Abstract

This paper shows how dynamic heart rate measurements that are typically obtained from sensors mounted near to the heart can also be obtained from video sequences. In this study, two experiments are carried out where a video camera captures the facial images of the seven subjects. The first experiment involves the measurement of subjects’ increasing heart rates (79 to 150 beats per minute (BPM)) while cycling whereas the second involves falling heart beats (153 to 88 BPM). In this study, independent component analysis (ICA) is combined with mutual information to ensure accuracy is not compromised in the use of short video duration. While both experiments are going on measures of heartbeat using the Polar heart rate monitor is also taken to compare with the findings of the proposed method. Overall experimental results show the proposed method can be used to measure dynamic heart rates where the root mean square error (RMSE) and the correlation coefficient are 1.88 BPM and 0.99 respectively.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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2014 (1)

2013 (1)

M. L. Stone, P. M. Tatum, J. H. Weitkamp, A. B. Mukherjee, J. Attridge, E. D. McGahren, B. M. Rodgers, D. E. Lake, J. R. Moorman, and K. D. Fairchild, “Abnormal heart rate characteristics before clinical diagnosis of necrotizing enterocolitis,” J. Perinatol. 33(11), 847–850 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

M. Z. Poh, D. J. McDuff, and R. W. Picard, “Advancements in noncontact, multiparameter physiological measurements using a webcam,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 58(1), 7–11 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

M. Z. Poh, D. J. McDuff, and R. W. Picard, “Non-contact, automated cardiac pulse measurements using video imaging and blind source separation,” Opt. Express 18(10), 10762–10774 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Weippert, M. Kumar, S. Kreuzfeld, D. Arndt, A. Rieger, and R. Stoll, “Comparison of three mobile devices for measuring R-R intervals and heart rate variability: Polar S810i, Suunto t6 and an ambulatory ECG system,” Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. 109(4), 779–786 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

M. Garbey, N. Sun, A. Merla, and I. Pavlidis, “Contact-free measurement of cardiac pulse based on the analysis of thermal imagery,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 54(8), 1418–1426 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Pavlidis, J. Dowdall, N. Sun, C. Puri, J. Fei, and M. Garbey, “Interacting with human physiology,” Comput. Vis. Image Underst. 108(1-2), 150–170 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. Takano and Y. Ohta, “Heart rate measurement based on a time-lapse image,” Med. Eng. Phys. 29(8), 853–857 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

U. Rajendra Acharya, K. Paul Joseph, N. Kannathal, C. M. Lim, and J. S. Suri, “Heart rate variability: a review,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 44(12), 1031–1051 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

A. E. Aubert, B. Seps, and F. Beckers, “Heart rate variability in athletes,” Sports Med. 33(12), 889–919 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

T. Ojala, M. Pietikainen, and T. Maenpaa, “Multiresolution gray-scale and rotation invariant texture classification with local binary patterns,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 24(7), 971–987 (2002).
[Crossref]

M. P. Tarvainen, P. O. Ranta-Aho, and P. A. Karjalainen, “An advanced detrending method with application to HRV analysis,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 49(2), 172–175 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

T. W. Lee, M. S. Lewicki, and T. J. Sejnowski, “ICA mixture models for unsupervised classification of non-gaussian classes and automatic context switching in blind signal separation,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 22(10), 1078–1089 (2000).
[Crossref]

A. Hyvärinen and E. Oja, “Independent component analysis: algorithms and applications,” Neural Netw. 13(4-5), 411–430 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (2)

J. F. Cardoso, “High-order contrasts for independent component analysis,” Neural Comput. 11(1), 157–192 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Bland and D. G. Altman, “Measuring agreement in method comparison studies,” Stat. Methods Med. Res. 8(2), 135–160 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

R. D. Berger, S. Akselrod, D. Gordon, and R. J. Cohen, “An efficient algorithm for spectral analysis of heart rate variability,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 33(9), 900–904 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1977 (1)

J. Weinmann, A. Hayat, and G. Raviv, “Reflection photoplethysmography of arterial-blood-volume pulses,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 15(1), 22–31 (1977).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1940 (1)

A. B. Hertzman and J. B. Dillon, “Applications of photoelectric plethysmography in peripheral vascular disease,” Am. Heart J. 20(6), 750–761 (1940).
[Crossref]

Akselrod, S.

