Abstract

Čerenkov radiation is a fascinating optical signal, which has been exploited for unique diagnostic biological sensing and imaging, with significantly expanded use just in the last half decade. Čerenkov Luminescence Imaging (CLI) has desirable capabilities for niche applications, using specially designed measurement systems that report on radiation distributions, radiotracer and nanoparticle concentrations, and are directly applied to procedures such as medicine assessment, endoscopy, surgery, quality assurance and dosimetry. When compared to the other imaging tools such as PET and SPECT, CLI can have the key advantage of lower cost, higher throughput and lower imaging time. CLI can also provide imaging and dosimetry information from both radioisotopes and linear accelerator irradiation. The relatively short range of optical photon transport in tissue means that direct Čerenkov luminescence imaging is restricted to small animals or near surface human use. Use of Čerenkov-excitation for additional molecular probes, is now emerging as a key tool for biosensing or radiosensitization. This review evaluates these new improvements in CLI for both medical value and biological insight.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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2015 (8)

A. E. Spinelli and F. Boschi, “Novel biomedical applications of Čerenkov radiation and radioluminescence imaging,” Phys. Med. 31(2), 120–129 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Zhang, J. M. Andreozzi, D. J. Gladstone, W. L. Hitchcock, A. K. Glaser, S. Jiang, B. W. Pogue, and L. A. Jarvis, “Cherenkoscopy based patient positioning validation and movement tracking during post-lumpectomy whole breast radiation therapy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 60(1), L1–L14 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Hu, X. Cao, F. Kang, M. Wang, Y. Lin, M. Liu, S. Li, L. Yao, J. Liang, J. Liang, Y. Nie, X. Chen, J. Wang, and K. Wu, “Feasibility study of novel endoscopic Čerenkov luminescence imaging system in detecting and quantifying gastrointestinal disease: first human results,” Eur. Radiol. 25(6), 1814–1822 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Lohrmann, H. Zhang, D. L. Thorek, P. Desai, P. B. Zanzonico, J. O’Donoghue, C. P. Irwin, T. Reiner, J. Grimm, and W. A. Weber, “Čerenkov Luminescence Imaging for Radiation Dose Calculation of a 90Y-Labeled Gastrin-Releasing Peptide Receptor Antagonist,” J. Nucl. Med. 56(5), 805–811 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Kotagiri, G. P. Sudlow, W. J. Akers, and S. Achilefu, “Breaking the depth dependency of phototherapy with Čerenkov radiation and low-radiance-responsive nanophotosensitizers,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(4), 370–379 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Zhang, A. V. D’souza, J. R. Gunn, T. V. Esipova, S. A. Vinogradov, A. K. Glaser, L. A. Jarvis, D. J. Gladstone, and B. W. Pogue, “Cherenkov-excited luminescence scanned imaging,” Opt. Lett. 40(5), 827–830 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Czupryna, A. V. Kachur, E. Blankemeyer, A. V. Popov, A. D. Arroyo, J. S. Karp, and E. J. Delikatny, “Čerenkov-specific contrast agents for detection of pH in vivo,” J. Nucl. Med. 56(3), 483–488 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Guo, X. Sun, O. Jacobson, X. Yan, K. Min, A. Srivatsan, G. Niu, D. O. Kiesewetter, J. Chang, and X. Chen, “Intrinsically radioactive [64Cu]CuInS/ZnS quantum dots for PET and optical imaging: improved radiochemical stability and controllable Čerenkov luminescence,” ACS Nano 9(1), 488–495 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (9)

H. Hu, P. Huang, O. J. Weiss, X. Yan, X. Yue, M. G. Zhang, Y. Tang, L. Nie, Y. Ma, G. Niu, K. Wu, and X. Chen, “PET and NIR optical imaging using self-illuminating (64)Cu-doped chelator-free gold nanoclusters,” Biomaterials 35(37), 9868–9876 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Sun, X. Huang, J. Guo, W. Zhu, Y. Ding, G. Niu, A. Wang, D. O. Kiesewetter, Z. L. Wang, S. Sun, and X. Chen, “Self-illuminating 64Cu-doped CdSe/ZnS nanocrystals for in vivo tumor imaging,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 136(5), 1706–1709 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Cao, X. Chen, F. Kang, Y. Lin, M. Liu, H. Hu, Y. Nie, K. Wu, J. Wang, J. Liang, and J. Tian, “Performance evaluation of endoscopic Čerenkov luminescence imaging system: in vitro and pseudotumor studies,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(10), 3660–3670 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. K. Glaser, J. M. Andreozzi, S. C. Davis, R. Zhang, B. W. Pogue, C. J. Fox, and D. J. Gladstone, “Video-rate optical dosimetry and dynamic visualization of IMRT and VMAT treatment plans in water using Cherenkov radiation,” Med. Phys. 41(6), 062102 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. A. Jarvis, R. Zhang, D. J. Gladstone, S. Jiang, W. Hitchcock, O. D. Friedman, A. K. Glaser, M. Jermyn, and B. W. Pogue, “Cherenkov video imaging allows for the first visualization of radiation therapy in real time,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 89(3), 615–622 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. W. Holt, R. Zhang, T. V. Esipova, S. A. Vinogradov, A. K. Glaser, D. J. Gladstone, and B. W. Pogue, “Cherenkov excited phosphorescence-based pO2 estimation during multi-beam radiation therapy: phantom and simulation studies,” Phys. Med. Biol. 59(18), 5317–5328 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. E. Spinelli and F. Boschi, “Human Čerenkov imaging using 18F-FDG,” J. Nucl. Med. 55(3), 523 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. K. Glaser, R. Zhang, D. J. Gladstone, and B. W. Pogue, “Optical dosimetry of radiotherapy beams using Cherenkov radiation: the relationship between light emission and dose,” Phys. Med. Biol. 59(14), 3789–3811 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Zhang, C. Kuo, A. Moore, and C. Ran, “Čerenkov luminescence imaging of interscapular brown adipose tissue,” J. Vis. Exp. 92, e51790 (2014).
[PubMed]

2013 (12)

