Abstract

We report the development and implementation of a unique integrated Mueller-matrix (MM) near-infrared (NIR) imaging and Mueller-matrix point-wise diffuse reflectance (DR) spectroscopy technique for improving colonic cancer detection and diagnosis. Point-wise MM DR spectra can be acquired from any suspicious tissue areas indicated by MM imaging. A total of 30 paired colonic tissue specimens (normal vs. cancer) were measured using the integrated MM imaging and point-wise MM DR spectroscopy system. Polar decomposition algorithms are employed on the acquired images and spectra to derive three polarization metrics including depolarization, diattentuation and retardance for colonic tissue characterization. The decomposition results show that tissue depolarization and retardance are significantly decreased (p<0.001, paired 2-sided Student’s t-test, n = 30); while the tissue diattentuation is significantly increased (p<0.001, paired 2-sided Student’s t-test, n = 30) associated with colonic cancer. Further partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and leave-one tissue site-out, cross validation (LOSCV) show that the combination of the three polarization metrics provide the best diagnostic accuracy of 95.0% (sensitivity: 93.3%, and specificity: 96.7%) compared to either of the three polarization metrics (sensitivities of 93.3%, 83.3%, and 80.0%; and specificities of 90.0%, 96.7%, and 80.0%, respectively, for the depolarization, diattentuation and retardance metrics) for colonic cancer detection. This work suggests that the integrated MM NIR imaging and point-wise MM NIR diffuse reflectance spectroscopy has the potential to improve the early detection and diagnosis of malignant lesions in the colon.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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2015 (6)

L. A. Torre, F. Bray, R. L. Siegel, J. Ferlay, J. Lortet-Tieulent, and A. Jemal, “Global cancer statistics, 2012,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 65(2), 87–108 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. Bergholt, K. Lin, J. Wang, W. Zheng, H. Xu, Q. Huang, J. Ren, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, S. Srivastava, B. Wong, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Simultaneous fingerprint and high-wavenumber fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy enhances real-time in vivo diagnosis of adenomatous polyps during colonoscopy,” J. Biophotonics 201, 1–10 (2015).

S. Alali and A. Vitkin, “Polarized light imaging in biomedicine: emerging Mueller matrix methodologies for bulk tissue assessment,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(6), 061104 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Ahmad, M. Ahmad, K. Khan, S. Ashraf, S. Ahmad, and M. Ikram, “Ex vivo characterization of normal and adenocarcinoma colon samples by Mueller matrix polarimetry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(5), 056012 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, K. Lin, W. Zheng, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Simultaneous fingerprint and high-wavenumber fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy improves in vivo diagnosis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma at endoscopy,” Sci. Rep. 5, 12957 (2015).

J. Wang, K. Lin, W. Zheng, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy for in vivo diagnosis of gastric dysplasia,” Faraday Discuss. 1039, 151 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

M. Sun, H. He, N. Zeng, E. Du, Y. Guo, S. Liu, J. Wu, Y. He, and H. Ma, “Characterizing the microstructures of biological tissues using Mueller matrix and transformed polarization parameters,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(12), 4223–4234 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Robertson, D. A. Lieberman, S. J. Winawer, D. J. Ahnen, J. A. Baron, A. Schatzkin, A. J. Cross, A. G. Zauber, T. R. Church, P. Lance, E. R. Greenberg, and M. E. Martínez, “Colorectal cancers soon after colonoscopy: a pooled multicohort analysis,” Gut 63(6), 949–956 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (4)

J. Qi, M. Ye, M. Singh, N. T. Clancy, and D. S. Elson, “Narrow band 3 × 3 Mueller polarimetric endoscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(11), 2433–2449 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. B. Mehta, M. Shribak, and R. Oldenbourg, “Polarized light imaging of birefringence and diattenuation at high resolution and high sensitivity,” J. Opt. 15(9), 094007 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, M. S. Bergholt, W. Zheng, and Z. Huang, “Development of a beveled fiber-optic confocal Raman probe for enhancing in vivo epithelial tissue Raman measurements at endoscopy,” Opt. Lett. 38(13), 2321–2323 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Duraipandian, W. Zheng, J. J. Low, J. Ng, A. Ilancheran, and Z. Huang, “Noninvasive analysis of hormonal variations and vagifem treatment effect on postmenopausal women using in vivo high wavenumber confocal Raman spectroscopy,” Analyst 138(14), 4120–4128 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