R. D. Berger, S. Akselrod, D. Gordon, and R. J. Cohen, “An efficient algorithm for spectral analysis of heart rate variability,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 33(9), 900–904 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Altman, D. G.

J. M. Bland and D. G. Altman, “Measuring agreement in method comparison studies,” Stat. Methods Med. Res. 8(2), 135–160 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arndt, D.

M. Weippert, M. Kumar, S. Kreuzfeld, D. Arndt, A. Rieger, and R. Stoll, “Comparison of three mobile devices for measuring R-R intervals and heart rate variability: Polar S810i, Suunto t6 and an ambulatory ECG system,” Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. 109(4), 779–786 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Attridge, J.

M. L. Stone, P. M. Tatum, J. H. Weitkamp, A. B. Mukherjee, J. Attridge, E. D. McGahren, B. M. Rodgers, D. E. Lake, J. R. Moorman, and K. D. Fairchild, “Abnormal heart rate characteristics before clinical diagnosis of necrotizing enterocolitis,” J. Perinatol. 33(11), 847–850 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aubert, A. E.

A. E. Aubert, B. Seps, and F. Beckers, “Heart rate variability in athletes,” Sports Med. 33(12), 889–919 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beckers, F.

A. E. Aubert, B. Seps, and F. Beckers, “Heart rate variability in athletes,” Sports Med. 33(12), 889–919 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Berger, R. D.

R. D. Berger, S. Akselrod, D. Gordon, and R. J. Cohen, “An efficient algorithm for spectral analysis of heart rate variability,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 33(9), 900–904 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bland, J. M.

J. M. Bland and D. G. Altman, “Measuring agreement in method comparison studies,” Stat. Methods Med. Res. 8(2), 135–160 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cardoso, J. F.

J. F. Cardoso, “High-order contrasts for independent component analysis,” Neural Comput. 11(1), 157–192 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cohen, R. J.

R. D. Berger, S. Akselrod, D. Gordon, and R. J. Cohen, “An efficient algorithm for spectral analysis of heart rate variability,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 33(9), 900–904 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dillon, J. B.

A. B. Hertzman and J. B. Dillon, “Applications of photoelectric plethysmography in peripheral vascular disease,” Am. Heart J. 20(6), 750–761 (1940).
[Crossref]

Dowdall, J.

I. Pavlidis, J. Dowdall, N. Sun, C. Puri, J. Fei, and M. Garbey, “Interacting with human physiology,” Comput. Vis. Image Underst. 108(1-2), 150–170 (2007).
[Crossref]

Fairchild, K. D.

M. L. Stone, P. M. Tatum, J. H. Weitkamp, A. B. Mukherjee, J. Attridge, E. D. McGahren, B. M. Rodgers, D. E. Lake, J. R. Moorman, and K. D. Fairchild, “Abnormal heart rate characteristics before clinical diagnosis of necrotizing enterocolitis,” J. Perinatol. 33(11), 847–850 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fei, J.

I. Pavlidis, J. Dowdall, N. Sun, C. Puri, J. Fei, and M. Garbey, “Interacting with human physiology,” Comput. Vis. Image Underst. 108(1-2), 150–170 (2007).
[Crossref]

Garbey, M.

I. Pavlidis, J. Dowdall, N. Sun, C. Puri, J. Fei, and M. Garbey, “Interacting with human physiology,” Comput. Vis. Image Underst. 108(1-2), 150–170 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Garbey, N. Sun, A. Merla, and I. Pavlidis, “Contact-free measurement of cardiac pulse based on the analysis of thermal imagery,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 54(8), 1418–1426 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gordon, D.

R. D. Berger, S. Akselrod, D. Gordon, and R. J. Cohen, “An efficient algorithm for spectral analysis of heart rate variability,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 33(9), 900–904 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hayat, A.

J. Weinmann, A. Hayat, and G. Raviv, “Reflection photoplethysmography of arterial-blood-volume pulses,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 15(1), 22–31 (1977).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hertzman, A. B.

A. B. Hertzman and J. B. Dillon, “Applications of photoelectric plethysmography in peripheral vascular disease,” Am. Heart J. 20(6), 750–761 (1940).
[Crossref]

Hideto, S.

