Abstract

We have developed a fast multispectral endoscopic imaging system that is capable of acquiring images in 18 optimized spectral bands spanning 400-760 nm by combining a customized light source with six triple-band filters and a standard color CCD camera. A method is developed to calibrate the spectral response of the CCD camera. Imaging speed of 15 spectral image cubes/second is achieved. A spectral analysis algorithm based on a linear matrix inversion approach is developed and implemented in a graphics processing unit (GPU) to map the mucosa blood supply in the lung in vivo. Clinical measurements on human lung patients are demonstrated.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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  1. V. R. Kondepati, J. Zimmermann, M. Keese, J. Sturm, B. C. Manegold, and J. Backhaus, “Near-infrared fiber optic spectroscopy as a novel diagnostic tool for the detection of pancreatic cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(5), 054016 (2005).
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  3. G. Zonios, L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, R. Manoharan, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of human adenomatous colon polyps in vivo,” Appl. Opt. 38(31), 6628–6637 (1999).
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. S. C. Gebhart, R. C. Thompson, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “Liquid-crystal tunable filter spectral imaging for brain tumor demarcation,” Appl. Opt. 46(10), 1896–1910 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. T. Vo-Dinh, B. Cullum, and P. Kasili, “Development of a multi-spectral imaging system for medical applications,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 36(14), 1663–1668 (2003).
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. B. Yuan, “Radiative transport in the delta-P1 approximation for laminar optical tomography,” J. Innov. Opt. Health Sci. 2(2), 149–163 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  18. S. A. Carp, S. A. Prahl, and V. Venugopalan, “Radiative transport in the delta-P1 approximation: accuracy of fluence rate and optical penetration depth predictions in turbid semi-infinite media,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(3), 632–647 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

R. T. Kester, N. Bedard, L. Gao, and T. S. Tkaczyk, “Real-time snapshot hyperspectral imaging endoscope,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(5), 056005 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

2009 (2)

B. Yuan, “Radiative transport in the delta-P1 approximation for laminar optical tomography,” J. Innov. Opt. Health Sci. 2(2), 149–163 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. Reinders, D. Snead, P. Dhillon, and Y. Fawzy, “Endobronchial cancer detection using an integrated bronchoscopy system for simultaneous imaging and noncontact spectral measurement,” J. Bronchology Interv. Pulmonol. 16(3), 158–167 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

I. Seo, C. K. Hayakawa, and V. Venugopalan, “Radiative transport in the delta-P1 approximation for semi-infinite turbid media,” Med. Phys. 35(2), 681–693 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Roblyer, R. Richards-Kortum, K. Sokolov, A. K. El-Naggar, M. D. Williams, C. Kurachi, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Multispectral optical imaging device for in vivo detection of oral neoplasia,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024019 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

S. C. Gebhart, R. C. Thompson, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “Liquid-crystal tunable filter spectral imaging for brain tumor demarcation,” Appl. Opt. 46(10), 1896–1910 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Claridge, D. Hidoviv, P. Taniere, and T. Ismail, “Quantifying mucosal blood volume fraction from multispectral images of colon,” Proc. SPIE 6511, 65110C (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

Y. S. Fawzy, M. Petek, M. Tercelj, and H. Zeng, “In vivo assessment and evaluation of lung tissue morphologic and physiological changes from non-contact endoscopic reflectance spectroscopy for improving lung cancer detection,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 044003 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. P. Siegel, Y. L. Kim, H. K. Roy, R. K. Wali, and V. Backman, “Assessment of blood supply in superficial tissue by polarization-gated elastic light-scattering spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 45(2), 335–342 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

V. R. Kondepati, J. Zimmermann, M. Keese, J. Sturm, B. C. Manegold, and J. Backhaus, “Near-infrared fiber optic spectroscopy as a novel diagnostic tool for the detection of pancreatic cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(5), 054016 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. P. Bard, A. Amelink, V. N. Hegt, W. J. Graveland, H. J. Sterenborg, H. C. Hoogsteden, and J. G. Aerts, “Measurement of hypoxia-related parameters in bronchial mucosa by use of optical spectroscopy,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 171(10), 1178–1184 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (3)

2003 (1)

T. Vo-Dinh, B. Cullum, and P. Kasili, “Development of a multi-spectral imaging system for medical applications,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 36(14), 1663–1668 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

Y. N. Mirabal, S. K. Chang, E. N. Atkinson, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Reflectance spectroscopy for in vivo detection of cervical precancer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(4), 587–594 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

N. Gat, “Imaging spectroscopy using tunable filters: A review,” Proc. SPIE 4056, 50–64 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

Aerts, J. G.

