newest generation of rapidly wavelength tunable sources for optical coherence tomography (OCT), retaining a single longitudinal cavity mode during operation without repeated build up of lasing. In this context, we theoretically investigate the currently existing concepts of rapidly wavelength-swept lasers based on tuning of the cavity length or refractive index, leading to an altered optical path length inside the resonator. Specifically, we consider vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) with microelectromechanical system (MEMS) mirrors as well as Fourier domain mode-locked (FDML) and Vernier-tuned distributed Bragg reflector (VT-DBR) lasers. Based on heuristic arguments and exact analytical solutions of Maxwell’s equations for a fundamental laser resonator model, we show that adiabatic wavelength tuning is achieved, i.e., hopping between cavity modes associated with a repeated build up of lasing is avoided, and the photon number is conserved. As a consequence, no fundamental limit exists for the wavelength tuning speed, in principle enabling wide-range wavelength sweeps at arbitrary tuning speeds with narrow instantaneous linewidth.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
Retinal, anterior segment and full eye imaging using ultrahigh speed swept source OCT with vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers

Ireneusz Grulkowski, Jonathan J. Liu, Benjamin Potsaid, Vijaysekhar Jayaraman, Chen D. Lu, James Jiang, Alex E. Cable, Jay S. Duker, and James G. Fujimoto
Biomed. Opt. Express 3(11) 2733-2751 (2012)

Spectral narrowing effect by quasi-phase continuous tuning in high-speed wavelength-swept light source

Changho Chong, Takuya Suzuki, Atsushi Morosawa, and Tooru Sakai
Opt. Express 16(25) 21105-21118 (2008)

High-speed dispersion-tuned wavelength-swept fiber laser using a reflective SOA and a chirped FBG

Yuya Takubo and Shinji Yamashita
Opt. Express 21(4) 5130-5139 (2013)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. S.-H. Yun, C. Boudoux, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “High-speed wavelength-swept semiconductor laser with a polygon-scanner-based wavelength filter,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1981–1983 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, K. Taira, J. G. Fujimoto, and K. Hsu, “Amplified, frequency swept lasers for frequency domain reflectometry and OCT imaging: design and scaling principles,” Opt. Express 13, 3513–3528 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. Y. Yasuno, V. D. Madjarova, S. Makita, M. Akiba, A. Morosawa, C. Chong, T. Sakai, K.-P. Chan, M. Itoh, and T. Yatagai, “Three-dimensional and high-speed swept-source optical coherence tomography for in vivo investigation of human anterior eye segments,” Opt. Express 13, 10652–10664 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. H. Lim, J. De Boer, B. Park, E. Lee, R. Yelin, and S. Yun, “Optical frequency domain imaging with a rapidly swept laser in the 815–870 nm range,” Opt. Express 14, 5937–5944 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I.-K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med. 12, 1429–1433 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. M. A. Choma, K. Hsu, and J. A. Izatt, “Swept source optical coherence tomography using an all-fiber 1300-nm ring laser source,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 044009 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  7. W. Wieser, B. R. Biedermann, T. Klein, C. M. Eigenwillig, and R. Huber, “Multi-megahertz OCT: High quality 3D imaging at 20 million A-scans and 4.5 GVoxels per second,” Opt. Express 18, 14685–14704 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. I. Grulkowski, J. J. Liu, B. Potsaid, V. Jayaraman, C. D. Lu, J. Jiang, A. E. Cable, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Retinal, anterior segment and full eye imaging using ultrahigh speed swept source OCT with vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3, 2733–2751 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. W. Wieser, T. Klein, D. C. Adler, F. Trépanier, C. M. Eigenwillig, S. Karpf, J. M. Schmitt, and R. Huber, “Extended coherence length megahertz FDML and its application for anterior segment imaging,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3, 2647–2657 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. T. Klein, R. André, W. Wieser, T. Pfeiffer, and R. Huber, “Joint aperture detection for speckle reduction and increased collection efficiency in ophthalmic MHz OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4, 619–634 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. C. Blatter, T. Klein, B. Grajciar, T. Schmoll, W. Wieser, R. Andre, R. Huber, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Ultrahigh-speed non-invasive widefield angiography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 0705051 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  12. T. Klein, W. Wieser, L. Reznicek, A. Neubauer, A. Kampik, and R. Huber, “Multi-MHz retinal OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4, 1890–1908 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. W. Wieser, W. Draxinger, T. Klein, S. Karpf, T. Pfeiffer, and R. Huber, “High definition live 3D-OCT in vivo: design and evaluation of a 4D OCT engine with 1 GVoxel/s,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5, 2963–2977 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. D. Yelin, W. M. White, J. T. Motz, S. H. Yun, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Spectral-domain spectrally-encoded endoscopy,” Opt. Express 15, 2432–2444 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. S. Karpf, M. Eibl, W. Wieser, T. Klein, and R. Huber, “Time-Encoded Raman: Fiber-based, hyperspectral, broadband stimulated Raman microscopy,” e-print arXiv:1405.4181 [physics.optics] (2014).
  16. L. A. Kranendonk, R. J. Bartula, and S. T. Sanders, “Modeless operation of a wavelength-agile laser by high-speed cavity length changes,” Opt. Express 13, 1498–1507 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. L. A. Kranendonk, X. An, A. W. Caswell, R. E. Herold, S. T. Sanders, R. Huber, J. G. Fujimoto, Y. Okura, and Y. Urata, “High speed engine gas thermometry by Fourier-domain mode-locked laser absorption spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 15, 15115–15128 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. L. A. Kranendonk, R. Huber, J. G. Fujimoto, and S. T. Sanders, “Wavelength-agile H2O absorption spectrometer for thermometry of general combustion gases,” Proceedings of the Combustion Institute 31, 783–790 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  19. D. C. Adler, J. Stenger, I. Gorczynska, H. Lie, T. Hensick, R. Spronk, S. Wolohojian, N. Khandekar, J. Y. Jiang, S. Barry, A. E. Cable, R. Huber, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Comparison of three-dimensional optical coherence tomography and high resolution photography for art conservation studies,” Opt. Express 15, 15972–15986 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. D. Stifter, P. Burgholzer, O. Höglinger, E. Götzinger, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Polarisation-sensitive optical coherence tomography for material characterisation and strain-field mapping,” Appl. Phys. A Mater. Sci. 76, 947–951 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  21. J. A. Zeitler and L. F. Gladden, “In-vitro tomography and non-destructive imaging at depth of pharmaceutical solid dosage forms,” Eur. J. Pharm. Biopharm. 71, 2–22 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  22. E. J. Jung, C.-S. Kim, M. Y. Jeong, M. K. Kim, M. Y. Jeon, W. Jung, and Z. Chen, “Characterization of FBG sensor interrogation based on a FDML wavelength swept laser,” Opt. Express 16, 16552–16560 (2008).
    [PubMed]
  23. Y. Nakazaki and S. Yamashita, “Fast and wide tuning range wavelength-swept fiber laser based on dispersion tuning and its application to dynamic FBG sensing,” Opt. Express 17, 8310–8318 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. T. Klein, W. Wieser, C. M. Eigenwillig, B. R. Biedermann, and R. Huber, “Megahertz OCT for ultrawide-field retinal imaging with a 1050nm Fourier domain mode-locked laser,” Opt. Express 19, 3044–3062 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. T. Wang, W. Wieser, G. Springeling, R. Beurskens, C. T. Lancee, T. Pfeiffer, A. F. van der Steen, R. Huber, and G. v. Soest, “Intravascular optical coherence tomography imaging at 3200 frames per second,” Opt. Lett. 38, 1715–1717 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. S. Slepneva, B. OShaughnessy, B. Kelleher, S. Hegarty, A. Vladimirov, H.-C. Lyu, K. Karnowski, M. Wojtkowski, and G. Huyet, “Dynamics of a short cavity swept source OCT laser,” Opt. Express 22, 18177–18185 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  27. M. Kuznetsov, W. Atia, B. Johnson, and D. Flanders, “Compact ultrafast reflective Fabry-Perot tunable lasers for OCT imaging applications,” in Proc. SPIE 7554, Optical Coherence Tomography and Coherence Domain Optical Methods in Biomedicine XIV p. 75541F (2010).
    [Crossref]
  28. B. Potsaid, B. Baumann, D. Huang, S. Barry, A. E. Cable, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh speed 1050nm swept source / Fourier domain OCT retinal and anterior segment imaging at 100,000 to 400,000 axial scans per second,” Opt. Express 18, 20029–20048 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  29. A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science Books, 1986).
  30. J. Ensher, P. Boschert, K. Featherston, J. Huber, M. Crawford, M. Minneman, C. Chiccone, and D. Derickson, “Long coherence length and linear sweep without an external optical k-clock in a monolithic semiconductor laser for inexpensive optical coherence tomography,” in Proc. SPIE 8213, Optical Coherence Tomography and Coherence Domain Optical Methods in Biomedicine XVI p. 82130T (2012).
    [Crossref]
  31. M. P. Minneman, J. Ensher, M. Crawforda, and D. Derickson, “All-semiconductor high-speed akinetic swept-source for OCT,” in Proc. SPIE 8311, Optical Sensors and Biophotonics III p. 831116 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  32. M. Bonesi, M. Minneman, J. Ensher, B. Zabihian, H. Sattmann, P. Boschert, E. Hoover, R. Leitgeb, M. Crawford, and W. Drexler, “Akinetic all-semiconductor programmable swept-source at 1550 nm and 1310 nm with centimeters coherence length,” Opt. Express 22, 2632–2655 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  33. T. Yano, H. Saitou, N. Kanbara, R. Noda, S.-i. Tezuka, N. Fujimura, M. Ooyama, T. Watanabe, T. Hirata, and N. Nishiyama, “Wavelength modulation over 500 kHz of micromechanically tunable InP-based VCSELs with Si-MEMS technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 528–534 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  34. V. Jayaraman, J. Jiang, H. Li, P. Heim, G. Cole, B. Potsaid, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. Cable, “OCT imaging up to 760kHz axial scan rate using single-mode 1310nm MEMs-tunable VCSELs with >100nm tuning range,” in CLEO: Science and Innovations p. PDPB2 (2011).
  35. O. O. Ahsen, Y. K. Tao, B. M. Potsaid, Y. Sheikine, J. Jiang, I. Grulkowski, T.-H. Tsai, V. Jayaraman, M. F. Kraus, J. L. Connolly, and et al., “Swept source optical coherence microscopy using a 1310 nm VCSEL light source,” Opt. Express 21, 18021–18033 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  36. T.-H. Tsai, B. Potsaid, Y. K. Tao, V. Jayaraman, J. Jiang, P. J. Heim, M. F. Kraus, C. Zhou, J. Hornegger, H. Mashimo, and et al., “Ultrahigh speed endoscopic optical coherence tomography using micromotor imaging catheter and VCSEL technology,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4, 1119–1132 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  37. R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Fourier Domain Mode Locking (FDML): A new laser operating regime and applications for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 14, 3225–3237 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  38. D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, R. Huber, J. Schmitt, J. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Three-dimensional endomicroscopy using optical coherence tomography,” Nature Photon. 1, 709–716 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  39. E. J. Reed, M. Soljačić, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Color of shock waves in photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 203904 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  40. M. F. Yanik and S. Fan, “Time reversal of light with linear optics and modulators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 173903 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  41. M. Notomi and S. Mitsugi, “Wavelength conversion via dynamic refractive index tuning of a cavity,” Phys. Rev. A 73, 51803 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  42. Z. Gaburro, M. Ghulinyan, F. Riboli, L. Pavesi, A. Recati, and I. Carusotto, “Photon energy lifter,” Opt. Express 14, 7270–7278 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  43. B. A. Daniel, D. N. Maywar, and G. P. Agrawal, “Efficient adiabatic wavelength conversion in Gires–Tournois resonators,” Opt. Lett. 36, 4155–4157 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  44. J. R. Zurita-Sánchez, J. H. Abundis-Patiño, and P. Halevi, “Pulse propagation through a slab with time-periodic dielectric function ε(t),” Opt. Express 20, 5586 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  45. H. Johnston and S. Sarkar, “Moving mirrors and time-varying dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. A 51, 4109–4115 (1995).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  46. K. Goda, A. Fard, O. Malik, G. Fu, A. Quach, and B. Jalali, “High-throughput optical coherence tomography at 800 nm,” Opt. Express 20, 19612–19617 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  47. S. Moon and D. Y. Kim, “Ultra-high-speed optical coherence tomography with a stretched pulse supercontinuum source,” Opt. Express 14, 11575–11584 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  48. P. T. Rakich, M. A. Popovic, and Z. Wang, “General treatment of optical forces and potentials in mechanically variable photonic systems,” Opt. Express 17, 18116–18135 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  49. S. Orfanidis, Electromagnetic Waves and Antennas (Online book, Rutgers, retrieved March 2014). http://www.ece.rutgers.edu/orfanidi/ewa/
  50. E. Hecht, Optics (Addison-Wesley, 2002).
  51. H. Ishii, H. Tanobe, F. Kano, Y. Tohmori, Y. Kondo, and Y. Yoshikuni, “Quasicontinuous wavelength tuning in super-structure-grating (SSG) DBR lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 433–441 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  52. M. Fox, Optical Properties of Solids (Oxford University Press, 2001).
  53. A. B. Shvartsburg, “Optics of nonstationary media,” Phys.-Usp. 48, 797–823 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  54. C. M. Eigenwillig, B. R. Biedermann, G. Palte, and R. Huber, “K-space linear Fourier domain mode locked laser and applications for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 16, 8916–8937 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  55. F. Morgenthaler, “Velocity modulation of electromagnetic waves,” IRE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 6, 167–172 (1958).
    [Crossref]
  56. S. Todor, B. Biedermann, R. Huber, and C. Jirauschek, “Balance of physical effects causing stationary operation of Fourier domain mode-locked lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 29, 656–664 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  57. S. Slepneva, B. Kelleher, B. OShaughnessy, S. P. Hegarty, A. G. Vladimirov, and G. Huyet, “Dynamics of Fourier domain mode-locked lasers,” Opt. Express 21, 19240–19251 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  58. D. C. Adler, W. Wieser, F. Trepanier, J. M. Schmitt, and R. A. Huber, “Extended coherence length Fourier domain mode locked lasers at 1310 nm,” Opt. Express 19, 20930–20939 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  59. W. Drexler and J. G. Fujimoto, Optical Coherence Tomography: Technology and Applications (Springer, 2008).
    [Crossref]
  60. C. M. Eigenwillig, W. Wieser, S. Todor, B. R. Biedermann, T. Klein, C. Jirauschek, and R. Huber, “Picosecond pulses from wavelength-swept continuous-wave Fourier domain mode-locked lasers,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1848 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  61. S. Todor, B. Biedermann, W. Wieser, R. Huber, and C. Jirauschek, “Instantaneous lineshape analysis of Fourier domain mode-locked lasers,” Opt. Express 19, 8802–8807 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  62. B. Potsaid, V. Jayaraman, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Jiang, P. J. S. Heim, and A. E. Cable, “MEMS tunable VCSEL light source for ultrahigh speed 60kHz – 1MHz axial scan rate and long range centimeter class OCT imaging,” in Proc. SPIE 8213, Optical Coherence Tomography and Coherence Domain Optical Methods in Biomedicine XVI p. 82130M (2012).
    [Crossref]
  63. I. Grulkowski, J. J. Liu, B. Potsaid, V. Jayaraman, J. Jiang, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. E. Cable, “High-precision, high-accuracy ultralong-range swept-source optical coherence tomography using vertical cavity surface emitting laser light source,” Opt. Lett. 38, 673–675 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (3)