N. Tsumura, O. Nobutoshi, S. Kayoko, S. Mitsuhiro, S. Hideto, N. Hirohide, A. Syuuichi, H. Kimihiko, and Y. Miyake, “Image-based skin color and texture analysis/synthesis by extracting hemoglobin and melanin information in the skin,” in Proceedings of ACM Transactions on Graphics (TOG) (ACM, 2003), pp. 770–779.
[Crossref]

Hirohide, N.

N. Tsumura, O. Nobutoshi, S. Kayoko, S. Mitsuhiro, S. Hideto, N. Hirohide, A. Syuuichi, H. Kimihiko, and Y. Miyake, “Image-based skin color and texture analysis/synthesis by extracting hemoglobin and melanin information in the skin,” in Proceedings of ACM Transactions on Graphics (TOG) (ACM, 2003), pp. 770–779.
[Crossref]

Hyvärinen, A.

A. Hyvärinen and E. Oja, “Independent component analysis: algorithms and applications,” Neural Netw. 13(4-5), 411–430 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kannathal, N.

U. Rajendra Acharya, K. Paul Joseph, N. Kannathal, C. M. Lim, and J. S. Suri, “Heart rate variability: a review,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 44(12), 1031–1051 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Karjalainen, P. A.

M. P. Tarvainen, P. O. Ranta-Aho, and P. A. Karjalainen, “An advanced detrending method with application to HRV analysis,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 49(2), 172–175 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kayoko, S.

N. Tsumura, O. Nobutoshi, S. Kayoko, S. Mitsuhiro, S. Hideto, N. Hirohide, A. Syuuichi, H. Kimihiko, and Y. Miyake, “Image-based skin color and texture analysis/synthesis by extracting hemoglobin and melanin information in the skin,” in Proceedings of ACM Transactions on Graphics (TOG) (ACM, 2003), pp. 770–779.
[Crossref]

Kimihiko, H.

N. Tsumura, O. Nobutoshi, S. Kayoko, S. Mitsuhiro, S. Hideto, N. Hirohide, A. Syuuichi, H. Kimihiko, and Y. Miyake, “Image-based skin color and texture analysis/synthesis by extracting hemoglobin and melanin information in the skin,” in Proceedings of ACM Transactions on Graphics (TOG) (ACM, 2003), pp. 770–779.
[Crossref]

Krajewski, J.

T. Pursche, J. Krajewski, and R. Moeller, “Video-based heart rate measurement from human faces,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Consumer Electronics (IEEE, 2012), pp. 544–545).
[Crossref]

Kreuzfeld, S.

M. Weippert, M. Kumar, S. Kreuzfeld, D. Arndt, A. Rieger, and R. Stoll, “Comparison of three mobile devices for measuring R-R intervals and heart rate variability: Polar S810i, Suunto t6 and an ambulatory ECG system,” Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. 109(4), 779–786 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kumar, M.

M. Weippert, M. Kumar, S. Kreuzfeld, D. Arndt, A. Rieger, and R. Stoll, “Comparison of three mobile devices for measuring R-R intervals and heart rate variability: Polar S810i, Suunto t6 and an ambulatory ECG system,” Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. 109(4), 779–786 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kwan, B. H.

Y. P. Yu, B. H. Kwan, C. L. Lim, S. L. Wong, and P. Raveendran, “Video-based heart rate measurement using short-time Fourier transform,” in Proceedings of International Symposium on Intelligent Signal Processing and Communications Systems (IEEE, 2013), pp. 704–707.

Lake, D. E.

M. L. Stone, P. M. Tatum, J. H. Weitkamp, A. B. Mukherjee, J. Attridge, E. D. McGahren, B. M. Rodgers, D. E. Lake, J. R. Moorman, and K. D. Fairchild, “Abnormal heart rate characteristics before clinical diagnosis of necrotizing enterocolitis,” J. Perinatol. 33(11), 847–850 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, T. W.

T. W. Lee, M. S. Lewicki, and T. J. Sejnowski, “ICA mixture models for unsupervised classification of non-gaussian classes and automatic context switching in blind signal separation,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 22(10), 1078–1089 (2000).
[Crossref]

Lewicki, M. S.

T. W. Lee, M. S. Lewicki, and T. J. Sejnowski, “ICA mixture models for unsupervised classification of non-gaussian classes and automatic context switching in blind signal separation,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 22(10), 1078–1089 (2000).
[Crossref]

Lim, C. L.