M. P. Bard, A. Amelink, V. N. Hegt, W. J. Graveland, H. J. Sterenborg, H. C. Hoogsteden, and J. G. Aerts, “Measurement of hypoxia-related parameters in bronchial mucosa by use of optical spectroscopy,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 171(10), 1178–1184 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Amelink, A.

M. P. Bard, A. Amelink, V. N. Hegt, W. J. Graveland, H. J. Sterenborg, H. C. Hoogsteden, and J. G. Aerts, “Measurement of hypoxia-related parameters in bronchial mucosa by use of optical spectroscopy,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 171(10), 1178–1184 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Amelink, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, M. P. L. Bard, and S. A. Burgers, “In vivo measurement of the local optical properties of tissue by use of differential path-length spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 29(10), 1087–1089 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Atkinson, E. N.

Y. N. Mirabal, S. K. Chang, E. N. Atkinson, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Reflectance spectroscopy for in vivo detection of cervical precancer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(4), 587–594 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Backhaus, J.

V. R. Kondepati, J. Zimmermann, M. Keese, J. Sturm, B. C. Manegold, and J. Backhaus, “Near-infrared fiber optic spectroscopy as a novel diagnostic tool for the detection of pancreatic cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(5), 054016 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Backman, V.

Bard, M. P.

M. P. Bard, A. Amelink, V. N. Hegt, W. J. Graveland, H. J. Sterenborg, H. C. Hoogsteden, and J. G. Aerts, “Measurement of hypoxia-related parameters in bronchial mucosa by use of optical spectroscopy,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 171(10), 1178–1184 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bard, M. P. L.

Bedard, N.

R. T. Kester, N. Bedard, L. Gao, and T. S. Tkaczyk, “Real-time snapshot hyperspectral imaging endoscope,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(5), 056005 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Burgers, S. A.

Carp, S. A.

S. A. Carp, S. A. Prahl, and V. Venugopalan, “Radiative transport in the delta-P1 approximation: accuracy of fluence rate and optical penetration depth predictions in turbid semi-infinite media,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(3), 632–647 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, S. K.

Y. N. Mirabal, S. K. Chang, E. N. Atkinson, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Reflectance spectroscopy for in vivo detection of cervical precancer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(4), 587–594 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choudhury, N.

Claridge, E.

E. Claridge, D. Hidoviv, P. Taniere, and T. Ismail, “Quantifying mucosal blood volume fraction from multispectral images of colon,” Proc. SPIE 6511, 65110C (2007).
[Crossref]

Cullum, B.

T. Vo-Dinh, B. Cullum, and P. Kasili, “Development of a multi-spectral imaging system for medical applications,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 36(14), 1663–1668 (2003).
[Crossref]

Dhillon, P.

D. Reinders, D. Snead, P. Dhillon, and Y. Fawzy, “Endobronchial cancer detection using an integrated bronchoscopy system for simultaneous imaging and noncontact spectral measurement,” J. Bronchology Interv. Pulmonol. 16(3), 158–167 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

El-Naggar, A. K.

D. Roblyer, R. Richards-Kortum, K. Sokolov, A. K. El-Naggar, M. D. Williams, C. Kurachi, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Multispectral optical imaging device for in vivo detection of oral neoplasia,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024019 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fawzy, Y.

D. Reinders, D. Snead, P. Dhillon, and Y. Fawzy, “Endobronchial cancer detection using an integrated bronchoscopy system for simultaneous imaging and noncontact spectral measurement,” J. Bronchology Interv. Pulmonol. 16(3), 158–167 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fawzy, Y. S.