2013 (8)

O. O. Ahsen, Y. K. Tao, B. M. Potsaid, Y. Sheikine, J. Jiang, I. Grulkowski, T.-H. Tsai, V. Jayaraman, M. F. Kraus, J. L. Connolly, and et al., “Swept source optical coherence microscopy using a 1310 nm VCSEL light source,” Opt. Express 21, 18021–18033 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T.-H. Tsai, B. Potsaid, Y. K. Tao, V. Jayaraman, J. Jiang, P. J. Heim, M. F. Kraus, C. Zhou, J. Hornegger, H. Mashimo, and et al., “Ultrahigh speed endoscopic optical coherence tomography using micromotor imaging catheter and VCSEL technology,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4, 1119–1132 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Wang, W. Wieser, G. Springeling, R. Beurskens, C. T. Lancee, T. Pfeiffer, A. F. van der Steen, R. Huber, and G. v. Soest, “Intravascular optical coherence tomography imaging at 3200 frames per second,” Opt. Lett. 38, 1715–1717 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Klein, W. Wieser, L. Reznicek, A. Neubauer, A. Kampik, and R. Huber, “Multi-MHz retinal OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4, 1890–1908 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Klein, R. André, W. Wieser, T. Pfeiffer, and R. Huber, “Joint aperture detection for speckle reduction and increased collection efficiency in ophthalmic MHz OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4, 619–634 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Slepneva, B. Kelleher, B. OShaughnessy, S. P. Hegarty, A. G. Vladimirov, and G. Huyet, “Dynamics of Fourier domain mode-locked lasers,” Opt. Express 21, 19240–19251 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. M. Eigenwillig, W. Wieser, S. Todor, B. R. Biedermann, T. Klein, C. Jirauschek, and R. Huber, “Picosecond pulses from wavelength-swept continuous-wave Fourier domain mode-locked lasers,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1848 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Grulkowski, J. J. Liu, B. Potsaid, V. Jayaraman, J. Jiang, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. E. Cable, “High-precision, high-accuracy ultralong-range swept-source optical coherence tomography using vertical cavity surface emitting laser light source,” Opt. Lett. 38, 673–675 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (6)

2011 (4)

2010 (2)

2009 (4)

Y. Nakazaki and S. Yamashita, “Fast and wide tuning range wavelength-swept fiber laser based on dispersion tuning and its application to dynamic FBG sensing,” Opt. Express 17, 8310–8318 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Zeitler and L. F. Gladden, “In-vitro tomography and non-destructive imaging at depth of pharmaceutical solid dosage forms,” Eur. J. Pharm. Biopharm. 71, 2–22 (2009).
[Crossref]

T. Yano, H. Saitou, N. Kanbara, R. Noda, S.-i. Tezuka, N. Fujimura, M. Ooyama, T. Watanabe, T. Hirata, and N. Nishiyama, “Wavelength modulation over 500 kHz of micromechanically tunable InP-based VCSELs with Si-MEMS technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 528–534 (2009).
[Crossref]

P. T. Rakich, M. A. Popovic, and Z. Wang, “General treatment of optical forces and potentials in mechanically variable photonic systems,” Opt. Express 17, 18116–18135 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

2007 (5)

2006 (6)

2005 (5)

2004 (1)

M. F. Yanik and S. Fan, “Time reversal of light with linear optics and modulators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 173903 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (3)

D. Stifter, P. Burgholzer, O. Höglinger, E. Götzinger, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Polarisation-sensitive optical coherence tomography for material characterisation and strain-field mapping,” Appl. Phys. A Mater. Sci. 76, 947–951 (2003).
[Crossref]

S.-H. Yun, C. Boudoux, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “High-speed wavelength-swept semiconductor laser with a polygon-scanner-based wavelength filter,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1981–1983 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. J. Reed, M. Soljačić, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Color of shock waves in photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 203904 (2003).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

H. Ishii, H. Tanobe, F. Kano, Y. Tohmori, Y. Kondo, and Y. Yoshikuni, “Quasicontinuous wavelength tuning in super-structure-grating (SSG) DBR lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 433–441 (1996).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

H. Johnston and S. Sarkar, “Moving mirrors and time-varying dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. A 51, 4109–4115 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1958 (1)

F. Morgenthaler, “Velocity modulation of electromagnetic waves,” IRE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 6, 167–172 (1958).
[Crossref]

Abundis-Patiño, J. H.

Adler, D. C.

Agrawal, G. P.

Ahsen, O. O.

Akiba, M.

An, X.

Andre, R.

C. Blatter, T. Klein, B. Grajciar, T. Schmoll, W. Wieser, R. Andre, R. Huber, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Ultrahigh-speed non-invasive widefield angiography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 0705051 (2012).
[Crossref]

André, R.

Atia, W.

M. Kuznetsov, W. Atia, B. Johnson, and D. Flanders, “Compact ultrafast reflective Fabry-Perot tunable lasers for OCT imaging applications,” in Proc. SPIE 7554, Optical Coherence Tomography and Coherence Domain Optical Methods in Biomedicine XIV p. 75541F (2010).
[Crossref]

Barry, S.

Bartula, R. J.

Baumann, B.

Beurskens, R.

Biedermann, B.

Biedermann, B. R.

Blatter, C.