X. Zhang, C. Kuo, A. Moore, and C. Ran, “In vivo optical imaging of interscapular brown adipose tissue with (18)F-FDG via Čerenkov luminescence imaging,” PLoS One 8(4), e62007 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. K. Glaser, W. H. Voigt, S. C. Davis, R. Zhang, D. J. Gladstone, and B. W. Pogue, “Three-dimensional Čerenkov tomography of energy deposition from ionizing radiation beams,” Opt. Lett. 38(5), 634–636 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. E. Spinelli, M. Ferdeghini, C. Cavedon, E. Zivelonghi, R. Calandrino, A. Fenzi, A. Sbarbati, and F. Boschi, “First human Cerenkography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(2), 020502 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, Y. Liu, H. Luehmann, X. Xia, D. Wan, C. Cutler, and Y. Xia, “Radioluminescent gold nanocages with controlled radioactivity for real-time in vivo imaging,” Nano Lett. 13(2), 581–585 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Zhang, C. J. Fox, A. K. Glaser, D. J. Gladstone, and B. W. Pogue, “Superficial dosimetry imaging of Čerenkov emission in electron beam radiotherapy of phantoms,” Phys. Med. Biol. 58(16), 5477–5493 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Zhang, D. J. Gladstone, L. A. Jarvis, R. R. Strawbridge, P. Jack Hoopes, O. D. Friedman, A. K. Glaser, and B. W. Pogue, “Real-time in vivo Cherenkoscopy imaging during external beam radiation therapy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(11), 110504 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Natarajan, F. Habte, H. Liu, A. Sathirachinda, X. Hu, Z. Cheng, C. M. Nagamine, and S. S. Gambhir, “Evaluation of 89Zr-rituximab tracer by Čerenkov luminescence imaging and correlation with PET in a humanized transgenic mouse model to image NHL,” Mol. Imaging Biol. 15(4), 468–475 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Hu, W. Yang, X. Ma, W. Ma, X. Qu, J. Liang, J. Wang, and J. Tian, “Čerenkov luminescence tomography of aminopeptidase N (APN/CD13) expression in mice bearing HT1080 tumors,” Mol. Imaging 12(3), 173–181 (2013).
[PubMed]

A. K. Glaser, S. C. Davis, D. M. McClatchy, R. Zhang, B. W. Pogue, and D. J. Gladstone, “Projection imaging of photon beams by the Čerenkov effect,” Med. Phys. 40(1), 012101 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. K. Glaser, S. C. Davis, W. H. Voigt, R. Zhang, B. W. Pogue, and D. J. Gladstone, “Projection imaging of photon beams using Čerenkov-excited fluorescence,” Phys. Med. Biol. 58(3), 601–619 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. L. Thorek, A. Ogirala, B. J. Beattie, and J. Grimm, “Quantitative imaging of disease signatures through radioactive decay signal conversion,” Nat. Med. 19(10), 1345–1350 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Kotagiri, D. M. Niedzwiedzki, K. Ohara, and S. Achilefu, “Activatable probes based on distance-dependent luminescence associated with Čerenkov radiation,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 52(30), 7756–7760 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (6)

A. K. Glaser, R. Zhang, S. C. Davis, D. J. Gladstone, and B. W. Pogue, “Time-gated Cherenkov emission spectroscopy from linear accelerator irradiation of tissue phantoms,” Opt. Lett. 37(7), 1193–1195 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Yang, W. Qin, Z. Hu, Y. Suo, R. Zhao, X. Ma, W. Ma, T. Wang, J. Liang, J. Tian, and J. Wang, “Comparison of Čerenkov luminescence imaging (CLI) and gamma camera imaging for visualization of let-7 expression in lung adenocarcinoma A549 Cells,” Nucl. Med. Biol. 39(7), 948–953 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. R. Kothapalli, H. Liu, J. C. Liao, Z. Cheng, and S. S. Gambhir, “Endoscopic imaging of Čerenkov luminescence,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(6), 1215–1225 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Hu, X. Ma, X. Qu, W. Yang, J. Liang, J. Wang, and J. Tian, “Three-dimensional noninvasive monitoring iodine-131 uptake in the thyroid using a modified Čerenkov luminescence tomography approach,” PLoS One 7(5), e37623 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. J. Beattie, D. L. Thorek, C. R. Schmidtlein, K. S. Pentlow, J. L. Humm, and A. H. Hielscher, “Quantitative modeling of Čerenkov light production efficiency from medical radionuclides,” PLoS One 7(2), e31402 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Liu, C. M. Carpenter, H. Jiang, G. Pratx, C. Sun, M. P. Buchin, S. S. Gambhir, L. Xing, and Z. Cheng, “Intraoperative imaging of tumors using Čerenkov luminescence endoscopy: a feasibility experimental study,” J. Nucl. Med. 53(10), 1579–1584 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (13)

A. E. Spinelli, C. Kuo, B. W. Rice, R. Calandrino, P. Marzola, A. Sbarbati, and F. Boschi, “Multispectral Čerenkov luminescence tomography for small animal optical imaging,” Opt. Express 19(13), 12605–12618 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Zhong, C. Qin, X. Yang, S. Zhu, X. Zhang, and J. Tian, “Čerenkov luminescence tomography for in vivo radiopharmaceutical imaging,” Int. J. Biomed. Imaging 2011, 641618 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Zhong, J. Tian, X. Yang, and C. Qin, “Whole-Body Čerenkov Luminescence Tomography with the Finite Element SP(3) Method,” Ann. Biomed. Eng. 39(6), 1728–1735 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. S. Mitchell, R. K. Gill, D. L. Boucher, C. Li, and S. R. Cherry, “In vivo Čerenkov luminescence imaging: a new tool for molecular imaging,” Philos. Trans. A Math Phys. Eng. Sci. 369(1955), 4605–4619 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Xu, H. Liu, and Z. Cheng, “Harnessing the power of radionuclides for optical imaging: Čerenkov luminescence imaging,” J. Nucl. Med. 52(12), 2009–2018 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Lucignani, “Čerenkov radioactive optical imaging: a promising new strategy,” Eur. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging 38(3), 592–595 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. P. Holland, G. Normand, A. Ruggiero, J. S. Lewis, and J. Grimm, “Intraoperative imaging of positron emission tomographic radiotracers using Čerenkov luminescence emissions,” Mol. Imaging 10(3), 177–186 (2011).
[PubMed]

T. A. Aweda, V. Eskandari, D. L. Kukis, D. L. Boucher, B. V. Marquez, H. E. Beck, G. S. Mitchell, S. R. Cherry, and C. F. Meares, “New covalent capture probes for imaging and therapy, based on a combination of binding affinity and disulfide bond formation,” Bioconjug. Chem. 22(8), 1479–1483 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. C. Park, G. Il An, S. I. Park, J. Oh, H. J. Kim, Y. Su Ha, E. K. Wang, K. Min Kim, J. Y. Kim, J. Lee, M. J. Welch, and J. Yoo, “Luminescence imaging using radionuclides: a potential application in molecular imaging,” Nucl. Med. Biol. 38(3), 321–329 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. E. Spinelli and F. Boschi, “Unsupervised analysis of small animal dynamic Čerenkov luminescence imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(12), 120507 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.P. Holland, G. Normand, A. Ruggiero, J.S. Lewis, and J. Grimm, “Intraoperative imaging of positron emission tomographic radiotracers using Čerenkov luminescence emissions,” Mol. Imaging 10(3), 177–186 (2011).

