Abstract

Differential phase-contrast X-ray imaging using a Talbot-Lau interferometer has recently shown promising results for applications in medical imaging. However, reducing the applied radiation dose remains a major challenge. In this study, we consider the realization of a Talbot-Lau interferometer in a high Talbot order to increase the signal-to-noise ratio for low-dose applications. The quantitative performance of π and π/2 systems at high Talbot orders is analyzed through simulations, and the design energy and X-ray spectrum are optimized for mammography. It is found that operation even at very high Talbot orders is feasible and beneficial for image quality. As long as the X-ray spectrum is matched to the visibility spectrum, the SNR continuously increases with the Talbot order for π-systems. We find that the optimal X-ray spectra and design energies are almost independent of the Talbot order and that the overall imaging performance is robust against small variations in these parameters. Discontinuous spectra, such as that from molybdenum, are less robust because the characteristic lines may coincide with minima in the visibility spectra; however, they may offer slightly better performance. We verify this hypothesis by realizing a prototype system with a mean fringe visibility of above 40% at the seventh Talbot order. With this prototype, a proof-of-principle measurement of a freshly dissected breast at reasonable compression to 4 cm is conducted with a mean glandular dose of only 3 mGy but with a high SNR.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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2015 (1)

K. Scherer, K. Willer, L. Gromann, L. Birnbacher, E. Braig, S. Grandl, A. Sztrkay-Gaul, J. Herzen, D. Mayr, K. Hellerhoff, and F. Pfeiffer, “Toward clinically compatible phase-contrast mammography,” PLoS ONE 10, e0130776 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (6)

N. Hauser, Z. Wang, R. A. Kubik-Huch, M. Trippel, G. Singer, M. K. Hohl, E. Roessl, T. Kohler, U. van Steven-daal, N. Wieberneit, and M. Stampanoni, “A study on mastectomy samples to evaluate breast imaging quality and potential clinical relevance of differential phase contrast mammography,” Investigative Radiology 49131(2014).
[Crossref]

K. Scherer, L. Birnbacher, M. Chabior, J. Herzen, D. Mayr, S. Grandl, A. Sztrkay-Gaul, K. Hellerhoff, F. Bam-berg, and F. Pfeiffer, “Bi-directional x-ray phase-contrast mammography,” PLoS ONE 9, e93502 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Hipp, M. Willner, J. Herzen, S. Auweter, M. Chabior, J. Meiser, K. Achterhold, J. Mohr, and F. Pfeiffer, “Energy-resolved visibility analysis of grating interferometers operated at polychromatic X-ray sources,” Opt. Express 19, 739–748 (2014).

T. Thuering and M. Stampanoni, “Performance and optimization of X-ray grating interferometry,” Phil. Trans. R. Soc. 372, 27 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Sarapata, M. Chabior, C. Cozzini, J. I. Sperl, D. Beque, O. Langner, J. Coman, I. Zanette, M. Ruiz-Yaniz, and F. Pfeiffer, “Quantitative electron density characterization of soft tissue substitute plastic materials using grating-based x-ray phase-contrast imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 103708 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Roessl and H. Daerr, “Clinical boundary conditions for grating-based differential phase-contrast mammography,” Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci. 37233 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

M. Chabior, M. Schuster, C. Schroer, and F. Pfeiffer, “Grating-based phase-contrast computed tomography of thick samples,” Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment 693, 138–142 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

M. Stampanoni, Z. Wang, T. Thuering, C. David, E. Roessl, M. Trippel, R. A. Kubik-Huch, G. Singer, M. K. Hohl, and N. Hauser, “The First Analysis and Clinical Evaluation of Native Breast Tissue Using Differential Phase-Contrast Mammography,” Investigative Radiology 46, 801–806 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Engel, D. Geller, and T. Köhler, “Contrast-to-noise in X-ray differential phase contrast imaging,” Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment 648, S202–S207 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

V. Revol, C. Kottler, R. Kaufmann, U. Straumann, and C. Urban, “Noise analysis of grating-based x-ray differential phase contrast imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 073709 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

D. R. Dance, K. C. Young, and R. E. van Engen, “Further factors for the estimation of mean glandular dose using the united kingdom, european and iaea breast dosimetry protocols,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54, 4361 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Donath, M. Chabior, and F. Pfeiffer, “Inverse geometry for grating-based x-ray phase-contrast imaging,” J. Appl. Phys. 106, 054703 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

F. Pfeiffer, M. Bech, O. Bunk, P. Kraft, E. F. Eikenberry, C. Bronnimann, C. Grunzweig, and C. David, “Hard-X-ray dark-field imaging using a grating interferometer,” Nat. Mater. 7, 134–137 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Yashiro, Y. Takeda, and A. Momose, “Efficiency of capturing a phase image using cone-beam x-ray Talbot interferometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25, 2025–2039 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

B. De Man, S. Basu, N. Chandra, B. Dunham, P. Edic, M. Iatrou, S. McOlash, P. Sainath, C. Shaughnessy, B. Tower, and E. Williams, “Catsim: a new computer assisted tomography simulation environment,” Proc. SPIE 6510, 65102G (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

F. Pfeiffer, T. Weitkamp, O. Bunk, and C. David, “Phase retrieval and differential phase-contrast imaging with low-brilliance x-ray sources,” Nature Physics 2, 258–261 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

1997 (1)

1990 (1)

Achterhold, K.

Auweter, S.

Bam-berg, F.

K. Scherer, L. Birnbacher, M. Chabior, J. Herzen, D. Mayr, S. Grandl, A. Sztrkay-Gaul, K. Hellerhoff, F. Bam-berg, and F. Pfeiffer, “Bi-directional x-ray phase-contrast mammography,” PLoS ONE 9, e93502 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Basu, S.