C. Blatter, T. Klein, B. Grajciar, T. Schmoll, W. Wieser, R. Andre, R. Huber, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Ultrahigh-speed non-invasive widefield angiography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 0705051 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bonesi, M.

Boschert, P.

M. Bonesi, M. Minneman, J. Ensher, B. Zabihian, H. Sattmann, P. Boschert, E. Hoover, R. Leitgeb, M. Crawford, and W. Drexler, “Akinetic all-semiconductor programmable swept-source at 1550 nm and 1310 nm with centimeters coherence length,” Opt. Express 22, 2632–2655 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Ensher, P. Boschert, K. Featherston, J. Huber, M. Crawford, M. Minneman, C. Chiccone, and D. Derickson, “Long coherence length and linear sweep without an external optical k-clock in a monolithic semiconductor laser for inexpensive optical coherence tomography,” in Proc. SPIE 8213, Optical Coherence Tomography and Coherence Domain Optical Methods in Biomedicine XVI p. 82130T (2012).
[Crossref]

Boudoux, C.

Bouma, B. E.

Burgholzer, P.

D. Stifter, P. Burgholzer, O. Höglinger, E. Götzinger, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Polarisation-sensitive optical coherence tomography for material characterisation and strain-field mapping,” Appl. Phys. A Mater. Sci. 76, 947–951 (2003).
[Crossref]

Cable, A.

V. Jayaraman, J. Jiang, H. Li, P. Heim, G. Cole, B. Potsaid, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. Cable, “OCT imaging up to 760kHz axial scan rate using single-mode 1310nm MEMs-tunable VCSELs with >100nm tuning range,” in CLEO: Science and Innovations p. PDPB2 (2011).

Cable, A. E.

I. Grulkowski, J. J. Liu, B. Potsaid, V. Jayaraman, J. Jiang, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. E. Cable, “High-precision, high-accuracy ultralong-range swept-source optical coherence tomography using vertical cavity surface emitting laser light source,” Opt. Lett. 38, 673–675 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Grulkowski, J. J. Liu, B. Potsaid, V. Jayaraman, C. D. Lu, J. Jiang, A. E. Cable, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Retinal, anterior segment and full eye imaging using ultrahigh speed swept source OCT with vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3, 2733–2751 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Potsaid, B. Baumann, D. Huang, S. Barry, A. E. Cable, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh speed 1050nm swept source / Fourier domain OCT retinal and anterior segment imaging at 100,000 to 400,000 axial scans per second,” Opt. Express 18, 20029–20048 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. C. Adler, J. Stenger, I. Gorczynska, H. Lie, T. Hensick, R. Spronk, S. Wolohojian, N. Khandekar, J. Y. Jiang, S. Barry, A. E. Cable, R. Huber, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Comparison of three-dimensional optical coherence tomography and high resolution photography for art conservation studies,” Opt. Express 15, 15972–15986 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Potsaid, V. Jayaraman, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Jiang, P. J. S. Heim, and A. E. Cable, “MEMS tunable VCSEL light source for ultrahigh speed 60kHz – 1MHz axial scan rate and long range centimeter class OCT imaging,” in Proc. SPIE 8213, Optical Coherence Tomography and Coherence Domain Optical Methods in Biomedicine XVI p. 82130M (2012).
[Crossref]

Carusotto, I.

Caswell, A. W.

Chan, K.-P.

Chan, R. C.

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I.-K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med. 12, 1429–1433 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.

D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, R. Huber, J. Schmitt, J. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Three-dimensional endomicroscopy using optical coherence tomography,” Nature Photon. 1, 709–716 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chen, Z.

Chiccone, C.

J. Ensher, P. Boschert, K. Featherston, J. Huber, M. Crawford, M. Minneman, C. Chiccone, and D. Derickson, “Long coherence length and linear sweep without an external optical k-clock in a monolithic semiconductor laser for inexpensive optical coherence tomography,” in Proc. SPIE 8213, Optical Coherence Tomography and Coherence Domain Optical Methods in Biomedicine XVI p. 82130T (2012).
[Crossref]

Choma, M. A.

M. A. Choma, K. Hsu, and J. A. Izatt, “Swept source optical coherence tomography using an all-fiber 1300-nm ring laser source,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 044009 (2005).
[Crossref]

Chong, C.

Cole, G.

V. Jayaraman, J. Jiang, H. Li, P. Heim, G. Cole, B. Potsaid, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. Cable, “OCT imaging up to 760kHz axial scan rate using single-mode 1310nm MEMs-tunable VCSELs with >100nm tuning range,” in CLEO: Science and Innovations p. PDPB2 (2011).

Connolly, J.

D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, R. Huber, J. Schmitt, J. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Three-dimensional endomicroscopy using optical coherence tomography,” Nature Photon. 1, 709–716 (2007).
[Crossref]

Connolly, J. L.

Crawford, M.

M. Bonesi, M. Minneman, J. Ensher, B. Zabihian, H. Sattmann, P. Boschert, E. Hoover, R. Leitgeb, M. Crawford, and W. Drexler, “Akinetic all-semiconductor programmable swept-source at 1550 nm and 1310 nm with centimeters coherence length,” Opt. Express 22, 2632–2655 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Ensher, P. Boschert, K. Featherston, J. Huber, M. Crawford, M. Minneman, C. Chiccone, and D. Derickson, “Long coherence length and linear sweep without an external optical k-clock in a monolithic semiconductor laser for inexpensive optical coherence tomography,” in Proc. SPIE 8213, Optical Coherence Tomography and Coherence Domain Optical Methods in Biomedicine XVI p. 82130T (2012).
[Crossref]

Crawforda, M.

M. P. Minneman, J. Ensher, M. Crawforda, and D. Derickson, “All-semiconductor high-speed akinetic swept-source for OCT,” in Proc. SPIE 8311, Optical Sensors and Biophotonics III p. 831116 (2011).
[Crossref]

Daniel, B. A.

De Boer, J.

de Boer, J. F.

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I.-K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med. 12, 1429–1433 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Derickson, D.

M. P. Minneman, J. Ensher, M. Crawforda, and D. Derickson, “All-semiconductor high-speed akinetic swept-source for OCT,” in Proc. SPIE 8311, Optical Sensors and Biophotonics III p. 831116 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Ensher, P. Boschert, K. Featherston, J. Huber, M. Crawford, M. Minneman, C. Chiccone, and D. Derickson, “Long coherence length and linear sweep without an external optical k-clock in a monolithic semiconductor laser for inexpensive optical coherence tomography,” in Proc. SPIE 8213, Optical Coherence Tomography and Coherence Domain Optical Methods in Biomedicine XVI p. 82130T (2012).
[Crossref]

Desjardins, A. E.

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I.-K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med. 12, 1429–1433 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Draxinger, W.

Drexler, W.

Duker, J. S.

Eibl, M.

S. Karpf, M. Eibl, W. Wieser, T. Klein, and R. Huber, “Time-Encoded Raman: Fiber-based, hyperspectral, broadband stimulated Raman microscopy,” e-print arXiv:1405.4181 [physics.optics] (2014).

Eigenwillig, C. M.

Ensher, J.

M. Bonesi, M. Minneman, J. Ensher, B. Zabihian, H. Sattmann, P. Boschert, E. Hoover, R. Leitgeb, M. Crawford, and W. Drexler, “Akinetic all-semiconductor programmable swept-source at 1550 nm and 1310 nm with centimeters coherence length,” Opt. Express 22, 2632–2655 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Ensher, P. Boschert, K. Featherston, J. Huber, M. Crawford, M. Minneman, C. Chiccone, and D. Derickson, “Long coherence length and linear sweep without an external optical k-clock in a monolithic semiconductor laser for inexpensive optical coherence tomography,” in Proc. SPIE 8213, Optical Coherence Tomography and Coherence Domain Optical Methods in Biomedicine XVI p. 82130T (2012).
[Crossref]

M. P. Minneman, J. Ensher, M. Crawforda, and D. Derickson, “All-semiconductor high-speed akinetic swept-source for OCT,” in Proc. SPIE 8311, Optical Sensors and Biophotonics III p. 831116 (2011).
[Crossref]

Evans, J. A.

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I.-K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med. 12, 1429–1433 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fan, S.

M. F. Yanik and S. Fan, “Time reversal of light with linear optics and modulators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 173903 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fard, A.

Featherston, K.

J. Ensher, P. Boschert, K. Featherston, J. Huber, M. Crawford, M. Minneman, C. Chiccone, and D. Derickson, “Long coherence length and linear sweep without an external optical k-clock in a monolithic semiconductor laser for inexpensive optical coherence tomography,” in Proc. SPIE 8213, Optical Coherence Tomography and Coherence Domain Optical Methods in Biomedicine XVI p. 82130T (2012).
[Crossref]

Flanders, D.

M. Kuznetsov, W. Atia, B. Johnson, and D. Flanders, “Compact ultrafast reflective Fabry-Perot tunable lasers for OCT imaging applications,” in Proc. SPIE 7554, Optical Coherence Tomography and Coherence Domain Optical Methods in Biomedicine XIV p. 75541F (2010).
[Crossref]

Fox, M.

M. Fox, Optical Properties of Solids (Oxford University Press, 2001).

Fu, G.

Fujimoto, J. G.