D. H. Kim, Y. S. Choe, J. Y. Choi, K. H. Lee, and B. T. Kim, “Binding of 2-[18F]fluoro-CP-118,954 to mouse acetylcholinesterase: microPET and ex vivo Čerenkov luminescence imaging studies,” Nucl. Med. Biol. 38(4), 541–547 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Axelsson, S. C. Davis, D. J. Gladstone, and B. W. Pogue, “Čerenkov emission induced by external beam radiation stimulates molecular fluorescence,” Med. Phys. 38(7), 4127–4132 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (7)

H. Liu, G. Ren, Z. Miao, X. Zhang, X. Tang, P. Han, S. S. Gambhir, and Z. Cheng, “Molecular optical imaging with radioactive probes,” PLoS One 5(3), e9470 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. S. Dothager, R. J. Goiffon, E. Jackson, S. Harpstrite, and D. Piwnica-Worms, “Čerenkov radiation energy transfer (CRET) imaging: a novel method for optical imaging of PET isotopes in biological systems,” PLoS One 5(10), e13300 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Hu, J. Liang, W. Yang, W. Fan, C. Li, X. Ma, X. Chen, X. Ma, X. Li, X. Qu, J. Wang, F. Cao, and J. Tian, “Experimental Čerenkov luminescence tomography of the mouse model with SPECT imaging validation,” Opt. Express 18(24), 24441–24450 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Lewis, V. D. Kodibagkar, O. K. Öz, and R. P. Mason, “On the potential for molecular imaging with Čerenkov luminescence,” Opt. Lett. 35(23), 3889–3891 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Li, G. S. Mitchell, and S. R. Cherry, “Čerenkov luminescence tomography for small-animal imaging,” Opt. Lett. 35(7), 1109–1111 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Ruggiero, J. P. Holland, J. S. Lewis, and J. Grimm, “Čerenkov luminescence imaging of medical isotopes,” J. Nucl. Med. 51(7), 1123–1130 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. E. Spinelli, D. D’Ambrosio, L. Calderan, M. Marengo, A. Sbarbati, and F. Boschi, “Čerenkov radiation allows in vivo optical imaging of positron emitting radiotracers,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(2), 483–495 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

R. Robertson, M. S. Germanos, C. Li, G. S. Mitchell, S. R. Cherry, and M. D. Silva, “Optical imaging of Čerenkov light generation from positron-emitting radiotracers,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(16), N355–N365 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. S. Cho, R. Taschereau, S. Olma, K. Liu, Y. C. Chen, C. K. Shen, R. M. van Dam, and A. F. Chatziioannou, “Čerenkov radiation imaging as a method for quantitative measurements of beta particles in a microfluidic chip,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(22), 6757–6771 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

M. Takiue, Y. Yoshizawa, and H. Fujii, “Čerenkov counting of low-energy beta-emitters using a new ceramic with high refractive index,” Appl. Radiat. Isot. 61(6), 1335–1337 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

T. F. Massoud and S. S. Gambhir, “Molecular imaging in living subjects: seeing fundamental biological processes in a new light,” Genes Dev. 17(5), 545–580 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

D. L. Burden and G. M. Hieftje, “Čerenkov radiation as a UV and visible light source for time-resolved fluorescence,” Anal. Chem. 70(16), 3426–3433 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

W. C. Haxton, “Salty water Čerenkov detectors for solar neutrinos,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76(10), 1562–1565 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

K. D. Steidley, R. M. Eastman, and R. J. Stabile, “Observations of visual sensations produced by Cerenkov radiation from high-energy electrons,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 17(3), 685–690 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1978 (1)

R. Hesp, “The feasibility of using a liquid-filled Čerenkov counter of gamma-ray counting of large samples,” Phys. Med. Biol. 23(3), 438–445 (1978).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1975 (1)

W. J. Gelsema, C. L. de Ligny, J. B. Luten, and F. G. Vossenberg, “The use of the Čerenkov effect in the counting of beta- and gamma- emitting radionuclides,” Int. J. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 26(8), 443–450 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1971 (1)

F. L. Hoch, R. A. Kuras, and J. D. Jones, “Iodine analysis of biological samples by neutron activation of 127-I, with scintillation counting of Čerenkov radiation,” Anal. Biochem. 40(1), 86–94 (1971).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1970 (1)

G. Bosia, C. Castagnoli, M. Dardo, and G. Marangoni, “Observation of structure in Čerenkov pulses from extensive air showers using fast techniques,” Nature 225(5232), 532–533 (1970).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1969 (2)

M. K. Johnson, “Counting of Čerenkov radiation from 32P in nonaqueous media,” Anal. Biochem. 29(2), 348–350 (1969).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. H. Ross, “Measurement of $\beta$-emitting nuclides using Čerenkov radiation,” Anal. Chem. 41(10), 1260–1265 (1969).
[Crossref]

1968 (1)

R. H. Elrick and R. P. Parker, “The use of Cerenkov radiation in the measurement of beta-emitting radionuclides,” Int. J. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 19(3), 263–271 (1968).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1966 (1)

R. P. Parker and R. H. Elrick, “The assay of beta-emitting radioisotopes using Čerenkov counting,” Int. J. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 17(6), 361–362 (1966).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1937 (1)

P. Čerenkov, “Visible radiation produced by electrons moving in a medium with velocities exceeding the of light,” Phys. Rev. 52(4), 378–379 (1937).
[Crossref]

1934 (1)

P. Čerenkov, “Visible Emission of Člean Liquids by Action of $\gamma$ Radiation,” Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 2, 451–454 (1934).

Achilefu, S.

N. Kotagiri, G. P. Sudlow, W. J. Akers, and S. Achilefu, “Breaking the depth dependency of phototherapy with Čerenkov radiation and low-radiance-responsive nanophotosensitizers,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(4), 370–379 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Kotagiri, D. M. Niedzwiedzki, K. Ohara, and S. Achilefu, “Activatable probes based on distance-dependent luminescence associated with Čerenkov radiation,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 52(30), 7756–7760 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Akers, W. J.

N. Kotagiri, G. P. Sudlow, W. J. Akers, and S. Achilefu, “Breaking the depth dependency of phototherapy with Čerenkov radiation and low-radiance-responsive nanophotosensitizers,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(4), 370–379 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Andreozzi, J. M.