B. De Man, S. Basu, N. Chandra, B. Dunham, P. Edic, M. Iatrou, S. McOlash, P. Sainath, C. Shaughnessy, B. Tower, and E. Williams, “Catsim: a new computer assisted tomography simulation environment,” Proc. SPIE 6510, 65102G (2007).
[Crossref]

Bech, M.

F. Pfeiffer, M. Bech, O. Bunk, P. Kraft, E. F. Eikenberry, C. Bronnimann, C. Grunzweig, and C. David, “Hard-X-ray dark-field imaging using a grating interferometer,” Nat. Mater. 7, 134–137 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beque, D.

A. Sarapata, M. Chabior, C. Cozzini, J. I. Sperl, D. Beque, O. Langner, J. Coman, I. Zanette, M. Ruiz-Yaniz, and F. Pfeiffer, “Quantitative electron density characterization of soft tissue substitute plastic materials using grating-based x-ray phase-contrast imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 103708 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Birnbacher, L.

K. Scherer, K. Willer, L. Gromann, L. Birnbacher, E. Braig, S. Grandl, A. Sztrkay-Gaul, J. Herzen, D. Mayr, K. Hellerhoff, and F. Pfeiffer, “Toward clinically compatible phase-contrast mammography,” PLoS ONE 10, e0130776 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Scherer, L. Birnbacher, M. Chabior, J. Herzen, D. Mayr, S. Grandl, A. Sztrkay-Gaul, K. Hellerhoff, F. Bam-berg, and F. Pfeiffer, “Bi-directional x-ray phase-contrast mammography,” PLoS ONE 9, e93502 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Braig, E.

K. Scherer, K. Willer, L. Gromann, L. Birnbacher, E. Braig, S. Grandl, A. Sztrkay-Gaul, J. Herzen, D. Mayr, K. Hellerhoff, and F. Pfeiffer, “Toward clinically compatible phase-contrast mammography,” PLoS ONE 10, e0130776 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Broeders, M.

N. Perry, M. Broeders, C. de Wolf, S. Toernberg, R. Holland, and L. von Karsa, European guidelines for quality assurance in breast cancer screening and diagnosis, 4th Edition, European Breast Cancer Network (EBCN) Coordination Office, International Agency for Research on Cancer, 150 cours Albert-Thomas, F-69372 Lyon (2006).

Bronnimann, C.

F. Pfeiffer, M. Bech, O. Bunk, P. Kraft, E. F. Eikenberry, C. Bronnimann, C. Grunzweig, and C. David, “Hard-X-ray dark-field imaging using a grating interferometer,” Nat. Mater. 7, 134–137 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bunk, O.

F. Pfeiffer, M. Bech, O. Bunk, P. Kraft, E. F. Eikenberry, C. Bronnimann, C. Grunzweig, and C. David, “Hard-X-ray dark-field imaging using a grating interferometer,” Nat. Mater. 7, 134–137 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Pfeiffer, T. Weitkamp, O. Bunk, and C. David, “Phase retrieval and differential phase-contrast imaging with low-brilliance x-ray sources,” Nature Physics 2, 258–261 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chabior, M.

K. Scherer, L. Birnbacher, M. Chabior, J. Herzen, D. Mayr, S. Grandl, A. Sztrkay-Gaul, K. Hellerhoff, F. Bam-berg, and F. Pfeiffer, “Bi-directional x-ray phase-contrast mammography,” PLoS ONE 9, e93502 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Sarapata, M. Chabior, C. Cozzini, J. I. Sperl, D. Beque, O. Langner, J. Coman, I. Zanette, M. Ruiz-Yaniz, and F. Pfeiffer, “Quantitative electron density characterization of soft tissue substitute plastic materials using grating-based x-ray phase-contrast imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 103708 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Hipp, M. Willner, J. Herzen, S. Auweter, M. Chabior, J. Meiser, K. Achterhold, J. Mohr, and F. Pfeiffer, “Energy-resolved visibility analysis of grating interferometers operated at polychromatic X-ray sources,” Opt. Express 19, 739–748 (2014).

M. Chabior, M. Schuster, C. Schroer, and F. Pfeiffer, “Grating-based phase-contrast computed tomography of thick samples,” Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment 693, 138–142 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Donath, M. Chabior, and F. Pfeiffer, “Inverse geometry for grating-based x-ray phase-contrast imaging,” J. Appl. Phys. 106, 054703 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chandra, N.

B. De Man, S. Basu, N. Chandra, B. Dunham, P. Edic, M. Iatrou, S. McOlash, P. Sainath, C. Shaughnessy, B. Tower, and E. Williams, “Catsim: a new computer assisted tomography simulation environment,” Proc. SPIE 6510, 65102G (2007).
[Crossref]

Cloetens, P.

Coman, J.

A. Sarapata, M. Chabior, C. Cozzini, J. I. Sperl, D. Beque, O. Langner, J. Coman, I. Zanette, M. Ruiz-Yaniz, and F. Pfeiffer, “Quantitative electron density characterization of soft tissue substitute plastic materials using grating-based x-ray phase-contrast imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 103708 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cozzini, C.

A. Sarapata, M. Chabior, C. Cozzini, J. I. Sperl, D. Beque, O. Langner, J. Coman, I. Zanette, M. Ruiz-Yaniz, and F. Pfeiffer, “Quantitative electron density characterization of soft tissue substitute plastic materials using grating-based x-ray phase-contrast imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 103708 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Daerr, H.

E. Roessl and H. Daerr, “Clinical boundary conditions for grating-based differential phase-contrast mammography,” Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci. 37233 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dance, D. R.