Y. P. Yu, B. H. Kwan, C. L. Lim, S. L. Wong, and P. Raveendran, “Video-based heart rate measurement using short-time Fourier transform,” in Proceedings of International Symposium on Intelligent Signal Processing and Communications Systems (IEEE, 2013), pp. 704–707.

Y. P. Yu, P. Raveendran, and C. L. Lim, “Heart rate estimation from facial images using filter bank,” in Proceedings of 6th International Symposium on Communications, Control and Signal Processing (IEEE, 2014), pp. 69–72.
[Crossref]

Lim, C. M.

U. Rajendra Acharya, K. Paul Joseph, N. Kannathal, C. M. Lim, and J. S. Suri, “Heart rate variability: a review,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 44(12), 1031–1051 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maenpaa, T.

T. Ojala, M. Pietikainen, and T. Maenpaa, “Multiresolution gray-scale and rotation invariant texture classification with local binary patterns,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 24(7), 971–987 (2002).
[Crossref]

McDuff, D. J.

M. Z. Poh, D. J. McDuff, and R. W. Picard, “Advancements in noncontact, multiparameter physiological measurements using a webcam,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 58(1), 7–11 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Z. Poh, D. J. McDuff, and R. W. Picard, “Non-contact, automated cardiac pulse measurements using video imaging and blind source separation,” Opt. Express 18(10), 10762–10774 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McGahren, E. D.

M. L. Stone, P. M. Tatum, J. H. Weitkamp, A. B. Mukherjee, J. Attridge, E. D. McGahren, B. M. Rodgers, D. E. Lake, J. R. Moorman, and K. D. Fairchild, “Abnormal heart rate characteristics before clinical diagnosis of necrotizing enterocolitis,” J. Perinatol. 33(11), 847–850 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Merla, A.

M. Garbey, N. Sun, A. Merla, and I. Pavlidis, “Contact-free measurement of cardiac pulse based on the analysis of thermal imagery,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 54(8), 1418–1426 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mitsuhiro, S.

N. Tsumura, O. Nobutoshi, S. Kayoko, S. Mitsuhiro, S. Hideto, N. Hirohide, A. Syuuichi, H. Kimihiko, and Y. Miyake, “Image-based skin color and texture analysis/synthesis by extracting hemoglobin and melanin information in the skin,” in Proceedings of ACM Transactions on Graphics (TOG) (ACM, 2003), pp. 770–779.
[Crossref]

Miyake, Y.

N. Tsumura, O. Nobutoshi, S. Kayoko, S. Mitsuhiro, S. Hideto, N. Hirohide, A. Syuuichi, H. Kimihiko, and Y. Miyake, “Image-based skin color and texture analysis/synthesis by extracting hemoglobin and melanin information in the skin,” in Proceedings of ACM Transactions on Graphics (TOG) (ACM, 2003), pp. 770–779.
[Crossref]

Moeller, R.

T. Pursche, J. Krajewski, and R. Moeller, “Video-based heart rate measurement from human faces,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Consumer Electronics (IEEE, 2012), pp. 544–545).
[Crossref]

Moorman, J. R.

M. L. Stone, P. M. Tatum, J. H. Weitkamp, A. B. Mukherjee, J. Attridge, E. D. McGahren, B. M. Rodgers, D. E. Lake, J. R. Moorman, and K. D. Fairchild, “Abnormal heart rate characteristics before clinical diagnosis of necrotizing enterocolitis,” J. Perinatol. 33(11), 847–850 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mukherjee, A. B.

M. L. Stone, P. M. Tatum, J. H. Weitkamp, A. B. Mukherjee, J. Attridge, E. D. McGahren, B. M. Rodgers, D. E. Lake, J. R. Moorman, and K. D. Fairchild, “Abnormal heart rate characteristics before clinical diagnosis of necrotizing enterocolitis,” J. Perinatol. 33(11), 847–850 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nobutoshi, O.

N. Tsumura, O. Nobutoshi, S. Kayoko, S. Mitsuhiro, S. Hideto, N. Hirohide, A. Syuuichi, H. Kimihiko, and Y. Miyake, “Image-based skin color and texture analysis/synthesis by extracting hemoglobin and melanin information in the skin,” in Proceedings of ACM Transactions on Graphics (TOG) (ACM, 2003), pp. 770–779.
[Crossref]

Ohta, Y.