R. Zhang, J. M. Andreozzi, D. J. Gladstone, W. L. Hitchcock, A. K. Glaser, S. Jiang, B. W. Pogue, and L. A. Jarvis, “Cherenkoscopy based patient positioning validation and movement tracking during post-lumpectomy whole breast radiation therapy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 60(1), L1–L14 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. K. Glaser, J. M. Andreozzi, S. C. Davis, R. Zhang, B. W. Pogue, C. J. Fox, and D. J. Gladstone, “Video-rate optical dosimetry and dynamic visualization of IMRT and VMAT treatment plans in water using Cherenkov radiation,” Med. Phys. 41(6), 062102 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arroyo, A. D.

J. Czupryna, A. V. Kachur, E. Blankemeyer, A. V. Popov, A. D. Arroyo, J. S. Karp, and E. J. Delikatny, “Čerenkov-specific contrast agents for detection of pH in vivo,” J. Nucl. Med. 56(3), 483–488 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aweda, T. A.

T. A. Aweda, V. Eskandari, D. L. Kukis, D. L. Boucher, B. V. Marquez, H. E. Beck, G. S. Mitchell, S. R. Cherry, and C. F. Meares, “New covalent capture probes for imaging and therapy, based on a combination of binding affinity and disulfide bond formation,” Bioconjug. Chem. 22(8), 1479–1483 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Axelsson, J.

J. Axelsson, S. C. Davis, D. J. Gladstone, and B. W. Pogue, “Čerenkov emission induced by external beam radiation stimulates molecular fluorescence,” Med. Phys. 38(7), 4127–4132 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beattie, B. J.

D. L. Thorek, A. Ogirala, B. J. Beattie, and J. Grimm, “Quantitative imaging of disease signatures through radioactive decay signal conversion,” Nat. Med. 19(10), 1345–1350 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. J. Beattie, D. L. Thorek, C. R. Schmidtlein, K. S. Pentlow, J. L. Humm, and A. H. Hielscher, “Quantitative modeling of Čerenkov light production efficiency from medical radionuclides,” PLoS One 7(2), e31402 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beck, H. E.

T. A. Aweda, V. Eskandari, D. L. Kukis, D. L. Boucher, B. V. Marquez, H. E. Beck, G. S. Mitchell, S. R. Cherry, and C. F. Meares, “New covalent capture probes for imaging and therapy, based on a combination of binding affinity and disulfide bond formation,” Bioconjug. Chem. 22(8), 1479–1483 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Blankemeyer, E.

J. Czupryna, A. V. Kachur, E. Blankemeyer, A. V. Popov, A. D. Arroyo, J. S. Karp, and E. J. Delikatny, “Čerenkov-specific contrast agents for detection of pH in vivo,” J. Nucl. Med. 56(3), 483–488 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boschi, F.

A. E. Spinelli and F. Boschi, “Novel biomedical applications of Čerenkov radiation and radioluminescence imaging,” Phys. Med. 31(2), 120–129 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. E. Spinelli and F. Boschi, “Human Čerenkov imaging using 18F-FDG,” J. Nucl. Med. 55(3), 523 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. E. Spinelli, M. Ferdeghini, C. Cavedon, E. Zivelonghi, R. Calandrino, A. Fenzi, A. Sbarbati, and F. Boschi, “First human Cerenkography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(2), 020502 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. E. Spinelli and F. Boschi, “Unsupervised analysis of small animal dynamic Čerenkov luminescence imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(12), 120507 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. E. Spinelli, C. Kuo, B. W. Rice, R. Calandrino, P. Marzola, A. Sbarbati, and F. Boschi, “Multispectral Čerenkov luminescence tomography for small animal optical imaging,” Opt. Express 19(13), 12605–12618 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. E. Spinelli, D. D’Ambrosio, L. Calderan, M. Marengo, A. Sbarbati, and F. Boschi, “Čerenkov radiation allows in vivo optical imaging of positron emitting radiotracers,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(2), 483–495 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bosia, G.

G. Bosia, C. Castagnoli, M. Dardo, and G. Marangoni, “Observation of structure in Čerenkov pulses from extensive air showers using fast techniques,” Nature 225(5232), 532–533 (1970).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boucher, D. L.

T. A. Aweda, V. Eskandari, D. L. Kukis, D. L. Boucher, B. V. Marquez, H. E. Beck, G. S. Mitchell, S. R. Cherry, and C. F. Meares, “New covalent capture probes for imaging and therapy, based on a combination of binding affinity and disulfide bond formation,” Bioconjug. Chem. 22(8), 1479–1483 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. S. Mitchell, R. K. Gill, D. L. Boucher, C. Li, and S. R. Cherry, “In vivo Čerenkov luminescence imaging: a new tool for molecular imaging,” Philos. Trans. A Math Phys. Eng. Sci. 369(1955), 4605–4619 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Buchin, M. P.

H. Liu, C. M. Carpenter, H. Jiang, G. Pratx, C. Sun, M. P. Buchin, S. S. Gambhir, L. Xing, and Z. Cheng, “Intraoperative imaging of tumors using Čerenkov luminescence endoscopy: a feasibility experimental study,” J. Nucl. Med. 53(10), 1579–1584 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Burden, D. L.

D. L. Burden and G. M. Hieftje, “Čerenkov radiation as a UV and visible light source for time-resolved fluorescence,” Anal. Chem. 70(16), 3426–3433 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Calandrino, R.

A. E. Spinelli, M. Ferdeghini, C. Cavedon, E. Zivelonghi, R. Calandrino, A. Fenzi, A. Sbarbati, and F. Boschi, “First human Cerenkography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(2), 020502 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. E. Spinelli, C. Kuo, B. W. Rice, R. Calandrino, P. Marzola, A. Sbarbati, and F. Boschi, “Multispectral Čerenkov luminescence tomography for small animal optical imaging,” Opt. Express 19(13), 12605–12618 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Calderan, L.

A. E. Spinelli, D. D’Ambrosio, L. Calderan, M. Marengo, A. Sbarbati, and F. Boschi, “Čerenkov radiation allows in vivo optical imaging of positron emitting radiotracers,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(2), 483–495 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cao, F.

Cao, X.

H. Hu, X. Cao, F. Kang, M. Wang, Y. Lin, M. Liu, S. Li, L. Yao, J. Liang, J. Liang, Y. Nie, X. Chen, J. Wang, and K. Wu, “Feasibility study of novel endoscopic Čerenkov luminescence imaging system in detecting and quantifying gastrointestinal disease: first human results,” Eur. Radiol. 25(6), 1814–1822 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Cao, X. Chen, F. Kang, Y. Lin, M. Liu, H. Hu, Y. Nie, K. Wu, J. Wang, J. Liang, and J. Tian, “Performance evaluation of endoscopic Čerenkov luminescence imaging system: in vitro and pseudotumor studies,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(10), 3660–3670 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carpenter, C. M.