S. Duraipandian, W. Zheng, J. Ng, J. J. Low, A. Ilancheran, and Z. Huang, “Simultaneous fingerprint and high-wavenumber confocal Raman spectroscopy enhances early detection of cervical precancer in vivo,” Anal. Chem. 84(14), 5913–5919 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Fleming, S. Ravula, S. F. Tatishchev, and H. L. Wang, “Colorectal carcinoma: Pathologic aspects,” J. Gastrointest. Oncol. 3(3), 153–173 (2012).
[PubMed]

2011 (3)

N. Ghosh and I. A. Vitkin, “Tissue polarimetry: concepts, challenges, applications, and outlook,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(11), 110801 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Pierangelo, A. Benali, M.-R. Antonelli, T. Novikova, P. Validire, B. Gayet, and A. De Martino, “Ex-vivo characterization of human colon cancer by Mueller polarimetric imaging,” Opt. Express 19(2), 1582–1593 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Shao, W. Zheng, and Z. Huang, “In vivo diagnosis of colonic precancer and cancer using near-infrared autofluorescence spectroscopy and biochemical modeling,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(6), 067005 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (4)

M.-R. Antonelli, A. Pierangelo, T. Novikova, P. Validire, A. Benali, B. Gayet, and A. De Martino, “Mueller matrix imaging of human colon tissue for cancer diagnostics: how Monte Carlo modeling can help in the interpretation of experimental data,” Opt. Express 18(10), 10200–10208 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Shao, W. Zheng, and Z. Huang, “Polarized near-infrared autofluorescence imaging combined with near-infrared diffuse reflectance imaging for improving colonic cancer detection,” Opt. Express 18(23), 24293–24300 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. H. Chung, A. E. Cerussi, S. I. Merritt, J. Ruth, and B. J. Tromberg, “Non-invasive tissue temperature measurements based on quantitative diffuse optical spectroscopy (DOS) of water,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(13), 3753–3765 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Lin, W. Zheng, and Z. Huang, “Integrated autofluorescence endoscopic imaging and point-wise spectroscopy for real-time in vivo tissue measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(4), 040507 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

J. Mo, W. Zheng, J. J. Low, J. Ng, A. Ilancheran, and Z. Huang, “High wavenumber Raman spectroscopy for in vivo detection of cervical dysplasia,” Anal. Chem. 81(21), 8908–8915 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Han, H. Lui, D. I. McLean, and H. Zeng, “Near-infrared autofluorescence imaging of cutaneous melanins and human skin in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024017 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (4)

Z. Huang, H. Zeng, I. Hamzavi, A. Alajlan, E. Tan, D. I. McLean, and H. Lui, “Cutaneous melanin exhibiting fluorescence emission under near-infrared light excitation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(3), 034010 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Ichimoto, K. Shinoda, T. Yamamoto, and J. Kiyohara, “Photopolarimetric measurement system of Mueller matrix with dual rotating waveplates,” Publ. Natl. Astron. Obs. Jpn. 9, 11–19 (2006).

Y. S. Fawzy and H. Zeng, “Determination of scattering volume fraction and particle size distribution in the superficial layer of a turbid medium by using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 45(16), 3902–3912 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. S. Fawzy, M. Petek, M. Tercelj, and H. Zeng, “In vivo assessment and evaluation of lung tissue morphologic and physiological changes from non-contact endoscopic reflectance spectroscopy for improving lung cancer detection,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 044003 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

J. H. Ali, W. B. Wang, M. Zevallos, and R. R. Alfano, “Near infrared spectroscopy and imaging to probe differences in water content in normal and cancer human prostate tissues,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 3(5), 491–497 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