Y. S. Fawzy, M. Petek, M. Tercelj, and H. Zeng, “In vivo assessment and evaluation of lung tissue morphologic and physiological changes from non-contact endoscopic reflectance spectroscopy for improving lung cancer detection,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 044003 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feld, M. S.

Fitzmaurice, M.

Follen, M.

Y. N. Mirabal, S. K. Chang, E. N. Atkinson, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Reflectance spectroscopy for in vivo detection of cervical precancer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(4), 587–594 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gao, L.

R. T. Kester, N. Bedard, L. Gao, and T. S. Tkaczyk, “Real-time snapshot hyperspectral imaging endoscope,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(5), 056005 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gat, N.

N. Gat, “Imaging spectroscopy using tunable filters: A review,” Proc. SPIE 4056, 50–64 (2000).
[Crossref]

Gebhart, S. C.

Gillenwater, A. M.

D. Roblyer, R. Richards-Kortum, K. Sokolov, A. K. El-Naggar, M. D. Williams, C. Kurachi, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Multispectral optical imaging device for in vivo detection of oral neoplasia,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024019 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Graveland, W. J.

M. P. Bard, A. Amelink, V. N. Hegt, W. J. Graveland, H. J. Sterenborg, H. C. Hoogsteden, and J. G. Aerts, “Measurement of hypoxia-related parameters in bronchial mucosa by use of optical spectroscopy,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 171(10), 1178–1184 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hayakawa, C. K.

I. Seo, C. K. Hayakawa, and V. Venugopalan, “Radiative transport in the delta-P1 approximation for semi-infinite turbid media,” Med. Phys. 35(2), 681–693 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hegt, V. N.

M. P. Bard, A. Amelink, V. N. Hegt, W. J. Graveland, H. J. Sterenborg, H. C. Hoogsteden, and J. G. Aerts, “Measurement of hypoxia-related parameters in bronchial mucosa by use of optical spectroscopy,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 171(10), 1178–1184 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hidoviv, D.

E. Claridge, D. Hidoviv, P. Taniere, and T. Ismail, “Quantifying mucosal blood volume fraction from multispectral images of colon,” Proc. SPIE 6511, 65110C (2007).
[Crossref]

Hoogsteden, H. C.

M. P. Bard, A. Amelink, V. N. Hegt, W. J. Graveland, H. J. Sterenborg, H. C. Hoogsteden, and J. G. Aerts, “Measurement of hypoxia-related parameters in bronchial mucosa by use of optical spectroscopy,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 171(10), 1178–1184 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ismail, T.

E. Claridge, D. Hidoviv, P. Taniere, and T. Ismail, “Quantifying mucosal blood volume fraction from multispectral images of colon,” Proc. SPIE 6511, 65110C (2007).
[Crossref]

Jacques, S. L.

Kasili, P.

T. Vo-Dinh, B. Cullum, and P. Kasili, “Development of a multi-spectral imaging system for medical applications,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 36(14), 1663–1668 (2003).
[Crossref]

Keese, M.

V. R. Kondepati, J. Zimmermann, M. Keese, J. Sturm, B. C. Manegold, and J. Backhaus, “Near-infrared fiber optic spectroscopy as a novel diagnostic tool for the detection of pancreatic cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(5), 054016 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kester, R. T.

R. T. Kester, N. Bedard, L. Gao, and T. S. Tkaczyk, “Real-time snapshot hyperspectral imaging endoscope,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(5), 056005 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, Y. L.

Kondepati, V. R.

V. R. Kondepati, J. Zimmermann, M. Keese, J. Sturm, B. C. Manegold, and J. Backhaus, “Near-infrared fiber optic spectroscopy as a novel diagnostic tool for the detection of pancreatic cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(5), 054016 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kurachi, C.

D. Roblyer, R. Richards-Kortum, K. Sokolov, A. K. El-Naggar, M. D. Williams, C. Kurachi, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Multispectral optical imaging device for in vivo detection of oral neoplasia,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024019 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lam, S.

Mahadevan-Jansen, A.