H. Liu, C. M. Carpenter, H. Jiang, G. Pratx, C. Sun, M. P. Buchin, S. S. Gambhir, L. Xing, and Z. Cheng, “Intraoperative imaging of tumors using Čerenkov luminescence endoscopy: a feasibility experimental study,” J. Nucl. Med. 53(10), 1579–1584 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Castagnoli, C.

G. Bosia, C. Castagnoli, M. Dardo, and G. Marangoni, “Observation of structure in Čerenkov pulses from extensive air showers using fast techniques,” Nature 225(5232), 532–533 (1970).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cavedon, C.

A. E. Spinelli, M. Ferdeghini, C. Cavedon, E. Zivelonghi, R. Calandrino, A. Fenzi, A. Sbarbati, and F. Boschi, “First human Cerenkography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(2), 020502 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cerenkov, P.

P. Čerenkov, “Visible radiation produced by electrons moving in a medium with velocities exceeding the of light,” Phys. Rev. 52(4), 378–379 (1937).
[Crossref]

P. Čerenkov, “Visible Emission of Člean Liquids by Action of $\gamma$ Radiation,” Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 2, 451–454 (1934).

Chang, J.

W. Guo, X. Sun, O. Jacobson, X. Yan, K. Min, A. Srivatsan, G. Niu, D. O. Kiesewetter, J. Chang, and X. Chen, “Intrinsically radioactive [64Cu]CuInS/ZnS quantum dots for PET and optical imaging: improved radiochemical stability and controllable Čerenkov luminescence,” ACS Nano 9(1), 488–495 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chatziioannou, A. F.

J. S. Cho, R. Taschereau, S. Olma, K. Liu, Y. C. Chen, C. K. Shen, R. M. van Dam, and A. F. Chatziioannou, “Čerenkov radiation imaging as a method for quantitative measurements of beta particles in a microfluidic chip,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(22), 6757–6771 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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W. Guo, X. Sun, O. Jacobson, X. Yan, K. Min, A. Srivatsan, G. Niu, D. O. Kiesewetter, J. Chang, and X. Chen, “Intrinsically radioactive [64Cu]CuInS/ZnS quantum dots for PET and optical imaging: improved radiochemical stability and controllable Čerenkov luminescence,” ACS Nano 9(1), 488–495 (2015).
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H. Hu, P. Huang, O. J. Weiss, X. Yan, X. Yue, M. G. Zhang, Y. Tang, L. Nie, Y. Ma, G. Niu, K. Wu, and X. Chen, “PET and NIR optical imaging using self-illuminating (64)Cu-doped chelator-free gold nanoclusters,” Biomaterials 35(37), 9868–9876 (2014).
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X. Sun, X. Huang, J. Guo, W. Zhu, Y. Ding, G. Niu, A. Wang, D. O. Kiesewetter, Z. L. Wang, S. Sun, and X. Chen, “Self-illuminating 64Cu-doped CdSe/ZnS nanocrystals for in vivo tumor imaging,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 136(5), 1706–1709 (2014).
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A. Natarajan, F. Habte, H. Liu, A. Sathirachinda, X. Hu, Z. Cheng, C. M. Nagamine, and S. S. Gambhir, “Evaluation of 89Zr-rituximab tracer by Čerenkov luminescence imaging and correlation with PET in a humanized transgenic mouse model to image NHL,” Mol. Imaging Biol. 15(4), 468–475 (2013).
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H. Liu, C. M. Carpenter, H. Jiang, G. Pratx, C. Sun, M. P. Buchin, S. S. Gambhir, L. Xing, and Z. Cheng, “Intraoperative imaging of tumors using Čerenkov luminescence endoscopy: a feasibility experimental study,” J. Nucl. Med. 53(10), 1579–1584 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. R. Kothapalli, H. Liu, J. C. Liao, Z. Cheng, and S. S. Gambhir, “Endoscopic imaging of Čerenkov luminescence,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(6), 1215–1225 (2012).
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Y. Xu, H. Liu, and Z. Cheng, “Harnessing the power of radionuclides for optical imaging: Čerenkov luminescence imaging,” J. Nucl. Med. 52(12), 2009–2018 (2011).
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H. Liu, G. Ren, Z. Miao, X. Zhang, X. Tang, P. Han, S. S. Gambhir, and Z. Cheng, “Molecular optical imaging with radioactive probes,” PLoS One 5(3), e9470 (2010).
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G. S. Mitchell, R. K. Gill, D. L. Boucher, C. Li, and S. R. Cherry, “In vivo Čerenkov luminescence imaging: a new tool for molecular imaging,” Philos. Trans. A Math Phys. Eng. Sci. 369(1955), 4605–4619 (2011).
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C. Li, G. S. Mitchell, and S. R. Cherry, “Čerenkov luminescence tomography for small-animal imaging,” Opt. Lett. 35(7), 1109–1111 (2010).
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[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. K. Glaser, S. C. Davis, W. H. Voigt, R. Zhang, B. W. Pogue, and D. J. Gladstone, “Projection imaging of photon beams using Čerenkov-excited fluorescence,” Phys. Med. Biol. 58(3), 601–619 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. K. Glaser, S. C. Davis, D. M. McClatchy, R. Zhang, B. W. Pogue, and D. J. Gladstone, “Projection imaging of photon beams by the Čerenkov effect,” Med. Phys. 40(1), 012101 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. K. Glaser, W. H. Voigt, S. C. Davis, R. Zhang, D. J. Gladstone, and B. W. Pogue, “Three-dimensional Čerenkov tomography of energy deposition from ionizing radiation beams,” Opt. Lett. 38(5), 634–636 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. K. Glaser, R. Zhang, S. C. Davis, D. J. Gladstone, and B. W. Pogue, “Time-gated Cherenkov emission spectroscopy from linear accelerator irradiation of tissue phantoms,” Opt. Lett. 37(7), 1193–1195 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Axelsson, S. C. Davis, D. J. Gladstone, and B. W. Pogue, “Čerenkov emission induced by external beam radiation stimulates molecular fluorescence,” Med. Phys. 38(7), 4127–4132 (2011).
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de Ligny, C. L.

W. J. Gelsema, C. L. de Ligny, J. B. Luten, and F. G. Vossenberg, “The use of the Čerenkov effect in the counting of beta- and gamma- emitting radionuclides,” Int. J. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 26(8), 443–450 (1975).
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J. Czupryna, A. V. Kachur, E. Blankemeyer, A. V. Popov, A. D. Arroyo, J. S. Karp, and E. J. Delikatny, “Čerenkov-specific contrast agents for detection of pH in vivo,” J. Nucl. Med. 56(3), 483–488 (2015).
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X. Sun, X. Huang, J. Guo, W. Zhu, Y. Ding, G. Niu, A. Wang, D. O. Kiesewetter, Z. L. Wang, S. Sun, and X. Chen, “Self-illuminating 64Cu-doped CdSe/ZnS nanocrystals for in vivo tumor imaging,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 136(5), 1706–1709 (2014).
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Dothager, R. S.