S. Winawer, R. Fletcher, D. Rex, J. Bond, R. Burt, J. Ferrucci, T. Ganiats, T. Levin, S. Woolf, D. Johnson, L. Kirk, S. Litin, C. Simmang, and Gastrointestinal Consortium Panel, “Colorectal cancer screening and surveillance: clinical guidelines and rationale-update based on new evidence,” Gastroenterology 124(2), 544–560 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

R. S. Gurjar, V. Backman, L. T. Perelman, I. Georgakoudi, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Imaging human epithelial properties with polarized light-scattering spectroscopy,” Nat. Med. 7(11), 1245–1248 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Wolthuis, M. van Aken, K. Fountas, J. S. Robinson, H. A. Bruining, and G. J. Puppels, “Determination of water concentration in brain tissue by Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 73(16), 3915–3920 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

S. L. Jacques, J. R. Roman, and K. Lee, “Imaging superficial tissues with polarized light,” Lasers Surg. Med. 26(2), 119–129 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Bueno, “Measurement of parameters of polarization in the living human eye using imaging polarimetry,” Vision Res. 40(28), 3791–3799 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

1997 (2)

S. G. Demos and R. R. Alfano, “Optical polarization imaging,” Appl. Opt. 36(1), 150–155 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. J. Saclarides, “Angiogenesis in colorectal cancer,” Surg. Clin. North Am. 77(1), 253–260 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

1992 (1)

1989 (1)

J. Turnay, N. Olmo, J. G. Gavilanes, and M. A. Lizarbe, “Collagen metabolism in human colon adenocarcinoma,” Connect. Tissue Res. 23(4), 251–260 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

H. J. Thomson, A. Busuttil, M. A. Eastwood, A. N. Smith, and R. A. Elton, “The submucosa of the human colon,” J. Ultrastruct. Mol. Struct. Res. 96(1-3), 22–30 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1978 (1)

1963 (2)

J. G. Bayly, V. B. Kartha, and W. H. Stevens, “The absorption spectra of liquid phase H 2 O, HDO and D 2 O from 0.7 μm to 10 μm,” Infrared Phys. 3(4), 211–222 (1963).
[Crossref]

R. D. Allen, J. Brault, and R. D. Moore, “A new method of polarization microscopic analysis I. Scanning with a birefringence detection system,” J. Cell Biol. 18(2), 223–235 (1963).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ahmad, I.

I. Ahmad, M. Ahmad, K. Khan, S. Ashraf, S. Ahmad, and M. Ikram, “Ex vivo characterization of normal and adenocarcinoma colon samples by Mueller matrix polarimetry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(5), 056012 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ahmad, M.

I. Ahmad, M. Ahmad, K. Khan, S. Ashraf, S. Ahmad, and M. Ikram, “Ex vivo characterization of normal and adenocarcinoma colon samples by Mueller matrix polarimetry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(5), 056012 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ahmad, S.

I. Ahmad, M. Ahmad, K. Khan, S. Ashraf, S. Ahmad, and M. Ikram, “Ex vivo characterization of normal and adenocarcinoma colon samples by Mueller matrix polarimetry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(5), 056012 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ahnen, D. J.

D. J. Robertson, D. A. Lieberman, S. J. Winawer, D. J. Ahnen, J. A. Baron, A. Schatzkin, A. J. Cross, A. G. Zauber, T. R. Church, P. Lance, E. R. Greenberg, and M. E. Martínez, “Colorectal cancers soon after colonoscopy: a pooled multicohort analysis,” Gut 63(6), 949–956 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alajlan, A.

Z. Huang, H. Zeng, I. Hamzavi, A. Alajlan, E. Tan, D. I. McLean, and H. Lui, “Cutaneous melanin exhibiting fluorescence emission under near-infrared light excitation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(3), 034010 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alali, S.

S. Alali and A. Vitkin, “Polarized light imaging in biomedicine: emerging Mueller matrix methodologies for bulk tissue assessment,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(6), 061104 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alfano, R. R.

J. H. Ali, W. B. Wang, M. Zevallos, and R. R. Alfano, “Near infrared spectroscopy and imaging to probe differences in water content in normal and cancer human prostate tissues,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 3(5), 491–497 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. G. Demos and R. R. Alfano, “Optical polarization imaging,” Appl. Opt. 36(1), 150–155 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ali, J. H.