C. Takano and Y. Ohta, “Heart rate measurement based on a time-lapse image,” Med. Eng. Phys. 29(8), 853–857 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Oja, E.

A. Hyvärinen and E. Oja, “Independent component analysis: algorithms and applications,” Neural Netw. 13(4-5), 411–430 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ojala, T.

T. Ojala, M. Pietikainen, and T. Maenpaa, “Multiresolution gray-scale and rotation invariant texture classification with local binary patterns,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 24(7), 971–987 (2002).
[Crossref]

Paul Joseph, K.

U. Rajendra Acharya, K. Paul Joseph, N. Kannathal, C. M. Lim, and J. S. Suri, “Heart rate variability: a review,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 44(12), 1031–1051 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pavlidis, I.

M. Garbey, N. Sun, A. Merla, and I. Pavlidis, “Contact-free measurement of cardiac pulse based on the analysis of thermal imagery,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 54(8), 1418–1426 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Pavlidis, J. Dowdall, N. Sun, C. Puri, J. Fei, and M. Garbey, “Interacting with human physiology,” Comput. Vis. Image Underst. 108(1-2), 150–170 (2007).
[Crossref]

Picard, R. W.

M. Z. Poh, D. J. McDuff, and R. W. Picard, “Advancements in noncontact, multiparameter physiological measurements using a webcam,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 58(1), 7–11 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Z. Poh, D. J. McDuff, and R. W. Picard, “Non-contact, automated cardiac pulse measurements using video imaging and blind source separation,” Opt. Express 18(10), 10762–10774 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pietikainen, M.

T. Ojala, M. Pietikainen, and T. Maenpaa, “Multiresolution gray-scale and rotation invariant texture classification with local binary patterns,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 24(7), 971–987 (2002).
[Crossref]

Poh, M. Z.

M. Z. Poh, D. J. McDuff, and R. W. Picard, “Advancements in noncontact, multiparameter physiological measurements using a webcam,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 58(1), 7–11 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Z. Poh, D. J. McDuff, and R. W. Picard, “Non-contact, automated cardiac pulse measurements using video imaging and blind source separation,” Opt. Express 18(10), 10762–10774 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Puri, C.

I. Pavlidis, J. Dowdall, N. Sun, C. Puri, J. Fei, and M. Garbey, “Interacting with human physiology,” Comput. Vis. Image Underst. 108(1-2), 150–170 (2007).
[Crossref]

Pursche, T.

T. Pursche, J. Krajewski, and R. Moeller, “Video-based heart rate measurement from human faces,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Consumer Electronics (IEEE, 2012), pp. 544–545).
[Crossref]

Rajendra Acharya, U.

U. Rajendra Acharya, K. Paul Joseph, N. Kannathal, C. M. Lim, and J. S. Suri, “Heart rate variability: a review,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 44(12), 1031–1051 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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M. P. Tarvainen, P. O. Ranta-Aho, and P. A. Karjalainen, “An advanced detrending method with application to HRV analysis,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 49(2), 172–175 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Raveendran, P.

Y. P. Yu, P. Raveendran, and C. L. Lim, “Heart rate estimation from facial images using filter bank,” in Proceedings of 6th International Symposium on Communications, Control and Signal Processing (IEEE, 2014), pp. 69–72.
[Crossref]

Y. P. Yu, B. H. Kwan, C. L. Lim, S. L. Wong, and P. Raveendran, “Video-based heart rate measurement using short-time Fourier transform,” in Proceedings of International Symposium on Intelligent Signal Processing and Communications Systems (IEEE, 2013), pp. 704–707.

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J. Weinmann, A. Hayat, and G. Raviv, “Reflection photoplethysmography of arterial-blood-volume pulses,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 15(1), 22–31 (1977).
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M. Weippert, M. Kumar, S. Kreuzfeld, D. Arndt, A. Rieger, and R. Stoll, “Comparison of three mobile devices for measuring R-R intervals and heart rate variability: Polar S810i, Suunto t6 and an ambulatory ECG system,” Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. 109(4), 779–786 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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M. L. Stone, P. M. Tatum, J. H. Weitkamp, A. B. Mukherjee, J. Attridge, E. D. McGahren, B. M. Rodgers, D. E. Lake, J. R. Moorman, and K. D. Fairchild, “Abnormal heart rate characteristics before clinical diagnosis of necrotizing enterocolitis,” J. Perinatol. 33(11), 847–850 (2013).
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[Crossref] [PubMed]

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M. L. Stone, P. M. Tatum, J. H. Weitkamp, A. B. Mukherjee, J. Attridge, E. D. McGahren, B. M. Rodgers, D. E. Lake, J. R. Moorman, and K. D. Fairchild, “Abnormal heart rate characteristics before clinical diagnosis of necrotizing enterocolitis,” J. Perinatol. 33(11), 847–850 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, L.