Malpica, A.

Y. N. Mirabal, S. K. Chang, E. N. Atkinson, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Reflectance spectroscopy for in vivo detection of cervical precancer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(4), 587–594 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Manegold, B. C.

V. R. Kondepati, J. Zimmermann, M. Keese, J. Sturm, B. C. Manegold, and J. Backhaus, “Near-infrared fiber optic spectroscopy as a novel diagnostic tool for the detection of pancreatic cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(5), 054016 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Manoharan, R.

McWilliams, A.

Mirabal, Y. N.

Y. N. Mirabal, S. K. Chang, E. N. Atkinson, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Reflectance spectroscopy for in vivo detection of cervical precancer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(4), 587–594 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Palcic, B.

Perelman, L. T.

Petek, M.

Y. S. Fawzy, M. Petek, M. Tercelj, and H. Zeng, “In vivo assessment and evaluation of lung tissue morphologic and physiological changes from non-contact endoscopic reflectance spectroscopy for improving lung cancer detection,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 044003 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Zeng, M. Petek, M. T. Zorman, A. McWilliams, B. Palcic, and S. Lam, “Integrated endoscopy system for simultaneous imaging and spectroscopy for early lung cancer detection,” Opt. Lett. 29(6), 587–589 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Prahl, S. A.

S. A. Carp, S. A. Prahl, and V. Venugopalan, “Radiative transport in the delta-P1 approximation: accuracy of fluence rate and optical penetration depth predictions in turbid semi-infinite media,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(3), 632–647 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reinders, D.

D. Reinders, D. Snead, P. Dhillon, and Y. Fawzy, “Endobronchial cancer detection using an integrated bronchoscopy system for simultaneous imaging and noncontact spectral measurement,” J. Bronchology Interv. Pulmonol. 16(3), 158–167 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Richards-Kortum, R.

D. Roblyer, R. Richards-Kortum, K. Sokolov, A. K. El-Naggar, M. D. Williams, C. Kurachi, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Multispectral optical imaging device for in vivo detection of oral neoplasia,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024019 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. N. Mirabal, S. K. Chang, E. N. Atkinson, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Reflectance spectroscopy for in vivo detection of cervical precancer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(4), 587–594 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Roblyer, D.

D. Roblyer, R. Richards-Kortum, K. Sokolov, A. K. El-Naggar, M. D. Williams, C. Kurachi, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Multispectral optical imaging device for in vivo detection of oral neoplasia,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024019 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Roy, H. K.

Samatham, R.

Seo, I.

I. Seo, C. K. Hayakawa, and V. Venugopalan, “Radiative transport in the delta-P1 approximation for semi-infinite turbid media,” Med. Phys. 35(2), 681–693 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Siegel, M. P.

Snead, D.

D. Reinders, D. Snead, P. Dhillon, and Y. Fawzy, “Endobronchial cancer detection using an integrated bronchoscopy system for simultaneous imaging and noncontact spectral measurement,” J. Bronchology Interv. Pulmonol. 16(3), 158–167 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sokolov, K.

D. Roblyer, R. Richards-Kortum, K. Sokolov, A. K. El-Naggar, M. D. Williams, C. Kurachi, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Multispectral optical imaging device for in vivo detection of oral neoplasia,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024019 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sterenborg, H. J.

M. P. Bard, A. Amelink, V. N. Hegt, W. J. Graveland, H. J. Sterenborg, H. C. Hoogsteden, and J. G. Aerts, “Measurement of hypoxia-related parameters in bronchial mucosa by use of optical spectroscopy,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 171(10), 1178–1184 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sterenborg, H. J. C. M.

Sturm, J.

V. R. Kondepati, J. Zimmermann, M. Keese, J. Sturm, B. C. Manegold, and J. Backhaus, “Near-infrared fiber optic spectroscopy as a novel diagnostic tool for the detection of pancreatic cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(5), 054016 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Taniere, P.

E. Claridge, D. Hidoviv, P. Taniere, and T. Ismail, “Quantifying mucosal blood volume fraction from multispectral images of colon,” Proc. SPIE 6511, 65110C (2007).
[Crossref]

Tercelj, M.