J. H. Ali, W. B. Wang, M. Zevallos, and R. R. Alfano, “Near infrared spectroscopy and imaging to probe differences in water content in normal and cancer human prostate tissues,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 3(5), 491–497 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Allen, R. D.

R. D. Allen, J. Brault, and R. D. Moore, “A new method of polarization microscopic analysis I. Scanning with a birefringence detection system,” J. Cell Biol. 18(2), 223–235 (1963).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Antonelli, M.-R.

Ashraf, S.

I. Ahmad, M. Ahmad, K. Khan, S. Ashraf, S. Ahmad, and M. Ikram, “Ex vivo characterization of normal and adenocarcinoma colon samples by Mueller matrix polarimetry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(5), 056012 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Azzam, R. M. A.

Backman, V.

R. S. Gurjar, V. Backman, L. T. Perelman, I. Georgakoudi, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Imaging human epithelial properties with polarized light-scattering spectroscopy,” Nat. Med. 7(11), 1245–1248 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Badizadegan, K.

R. S. Gurjar, V. Backman, L. T. Perelman, I. Georgakoudi, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Imaging human epithelial properties with polarized light-scattering spectroscopy,” Nat. Med. 7(11), 1245–1248 (2001).
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Baron, J. A.

D. J. Robertson, D. A. Lieberman, S. J. Winawer, D. J. Ahnen, J. A. Baron, A. Schatzkin, A. J. Cross, A. G. Zauber, T. R. Church, P. Lance, E. R. Greenberg, and M. E. Martínez, “Colorectal cancers soon after colonoscopy: a pooled multicohort analysis,” Gut 63(6), 949–956 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bayly, J. G.

J. G. Bayly, V. B. Kartha, and W. H. Stevens, “The absorption spectra of liquid phase H 2 O, HDO and D 2 O from 0.7 μm to 10 μm,” Infrared Phys. 3(4), 211–222 (1963).
[Crossref]

Benali, A.

Bergholt, M. S.

M. S. Bergholt, K. Lin, J. Wang, W. Zheng, H. Xu, Q. Huang, J. Ren, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, S. Srivastava, B. Wong, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Simultaneous fingerprint and high-wavenumber fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy enhances real-time in vivo diagnosis of adenomatous polyps during colonoscopy,” J. Biophotonics 201, 1–10 (2015).

J. Wang, M. S. Bergholt, W. Zheng, and Z. Huang, “Development of a beveled fiber-optic confocal Raman probe for enhancing in vivo epithelial tissue Raman measurements at endoscopy,” Opt. Lett. 38(13), 2321–2323 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bond, J.

S. Winawer, R. Fletcher, D. Rex, J. Bond, R. Burt, J. Ferrucci, T. Ganiats, T. Levin, S. Woolf, D. Johnson, L. Kirk, S. Litin, C. Simmang, and Gastrointestinal Consortium Panel, “Colorectal cancer screening and surveillance: clinical guidelines and rationale-update based on new evidence,” Gastroenterology 124(2), 544–560 (2003).
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R. D. Allen, J. Brault, and R. D. Moore, “A new method of polarization microscopic analysis I. Scanning with a birefringence detection system,” J. Cell Biol. 18(2), 223–235 (1963).
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Bray, F.

L. A. Torre, F. Bray, R. L. Siegel, J. Ferlay, J. Lortet-Tieulent, and A. Jemal, “Global cancer statistics, 2012,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 65(2), 87–108 (2015).
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Bruining, H. A.

R. Wolthuis, M. van Aken, K. Fountas, J. S. Robinson, H. A. Bruining, and G. J. Puppels, “Determination of water concentration in brain tissue by Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 73(16), 3915–3920 (2001).
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Bueno, J. M.

J. M. Bueno, “Measurement of parameters of polarization in the living human eye using imaging polarimetry,” Vision Res. 40(28), 3791–3799 (2000).
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Burt, R.