I. Grulkowski, J. J. Liu, B. Potsaid, V. Jayaraman, J. Jiang, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. E. Cable, “High-precision, high-accuracy ultralong-range swept-source optical coherence tomography using vertical cavity surface emitting laser light source,” Opt. Lett. 38, 673–675 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Grulkowski, J. J. Liu, B. Potsaid, V. Jayaraman, C. D. Lu, J. Jiang, A. E. Cable, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Retinal, anterior segment and full eye imaging using ultrahigh speed swept source OCT with vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3, 2733–2751 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Potsaid, B. Baumann, D. Huang, S. Barry, A. E. Cable, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh speed 1050nm swept source / Fourier domain OCT retinal and anterior segment imaging at 100,000 to 400,000 axial scans per second,” Opt. Express 18, 20029–20048 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, R. Huber, J. Schmitt, J. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Three-dimensional endomicroscopy using optical coherence tomography,” Nature Photon. 1, 709–716 (2007).
[Crossref]

D. C. Adler, J. Stenger, I. Gorczynska, H. Lie, T. Hensick, R. Spronk, S. Wolohojian, N. Khandekar, J. Y. Jiang, S. Barry, A. E. Cable, R. Huber, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Comparison of three-dimensional optical coherence tomography and high resolution photography for art conservation studies,” Opt. Express 15, 15972–15986 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. A. Kranendonk, R. Huber, J. G. Fujimoto, and S. T. Sanders, “Wavelength-agile H2O absorption spectrometer for thermometry of general combustion gases,” Proceedings of the Combustion Institute 31, 783–790 (2007).
[Crossref]

L. A. Kranendonk, X. An, A. W. Caswell, R. E. Herold, S. T. Sanders, R. Huber, J. G. Fujimoto, Y. Okura, and Y. Urata, “High speed engine gas thermometry by Fourier-domain mode-locked laser absorption spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 15, 15115–15128 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Fourier Domain Mode Locking (FDML): A new laser operating regime and applications for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 14, 3225–3237 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, K. Taira, J. G. Fujimoto, and K. Hsu, “Amplified, frequency swept lasers for frequency domain reflectometry and OCT imaging: design and scaling principles,” Opt. Express 13, 3513–3528 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Drexler and J. G. Fujimoto, Optical Coherence Tomography: Technology and Applications (Springer, 2008).
[Crossref]

B. Potsaid, V. Jayaraman, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Jiang, P. J. S. Heim, and A. E. Cable, “MEMS tunable VCSEL light source for ultrahigh speed 60kHz – 1MHz axial scan rate and long range centimeter class OCT imaging,” in Proc. SPIE 8213, Optical Coherence Tomography and Coherence Domain Optical Methods in Biomedicine XVI p. 82130M (2012).
[Crossref]

V. Jayaraman, J. Jiang, H. Li, P. Heim, G. Cole, B. Potsaid, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. Cable, “OCT imaging up to 760kHz axial scan rate using single-mode 1310nm MEMs-tunable VCSELs with >100nm tuning range,” in CLEO: Science and Innovations p. PDPB2 (2011).

Fujimura, N.

T. Yano, H. Saitou, N. Kanbara, R. Noda, S.-i. Tezuka, N. Fujimura, M. Ooyama, T. Watanabe, T. Hirata, and N. Nishiyama, “Wavelength modulation over 500 kHz of micromechanically tunable InP-based VCSELs with Si-MEMS technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 528–534 (2009).
[Crossref]

Gaburro, Z.

Ghulinyan, M.

Gladden, L. F.

J. A. Zeitler and L. F. Gladden, “In-vitro tomography and non-destructive imaging at depth of pharmaceutical solid dosage forms,” Eur. J. Pharm. Biopharm. 71, 2–22 (2009).
[Crossref]

Goda, K.

Gorczynska, I.

Götzinger, E.

D. Stifter, P. Burgholzer, O. Höglinger, E. Götzinger, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Polarisation-sensitive optical coherence tomography for material characterisation and strain-field mapping,” Appl. Phys. A Mater. Sci. 76, 947–951 (2003).
[Crossref]

Grajciar, B.

C. Blatter, T. Klein, B. Grajciar, T. Schmoll, W. Wieser, R. Andre, R. Huber, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Ultrahigh-speed non-invasive widefield angiography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 0705051 (2012).
[Crossref]

Grulkowski, I.

Halevi, P.

Hecht, E.

E. Hecht, Optics (Addison-Wesley, 2002).

Hegarty, S.

Hegarty, S. P.

Heim, P.

V. Jayaraman, J. Jiang, H. Li, P. Heim, G. Cole, B. Potsaid, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. Cable, “OCT imaging up to 760kHz axial scan rate using single-mode 1310nm MEMs-tunable VCSELs with >100nm tuning range,” in CLEO: Science and Innovations p. PDPB2 (2011).

Heim, P. J.

Heim, P. J. S.

B. Potsaid, V. Jayaraman, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Jiang, P. J. S. Heim, and A. E. Cable, “MEMS tunable VCSEL light source for ultrahigh speed 60kHz – 1MHz axial scan rate and long range centimeter class OCT imaging,” in Proc. SPIE 8213, Optical Coherence Tomography and Coherence Domain Optical Methods in Biomedicine XVI p. 82130M (2012).
[Crossref]

Hensick, T.

Herold, R. E.

Hirata, T.

T. Yano, H. Saitou, N. Kanbara, R. Noda, S.-i. Tezuka, N. Fujimura, M. Ooyama, T. Watanabe, T. Hirata, and N. Nishiyama, “Wavelength modulation over 500 kHz of micromechanically tunable InP-based VCSELs with Si-MEMS technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 528–534 (2009).
[Crossref]

Hitzenberger, C. K.

D. Stifter, P. Burgholzer, O. Höglinger, E. Götzinger, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Polarisation-sensitive optical coherence tomography for material characterisation and strain-field mapping,” Appl. Phys. A Mater. Sci. 76, 947–951 (2003).
[Crossref]

Höglinger, O.

D. Stifter, P. Burgholzer, O. Höglinger, E. Götzinger, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Polarisation-sensitive optical coherence tomography for material characterisation and strain-field mapping,” Appl. Phys. A Mater. Sci. 76, 947–951 (2003).
[Crossref]

Hoover, E.

Hornegger, J.

Hsu, K.

R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, K. Taira, J. G. Fujimoto, and K. Hsu, “Amplified, frequency swept lasers for frequency domain reflectometry and OCT imaging: design and scaling principles,” Opt. Express 13, 3513–3528 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Choma, K. Hsu, and J. A. Izatt, “Swept source optical coherence tomography using an all-fiber 1300-nm ring laser source,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 044009 (2005).
[Crossref]

Huang, D.

Huber, J.

J. Ensher, P. Boschert, K. Featherston, J. Huber, M. Crawford, M. Minneman, C. Chiccone, and D. Derickson, “Long coherence length and linear sweep without an external optical k-clock in a monolithic semiconductor laser for inexpensive optical coherence tomography,” in Proc. SPIE 8213, Optical Coherence Tomography and Coherence Domain Optical Methods in Biomedicine XVI p. 82130T (2012).
[Crossref]

Huber, R.

W. Wieser, W. Draxinger, T. Klein, S. Karpf, T. Pfeiffer, and R. Huber, “High definition live 3D-OCT in vivo: design and evaluation of a 4D OCT engine with 1 GVoxel/s,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5, 2963–2977 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Klein, W. Wieser, L. Reznicek, A. Neubauer, A. Kampik, and R. Huber, “Multi-MHz retinal OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4, 1890–1908 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Wang, W. Wieser, G. Springeling, R. Beurskens, C. T. Lancee, T. Pfeiffer, A. F. van der Steen, R. Huber, and G. v. Soest, “Intravascular optical coherence tomography imaging at 3200 frames per second,” Opt. Lett. 38, 1715–1717 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. M. Eigenwillig, W. Wieser, S. Todor, B. R. Biedermann, T. Klein, C. Jirauschek, and R. Huber, “Picosecond pulses from wavelength-swept continuous-wave Fourier domain mode-locked lasers,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1848 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Klein, R. André, W. Wieser, T. Pfeiffer, and R. Huber, “Joint aperture detection for speckle reduction and increased collection efficiency in ophthalmic MHz OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4, 619–634 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Blatter, T. Klein, B. Grajciar, T. Schmoll, W. Wieser, R. Andre, R. Huber, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Ultrahigh-speed non-invasive widefield angiography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 0705051 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Todor, B. Biedermann, R. Huber, and C. Jirauschek, “Balance of physical effects causing stationary operation of Fourier domain mode-locked lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 29, 656–664 (2012).
[Crossref]

W. Wieser, T. Klein, D. C. Adler, F. Trépanier, C. M. Eigenwillig, S. Karpf, J. M. Schmitt, and R. Huber, “Extended coherence length megahertz FDML and its application for anterior segment imaging,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3, 2647–2657 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Todor, B. Biedermann, W. Wieser, R. Huber, and C. Jirauschek, “Instantaneous lineshape analysis of Fourier domain mode-locked lasers,” Opt. Express 19, 8802–8807 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Klein, W. Wieser, C. M. Eigenwillig, B. R. Biedermann, and R. Huber, “Megahertz OCT for ultrawide-field retinal imaging with a 1050nm Fourier domain mode-locked laser,” Opt. Express 19, 3044–3062 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Wieser, B. R. Biedermann, T. Klein, C. M. Eigenwillig, and R. Huber, “Multi-megahertz OCT: High quality 3D imaging at 20 million A-scans and 4.5 GVoxels per second,” Opt. Express 18, 14685–14704 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. M. Eigenwillig, B. R. Biedermann, G. Palte, and R. Huber, “K-space linear Fourier domain mode locked laser and applications for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 16, 8916–8937 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. A. Kranendonk, X. An, A. W. Caswell, R. E. Herold, S. T. Sanders, R. Huber, J. G. Fujimoto, Y. Okura, and Y. Urata, “High speed engine gas thermometry by Fourier-domain mode-locked laser absorption spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 15, 15115–15128 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. A. Kranendonk, R. Huber, J. G. Fujimoto, and S. T. Sanders, “Wavelength-agile H2O absorption spectrometer for thermometry of general combustion gases,” Proceedings of the Combustion Institute 31, 783–790 (2007).
[Crossref]

D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, R. Huber, J. Schmitt, J. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Three-dimensional endomicroscopy using optical coherence tomography,” Nature Photon. 1, 709–716 (2007).
[Crossref]

D. C. Adler, J. Stenger, I. Gorczynska, H. Lie, T. Hensick, R. Spronk, S. Wolohojian, N. Khandekar, J. Y. Jiang, S. Barry, A. E. Cable, R. Huber, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Comparison of three-dimensional optical coherence tomography and high resolution photography for art conservation studies,” Opt. Express 15, 15972–15986 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Fourier Domain Mode Locking (FDML): A new laser operating regime and applications for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 14, 3225–3237 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, K. Taira, J. G. Fujimoto, and K. Hsu, “Amplified, frequency swept lasers for frequency domain reflectometry and OCT imaging: design and scaling principles,” Opt. Express 13, 3513–3528 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Karpf, M. Eibl, W. Wieser, T. Klein, and R. Huber, “Time-Encoded Raman: Fiber-based, hyperspectral, broadband stimulated Raman microscopy,” e-print arXiv:1405.4181 [physics.optics] (2014).

Huber, R. A.

Huyet, G.

Ishii, H.

H. Ishii, H. Tanobe, F. Kano, Y. Tohmori, Y. Kondo, and Y. Yoshikuni, “Quasicontinuous wavelength tuning in super-structure-grating (SSG) DBR lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 433–441 (1996).
[Crossref]

Itoh, M.

Izatt, J. A.