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Eastman, R. M.

K. D. Steidley, R. M. Eastman, and R. J. Stabile, “Observations of visual sensations produced by Cerenkov radiation from high-energy electrons,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 17(3), 685–690 (1989).
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R. Zhang, A. V. D’souza, J. R. Gunn, T. V. Esipova, S. A. Vinogradov, A. K. Glaser, L. A. Jarvis, D. J. Gladstone, and B. W. Pogue, “Cherenkov-excited luminescence scanned imaging,” Opt. Lett. 40(5), 827–830 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. W. Holt, R. Zhang, T. V. Esipova, S. A. Vinogradov, A. K. Glaser, D. J. Gladstone, and B. W. Pogue, “Cherenkov excited phosphorescence-based pO2 estimation during multi-beam radiation therapy: phantom and simulation studies,” Phys. Med. Biol. 59(18), 5317–5328 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Zhang, A. V. Dsouza, J. R. Gunn, T. V. Esipova, S. A. Vinogradov, A. K. Glaser, L. A. Jarvis, D. J. Gladstone, and B. W. Pogue, “Cherenkov-Excited Luminescence Scanned Imaging (CELSI),” Opt. Lett.in press.

Eskandari, V.

T. A. Aweda, V. Eskandari, D. L. Kukis, D. L. Boucher, B. V. Marquez, H. E. Beck, G. S. Mitchell, S. R. Cherry, and C. F. Meares, “New covalent capture probes for imaging and therapy, based on a combination of binding affinity and disulfide bond formation,” Bioconjug. Chem. 22(8), 1479–1483 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fan, W.

Fenzi, A.

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Fox, C. J.

A. K. Glaser, J. M. Andreozzi, S. C. Davis, R. Zhang, B. W. Pogue, C. J. Fox, and D. J. Gladstone, “Video-rate optical dosimetry and dynamic visualization of IMRT and VMAT treatment plans in water using Cherenkov radiation,” Med. Phys. 41(6), 062102 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Zhang, C. J. Fox, A. K. Glaser, D. J. Gladstone, and B. W. Pogue, “Superficial dosimetry imaging of Čerenkov emission in electron beam radiotherapy of phantoms,” Phys. Med. Biol. 58(16), 5477–5493 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Friedman, O. D.

L. A. Jarvis, R. Zhang, D. J. Gladstone, S. Jiang, W. Hitchcock, O. D. Friedman, A. K. Glaser, M. Jermyn, and B. W. Pogue, “Cherenkov video imaging allows for the first visualization of radiation therapy in real time,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 89(3), 615–622 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Zhang, D. J. Gladstone, L. A. Jarvis, R. R. Strawbridge, P. Jack Hoopes, O. D. Friedman, A. K. Glaser, and B. W. Pogue, “Real-time in vivo Cherenkoscopy imaging during external beam radiation therapy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(11), 110504 (2013).
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M. Takiue, Y. Yoshizawa, and H. Fujii, “Čerenkov counting of low-energy beta-emitters using a new ceramic with high refractive index,” Appl. Radiat. Isot. 61(6), 1335–1337 (2004).
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Gambhir, S. S.

A. Natarajan, F. Habte, H. Liu, A. Sathirachinda, X. Hu, Z. Cheng, C. M. Nagamine, and S. S. Gambhir, “Evaluation of 89Zr-rituximab tracer by Čerenkov luminescence imaging and correlation with PET in a humanized transgenic mouse model to image NHL,” Mol. Imaging Biol. 15(4), 468–475 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Liu, C. M. Carpenter, H. Jiang, G. Pratx, C. Sun, M. P. Buchin, S. S. Gambhir, L. Xing, and Z. Cheng, “Intraoperative imaging of tumors using Čerenkov luminescence endoscopy: a feasibility experimental study,” J. Nucl. Med. 53(10), 1579–1584 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. R. Kothapalli, H. Liu, J. C. Liao, Z. Cheng, and S. S. Gambhir, “Endoscopic imaging of Čerenkov luminescence,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(6), 1215–1225 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Liu, G. Ren, Z. Miao, X. Zhang, X. Tang, P. Han, S. S. Gambhir, and Z. Cheng, “Molecular optical imaging with radioactive probes,” PLoS One 5(3), e9470 (2010).
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Gelsema, W. J.

W. J. Gelsema, C. L. de Ligny, J. B. Luten, and F. G. Vossenberg, “The use of the Čerenkov effect in the counting of beta- and gamma- emitting radionuclides,” Int. J. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 26(8), 443–450 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Germanos, M. S.

R. Robertson, M. S. Germanos, C. Li, G. S. Mitchell, S. R. Cherry, and M. D. Silva, “Optical imaging of Čerenkov light generation from positron-emitting radiotracers,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(16), N355–N365 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gill, R. K.

G. S. Mitchell, R. K. Gill, D. L. Boucher, C. Li, and S. R. Cherry, “In vivo Čerenkov luminescence imaging: a new tool for molecular imaging,” Philos. Trans. A Math Phys. Eng. Sci. 369(1955), 4605–4619 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gladstone, D. J.