D. R. Dance, K. C. Young, and R. E. van Engen, “Further factors for the estimation of mean glandular dose using the united kingdom, european and iaea breast dosimetry protocols,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54, 4361 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

David, C.

M. Stampanoni, Z. Wang, T. Thuering, C. David, E. Roessl, M. Trippel, R. A. Kubik-Huch, G. Singer, M. K. Hohl, and N. Hauser, “The First Analysis and Clinical Evaluation of Native Breast Tissue Using Differential Phase-Contrast Mammography,” Investigative Radiology 46, 801–806 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Pfeiffer, M. Bech, O. Bunk, P. Kraft, E. F. Eikenberry, C. Bronnimann, C. Grunzweig, and C. David, “Hard-X-ray dark-field imaging using a grating interferometer,” Nat. Mater. 7, 134–137 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Pfeiffer, T. Weitkamp, O. Bunk, and C. David, “Phase retrieval and differential phase-contrast imaging with low-brilliance x-ray sources,” Nature Physics 2, 258–261 (2006).
[Crossref]

T. Weitkamp, A. Diaz, C. David, F. Pfeiffer, M. Stampanoni, P. Cloetens, and E. Ziegler, “X-ray phase imaging with a grating interferometer,” Opt. Express 13, 6296–6304 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Davis, J. C.

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, “Atomic Data and Nuclear Data Tables Vol. 54 No. 2,” [Online] (1993).

De Man, B.

B. De Man, S. Basu, N. Chandra, B. Dunham, P. Edic, M. Iatrou, S. McOlash, P. Sainath, C. Shaughnessy, B. Tower, and E. Williams, “Catsim: a new computer assisted tomography simulation environment,” Proc. SPIE 6510, 65102G (2007).
[Crossref]

de Wolf, C.

N. Perry, M. Broeders, C. de Wolf, S. Toernberg, R. Holland, and L. von Karsa, European guidelines for quality assurance in breast cancer screening and diagnosis, 4th Edition, European Breast Cancer Network (EBCN) Coordination Office, International Agency for Research on Cancer, 150 cours Albert-Thomas, F-69372 Lyon (2006).

Diaz, A.

Donath, T.

T. Donath, M. Chabior, and F. Pfeiffer, “Inverse geometry for grating-based x-ray phase-contrast imaging,” J. Appl. Phys. 106, 054703 (2009).
[Crossref]

Dunham, B.

B. De Man, S. Basu, N. Chandra, B. Dunham, P. Edic, M. Iatrou, S. McOlash, P. Sainath, C. Shaughnessy, B. Tower, and E. Williams, “Catsim: a new computer assisted tomography simulation environment,” Proc. SPIE 6510, 65102G (2007).
[Crossref]

Edic, P.

B. De Man, S. Basu, N. Chandra, B. Dunham, P. Edic, M. Iatrou, S. McOlash, P. Sainath, C. Shaughnessy, B. Tower, and E. Williams, “Catsim: a new computer assisted tomography simulation environment,” Proc. SPIE 6510, 65102G (2007).
[Crossref]

Eikenberry, E. F.

F. Pfeiffer, M. Bech, O. Bunk, P. Kraft, E. F. Eikenberry, C. Bronnimann, C. Grunzweig, and C. David, “Hard-X-ray dark-field imaging using a grating interferometer,” Nat. Mater. 7, 134–137 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Engel, K.

K. Engel, D. Geller, and T. Köhler, “Contrast-to-noise in X-ray differential phase contrast imaging,” Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment 648, S202–S207 (2011).
[Crossref]

Geller, D.

K. Engel, D. Geller, and T. Köhler, “Contrast-to-noise in X-ray differential phase contrast imaging,” Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment 648, S202–S207 (2011).
[Crossref]

Grandl, S.

K. Scherer, K. Willer, L. Gromann, L. Birnbacher, E. Braig, S. Grandl, A. Sztrkay-Gaul, J. Herzen, D. Mayr, K. Hellerhoff, and F. Pfeiffer, “Toward clinically compatible phase-contrast mammography,” PLoS ONE 10, e0130776 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Scherer, L. Birnbacher, M. Chabior, J. Herzen, D. Mayr, S. Grandl, A. Sztrkay-Gaul, K. Hellerhoff, F. Bam-berg, and F. Pfeiffer, “Bi-directional x-ray phase-contrast mammography,” PLoS ONE 9, e93502 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gromann, L.

K. Scherer, K. Willer, L. Gromann, L. Birnbacher, E. Braig, S. Grandl, A. Sztrkay-Gaul, J. Herzen, D. Mayr, K. Hellerhoff, and F. Pfeiffer, “Toward clinically compatible phase-contrast mammography,” PLoS ONE 10, e0130776 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grunzweig, C.

F. Pfeiffer, M. Bech, O. Bunk, P. Kraft, E. F. Eikenberry, C. Bronnimann, C. Grunzweig, and C. David, “Hard-X-ray dark-field imaging using a grating interferometer,” Nat. Mater. 7, 134–137 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gullikson, E. M.

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, “Atomic Data and Nuclear Data Tables Vol. 54 No. 2,” [Online] (1993).

Hauser, N.

N. Hauser, Z. Wang, R. A. Kubik-Huch, M. Trippel, G. Singer, M. K. Hohl, E. Roessl, T. Kohler, U. van Steven-daal, N. Wieberneit, and M. Stampanoni, “A study on mastectomy samples to evaluate breast imaging quality and potential clinical relevance of differential phase contrast mammography,” Investigative Radiology 49131(2014).
[Crossref]

M. Stampanoni, Z. Wang, T. Thuering, C. David, E. Roessl, M. Trippel, R. A. Kubik-Huch, G. Singer, M. K. Hohl, and N. Hauser, “The First Analysis and Clinical Evaluation of Native Breast Tissue Using Differential Phase-Contrast Mammography,” Investigative Radiology 46, 801–806 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hellerhoff, K.