Y. S. Fawzy, M. Petek, M. Tercelj, and H. Zeng, “In vivo assessment and evaluation of lung tissue morphologic and physiological changes from non-contact endoscopic reflectance spectroscopy for improving lung cancer detection,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 044003 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thompson, R. C.

Tkaczyk, T. S.

R. T. Kester, N. Bedard, L. Gao, and T. S. Tkaczyk, “Real-time snapshot hyperspectral imaging endoscope,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(5), 056005 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Van Dam, J.

Venugopalan, V.

I. Seo, C. K. Hayakawa, and V. Venugopalan, “Radiative transport in the delta-P1 approximation for semi-infinite turbid media,” Med. Phys. 35(2), 681–693 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. A. Carp, S. A. Prahl, and V. Venugopalan, “Radiative transport in the delta-P1 approximation: accuracy of fluence rate and optical penetration depth predictions in turbid semi-infinite media,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(3), 632–647 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vo-Dinh, T.

T. Vo-Dinh, B. Cullum, and P. Kasili, “Development of a multi-spectral imaging system for medical applications,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 36(14), 1663–1668 (2003).
[Crossref]

Wali, R. K.

Williams, M. D.

D. Roblyer, R. Richards-Kortum, K. Sokolov, A. K. El-Naggar, M. D. Williams, C. Kurachi, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Multispectral optical imaging device for in vivo detection of oral neoplasia,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024019 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yuan, B.

B. Yuan, “Radiative transport in the delta-P1 approximation for laminar optical tomography,” J. Innov. Opt. Health Sci. 2(2), 149–163 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zeng, H.

Y. S. Fawzy, M. Petek, M. Tercelj, and H. Zeng, “In vivo assessment and evaluation of lung tissue morphologic and physiological changes from non-contact endoscopic reflectance spectroscopy for improving lung cancer detection,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 044003 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Functional block diagram of the real-time multi-spectral endoscopic imaging system.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 RGB Triple-band filter output spectra. Solid fill for filter #1 and line fill for filter #6.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Typical spectral responses of the color CCD used in our system (obtained from Sony ICX618AQA data sheet).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Color images (RGB versus Spectral Color) and example single band spectral images of the lung mucosa acquired at different wavelengths within 400-760 nm.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Correlation between 18 bands spectral mapping plus linear matrix-inversion method (TOIr, Bvr) and full spectral measurement obtained with point spectrometer plus nonlinear least-square fit method (TOI, Bv). (A) tissue blood oxygen saturation index (TOIr vs.TOI); (B) tissue blood volume fraction (BVr vs. Bv).
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (A) Schematics shows the different positions/orientations of the endoscopy tip during measurements, (B) Normalized mean and standard deviation of the k values calculated from measurements conducted at multiple point within a given image view for three different endoscope tip orientations (Mi).
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (A) Measured reflectance spectra from the same point of a red color standard, but with different orientations of endosocpe tip (Mi). (B) Corrected reflectance spectra by calibrating the measured spectra of (A).
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 (A) Endoscopic image showing two arbitrary locations selected for multi-spectral analysis and marked as A1 and A2. (B) Tissue reflectance spectra (after calibration) at the two locations. (C) Estimated blood volume and oxygen saturation index at the two locations.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Sample images of (A) blood volume mapping, (B) tissue oxygenation index mapping, and (C) corresponding spectral color image.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Computation Speed Analysis Results

Equations (9)

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C B = T Bb1 I b1 + T Bg1 I g1 + T Br1 I r1
C G = T Gb1 I b1 + T Gg1 I g1 + T Gr1 I r1
C R = T Rb1 I b1 + T Rg1 I g1 + T Rr1 I r1
C= T RGB *I
R di (λ)=[ R mi (λ)/ R stdi (λ)]*ki
R d =A[α( γ )+β( γ )],
μ a ( λ )=BS μ a.oxy( λ ) +B(1S) μ a.deoxy( λ ) +W μ a.water( λ )
μ s ' ( λ )= V s  λ κ
X= A 1 *Y

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