R. Zhang, J. M. Andreozzi, D. J. Gladstone, W. L. Hitchcock, A. K. Glaser, S. Jiang, B. W. Pogue, and L. A. Jarvis, “Cherenkoscopy based patient positioning validation and movement tracking during post-lumpectomy whole breast radiation therapy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 60(1), L1–L14 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Zhang, A. V. D’souza, J. R. Gunn, T. V. Esipova, S. A. Vinogradov, A. K. Glaser, L. A. Jarvis, D. J. Gladstone, and B. W. Pogue, “Cherenkov-excited luminescence scanned imaging,” Opt. Lett. 40(5), 827–830 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. W. Holt, R. Zhang, T. V. Esipova, S. A. Vinogradov, A. K. Glaser, D. J. Gladstone, and B. W. Pogue, “Cherenkov excited phosphorescence-based pO2 estimation during multi-beam radiation therapy: phantom and simulation studies,” Phys. Med. Biol. 59(18), 5317–5328 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. A. Jarvis, R. Zhang, D. J. Gladstone, S. Jiang, W. Hitchcock, O. D. Friedman, A. K. Glaser, M. Jermyn, and B. W. Pogue, “Cherenkov video imaging allows for the first visualization of radiation therapy in real time,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 89(3), 615–622 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. K. Glaser, J. M. Andreozzi, S. C. Davis, R. Zhang, B. W. Pogue, C. J. Fox, and D. J. Gladstone, “Video-rate optical dosimetry and dynamic visualization of IMRT and VMAT treatment plans in water using Cherenkov radiation,” Med. Phys. 41(6), 062102 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. K. Glaser, R. Zhang, D. J. Gladstone, and B. W. Pogue, “Optical dosimetry of radiotherapy beams using Cherenkov radiation: the relationship between light emission and dose,” Phys. Med. Biol. 59(14), 3789–3811 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Zhang, C. J. Fox, A. K. Glaser, D. J. Gladstone, and B. W. Pogue, “Superficial dosimetry imaging of Čerenkov emission in electron beam radiotherapy of phantoms,” Phys. Med. Biol. 58(16), 5477–5493 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. K. Glaser, S. C. Davis, W. H. Voigt, R. Zhang, B. W. Pogue, and D. J. Gladstone, “Projection imaging of photon beams using Čerenkov-excited fluorescence,” Phys. Med. Biol. 58(3), 601–619 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. K. Glaser, S. C. Davis, D. M. McClatchy, R. Zhang, B. W. Pogue, and D. J. Gladstone, “Projection imaging of photon beams by the Čerenkov effect,” Med. Phys. 40(1), 012101 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Zhang, D. J. Gladstone, L. A. Jarvis, R. R. Strawbridge, P. Jack Hoopes, O. D. Friedman, A. K. Glaser, and B. W. Pogue, “Real-time in vivo Cherenkoscopy imaging during external beam radiation therapy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(11), 110504 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. K. Glaser, W. H. Voigt, S. C. Davis, R. Zhang, D. J. Gladstone, and B. W. Pogue, “Three-dimensional Čerenkov tomography of energy deposition from ionizing radiation beams,” Opt. Lett. 38(5), 634–636 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. K. Glaser, R. Zhang, S. C. Davis, D. J. Gladstone, and B. W. Pogue, “Time-gated Cherenkov emission spectroscopy from linear accelerator irradiation of tissue phantoms,” Opt. Lett. 37(7), 1193–1195 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Axelsson, S. C. Davis, D. J. Gladstone, and B. W. Pogue, “Čerenkov emission induced by external beam radiation stimulates molecular fluorescence,” Med. Phys. 38(7), 4127–4132 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Zhang, A. V. Dsouza, J. R. Gunn, T. V. Esipova, S. A. Vinogradov, A. K. Glaser, L. A. Jarvis, D. J. Gladstone, and B. W. Pogue, “Cherenkov-Excited Luminescence Scanned Imaging (CELSI),” Opt. Lett.in press.

Glaser, A. K.

R. Zhang, J. M. Andreozzi, D. J. Gladstone, W. L. Hitchcock, A. K. Glaser, S. Jiang, B. W. Pogue, and L. A. Jarvis, “Cherenkoscopy based patient positioning validation and movement tracking during post-lumpectomy whole breast radiation therapy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 60(1), L1–L14 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Zhang, A. V. D’souza, J. R. Gunn, T. V. Esipova, S. A. Vinogradov, A. K. Glaser, L. A. Jarvis, D. J. Gladstone, and B. W. Pogue, “Cherenkov-excited luminescence scanned imaging,” Opt. Lett. 40(5), 827–830 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. W. Holt, R. Zhang, T. V. Esipova, S. A. Vinogradov, A. K. Glaser, D. J. Gladstone, and B. W. Pogue, “Cherenkov excited phosphorescence-based pO2 estimation during multi-beam radiation therapy: phantom and simulation studies,” Phys. Med. Biol. 59(18), 5317–5328 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. K. Glaser, J. M. Andreozzi, S. C. Davis, R. Zhang, B. W. Pogue, C. J. Fox, and D. J. Gladstone, “Video-rate optical dosimetry and dynamic visualization of IMRT and VMAT treatment plans in water using Cherenkov radiation,” Med. Phys. 41(6), 062102 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. A. Jarvis, R. Zhang, D. J. Gladstone, S. Jiang, W. Hitchcock, O. D. Friedman, A. K. Glaser, M. Jermyn, and B. W. Pogue, “Cherenkov video imaging allows for the first visualization of radiation therapy in real time,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 89(3), 615–622 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. K. Glaser, R. Zhang, D. J. Gladstone, and B. W. Pogue, “Optical dosimetry of radiotherapy beams using Cherenkov radiation: the relationship between light emission and dose,” Phys. Med. Biol. 59(14), 3789–3811 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Zhang, C. J. Fox, A. K. Glaser, D. J. Gladstone, and B. W. Pogue, “Superficial dosimetry imaging of Čerenkov emission in electron beam radiotherapy of phantoms,” Phys. Med. Biol. 58(16), 5477–5493 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. K. Glaser, S. C. Davis, W. H. Voigt, R. Zhang, B. W. Pogue, and D. J. Gladstone, “Projection imaging of photon beams using Čerenkov-excited fluorescence,” Phys. Med. Biol. 58(3), 601–619 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. K. Glaser, S. C. Davis, D. M. McClatchy, R. Zhang, B. W. Pogue, and D. J. Gladstone, “Projection imaging of photon beams by the Čerenkov effect,” Med. Phys. 40(1), 012101 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Zhang, D. J. Gladstone, L. A. Jarvis, R. R. Strawbridge, P. Jack Hoopes, O. D. Friedman, A. K. Glaser, and B. W. Pogue, “Real-time in vivo Cherenkoscopy imaging during external beam radiation therapy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(11), 110504 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. K. Glaser, W. H. Voigt, S. C. Davis, R. Zhang, D. J. Gladstone, and B. W. Pogue, “Three-dimensional Čerenkov tomography of energy deposition from ionizing radiation beams,” Opt. Lett. 38(5), 634–636 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. K. Glaser, R. Zhang, S. C. Davis, D. J. Gladstone, and B. W. Pogue, “Time-gated Cherenkov emission spectroscopy from linear accelerator irradiation of tissue phantoms,” Opt. Lett. 37(7), 1193–1195 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Zhang, A. V. Dsouza, J. R. Gunn, T. V. Esipova, S. A. Vinogradov, A. K. Glaser, L. A. Jarvis, D. J. Gladstone, and B. W. Pogue, “Cherenkov-Excited Luminescence Scanned Imaging (CELSI),” Opt. Lett.in press.

Goiffon, R. J.