K. Scherer, K. Willer, L. Gromann, L. Birnbacher, E. Braig, S. Grandl, A. Sztrkay-Gaul, J. Herzen, D. Mayr, K. Hellerhoff, and F. Pfeiffer, “Toward clinically compatible phase-contrast mammography,” PLoS ONE 10, e0130776 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Scherer, L. Birnbacher, M. Chabior, J. Herzen, D. Mayr, S. Grandl, A. Sztrkay-Gaul, K. Hellerhoff, F. Bam-berg, and F. Pfeiffer, “Bi-directional x-ray phase-contrast mammography,” PLoS ONE 9, e93502 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Henke, B. L.

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, “Atomic Data and Nuclear Data Tables Vol. 54 No. 2,” [Online] (1993).

Herzen, J.

K. Scherer, K. Willer, L. Gromann, L. Birnbacher, E. Braig, S. Grandl, A. Sztrkay-Gaul, J. Herzen, D. Mayr, K. Hellerhoff, and F. Pfeiffer, “Toward clinically compatible phase-contrast mammography,” PLoS ONE 10, e0130776 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Scherer, L. Birnbacher, M. Chabior, J. Herzen, D. Mayr, S. Grandl, A. Sztrkay-Gaul, K. Hellerhoff, F. Bam-berg, and F. Pfeiffer, “Bi-directional x-ray phase-contrast mammography,” PLoS ONE 9, e93502 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Hipp, M. Willner, J. Herzen, S. Auweter, M. Chabior, J. Meiser, K. Achterhold, J. Mohr, and F. Pfeiffer, “Energy-resolved visibility analysis of grating interferometers operated at polychromatic X-ray sources,” Opt. Express 19, 739–748 (2014).

Hipp, A.

Hohl, M. K.

N. Hauser, Z. Wang, R. A. Kubik-Huch, M. Trippel, G. Singer, M. K. Hohl, E. Roessl, T. Kohler, U. van Steven-daal, N. Wieberneit, and M. Stampanoni, “A study on mastectomy samples to evaluate breast imaging quality and potential clinical relevance of differential phase contrast mammography,” Investigative Radiology 49131(2014).
[Crossref]

M. Stampanoni, Z. Wang, T. Thuering, C. David, E. Roessl, M. Trippel, R. A. Kubik-Huch, G. Singer, M. K. Hohl, and N. Hauser, “The First Analysis and Clinical Evaluation of Native Breast Tissue Using Differential Phase-Contrast Mammography,” Investigative Radiology 46, 801–806 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Holland, R.

N. Perry, M. Broeders, C. de Wolf, S. Toernberg, R. Holland, and L. von Karsa, European guidelines for quality assurance in breast cancer screening and diagnosis, 4th Edition, European Breast Cancer Network (EBCN) Coordination Office, International Agency for Research on Cancer, 150 cours Albert-Thomas, F-69372 Lyon (2006).

Hubbell, J.

J. Hubbell and S. Seltzer, “Tables of X-Ray Mass Attenuation Coefficients and Mass Energy-Absorption Coefficients (version 1.4).” [Online] (2004).

Iatrou, M.

B. De Man, S. Basu, N. Chandra, B. Dunham, P. Edic, M. Iatrou, S. McOlash, P. Sainath, C. Shaughnessy, B. Tower, and E. Williams, “Catsim: a new computer assisted tomography simulation environment,” Proc. SPIE 6510, 65102G (2007).
[Crossref]

Kaufmann, R.

V. Revol, C. Kottler, R. Kaufmann, U. Straumann, and C. Urban, “Noise analysis of grating-based x-ray differential phase contrast imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 073709 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kohler, T.

N. Hauser, Z. Wang, R. A. Kubik-Huch, M. Trippel, G. Singer, M. K. Hohl, E. Roessl, T. Kohler, U. van Steven-daal, N. Wieberneit, and M. Stampanoni, “A study on mastectomy samples to evaluate breast imaging quality and potential clinical relevance of differential phase contrast mammography,” Investigative Radiology 49131(2014).
[Crossref]

Köhler, T.

K. Engel, D. Geller, and T. Köhler, “Contrast-to-noise in X-ray differential phase contrast imaging,” Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment 648, S202–S207 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kottler, C.

V. Revol, C. Kottler, R. Kaufmann, U. Straumann, and C. Urban, “Noise analysis of grating-based x-ray differential phase contrast imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 073709 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kraft, P.

F. Pfeiffer, M. Bech, O. Bunk, P. Kraft, E. F. Eikenberry, C. Bronnimann, C. Grunzweig, and C. David, “Hard-X-ray dark-field imaging using a grating interferometer,” Nat. Mater. 7, 134–137 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kubik-Huch, R. A.

N. Hauser, Z. Wang, R. A. Kubik-Huch, M. Trippel, G. Singer, M. K. Hohl, E. Roessl, T. Kohler, U. van Steven-daal, N. Wieberneit, and M. Stampanoni, “A study on mastectomy samples to evaluate breast imaging quality and potential clinical relevance of differential phase contrast mammography,” Investigative Radiology 49131(2014).
[Crossref]

M. Stampanoni, Z. Wang, T. Thuering, C. David, E. Roessl, M. Trippel, R. A. Kubik-Huch, G. Singer, M. K. Hohl, and N. Hauser, “The First Analysis and Clinical Evaluation of Native Breast Tissue Using Differential Phase-Contrast Mammography,” Investigative Radiology 46, 801–806 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Langner, O.