M. A. Choma, K. Hsu, and J. A. Izatt, “Swept source optical coherence tomography using an all-fiber 1300-nm ring laser source,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 044009 (2005).
[Crossref]

Jalali, B.

Jang, I.-K.

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I.-K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med. 12, 1429–1433 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jayaraman, V.

I. Grulkowski, J. J. Liu, B. Potsaid, V. Jayaraman, J. Jiang, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. E. Cable, “High-precision, high-accuracy ultralong-range swept-source optical coherence tomography using vertical cavity surface emitting laser light source,” Opt. Lett. 38, 673–675 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T.-H. Tsai, B. Potsaid, Y. K. Tao, V. Jayaraman, J. Jiang, P. J. Heim, M. F. Kraus, C. Zhou, J. Hornegger, H. Mashimo, and et al., “Ultrahigh speed endoscopic optical coherence tomography using micromotor imaging catheter and VCSEL technology,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4, 1119–1132 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. O. Ahsen, Y. K. Tao, B. M. Potsaid, Y. Sheikine, J. Jiang, I. Grulkowski, T.-H. Tsai, V. Jayaraman, M. F. Kraus, J. L. Connolly, and et al., “Swept source optical coherence microscopy using a 1310 nm VCSEL light source,” Opt. Express 21, 18021–18033 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Grulkowski, J. J. Liu, B. Potsaid, V. Jayaraman, C. D. Lu, J. Jiang, A. E. Cable, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Retinal, anterior segment and full eye imaging using ultrahigh speed swept source OCT with vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3, 2733–2751 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Potsaid, V. Jayaraman, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Jiang, P. J. S. Heim, and A. E. Cable, “MEMS tunable VCSEL light source for ultrahigh speed 60kHz – 1MHz axial scan rate and long range centimeter class OCT imaging,” in Proc. SPIE 8213, Optical Coherence Tomography and Coherence Domain Optical Methods in Biomedicine XVI p. 82130M (2012).
[Crossref]

V. Jayaraman, J. Jiang, H. Li, P. Heim, G. Cole, B. Potsaid, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. Cable, “OCT imaging up to 760kHz axial scan rate using single-mode 1310nm MEMs-tunable VCSELs with >100nm tuning range,” in CLEO: Science and Innovations p. PDPB2 (2011).

Jeon, M. Y.

Jeong, M. Y.

Jiang, J.

I. Grulkowski, J. J. Liu, B. Potsaid, V. Jayaraman, J. Jiang, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. E. Cable, “High-precision, high-accuracy ultralong-range swept-source optical coherence tomography using vertical cavity surface emitting laser light source,” Opt. Lett. 38, 673–675 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T.-H. Tsai, B. Potsaid, Y. K. Tao, V. Jayaraman, J. Jiang, P. J. Heim, M. F. Kraus, C. Zhou, J. Hornegger, H. Mashimo, and et al., “Ultrahigh speed endoscopic optical coherence tomography using micromotor imaging catheter and VCSEL technology,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4, 1119–1132 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. O. Ahsen, Y. K. Tao, B. M. Potsaid, Y. Sheikine, J. Jiang, I. Grulkowski, T.-H. Tsai, V. Jayaraman, M. F. Kraus, J. L. Connolly, and et al., “Swept source optical coherence microscopy using a 1310 nm VCSEL light source,” Opt. Express 21, 18021–18033 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Grulkowski, J. J. Liu, B. Potsaid, V. Jayaraman, C. D. Lu, J. Jiang, A. E. Cable, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Retinal, anterior segment and full eye imaging using ultrahigh speed swept source OCT with vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3, 2733–2751 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Potsaid, V. Jayaraman, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Jiang, P. J. S. Heim, and A. E. Cable, “MEMS tunable VCSEL light source for ultrahigh speed 60kHz – 1MHz axial scan rate and long range centimeter class OCT imaging,” in Proc. SPIE 8213, Optical Coherence Tomography and Coherence Domain Optical Methods in Biomedicine XVI p. 82130M (2012).
[Crossref]

V. Jayaraman, J. Jiang, H. Li, P. Heim, G. Cole, B. Potsaid, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. Cable, “OCT imaging up to 760kHz axial scan rate using single-mode 1310nm MEMs-tunable VCSELs with >100nm tuning range,” in CLEO: Science and Innovations p. PDPB2 (2011).

Jiang, J. Y.

Jirauschek, C.

Joannopoulos, J. D.

E. J. Reed, M. Soljačić, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Color of shock waves in photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 203904 (2003).
[Crossref]

Johnson, B.

M. Kuznetsov, W. Atia, B. Johnson, and D. Flanders, “Compact ultrafast reflective Fabry-Perot tunable lasers for OCT imaging applications,” in Proc. SPIE 7554, Optical Coherence Tomography and Coherence Domain Optical Methods in Biomedicine XIV p. 75541F (2010).
[Crossref]

Johnston, H.

H. Johnston and S. Sarkar, “Moving mirrors and time-varying dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. A 51, 4109–4115 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jung, E. J.

Jung, W.

Kampik, A.

Kanbara, N.

T. Yano, H. Saitou, N. Kanbara, R. Noda, S.-i. Tezuka, N. Fujimura, M. Ooyama, T. Watanabe, T. Hirata, and N. Nishiyama, “Wavelength modulation over 500 kHz of micromechanically tunable InP-based VCSELs with Si-MEMS technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 528–534 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kano, F.

H. Ishii, H. Tanobe, F. Kano, Y. Tohmori, Y. Kondo, and Y. Yoshikuni, “Quasicontinuous wavelength tuning in super-structure-grating (SSG) DBR lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 433–441 (1996).
[Crossref]

Karnowski, K.

Karpf, S.

Kelleher, B.

Khandekar, N.

Kim, C.-S.

Kim, D. Y.

Kim, M. K.

Klein, T.

W. Wieser, W. Draxinger, T. Klein, S. Karpf, T. Pfeiffer, and R. Huber, “High definition live 3D-OCT in vivo: design and evaluation of a 4D OCT engine with 1 GVoxel/s,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5, 2963–2977 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Klein, W. Wieser, L. Reznicek, A. Neubauer, A. Kampik, and R. Huber, “Multi-MHz retinal OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4, 1890–1908 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. M. Eigenwillig, W. Wieser, S. Todor, B. R. Biedermann, T. Klein, C. Jirauschek, and R. Huber, “Picosecond pulses from wavelength-swept continuous-wave Fourier domain mode-locked lasers,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1848 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Klein, R. André, W. Wieser, T. Pfeiffer, and R. Huber, “Joint aperture detection for speckle reduction and increased collection efficiency in ophthalmic MHz OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4, 619–634 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Blatter, T. Klein, B. Grajciar, T. Schmoll, W. Wieser, R. Andre, R. Huber, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Ultrahigh-speed non-invasive widefield angiography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 0705051 (2012).
[Crossref]

W. Wieser, T. Klein, D. C. Adler, F. Trépanier, C. M. Eigenwillig, S. Karpf, J. M. Schmitt, and R. Huber, “Extended coherence length megahertz FDML and its application for anterior segment imaging,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3, 2647–2657 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Klein, W. Wieser, C. M. Eigenwillig, B. R. Biedermann, and R. Huber, “Megahertz OCT for ultrawide-field retinal imaging with a 1050nm Fourier domain mode-locked laser,” Opt. Express 19, 3044–3062 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Wieser, B. R. Biedermann, T. Klein, C. M. Eigenwillig, and R. Huber, “Multi-megahertz OCT: High quality 3D imaging at 20 million A-scans and 4.5 GVoxels per second,” Opt. Express 18, 14685–14704 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Karpf, M. Eibl, W. Wieser, T. Klein, and R. Huber, “Time-Encoded Raman: Fiber-based, hyperspectral, broadband stimulated Raman microscopy,” e-print arXiv:1405.4181 [physics.optics] (2014).

Kondo, Y.

H. Ishii, H. Tanobe, F. Kano, Y. Tohmori, Y. Kondo, and Y. Yoshikuni, “Quasicontinuous wavelength tuning in super-structure-grating (SSG) DBR lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 433–441 (1996).
[Crossref]

Kranendonk, L. A.

Kraus, M. F.

Kuznetsov, M.

M. Kuznetsov, W. Atia, B. Johnson, and D. Flanders, “Compact ultrafast reflective Fabry-Perot tunable lasers for OCT imaging applications,” in Proc. SPIE 7554, Optical Coherence Tomography and Coherence Domain Optical Methods in Biomedicine XIV p. 75541F (2010).
[Crossref]

Lancee, C. T.

Lee, E.

Leitgeb, R.

Leitgeb, R. A.

C. Blatter, T. Klein, B. Grajciar, T. Schmoll, W. Wieser, R. Andre, R. Huber, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Ultrahigh-speed non-invasive widefield angiography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 0705051 (2012).
[Crossref]

Li, H.

V. Jayaraman, J. Jiang, H. Li, P. Heim, G. Cole, B. Potsaid, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. Cable, “OCT imaging up to 760kHz axial scan rate using single-mode 1310nm MEMs-tunable VCSELs with >100nm tuning range,” in CLEO: Science and Innovations p. PDPB2 (2011).

Lie, H.

Lim, H.

Liu, J. J.

Lu, C. D.

Lyu, H.-C.

Madjarova, V. D.

Makita, S.

Malik, O.

Mashimo, H.

Maywar, D. N.

Minneman, M.

M. Bonesi, M. Minneman, J. Ensher, B. Zabihian, H. Sattmann, P. Boschert, E. Hoover, R. Leitgeb, M. Crawford, and W. Drexler, “Akinetic all-semiconductor programmable swept-source at 1550 nm and 1310 nm with centimeters coherence length,” Opt. Express 22, 2632–2655 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Ensher, P. Boschert, K. Featherston, J. Huber, M. Crawford, M. Minneman, C. Chiccone, and D. Derickson, “Long coherence length and linear sweep without an external optical k-clock in a monolithic semiconductor laser for inexpensive optical coherence tomography,” in Proc. SPIE 8213, Optical Coherence Tomography and Coherence Domain Optical Methods in Biomedicine XVI p. 82130T (2012).
[Crossref]

Minneman, M. P.

M. P. Minneman, J. Ensher, M. Crawforda, and D. Derickson, “All-semiconductor high-speed akinetic swept-source for OCT,” in Proc. SPIE 8311, Optical Sensors and Biophotonics III p. 831116 (2011).
[Crossref]

Mitsugi, S.

M. Notomi and S. Mitsugi, “Wavelength conversion via dynamic refractive index tuning of a cavity,” Phys. Rev. A 73, 51803 (2006).
[Crossref]

Moon, S.