S. Winawer, R. Fletcher, D. Rex, J. Bond, R. Burt, J. Ferrucci, T. Ganiats, T. Levin, S. Woolf, D. Johnson, L. Kirk, S. Litin, C. Simmang, and Gastrointestinal Consortium Panel, “Colorectal cancer screening and surveillance: clinical guidelines and rationale-update based on new evidence,” Gastroenterology 124(2), 544–560 (2003).
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H. J. Thomson, A. Busuttil, M. A. Eastwood, A. N. Smith, and R. A. Elton, “The submucosa of the human colon,” J. Ultrastruct. Mol. Struct. Res. 96(1-3), 22–30 (1986).
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Cerussi, A. E.

S. H. Chung, A. E. Cerussi, S. I. Merritt, J. Ruth, and B. J. Tromberg, “Non-invasive tissue temperature measurements based on quantitative diffuse optical spectroscopy (DOS) of water,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(13), 3753–3765 (2010).
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Chipman, R. A.

Chung, S. H.

S. H. Chung, A. E. Cerussi, S. I. Merritt, J. Ruth, and B. J. Tromberg, “Non-invasive tissue temperature measurements based on quantitative diffuse optical spectroscopy (DOS) of water,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(13), 3753–3765 (2010).
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Church, T. R.

D. J. Robertson, D. A. Lieberman, S. J. Winawer, D. J. Ahnen, J. A. Baron, A. Schatzkin, A. J. Cross, A. G. Zauber, T. R. Church, P. Lance, E. R. Greenberg, and M. E. Martínez, “Colorectal cancers soon after colonoscopy: a pooled multicohort analysis,” Gut 63(6), 949–956 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Clancy, N. T.

Cross, A. J.

D. J. Robertson, D. A. Lieberman, S. J. Winawer, D. J. Ahnen, J. A. Baron, A. Schatzkin, A. J. Cross, A. G. Zauber, T. R. Church, P. Lance, E. R. Greenberg, and M. E. Martínez, “Colorectal cancers soon after colonoscopy: a pooled multicohort analysis,” Gut 63(6), 949–956 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dasari, R. R.

R. S. Gurjar, V. Backman, L. T. Perelman, I. Georgakoudi, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Imaging human epithelial properties with polarized light-scattering spectroscopy,” Nat. Med. 7(11), 1245–1248 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

De Martino, A.

Demos, S. G.

Drezek, R.

Du, E.

Duraipandian, S.

S. Duraipandian, W. Zheng, J. J. Low, J. Ng, A. Ilancheran, and Z. Huang, “Noninvasive analysis of hormonal variations and vagifem treatment effect on postmenopausal women using in vivo high wavenumber confocal Raman spectroscopy,” Analyst 138(14), 4120–4128 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Duraipandian, W. Zheng, J. Ng, J. J. Low, A. Ilancheran, and Z. Huang, “Simultaneous fingerprint and high-wavenumber confocal Raman spectroscopy enhances early detection of cervical precancer in vivo,” Anal. Chem. 84(14), 5913–5919 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eastwood, M. A.

H. J. Thomson, A. Busuttil, M. A. Eastwood, A. N. Smith, and R. A. Elton, “The submucosa of the human colon,” J. Ultrastruct. Mol. Struct. Res. 96(1-3), 22–30 (1986).
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Elson, D. S.

Elton, R. A.

H. J. Thomson, A. Busuttil, M. A. Eastwood, A. N. Smith, and R. A. Elton, “The submucosa of the human colon,” J. Ultrastruct. Mol. Struct. Res. 96(1-3), 22–30 (1986).
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Fawzy, Y. S.

Y. S. Fawzy, M. Petek, M. Tercelj, and H. Zeng, “In vivo assessment and evaluation of lung tissue morphologic and physiological changes from non-contact endoscopic reflectance spectroscopy for improving lung cancer detection,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 044003 (2006).
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Y. S. Fawzy and H. Zeng, “Determination of scattering volume fraction and particle size distribution in the superficial layer of a turbid medium by using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 45(16), 3902–3912 (2006).
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Feld, M. S.

R. S. Gurjar, V. Backman, L. T. Perelman, I. Georgakoudi, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Imaging human epithelial properties with polarized light-scattering spectroscopy,” Nat. Med. 7(11), 1245–1248 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ferlay, J.