A. Sarapata, M. Chabior, C. Cozzini, J. I. Sperl, D. Beque, O. Langner, J. Coman, I. Zanette, M. Ruiz-Yaniz, and F. Pfeiffer, “Quantitative electron density characterization of soft tissue substitute plastic materials using grating-based x-ray phase-contrast imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 103708 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lohmann, A. W.

Mayr, D.

K. Scherer, K. Willer, L. Gromann, L. Birnbacher, E. Braig, S. Grandl, A. Sztrkay-Gaul, J. Herzen, D. Mayr, K. Hellerhoff, and F. Pfeiffer, “Toward clinically compatible phase-contrast mammography,” PLoS ONE 10, e0130776 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Scherer, L. Birnbacher, M. Chabior, J. Herzen, D. Mayr, S. Grandl, A. Sztrkay-Gaul, K. Hellerhoff, F. Bam-berg, and F. Pfeiffer, “Bi-directional x-ray phase-contrast mammography,” PLoS ONE 9, e93502 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McOlash, S.

B. De Man, S. Basu, N. Chandra, B. Dunham, P. Edic, M. Iatrou, S. McOlash, P. Sainath, C. Shaughnessy, B. Tower, and E. Williams, “Catsim: a new computer assisted tomography simulation environment,” Proc. SPIE 6510, 65102G (2007).
[Crossref]

Meiser, J.

Mohr, J.

Momose, A.

Paganin, D. M.

D. M. Paganin, Coherent X-ray Optics, 1st ed. no. 6 in Oxford series on synchrotron radiation (Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford, 2006).
[Crossref]

Perry, N.

N. Perry, M. Broeders, C. de Wolf, S. Toernberg, R. Holland, and L. von Karsa, European guidelines for quality assurance in breast cancer screening and diagnosis, 4th Edition, European Breast Cancer Network (EBCN) Coordination Office, International Agency for Research on Cancer, 150 cours Albert-Thomas, F-69372 Lyon (2006).

Pfeiffer, F.

K. Scherer, K. Willer, L. Gromann, L. Birnbacher, E. Braig, S. Grandl, A. Sztrkay-Gaul, J. Herzen, D. Mayr, K. Hellerhoff, and F. Pfeiffer, “Toward clinically compatible phase-contrast mammography,” PLoS ONE 10, e0130776 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Scherer, L. Birnbacher, M. Chabior, J. Herzen, D. Mayr, S. Grandl, A. Sztrkay-Gaul, K. Hellerhoff, F. Bam-berg, and F. Pfeiffer, “Bi-directional x-ray phase-contrast mammography,” PLoS ONE 9, e93502 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Sarapata, M. Chabior, C. Cozzini, J. I. Sperl, D. Beque, O. Langner, J. Coman, I. Zanette, M. Ruiz-Yaniz, and F. Pfeiffer, “Quantitative electron density characterization of soft tissue substitute plastic materials using grating-based x-ray phase-contrast imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 103708 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Hipp, M. Willner, J. Herzen, S. Auweter, M. Chabior, J. Meiser, K. Achterhold, J. Mohr, and F. Pfeiffer, “Energy-resolved visibility analysis of grating interferometers operated at polychromatic X-ray sources,” Opt. Express 19, 739–748 (2014).

M. Chabior, M. Schuster, C. Schroer, and F. Pfeiffer, “Grating-based phase-contrast computed tomography of thick samples,” Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment 693, 138–142 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Donath, M. Chabior, and F. Pfeiffer, “Inverse geometry for grating-based x-ray phase-contrast imaging,” J. Appl. Phys. 106, 054703 (2009).
[Crossref]

F. Pfeiffer, M. Bech, O. Bunk, P. Kraft, E. F. Eikenberry, C. Bronnimann, C. Grunzweig, and C. David, “Hard-X-ray dark-field imaging using a grating interferometer,” Nat. Mater. 7, 134–137 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Pfeiffer, T. Weitkamp, O. Bunk, and C. David, “Phase retrieval and differential phase-contrast imaging with low-brilliance x-ray sources,” Nature Physics 2, 258–261 (2006).
[Crossref]

T. Weitkamp, A. Diaz, C. David, F. Pfeiffer, M. Stampanoni, P. Cloetens, and E. Ziegler, “X-ray phase imaging with a grating interferometer,” Opt. Express 13, 6296–6304 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Revol, V.

V. Revol, C. Kottler, R. Kaufmann, U. Straumann, and C. Urban, “Noise analysis of grating-based x-ray differential phase contrast imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 073709 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Roessl, E.

E. Roessl and H. Daerr, “Clinical boundary conditions for grating-based differential phase-contrast mammography,” Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci. 37233 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Hauser, Z. Wang, R. A. Kubik-Huch, M. Trippel, G. Singer, M. K. Hohl, E. Roessl, T. Kohler, U. van Steven-daal, N. Wieberneit, and M. Stampanoni, “A study on mastectomy samples to evaluate breast imaging quality and potential clinical relevance of differential phase contrast mammography,” Investigative Radiology 49131(2014).
[Crossref]

M. Stampanoni, Z. Wang, T. Thuering, C. David, E. Roessl, M. Trippel, R. A. Kubik-Huch, G. Singer, M. K. Hohl, and N. Hauser, “The First Analysis and Clinical Evaluation of Native Breast Tissue Using Differential Phase-Contrast Mammography,” Investigative Radiology 46, 801–806 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Romanyukna, A.

J. Thomas, D. Schauer, A. Romanyukna, and J. Tomon, “Breast tissue-equivalent contrast detail, resolution and dosimetry phantom for 3d imaging,” in Digital Mammography, H.-O. Peitgen, ed. (Springer BerlinHeidelberg, 2003), pp. 584–586.
[Crossref]

Ruiz-Yaniz, M.