Sun, N.

M. Garbey, N. Sun, A. Merla, and I. Pavlidis, “Contact-free measurement of cardiac pulse based on the analysis of thermal imagery,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 54(8), 1418–1426 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Pavlidis, J. Dowdall, N. Sun, C. Puri, J. Fei, and M. Garbey, “Interacting with human physiology,” Comput. Vis. Image Underst. 108(1-2), 150–170 (2007).
[Crossref]

Suri, J. S.

U. Rajendra Acharya, K. Paul Joseph, N. Kannathal, C. M. Lim, and J. S. Suri, “Heart rate variability: a review,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 44(12), 1031–1051 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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N. Tsumura, O. Nobutoshi, S. Kayoko, S. Mitsuhiro, S. Hideto, N. Hirohide, A. Syuuichi, H. Kimihiko, and Y. Miyake, “Image-based skin color and texture analysis/synthesis by extracting hemoglobin and melanin information in the skin,” in Proceedings of ACM Transactions on Graphics (TOG) (ACM, 2003), pp. 770–779.
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C. Takano and Y. Ohta, “Heart rate measurement based on a time-lapse image,” Med. Eng. Phys. 29(8), 853–857 (2007).
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M. P. Tarvainen, P. O. Ranta-Aho, and P. A. Karjalainen, “An advanced detrending method with application to HRV analysis,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 49(2), 172–175 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tatum, P. M.

M. L. Stone, P. M. Tatum, J. H. Weitkamp, A. B. Mukherjee, J. Attridge, E. D. McGahren, B. M. Rodgers, D. E. Lake, J. R. Moorman, and K. D. Fairchild, “Abnormal heart rate characteristics before clinical diagnosis of necrotizing enterocolitis,” J. Perinatol. 33(11), 847–850 (2013).
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N. Tsumura, O. Nobutoshi, S. Kayoko, S. Mitsuhiro, S. Hideto, N. Hirohide, A. Syuuichi, H. Kimihiko, and Y. Miyake, “Image-based skin color and texture analysis/synthesis by extracting hemoglobin and melanin information in the skin,” in Proceedings of ACM Transactions on Graphics (TOG) (ACM, 2003), pp. 770–779.
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J. Weinmann, A. Hayat, and G. Raviv, “Reflection photoplethysmography of arterial-blood-volume pulses,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 15(1), 22–31 (1977).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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M. Weippert, M. Kumar, S. Kreuzfeld, D. Arndt, A. Rieger, and R. Stoll, “Comparison of three mobile devices for measuring R-R intervals and heart rate variability: Polar S810i, Suunto t6 and an ambulatory ECG system,” Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. 109(4), 779–786 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weitkamp, J. H.

M. L. Stone, P. M. Tatum, J. H. Weitkamp, A. B. Mukherjee, J. Attridge, E. D. McGahren, B. M. Rodgers, D. E. Lake, J. R. Moorman, and K. D. Fairchild, “Abnormal heart rate characteristics before clinical diagnosis of necrotizing enterocolitis,” J. Perinatol. 33(11), 847–850 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wong, S. L.

Y. P. Yu, B. H. Kwan, C. L. Lim, S. L. Wong, and P. Raveendran, “Video-based heart rate measurement using short-time Fourier transform,” in Proceedings of International Symposium on Intelligent Signal Processing and Communications Systems (IEEE, 2013), pp. 704–707.

Xu, S.

Yu, Y. P.

Y. P. Yu, P. Raveendran, and C. L. Lim, “Heart rate estimation from facial images using filter bank,” in Proceedings of 6th International Symposium on Communications, Control and Signal Processing (IEEE, 2014), pp. 69–72.
[Crossref]

Y. P. Yu, B. H. Kwan, C. L. Lim, S. L. Wong, and P. Raveendran, “Video-based heart rate measurement using short-time Fourier transform,” in Proceedings of International Symposium on Intelligent Signal Processing and Communications Systems (IEEE, 2013), pp. 704–707.