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A. Ruggiero, J. P. Holland, J. S. Lewis, and J. Grimm, “Čerenkov luminescence imaging of medical isotopes,” J. Nucl. Med. 51(7), 1123–1130 (2010).
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R. Zhang, A. V. D’souza, J. R. Gunn, T. V. Esipova, S. A. Vinogradov, A. K. Glaser, L. A. Jarvis, D. J. Gladstone, and B. W. Pogue, “Cherenkov-excited luminescence scanned imaging,” Opt. Lett. 40(5), 827–830 (2015).
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R. Zhang, A. V. D’souza, J. R. Gunn, T. V. Esipova, S. A. Vinogradov, A. K. Glaser, L. A. Jarvis, D. J. Gladstone, and B. W. Pogue, “Cherenkov-excited luminescence scanned imaging,” Opt. Lett. 40(5), 827–830 (2015).
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L. A. Jarvis, R. Zhang, D. J. Gladstone, S. Jiang, W. Hitchcock, O. D. Friedman, A. K. Glaser, M. Jermyn, and B. W. Pogue, “Cherenkov video imaging allows for the first visualization of radiation therapy in real time,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 89(3), 615–622 (2014).
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Y. Wang, Y. Liu, H. Luehmann, X. Xia, D. Wan, C. Cutler, and Y. Xia, “Radioluminescent gold nanocages with controlled radioactivity for real-time in vivo imaging,” Nano Lett. 13(2), 581–585 (2013).
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R. Robertson, M. S. Germanos, C. Li, G. S. Mitchell, S. R. Cherry, and M. D. Silva, “Optical imaging of Čerenkov light generation from positron-emitting radiotracers,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(16), N355–N365 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. K. Glaser, S. C. Davis, W. H. Voigt, R. Zhang, B. W. Pogue, and D. J. Gladstone, “Projection imaging of photon beams using Čerenkov-excited fluorescence,” Phys. Med. Biol. 58(3), 601–619 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. W. Holt, R. Zhang, T. V. Esipova, S. A. Vinogradov, A. K. Glaser, D. J. Gladstone, and B. W. Pogue, “Cherenkov excited phosphorescence-based pO2 estimation during multi-beam radiation therapy: phantom and simulation studies,” Phys. Med. Biol. 59(18), 5317–5328 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Zhang, J. M. Andreozzi, D. J. Gladstone, W. L. Hitchcock, A. K. Glaser, S. Jiang, B. W. Pogue, and L. A. Jarvis, “Cherenkoscopy based patient positioning validation and movement tracking during post-lumpectomy whole breast radiation therapy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 60(1), L1–L14 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Zhang, C. J. Fox, A. K. Glaser, D. J. Gladstone, and B. W. Pogue, “Superficial dosimetry imaging of Čerenkov emission in electron beam radiotherapy of phantoms,” Phys. Med. Biol. 58(16), 5477–5493 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. S. Cho, R. Taschereau, S. Olma, K. Liu, Y. C. Chen, C. K. Shen, R. M. van Dam, and A. F. Chatziioannou, “Čerenkov radiation imaging as a method for quantitative measurements of beta particles in a microfluidic chip,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(22), 6757–6771 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. (1)

P. Čerenkov, “Visible radiation produced by electrons moving in a medium with velocities exceeding the of light,” Phys. Rev. 52(4), 378–379 (1937).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

W. C. Haxton, “Salty water Čerenkov detectors for solar neutrinos,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76(10), 1562–1565 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

PLoS One (5)

R. S. Dothager, R. J. Goiffon, E. Jackson, S. Harpstrite, and D. Piwnica-Worms, “Čerenkov radiation energy transfer (CRET) imaging: a novel method for optical imaging of PET isotopes in biological systems,” PLoS One 5(10), e13300 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Hu, X. Ma, X. Qu, W. Yang, J. Liang, J. Wang, and J. Tian, “Three-dimensional noninvasive monitoring iodine-131 uptake in the thyroid using a modified Čerenkov luminescence tomography approach,” PLoS One 7(5), e37623 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. J. Beattie, D. L. Thorek, C. R. Schmidtlein, K. S. Pentlow, J. L. Humm, and A. H. Hielscher, “Quantitative modeling of Čerenkov light production efficiency from medical radionuclides,” PLoS One 7(2), e31402 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Zhang, C. Kuo, A. Moore, and C. Ran, “In vivo optical imaging of interscapular brown adipose tissue with (18)F-FDG via Čerenkov luminescence imaging,” PLoS One 8(4), e62007 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Liu, G. Ren, Z. Miao, X. Zhang, X. Tang, P. Han, S. S. Gambhir, and Z. Cheng, “Molecular optical imaging with radioactive probes,” PLoS One 5(3), e9470 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (1)

R. Zhang, A. V. Dsouza, J. R. Gunn, T. V. Esipova, S. A. Vinogradov, A. K. Glaser, L. A. Jarvis, D. J. Gladstone, and B. W. Pogue, “Cherenkov-Excited Luminescence Scanned Imaging (CELSI),” Opt. Lett.in press.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 The relative CLI yield for different isotopes is shown in top left [13], and one of the first images observed from a mouse using CLI [8]. Soon after this, the first CLI image from a human was taken, shown (right-top) and its fusion on photographic image of the patients neck (right-bottom) to show the location of the intensity in the thyroid [53].
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Comparison between CLE and IVIS optical imaging system is shown, using before surgery (left) and after surgery (right) to illustrate how residual tumor could be detected by CLI, extending nuclear medicine imaging to an optical surgical setting [16].
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Čerenkov luminescence tomography (CLT) is demonstrated in a mouse model with uptake in the heart and bladder shown (a) & (b) and compared to that of the gamma signals detected and reconstructed by PET (c) & (d) [12].
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The experimental results (left) and schematic (right) of the Čerenkov dosimetry imaging system, acquiring 2D projection views, and used for 3D reconstruction filtered backprojection imaging of the images [21]. The square MegaVolt photon beam profile (top left) and the complex beam profile (bottom right), were tomographically imaged with the camera, and the sonogram data reconstructed with filtered back projection.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 A sequence of images of the breast treated with a dynamic wedge radiotherapy plan, where the beam shape changes with time, showing the sequence of beam shapes formed by the multi-leaf collimator (a) and (b), and frames from the Čerenkov video sequence of the treatment (c) [52, 53].
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Čerenkov excited luminescence scanned imaging is demonstrated in tissue phantoms, with line-scan data from a luminescent line source in varying depths of Intralipid shown in (a) and (b) with diffuse illumination in (a) and scanned CELSI imaging in (b) illustrating the improvement in spatial resolution. The raster line scan of a mouse with luminescence in one lymph node is shown in (c), with a total body dose of 0.02 cGy [22].

Equations (4)

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βn>1
β= 1 ( 1 E m c 2 +1 ) 2
E min =m c 2 ( 1 1 1 n 2 1 )
dN dx = 2π 137 ( 1 λ 1 1 λ 2 )( 1 1 β 2 n 2 )

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