A. Sarapata, M. Chabior, C. Cozzini, J. I. Sperl, D. Beque, O. Langner, J. Coman, I. Zanette, M. Ruiz-Yaniz, and F. Pfeiffer, “Quantitative electron density characterization of soft tissue substitute plastic materials using grating-based x-ray phase-contrast imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 103708 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sainath, P.

B. De Man, S. Basu, N. Chandra, B. Dunham, P. Edic, M. Iatrou, S. McOlash, P. Sainath, C. Shaughnessy, B. Tower, and E. Williams, “Catsim: a new computer assisted tomography simulation environment,” Proc. SPIE 6510, 65102G (2007).
[Crossref]

Sarapata, A.

A. Sarapata, M. Chabior, C. Cozzini, J. I. Sperl, D. Beque, O. Langner, J. Coman, I. Zanette, M. Ruiz-Yaniz, and F. Pfeiffer, “Quantitative electron density characterization of soft tissue substitute plastic materials using grating-based x-ray phase-contrast imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 103708 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schauer, D.

J. Thomas, D. Schauer, A. Romanyukna, and J. Tomon, “Breast tissue-equivalent contrast detail, resolution and dosimetry phantom for 3d imaging,” in Digital Mammography, H.-O. Peitgen, ed. (Springer BerlinHeidelberg, 2003), pp. 584–586.
[Crossref]

Scherer, K.

K. Scherer, K. Willer, L. Gromann, L. Birnbacher, E. Braig, S. Grandl, A. Sztrkay-Gaul, J. Herzen, D. Mayr, K. Hellerhoff, and F. Pfeiffer, “Toward clinically compatible phase-contrast mammography,” PLoS ONE 10, e0130776 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Scherer, L. Birnbacher, M. Chabior, J. Herzen, D. Mayr, S. Grandl, A. Sztrkay-Gaul, K. Hellerhoff, F. Bam-berg, and F. Pfeiffer, “Bi-directional x-ray phase-contrast mammography,” PLoS ONE 9, e93502 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schroer, C.

M. Chabior, M. Schuster, C. Schroer, and F. Pfeiffer, “Grating-based phase-contrast computed tomography of thick samples,” Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment 693, 138–142 (2012).
[Crossref]

Schuster, M.

M. Chabior, M. Schuster, C. Schroer, and F. Pfeiffer, “Grating-based phase-contrast computed tomography of thick samples,” Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment 693, 138–142 (2012).
[Crossref]

Seltzer, S.

J. Hubbell and S. Seltzer, “Tables of X-Ray Mass Attenuation Coefficients and Mass Energy-Absorption Coefficients (version 1.4).” [Online] (2004).

Shaughnessy, C.

B. De Man, S. Basu, N. Chandra, B. Dunham, P. Edic, M. Iatrou, S. McOlash, P. Sainath, C. Shaughnessy, B. Tower, and E. Williams, “Catsim: a new computer assisted tomography simulation environment,” Proc. SPIE 6510, 65102G (2007).
[Crossref]

Singer, G.

N. Hauser, Z. Wang, R. A. Kubik-Huch, M. Trippel, G. Singer, M. K. Hohl, E. Roessl, T. Kohler, U. van Steven-daal, N. Wieberneit, and M. Stampanoni, “A study on mastectomy samples to evaluate breast imaging quality and potential clinical relevance of differential phase contrast mammography,” Investigative Radiology 49131(2014).
[Crossref]

M. Stampanoni, Z. Wang, T. Thuering, C. David, E. Roessl, M. Trippel, R. A. Kubik-Huch, G. Singer, M. K. Hohl, and N. Hauser, “The First Analysis and Clinical Evaluation of Native Breast Tissue Using Differential Phase-Contrast Mammography,” Investigative Radiology 46, 801–806 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sperl, J. I.

A. Sarapata, M. Chabior, C. Cozzini, J. I. Sperl, D. Beque, O. Langner, J. Coman, I. Zanette, M. Ruiz-Yaniz, and F. Pfeiffer, “Quantitative electron density characterization of soft tissue substitute plastic materials using grating-based x-ray phase-contrast imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 103708 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stampanoni, M.

T. Thuering and M. Stampanoni, “Performance and optimization of X-ray grating interferometry,” Phil. Trans. R. Soc. 372, 27 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. Hauser, Z. Wang, R. A. Kubik-Huch, M. Trippel, G. Singer, M. K. Hohl, E. Roessl, T. Kohler, U. van Steven-daal, N. Wieberneit, and M. Stampanoni, “A study on mastectomy samples to evaluate breast imaging quality and potential clinical relevance of differential phase contrast mammography,” Investigative Radiology 49131(2014).
[Crossref]

M. Stampanoni, Z. Wang, T. Thuering, C. David, E. Roessl, M. Trippel, R. A. Kubik-Huch, G. Singer, M. K. Hohl, and N. Hauser, “The First Analysis and Clinical Evaluation of Native Breast Tissue Using Differential Phase-Contrast Mammography,” Investigative Radiology 46, 801–806 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Weitkamp, A. Diaz, C. David, F. Pfeiffer, M. Stampanoni, P. Cloetens, and E. Ziegler, “X-ray phase imaging with a grating interferometer,” Opt. Express 13, 6296–6304 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Straumann, U.

V. Revol, C. Kottler, R. Kaufmann, U. Straumann, and C. Urban, “Noise analysis of grating-based x-ray differential phase contrast imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 073709 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Suleski, T. J.

Sztrkay-Gaul, A.