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[Crossref]

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M. Weippert, M. Kumar, S. Kreuzfeld, D. Arndt, A. Rieger, and R. Stoll, “Comparison of three mobile devices for measuring R-R intervals and heart rate variability: Polar S810i, Suunto t6 and an ambulatory ECG system,” Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. 109(4), 779–786 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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M. Garbey, N. Sun, A. Merla, and I. Pavlidis, “Contact-free measurement of cardiac pulse based on the analysis of thermal imagery,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 54(8), 1418–1426 (2007).
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[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. P. Tarvainen, P. O. Ranta-Aho, and P. A. Karjalainen, “An advanced detrending method with application to HRV analysis,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 49(2), 172–175 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. (2)

T. Ojala, M. Pietikainen, and T. Maenpaa, “Multiresolution gray-scale and rotation invariant texture classification with local binary patterns,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 24(7), 971–987 (2002).
[Crossref]

T. W. Lee, M. S. Lewicki, and T. J. Sejnowski, “ICA mixture models for unsupervised classification of non-gaussian classes and automatic context switching in blind signal separation,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 22(10), 1078–1089 (2000).
[Crossref]

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M. L. Stone, P. M. Tatum, J. H. Weitkamp, A. B. Mukherjee, J. Attridge, E. D. McGahren, B. M. Rodgers, D. E. Lake, J. R. Moorman, and K. D. Fairchild, “Abnormal heart rate characteristics before clinical diagnosis of necrotizing enterocolitis,” J. Perinatol. 33(11), 847–850 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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U. Rajendra Acharya, K. Paul Joseph, N. Kannathal, C. M. Lim, and J. S. Suri, “Heart rate variability: a review,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 44(12), 1031–1051 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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C. Takano and Y. Ohta, “Heart rate measurement based on a time-lapse image,” Med. Eng. Phys. 29(8), 853–857 (2007).
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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Flow chart of the proposed method.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 The relationship between the averaged normalized mutual information C(S1;S2;S3) and the video duration and the respective computed heart rates. The actual heart rate is 93 BPM.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The frequency domain of the ICA sources when video duration at point A is selected.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The frequency domain of the ICA sources when video duration at point B is selected.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The frequency domain of the ICA sources when video duration at point C is selected.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Comparison of the mean square and standard deviation of the heart rate errors for the proposed variable video intervals and fixed video intervals. t represents the video interval.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Comparison of actual heart rate readings and computer heart rate readings in the first experiment.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Bland-Altman Plot for all computed heart rate readings for the first experiments.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Comparison of actual heart rate readings and computer heart rate readings in the second experiment.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Bland-Altman Plot for all computed heart rate readings for the second experiments.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 Comparison of actual heart rate readings and computer heart rate readings for subjects at rest.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Summary of the video durations for all heart rate readings of each subject using the proposed method

Tables Icon

Table 2 Summary of heart rate readings results in the second experiment

Tables Icon

Table 3 Summary of heart rate readings results in the second experiment

Equations (13)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

x j = a j 1 s 1 + a j 2 s 2 + ... + a j n s n , for all j ,
x = A s .
s = W x
H R = 60 / I B I ¯
A ( λ ) = v m ( λ ) c m + v h ( λ ) c h + A 0 ( λ ) ,
log P R = { v m ( R ) c m + v h ( R ) c h + A 0 ( R ) } + log k E ( R ) , log P G = { v m ( G ) c m + v h ( G ) c h + A 0 ( G ) } + log k E ( G ) ,
y ( n ) = [ log ( P R 2 P G 1 P R 1 P G 2 ) , . .. , log ( P R n P G n 1 P R n 1 P G n ) ] .
I n ( S p ; S q ) = I ( S p ; S q ) H ( S p ) H ( S q ) ,
I ( S p ; S q ) = H ( S p ) + H ( S q ) H ( S p , S q ) .
H ( S ) = s S p ( s ) log p ( s ) ,
H ( S p , S q ) = s p S p s q S q p ( s p , s q ) log p ( s p , s q ) ,
C ( S 1 ; S 2 ; S 3 ) = I n ( S 1 ; S 2 ) + I n ( S 1 ; S 3 ) + I n ( S 2 ; S 3 ) 3 .
C t ( S 1 ; S 2 ; S 3 ) = a t b ,

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