Morgenthaler, F.

F. Morgenthaler, “Velocity modulation of electromagnetic waves,” IRE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 6, 167–172 (1958).
[Crossref]

Morosawa, A.

Motz, J. T.

Nakazaki, Y.

Neubauer, A.

Nishioka, N. S.

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I.-K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med. 12, 1429–1433 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nishiyama, N.

T. Yano, H. Saitou, N. Kanbara, R. Noda, S.-i. Tezuka, N. Fujimura, M. Ooyama, T. Watanabe, T. Hirata, and N. Nishiyama, “Wavelength modulation over 500 kHz of micromechanically tunable InP-based VCSELs with Si-MEMS technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 528–534 (2009).
[Crossref]

Noda, R.

T. Yano, H. Saitou, N. Kanbara, R. Noda, S.-i. Tezuka, N. Fujimura, M. Ooyama, T. Watanabe, T. Hirata, and N. Nishiyama, “Wavelength modulation over 500 kHz of micromechanically tunable InP-based VCSELs with Si-MEMS technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 528–534 (2009).
[Crossref]

Notomi, M.

M. Notomi and S. Mitsugi, “Wavelength conversion via dynamic refractive index tuning of a cavity,” Phys. Rev. A 73, 51803 (2006).
[Crossref]

Oh, W. Y.

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I.-K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med. 12, 1429–1433 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Okura, Y.

Ooyama, M.

T. Yano, H. Saitou, N. Kanbara, R. Noda, S.-i. Tezuka, N. Fujimura, M. Ooyama, T. Watanabe, T. Hirata, and N. Nishiyama, “Wavelength modulation over 500 kHz of micromechanically tunable InP-based VCSELs with Si-MEMS technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 528–534 (2009).
[Crossref]

OShaughnessy, B.

Palte, G.

Park, B.

Pavesi, L.

Pfeiffer, T.

Popovic, M. A.

Potsaid, B.

I. Grulkowski, J. J. Liu, B. Potsaid, V. Jayaraman, J. Jiang, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. E. Cable, “High-precision, high-accuracy ultralong-range swept-source optical coherence tomography using vertical cavity surface emitting laser light source,” Opt. Lett. 38, 673–675 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T.-H. Tsai, B. Potsaid, Y. K. Tao, V. Jayaraman, J. Jiang, P. J. Heim, M. F. Kraus, C. Zhou, J. Hornegger, H. Mashimo, and et al., “Ultrahigh speed endoscopic optical coherence tomography using micromotor imaging catheter and VCSEL technology,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4, 1119–1132 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Grulkowski, J. J. Liu, B. Potsaid, V. Jayaraman, C. D. Lu, J. Jiang, A. E. Cable, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Retinal, anterior segment and full eye imaging using ultrahigh speed swept source OCT with vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3, 2733–2751 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Potsaid, B. Baumann, D. Huang, S. Barry, A. E. Cable, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh speed 1050nm swept source / Fourier domain OCT retinal and anterior segment imaging at 100,000 to 400,000 axial scans per second,” Opt. Express 18, 20029–20048 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Potsaid, V. Jayaraman, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Jiang, P. J. S. Heim, and A. E. Cable, “MEMS tunable VCSEL light source for ultrahigh speed 60kHz – 1MHz axial scan rate and long range centimeter class OCT imaging,” in Proc. SPIE 8213, Optical Coherence Tomography and Coherence Domain Optical Methods in Biomedicine XVI p. 82130M (2012).
[Crossref]

V. Jayaraman, J. Jiang, H. Li, P. Heim, G. Cole, B. Potsaid, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. Cable, “OCT imaging up to 760kHz axial scan rate using single-mode 1310nm MEMs-tunable VCSELs with >100nm tuning range,” in CLEO: Science and Innovations p. PDPB2 (2011).

Potsaid, B. M.

Quach, A.

Rakich, P. T.

Recati, A.

Reed, E. J.

E. J. Reed, M. Soljačić, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Color of shock waves in photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 203904 (2003).
[Crossref]

Reznicek, L.

Riboli, F.

Saitou, H.

T. Yano, H. Saitou, N. Kanbara, R. Noda, S.-i. Tezuka, N. Fujimura, M. Ooyama, T. Watanabe, T. Hirata, and N. Nishiyama, “Wavelength modulation over 500 kHz of micromechanically tunable InP-based VCSELs with Si-MEMS technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 528–534 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sakai, T.

Sanders, S. T.

Sarkar, S.

H. Johnston and S. Sarkar, “Moving mirrors and time-varying dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. A 51, 4109–4115 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sattmann, H.

Schmitt, J.

D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, R. Huber, J. Schmitt, J. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Three-dimensional endomicroscopy using optical coherence tomography,” Nature Photon. 1, 709–716 (2007).
[Crossref]

Schmitt, J. M.

Schmoll, T.

C. Blatter, T. Klein, B. Grajciar, T. Schmoll, W. Wieser, R. Andre, R. Huber, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Ultrahigh-speed non-invasive widefield angiography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 0705051 (2012).
[Crossref]

Schuman, J. S.

Sheikine, Y.

Shishkov, M.

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I.-K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med. 12, 1429–1433 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shvartsburg, A. B.

A. B. Shvartsburg, “Optics of nonstationary media,” Phys.-Usp. 48, 797–823 (2005).
[Crossref]

Siegman, A. E.

A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science Books, 1986).

Slepneva, S.

Soest, G. v.

Soljacic, M.

E. J. Reed, M. Soljačić, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Color of shock waves in photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 203904 (2003).
[Crossref]

Springeling, G.

Spronk, R.

Stenger, J.

Stifter, D.

D. Stifter, P. Burgholzer, O. Höglinger, E. Götzinger, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Polarisation-sensitive optical coherence tomography for material characterisation and strain-field mapping,” Appl. Phys. A Mater. Sci. 76, 947–951 (2003).
[Crossref]

Suter, M. J.

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I.-K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med. 12, 1429–1433 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Taira, K.

Tanobe, H.

H. Ishii, H. Tanobe, F. Kano, Y. Tohmori, Y. Kondo, and Y. Yoshikuni, “Quasicontinuous wavelength tuning in super-structure-grating (SSG) DBR lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 433–441 (1996).
[Crossref]

Tao, Y. K.

Tearney, G. J.

Tezuka, S.-i.

T. Yano, H. Saitou, N. Kanbara, R. Noda, S.-i. Tezuka, N. Fujimura, M. Ooyama, T. Watanabe, T. Hirata, and N. Nishiyama, “Wavelength modulation over 500 kHz of micromechanically tunable InP-based VCSELs with Si-MEMS technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 528–534 (2009).
[Crossref]

Todor, S.

Tohmori, Y.

H. Ishii, H. Tanobe, F. Kano, Y. Tohmori, Y. Kondo, and Y. Yoshikuni, “Quasicontinuous wavelength tuning in super-structure-grating (SSG) DBR lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 433–441 (1996).
[Crossref]

Trepanier, F.

Trépanier, F.

Tsai, T.-H.

Urata, Y.

Vakoc, B. J.

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I.-K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med. 12, 1429–1433 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

van der Steen, A. F.

Vladimirov, A.

Vladimirov, A. G.

Wang, T.

Wang, Z.

Watanabe, T.

T. Yano, H. Saitou, N. Kanbara, R. Noda, S.-i. Tezuka, N. Fujimura, M. Ooyama, T. Watanabe, T. Hirata, and N. Nishiyama, “Wavelength modulation over 500 kHz of micromechanically tunable InP-based VCSELs with Si-MEMS technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 528–534 (2009).
[Crossref]

White, W. M.

Wieser, W.

W. Wieser, W. Draxinger, T. Klein, S. Karpf, T. Pfeiffer, and R. Huber, “High definition live 3D-OCT in vivo: design and evaluation of a 4D OCT engine with 1 GVoxel/s,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5, 2963–2977 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Klein, W. Wieser, L. Reznicek, A. Neubauer, A. Kampik, and R. Huber, “Multi-MHz retinal OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4, 1890–1908 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Wang, W. Wieser, G. Springeling, R. Beurskens, C. T. Lancee, T. Pfeiffer, A. F. van der Steen, R. Huber, and G. v. Soest, “Intravascular optical coherence tomography imaging at 3200 frames per second,” Opt. Lett. 38, 1715–1717 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. M. Eigenwillig, W. Wieser, S. Todor, B. R. Biedermann, T. Klein, C. Jirauschek, and R. Huber, “Picosecond pulses from wavelength-swept continuous-wave Fourier domain mode-locked lasers,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1848 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Klein, R. André, W. Wieser, T. Pfeiffer, and R. Huber, “Joint aperture detection for speckle reduction and increased collection efficiency in ophthalmic MHz OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4, 619–634 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Blatter, T. Klein, B. Grajciar, T. Schmoll, W. Wieser, R. Andre, R. Huber, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Ultrahigh-speed non-invasive widefield angiography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 0705051 (2012).
[Crossref]

W. Wieser, T. Klein, D. C. Adler, F. Trépanier, C. M. Eigenwillig, S. Karpf, J. M. Schmitt, and R. Huber, “Extended coherence length megahertz FDML and its application for anterior segment imaging,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3, 2647–2657 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. C. Adler, W. Wieser, F. Trepanier, J. M. Schmitt, and R. A. Huber, “Extended coherence length Fourier domain mode locked lasers at 1310 nm,” Opt. Express 19, 20930–20939 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Todor, B. Biedermann, W. Wieser, R. Huber, and C. Jirauschek, “Instantaneous lineshape analysis of Fourier domain mode-locked lasers,” Opt. Express 19, 8802–8807 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Klein, W. Wieser, C. M. Eigenwillig, B. R. Biedermann, and R. Huber, “Megahertz OCT for ultrawide-field retinal imaging with a 1050nm Fourier domain mode-locked laser,” Opt. Express 19, 3044–3062 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Wieser, B. R. Biedermann, T. Klein, C. M. Eigenwillig, and R. Huber, “Multi-megahertz OCT: High quality 3D imaging at 20 million A-scans and 4.5 GVoxels per second,” Opt. Express 18, 14685–14704 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Karpf, M. Eibl, W. Wieser, T. Klein, and R. Huber, “Time-Encoded Raman: Fiber-based, hyperspectral, broadband stimulated Raman microscopy,” e-print arXiv:1405.4181 [physics.optics] (2014).

Wojtkowski, M.

Wolohojian, S.