K. Scherer, K. Willer, L. Gromann, L. Birnbacher, E. Braig, S. Grandl, A. Sztrkay-Gaul, J. Herzen, D. Mayr, K. Hellerhoff, and F. Pfeiffer, “Toward clinically compatible phase-contrast mammography,” PLoS ONE 10, e0130776 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Scherer, L. Birnbacher, M. Chabior, J. Herzen, D. Mayr, S. Grandl, A. Sztrkay-Gaul, K. Hellerhoff, F. Bam-berg, and F. Pfeiffer, “Bi-directional x-ray phase-contrast mammography,” PLoS ONE 9, e93502 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Takeda, Y.

Thomas, J.

J. Thomas, D. Schauer, A. Romanyukna, and J. Tomon, “Breast tissue-equivalent contrast detail, resolution and dosimetry phantom for 3d imaging,” in Digital Mammography, H.-O. Peitgen, ed. (Springer BerlinHeidelberg, 2003), pp. 584–586.
[Crossref]

Thomas, J. A.

Thuering, T.

T. Thuering and M. Stampanoni, “Performance and optimization of X-ray grating interferometry,” Phil. Trans. R. Soc. 372, 27 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Stampanoni, Z. Wang, T. Thuering, C. David, E. Roessl, M. Trippel, R. A. Kubik-Huch, G. Singer, M. K. Hohl, and N. Hauser, “The First Analysis and Clinical Evaluation of Native Breast Tissue Using Differential Phase-Contrast Mammography,” Investigative Radiology 46, 801–806 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Toernberg, S.

N. Perry, M. Broeders, C. de Wolf, S. Toernberg, R. Holland, and L. von Karsa, European guidelines for quality assurance in breast cancer screening and diagnosis, 4th Edition, European Breast Cancer Network (EBCN) Coordination Office, International Agency for Research on Cancer, 150 cours Albert-Thomas, F-69372 Lyon (2006).

Tomon, J.

J. Thomas, D. Schauer, A. Romanyukna, and J. Tomon, “Breast tissue-equivalent contrast detail, resolution and dosimetry phantom for 3d imaging,” in Digital Mammography, H.-O. Peitgen, ed. (Springer BerlinHeidelberg, 2003), pp. 584–586.
[Crossref]

Tower, B.

B. De Man, S. Basu, N. Chandra, B. Dunham, P. Edic, M. Iatrou, S. McOlash, P. Sainath, C. Shaughnessy, B. Tower, and E. Williams, “Catsim: a new computer assisted tomography simulation environment,” Proc. SPIE 6510, 65102G (2007).
[Crossref]

Trippel, M.

N. Hauser, Z. Wang, R. A. Kubik-Huch, M. Trippel, G. Singer, M. K. Hohl, E. Roessl, T. Kohler, U. van Steven-daal, N. Wieberneit, and M. Stampanoni, “A study on mastectomy samples to evaluate breast imaging quality and potential clinical relevance of differential phase contrast mammography,” Investigative Radiology 49131(2014).
[Crossref]

M. Stampanoni, Z. Wang, T. Thuering, C. David, E. Roessl, M. Trippel, R. A. Kubik-Huch, G. Singer, M. K. Hohl, and N. Hauser, “The First Analysis and Clinical Evaluation of Native Breast Tissue Using Differential Phase-Contrast Mammography,” Investigative Radiology 46, 801–806 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Urban, C.

V. Revol, C. Kottler, R. Kaufmann, U. Straumann, and C. Urban, “Noise analysis of grating-based x-ray differential phase contrast imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 073709 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

van Engen, R. E.

D. R. Dance, K. C. Young, and R. E. van Engen, “Further factors for the estimation of mean glandular dose using the united kingdom, european and iaea breast dosimetry protocols,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54, 4361 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

van Steven-daal, U.

N. Hauser, Z. Wang, R. A. Kubik-Huch, M. Trippel, G. Singer, M. K. Hohl, E. Roessl, T. Kohler, U. van Steven-daal, N. Wieberneit, and M. Stampanoni, “A study on mastectomy samples to evaluate breast imaging quality and potential clinical relevance of differential phase contrast mammography,” Investigative Radiology 49131(2014).
[Crossref]

von Karsa, L.

N. Perry, M. Broeders, C. de Wolf, S. Toernberg, R. Holland, and L. von Karsa, European guidelines for quality assurance in breast cancer screening and diagnosis, 4th Edition, European Breast Cancer Network (EBCN) Coordination Office, International Agency for Research on Cancer, 150 cours Albert-Thomas, F-69372 Lyon (2006).

Wang, Z.

N. Hauser, Z. Wang, R. A. Kubik-Huch, M. Trippel, G. Singer, M. K. Hohl, E. Roessl, T. Kohler, U. van Steven-daal, N. Wieberneit, and M. Stampanoni, “A study on mastectomy samples to evaluate breast imaging quality and potential clinical relevance of differential phase contrast mammography,” Investigative Radiology 49131(2014).
[Crossref]

M. Stampanoni, Z. Wang, T. Thuering, C. David, E. Roessl, M. Trippel, R. A. Kubik-Huch, G. Singer, M. K. Hohl, and N. Hauser, “The First Analysis and Clinical Evaluation of Native Breast Tissue Using Differential Phase-Contrast Mammography,” Investigative Radiology 46, 801–806 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weitkamp, T.

F. Pfeiffer, T. Weitkamp, O. Bunk, and C. David, “Phase retrieval and differential phase-contrast imaging with low-brilliance x-ray sources,” Nature Physics 2, 258–261 (2006).
[Crossref]

T. Weitkamp, A. Diaz, C. David, F. Pfeiffer, M. Stampanoni, P. Cloetens, and E. Ziegler, “X-ray phase imaging with a grating interferometer,” Opt. Express 13, 6296–6304 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wieberneit, N.