Yamashita, S.

Yanik, M. F.

M. F. Yanik and S. Fan, “Time reversal of light with linear optics and modulators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 173903 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yano, T.

T. Yano, H. Saitou, N. Kanbara, R. Noda, S.-i. Tezuka, N. Fujimura, M. Ooyama, T. Watanabe, T. Hirata, and N. Nishiyama, “Wavelength modulation over 500 kHz of micromechanically tunable InP-based VCSELs with Si-MEMS technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 528–534 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yasuno, Y.

Yatagai, T.

Yelin, D.

Yelin, R.

Yoshikuni, Y.

H. Ishii, H. Tanobe, F. Kano, Y. Tohmori, Y. Kondo, and Y. Yoshikuni, “Quasicontinuous wavelength tuning in super-structure-grating (SSG) DBR lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 433–441 (1996).
[Crossref]

Yun, S.

Yun, S. H.

D. Yelin, W. M. White, J. T. Motz, S. H. Yun, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Spectral-domain spectrally-encoded endoscopy,” Opt. Express 15, 2432–2444 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I.-K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med. 12, 1429–1433 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yun, S.-H.

Zabihian, B.

Zeitler, J. A.

J. A. Zeitler and L. F. Gladden, “In-vitro tomography and non-destructive imaging at depth of pharmaceutical solid dosage forms,” Eur. J. Pharm. Biopharm. 71, 2–22 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhou, C.

Zurita-Sánchez, J. R.

Appl. Phys. A Mater. Sci. (1)

D. Stifter, P. Burgholzer, O. Höglinger, E. Götzinger, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Polarisation-sensitive optical coherence tomography for material characterisation and strain-field mapping,” Appl. Phys. A Mater. Sci. 76, 947–951 (2003).
[Crossref]

Biomed. Opt. Express (6)

T.-H. Tsai, B. Potsaid, Y. K. Tao, V. Jayaraman, J. Jiang, P. J. Heim, M. F. Kraus, C. Zhou, J. Hornegger, H. Mashimo, and et al., “Ultrahigh speed endoscopic optical coherence tomography using micromotor imaging catheter and VCSEL technology,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4, 1119–1132 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Grulkowski, J. J. Liu, B. Potsaid, V. Jayaraman, C. D. Lu, J. Jiang, A. E. Cable, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Retinal, anterior segment and full eye imaging using ultrahigh speed swept source OCT with vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3, 2733–2751 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Wieser, T. Klein, D. C. Adler, F. Trépanier, C. M. Eigenwillig, S. Karpf, J. M. Schmitt, and R. Huber, “Extended coherence length megahertz FDML and its application for anterior segment imaging,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3, 2647–2657 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Klein, R. André, W. Wieser, T. Pfeiffer, and R. Huber, “Joint aperture detection for speckle reduction and increased collection efficiency in ophthalmic MHz OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4, 619–634 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Klein, W. Wieser, L. Reznicek, A. Neubauer, A. Kampik, and R. Huber, “Multi-MHz retinal OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4, 1890–1908 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Wieser, W. Draxinger, T. Klein, S. Karpf, T. Pfeiffer, and R. Huber, “High definition live 3D-OCT in vivo: design and evaluation of a 4D OCT engine with 1 GVoxel/s,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5, 2963–2977 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eur. J. Pharm. Biopharm. (1)

J. A. Zeitler and L. F. Gladden, “In-vitro tomography and non-destructive imaging at depth of pharmaceutical solid dosage forms,” Eur. J. Pharm. Biopharm. 71, 2–22 (2009).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

H. Ishii, H. Tanobe, F. Kano, Y. Tohmori, Y. Kondo, and Y. Yoshikuni, “Quasicontinuous wavelength tuning in super-structure-grating (SSG) DBR lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 433–441 (1996).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

T. Yano, H. Saitou, N. Kanbara, R. Noda, S.-i. Tezuka, N. Fujimura, M. Ooyama, T. Watanabe, T. Hirata, and N. Nishiyama, “Wavelength modulation over 500 kHz of micromechanically tunable InP-based VCSELs with Si-MEMS technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 528–534 (2009).
[Crossref]

IRE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. (1)

F. Morgenthaler, “Velocity modulation of electromagnetic waves,” IRE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 6, 167–172 (1958).
[Crossref]

J. Biomed. Opt. (2)

M. A. Choma, K. Hsu, and J. A. Izatt, “Swept source optical coherence tomography using an all-fiber 1300-nm ring laser source,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 044009 (2005).
[Crossref]

C. Blatter, T. Klein, B. Grajciar, T. Schmoll, W. Wieser, R. Andre, R. Huber, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Ultrahigh-speed non-invasive widefield angiography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 0705051 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nat. Commun. (1)

C. M. Eigenwillig, W. Wieser, S. Todor, B. R. Biedermann, T. Klein, C. Jirauschek, and R. Huber, “Picosecond pulses from wavelength-swept continuous-wave Fourier domain mode-locked lasers,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1848 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Med. (1)

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I.-K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med. 12, 1429–1433 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nature Photon. (1)

D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, R. Huber, J. Schmitt, J. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Three-dimensional endomicroscopy using optical coherence tomography,” Nature Photon. 1, 709–716 (2007).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (25)

O. O. Ahsen, Y. K. Tao, B. M. Potsaid, Y. Sheikine, J. Jiang, I. Grulkowski, T.-H. Tsai, V. Jayaraman, M. F. Kraus, J. L. Connolly, and et al., “Swept source optical coherence microscopy using a 1310 nm VCSEL light source,” Opt. Express 21, 18021–18033 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Gaburro, M. Ghulinyan, F. Riboli, L. Pavesi, A. Recati, and I. Carusotto, “Photon energy lifter,” Opt. Express 14, 7270–7278 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. R. Zurita-Sánchez, J. H. Abundis-Patiño, and P. Halevi, “Pulse propagation through a slab with time-periodic dielectric function ε(t),” Opt. Express 20, 5586 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. M. Eigenwillig, B. R. Biedermann, G. Palte, and R. Huber, “K-space linear Fourier domain mode locked laser and applications for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 16, 8916–8937 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Goda, A. Fard, O. Malik, G. Fu, A. Quach, and B. Jalali, “High-throughput optical coherence tomography at 800 nm,” Opt. Express 20, 19612–19617 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Moon and D. Y. Kim, “Ultra-high-speed optical coherence tomography with a stretched pulse supercontinuum source,” Opt. Express 14, 11575–11584 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. T. Rakich, M. A. Popovic, and Z. Wang, “General treatment of optical forces and potentials in mechanically variable photonic systems,” Opt. Express 17, 18116–18135 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Todor, B. Biedermann, W. Wieser, R. Huber, and C. Jirauschek, “Instantaneous lineshape analysis of Fourier domain mode-locked lasers,” Opt. Express 19, 8802–8807 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Slepneva, B. Kelleher, B. OShaughnessy, S. P. Hegarty, A. G. Vladimirov, and G. Huyet, “Dynamics of Fourier domain mode-locked lasers,” Opt. Express 21, 19240–19251 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. C. Adler, W. Wieser, F. Trepanier, J. M. Schmitt, and R. A. Huber, “Extended coherence length Fourier domain mode locked lasers at 1310 nm,” Opt. Express 19, 20930–20939 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, K. Taira, J. G. Fujimoto, and K. Hsu, “Amplified, frequency swept lasers for frequency domain reflectometry and OCT imaging: design and scaling principles,” Opt. Express 13, 3513–3528 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Yasuno, V. D. Madjarova, S. Makita, M. Akiba, A. Morosawa, C. Chong, T. Sakai, K.-P. Chan, M. Itoh, and T. Yatagai, “Three-dimensional and high-speed swept-source optical coherence tomography for in vivo investigation of human anterior eye segments,” Opt. Express 13, 10652–10664 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Lim, J. De Boer, B. Park, E. Lee, R. Yelin, and S. Yun, “Optical frequency domain imaging with a rapidly swept laser in the 815–870 nm range,” Opt. Express 14, 5937–5944 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Wieser, B. R. Biedermann, T. Klein, C. M. Eigenwillig, and R. Huber, “Multi-megahertz OCT: High quality 3D imaging at 20 million A-scans and 4.5 GVoxels per second,” Opt. Express 18, 14685–14704 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. A. Kranendonk, R. J. Bartula, and S. T. Sanders, “Modeless operation of a wavelength-agile laser by high-speed cavity length changes,” Opt. Express 13, 1498–1507 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. A. Kranendonk, X. An, A. W. Caswell, R. E. Herold, S. T. Sanders, R. Huber, J. G. Fujimoto, Y. Okura, and Y. Urata, “High speed engine gas thermometry by Fourier-domain mode-locked laser absorption spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 15, 15115–15128 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Yelin, W. M. White, J. T. Motz, S. H. Yun, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Spectral-domain spectrally-encoded endoscopy,” Opt. Express 15, 2432–2444 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Fourier Domain Mode Locking (FDML): A new laser operating regime and applications for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 14, 3225–3237 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Slepneva, B. OShaughnessy, B. Kelleher, S. Hegarty, A. Vladimirov, H.-C. Lyu, K. Karnowski, M. Wojtkowski, and G. Huyet, “Dynamics of a short cavity swept source OCT laser,” Opt. Express 22, 18177–18185 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. C. Adler, J. Stenger, I. Gorczynska, H. Lie, T. Hensick, R. Spronk, S. Wolohojian, N. Khandekar, J. Y. Jiang, S. Barry, A. E. Cable, R. Huber, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Comparison of three-dimensional optical coherence tomography and high resolution photography for art conservation studies,” Opt. Express 15, 15972–15986 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Bonesi, M. Minneman, J. Ensher, B. Zabihian, H. Sattmann, P. Boschert, E. Hoover, R. Leitgeb, M. Crawford, and W. Drexler, “Akinetic all-semiconductor programmable swept-source at 1550 nm and 1310 nm with centimeters coherence length,” Opt. Express 22, 2632–2655 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. J. Jung, C.-S. Kim, M. Y. Jeong, M. K. Kim, M. Y. Jeon, W. Jung, and Z. Chen, “Characterization of FBG sensor interrogation based on a FDML wavelength swept laser,” Opt. Express 16, 16552–16560 (2008).
[PubMed]