N. Hauser, Z. Wang, R. A. Kubik-Huch, M. Trippel, G. Singer, M. K. Hohl, E. Roessl, T. Kohler, U. van Steven-daal, N. Wieberneit, and M. Stampanoni, “A study on mastectomy samples to evaluate breast imaging quality and potential clinical relevance of differential phase contrast mammography,” Investigative Radiology 49131(2014).
[Crossref]

Willer, K.

K. Scherer, K. Willer, L. Gromann, L. Birnbacher, E. Braig, S. Grandl, A. Sztrkay-Gaul, J. Herzen, D. Mayr, K. Hellerhoff, and F. Pfeiffer, “Toward clinically compatible phase-contrast mammography,” PLoS ONE 10, e0130776 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Williams, E.

B. De Man, S. Basu, N. Chandra, B. Dunham, P. Edic, M. Iatrou, S. McOlash, P. Sainath, C. Shaughnessy, B. Tower, and E. Williams, “Catsim: a new computer assisted tomography simulation environment,” Proc. SPIE 6510, 65102G (2007).
[Crossref]

Willner, M.

Yashiro, W.

Young, K. C.

D. R. Dance, K. C. Young, and R. E. van Engen, “Further factors for the estimation of mean glandular dose using the united kingdom, european and iaea breast dosimetry protocols,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54, 4361 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zanette, I.

A. Sarapata, M. Chabior, C. Cozzini, J. I. Sperl, D. Beque, O. Langner, J. Coman, I. Zanette, M. Ruiz-Yaniz, and F. Pfeiffer, “Quantitative electron density characterization of soft tissue substitute plastic materials using grating-based x-ray phase-contrast imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 103708 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ziegler, E.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Investigative Radiology (2)

M. Stampanoni, Z. Wang, T. Thuering, C. David, E. Roessl, M. Trippel, R. A. Kubik-Huch, G. Singer, M. K. Hohl, and N. Hauser, “The First Analysis and Clinical Evaluation of Native Breast Tissue Using Differential Phase-Contrast Mammography,” Investigative Radiology 46, 801–806 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Hauser, Z. Wang, R. A. Kubik-Huch, M. Trippel, G. Singer, M. K. Hohl, E. Roessl, T. Kohler, U. van Steven-daal, N. Wieberneit, and M. Stampanoni, “A study on mastectomy samples to evaluate breast imaging quality and potential clinical relevance of differential phase contrast mammography,” Investigative Radiology 49131(2014).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

T. Donath, M. Chabior, and F. Pfeiffer, “Inverse geometry for grating-based x-ray phase-contrast imaging,” J. Appl. Phys. 106, 054703 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Nat. Mater. (1)

F. Pfeiffer, M. Bech, O. Bunk, P. Kraft, E. F. Eikenberry, C. Bronnimann, C. Grunzweig, and C. David, “Hard-X-ray dark-field imaging using a grating interferometer,” Nat. Mater. 7, 134–137 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nature Physics (1)

F. Pfeiffer, T. Weitkamp, O. Bunk, and C. David, “Phase retrieval and differential phase-contrast imaging with low-brilliance x-ray sources,” Nature Physics 2, 258–261 (2006).
[Crossref]

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment (2)

K. Engel, D. Geller, and T. Köhler, “Contrast-to-noise in X-ray differential phase contrast imaging,” Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment 648, S202–S207 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Chabior, M. Schuster, C. Schroer, and F. Pfeiffer, “Grating-based phase-contrast computed tomography of thick samples,” Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment 693, 138–142 (2012).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Phil. Trans. R. Soc. (1)

T. Thuering and M. Stampanoni, “Performance and optimization of X-ray grating interferometry,” Phil. Trans. R. Soc. 372, 27 (2014).
[Crossref]

Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci. (1)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Principle of gbDPCi using a Talbot-Lau interferometer. The X-ray is refracted (from the black to red path) by the sample with height h(x) at a fixed angle α that is translated into a lateral shift x of the interference pattern. The shift x increases with increasing distance d. After the sampling with G2, this shift is translated into a phase shift of the stepping curve Δφ.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Differences between π and π/2 gratings operated at higher Talbot orders.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Optimization results for the realistic mammography system. The maximum in the SNR is very broad for both Talbot orders, but contains local minima and maxima (vertical lines) in the case of high Talbot orders with the molybdenum target (d). In b) and d), some values exceed the lower limit of 1.8μm for the grating periods and are therefore skipped in the calculation (dark-blue points at the bottom).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 SNR vs. Talbot order for different target and filter combinations. The SNR values are taken from the maximum in each dataset of Fig. 3. The SNR increases with increasing Talbot order. Additional K-edge filtering by 50µm silver does not significantly influence performance. The two tungsten lines are very close together and not distinguishable in the figure.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 New (a) and old (b) gbDPC mammography images of a 4-cm-thick human breast. The darkfield and attenuation images are given as the neg. logarithm of the normalized visibility and intensity respectively. As can be seen from the color-bars, the optimized sensitivity results in much higher values for both the differential phase and darkfield images in the new system. The attenuation image profits mostly from an increased soft tissue contrast due to the reduced energy in the x-ray spectrum (30kVp vs. 40kVp in the old settings).

Tables (3)

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Table 1 Simulation parameters for the general comparison of the π and π/2-systems.

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Table 2 Simulation parameters for the optimization of the X-ray spectrum and design energy specific for gbDPC mammography.

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Table 3 Configuration for the low-dose gbDPC mammography system as used in the proof-of-principle experiment.

Equations (4)

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σ photon , Δ φ e f f 2 1 v 2 1 N t o t a l
SNR = Δ φ e f f σ photon , Δ φ e f f S v N t o t a l .
D SNR 2 S 2 v 2 ,
p 2 1 m

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