Y. Nakazaki and S. Yamashita, “Fast and wide tuning range wavelength-swept fiber laser based on dispersion tuning and its application to dynamic FBG sensing,” Opt. Express 17, 8310–8318 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Klein, W. Wieser, C. M. Eigenwillig, B. R. Biedermann, and R. Huber, “Megahertz OCT for ultrawide-field retinal imaging with a 1050nm Fourier domain mode-locked laser,” Opt. Express 19, 3044–3062 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Potsaid, B. Baumann, D. Huang, S. Barry, A. E. Cable, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh speed 1050nm swept source / Fourier domain OCT retinal and anterior segment imaging at 100,000 to 400,000 axial scans per second,” Opt. Express 18, 20029–20048 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Rev. A (2)

H. Johnston and S. Sarkar, “Moving mirrors and time-varying dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. A 51, 4109–4115 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Notomi and S. Mitsugi, “Wavelength conversion via dynamic refractive index tuning of a cavity,” Phys. Rev. A 73, 51803 (2006).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

E. J. Reed, M. Soljačić, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Color of shock waves in photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 203904 (2003).
[Crossref]

M. F. Yanik and S. Fan, “Time reversal of light with linear optics and modulators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 173903 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys.-Usp. (1)

A. B. Shvartsburg, “Optics of nonstationary media,” Phys.-Usp. 48, 797–823 (2005).
[Crossref]

Proceedings of the Combustion Institute (1)

L. A. Kranendonk, R. Huber, J. G. Fujimoto, and S. T. Sanders, “Wavelength-agile H2O absorption spectrometer for thermometry of general combustion gases,” Proceedings of the Combustion Institute 31, 783–790 (2007).
[Crossref]

Other (11)

S. Karpf, M. Eibl, W. Wieser, T. Klein, and R. Huber, “Time-Encoded Raman: Fiber-based, hyperspectral, broadband stimulated Raman microscopy,” e-print arXiv:1405.4181 [physics.optics] (2014).

A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science Books, 1986).

J. Ensher, P. Boschert, K. Featherston, J. Huber, M. Crawford, M. Minneman, C. Chiccone, and D. Derickson, “Long coherence length and linear sweep without an external optical k-clock in a monolithic semiconductor laser for inexpensive optical coherence tomography,” in Proc. SPIE 8213, Optical Coherence Tomography and Coherence Domain Optical Methods in Biomedicine XVI p. 82130T (2012).
[Crossref]

M. P. Minneman, J. Ensher, M. Crawforda, and D. Derickson, “All-semiconductor high-speed akinetic swept-source for OCT,” in Proc. SPIE 8311, Optical Sensors and Biophotonics III p. 831116 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Kuznetsov, W. Atia, B. Johnson, and D. Flanders, “Compact ultrafast reflective Fabry-Perot tunable lasers for OCT imaging applications,” in Proc. SPIE 7554, Optical Coherence Tomography and Coherence Domain Optical Methods in Biomedicine XIV p. 75541F (2010).
[Crossref]

V. Jayaraman, J. Jiang, H. Li, P. Heim, G. Cole, B. Potsaid, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. Cable, “OCT imaging up to 760kHz axial scan rate using single-mode 1310nm MEMs-tunable VCSELs with >100nm tuning range,” in CLEO: Science and Innovations p. PDPB2 (2011).

M. Fox, Optical Properties of Solids (Oxford University Press, 2001).

S. Orfanidis, Electromagnetic Waves and Antennas (Online book, Rutgers, retrieved March 2014). http://www.ece.rutgers.edu/orfanidi/ewa/

E. Hecht, Optics (Addison-Wesley, 2002).

B. Potsaid, V. Jayaraman, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Jiang, P. J. S. Heim, and A. E. Cable, “MEMS tunable VCSEL light source for ultrahigh speed 60kHz – 1MHz axial scan rate and long range centimeter class OCT imaging,” in Proc. SPIE 8213, Optical Coherence Tomography and Coherence Domain Optical Methods in Biomedicine XVI p. 82130M (2012).
[Crossref]

W. Drexler and J. G. Fujimoto, Optical Coherence Tomography: Technology and Applications (Springer, 2008).
[Crossref]

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic representation of various methods for wavelength tuning by changing the intracavity optical path length: (a) Resonator with moving end mirror; (b) resonator with time dependent refractive index; (c) grating-based wavelength tuning mechanism.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Model parameters for idealized laser resonator with wavelength tuning by (a) moving the end mirror and (b) changing the intracavity refractive index. The optical resonator field is described by a forward and a backward propagating component, denoted by E x + and E x , respectively.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Ideal lossless FDML laser model, consisting of an optical fiber for light storage and a tunable bandpass filter. (b) Fabry-Pérot bandpass filter.

Equations (41)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

δ W = F δ L = W δ L L .
W = V ε 0 n 2 E ^ 2 ,
F ( x ) = k 0 x + k 1 x 2 ,
k = d F ( x 0 ) d x = k 0 2 k 1 x 0 .
n = ( 1 + χ N e V ε 0 x ^ 2 E ^ ) 1 / 2 = ( 1 + χ + N e 2 V ε 0 1 k ω 0 2 m e ) ,
δ n = k 1 V ε 0 N e 2 n ( n 2 1 χ ) 2 δ x .
N ω 0 2 π L δ x 0 2 π / ω 0 0 L F [ x 0 + x ^ sin ( k z ) cos ( ω 0 t ) ] d z d t = N ( k 0 x 0 + k 1 x 0 2 + 1 4 k 1 x ^ 2 ) δ x .
δ W = 1 4 N k 1 x ^ 2 δ x = W δ n n ,
t H y = μ 0 1 z E x ,
t D x = z H y ,
D x ( z , t ) = ε 0 n 2 ( t ) E x ( z , t ) .
n 2 ( t ) t 2 D x = c 2 z 2 D x ,
E x = E x + ( t z / c ) + E x ( t + z / c ) .
E x + ( t z / c ) = r 1 E x [ t ( z + 2 L 0 ) / c ] .
E x ( t + z / c ) = γ r 2 E x + [ γ ( t + z / c ) ] .
E x + ( τ ) = γ r 1 r 2 E x + [ γ ( τ 2 L 0 / c ) ] .
E x + ( τ ) = E ^ x exp ( i 0 τ ω ( τ ) d τ ) = E ^ x exp [ i ω 0 b 1 ln ( 1 + b τ ) ] ,
b = c 1 γ 2 L 0 γ = c v ( c v ) L 0 , ω 0 = b ( 2 π m ϕ 1 ϕ 2 ln γ + i ) ,
E x = { E x + ( t z / c ) + E x ( t + z / c ) } = | E ^ x | { cos [ δ ln ( 1 + b t b z / c ) + ϕ ] 1 + b t b z / c + cos [ δ ln ( γ 1 + b t + b z / c ) ϕ 1 + ϕ ] γ 1 + b t + b z / c } ,
H y = | E ^ x | c μ 0 { cos [ δ ln ( 1 + b t b z / c ) + ϕ ] 1 + b t b z / c cos [ δ ln ( γ 1 + b t + b z / c ) ϕ 1 + ϕ ] γ 1 + b t + b z / c } .
E x , m + ( τ ) = | r 1 r 2 | m E x , 0 + ( τ ) .
E x , t + ( τ ) = t 2 m = 0 E x , m + ( τ ) = E x , i + ( τ ) t 1 t 2 m = 0 | r 1 r 2 | m = E x , i + ( τ ) t 1 t 2 1 | r 1 r 2 | .
E x = m = 0 | r 1 r 2 | m { E x , 0 + ( t z / c ) + γ r 2 E x , 0 + [ γ ( t + z / c ) ] } = 1 1 | r 1 r 2 | { E x , 0 + ( t z / c ) + γ r 2 E x , 0 + [ γ ( t + z / c ) ] } = | E ^ x | { cos [ δ ln ( 1 + b t b z / c ϕ ) ] 1 + b t b z / c + | r 2 | cos [ δ ln ( γ 1 + b t + b z / c ) + ϕ ϕ 1 ] γ 1 + b t + b z / c } ,
H y = | E ^ x | c μ 0 { cos [ δ ln ( 1 + b t b z / c ) + ϕ ] 1 + b t b z / c | r 2 | cos [ δ ln ( γ 1 + b t + b z / c ) + ϕ ϕ 1 ] γ 1 + b t + b z / c } .
n 0 2 b 2 4 c 2 F = z 2 F n 0 2 c 2 τ 2 F .
k = n 0 c ω 0 ( 1 + 1 4 b 2 ω 0 2 ) 1 / 2 ,
E x ± ( z , t ) = E ^ x ± ( 1 + b t ) 3 / 2 exp [ ± i k z i ω 0 b 1 ln ( 1 + b t ) ] .
E x + ( z , t ) = r 1 E x ( z 2 L 0 , t ) , E x ( z , t ) = r 2 E x + ( z , t ) ,
E x + ( z , t ) = r 1 r 2 E x + ( z + 2 L 0 , t ) .
k = ( 2 π m ϕ 1 ϕ 2 ) / ( 2 L 0 )
ω 0 = [ c 2 n 0 2 ( 2 π m ϕ 1 ϕ 2 2 L 0 ) 2 1 4 b 2 ] 1 / 2 ,
E x = { E x + ( z , t ) + E x ( z , t ) } = 2 | E ^ x | ( 1 + b t ) 3 / 2 cos ( k z ϕ 2 2 ) cos [ ω 0 b ln ( 1 + b t ) + ϕ + ϕ 2 2 ] ,
H y = 2 ε 0 n 0 2 | E ^ x | k ( 1 + b t ) 1 / 2 sin ( k z ϕ 2 2 ) × { ω 0 sin [ ω 0 b ln ( 1 + b t ) + ϕ + ϕ 2 2 ] + b 2 cos [ ω 0 b ln ( 1 + b t ) + ϕ + ϕ 2 2 ] } .
λ ( t ) = 2 π c / ω ( t ) = 2 π c ( 1 + b t ) / | { ω 0 } | .
λ m = 2 L op ( m ϕ 1 + ϕ 2 2 π ) 1 ,
λ ( t ) = ln ( c + v c v ) ( c v v L 0 + c t ) ( m ϕ 1 + ϕ 2 2 π ) 1 .
λ ( t ) = ( 1 + b t ) [ λ m 0 2 ( b 4 π c ) 2 ] 1 / 2 ,
W = A 2 L 0 z 2 ( ε E x 2 + μ 0 H y 2 ) d z .
W = ε 0 n 0 2 | E ^ x | 2 1 + | r 2 | 2 2 A L 0 1 + b t ,
v t , max c Δ λ ln G net 20 L R .
Δ λ = 2 ln 2 π λ 2 L c ,

Metrics