L. A. Torre, F. Bray, R. L. Siegel, J. Ferlay, J. Lortet-Tieulent, and A. Jemal, “Global cancer statistics, 2012,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 65(2), 87–108 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ferrucci, J.

S. Winawer, R. Fletcher, D. Rex, J. Bond, R. Burt, J. Ferrucci, T. Ganiats, T. Levin, S. Woolf, D. Johnson, L. Kirk, S. Litin, C. Simmang, and Gastrointestinal Consortium Panel, “Colorectal cancer screening and surveillance: clinical guidelines and rationale-update based on new evidence,” Gastroenterology 124(2), 544–560 (2003).
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Fleming, M.

M. Fleming, S. Ravula, S. F. Tatishchev, and H. L. Wang, “Colorectal carcinoma: Pathologic aspects,” J. Gastrointest. Oncol. 3(3), 153–173 (2012).
[PubMed]

Fletcher, R.

S. Winawer, R. Fletcher, D. Rex, J. Bond, R. Burt, J. Ferrucci, T. Ganiats, T. Levin, S. Woolf, D. Johnson, L. Kirk, S. Litin, C. Simmang, and Gastrointestinal Consortium Panel, “Colorectal cancer screening and surveillance: clinical guidelines and rationale-update based on new evidence,” Gastroenterology 124(2), 544–560 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fountas, K.

R. Wolthuis, M. van Aken, K. Fountas, J. S. Robinson, H. A. Bruining, and G. J. Puppels, “Determination of water concentration in brain tissue by Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 73(16), 3915–3920 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ganiats, T.

S. Winawer, R. Fletcher, D. Rex, J. Bond, R. Burt, J. Ferrucci, T. Ganiats, T. Levin, S. Woolf, D. Johnson, L. Kirk, S. Litin, C. Simmang, and Gastrointestinal Consortium Panel, “Colorectal cancer screening and surveillance: clinical guidelines and rationale-update based on new evidence,” Gastroenterology 124(2), 544–560 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gavilanes, J. G.

J. Turnay, N. Olmo, J. G. Gavilanes, and M. A. Lizarbe, “Collagen metabolism in human colon adenocarcinoma,” Connect. Tissue Res. 23(4), 251–260 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gayet, B.

Georgakoudi, I.

R. S. Gurjar, V. Backman, L. T. Perelman, I. Georgakoudi, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Imaging human epithelial properties with polarized light-scattering spectroscopy,” Nat. Med. 7(11), 1245–1248 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ghosh, N.

N. Ghosh and I. A. Vitkin, “Tissue polarimetry: concepts, challenges, applications, and outlook,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(11), 110801 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Goldstein, D. H.

Gossage, K.

Greenberg, E. R.

D. J. Robertson, D. A. Lieberman, S. J. Winawer, D. J. Ahnen, J. A. Baron, A. Schatzkin, A. J. Cross, A. G. Zauber, T. R. Church, P. Lance, E. R. Greenberg, and M. E. Martínez, “Colorectal cancers soon after colonoscopy: a pooled multicohort analysis,” Gut 63(6), 949–956 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guo, Y.

Gurjar, R. S.

R. S. Gurjar, V. Backman, L. T. Perelman, I. Georgakoudi, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Imaging human epithelial properties with polarized light-scattering spectroscopy,” Nat. Med. 7(11), 1245–1248 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hamzavi, I.

Z. Huang, H. Zeng, I. Hamzavi, A. Alajlan, E. Tan, D. I. McLean, and H. Lui, “Cutaneous melanin exhibiting fluorescence emission under near-infrared light excitation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(3), 034010 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Han, X.

X. Han, H. Lui, D. I. McLean, and H. Zeng, “Near-infrared autofluorescence imaging of cutaneous melanins and human skin in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024017 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

He, H.

He, Y.

Ho, K. Y.

J. Wang, K. Lin, W. Zheng, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy for in vivo diagnosis of gastric dysplasia,” Faraday Discuss. 1039, 151 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, K. Lin, W. Zheng, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Simultaneous fingerprint and high-wavenumber fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy improves in vivo diagnosis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma at endoscopy,” Sci. Rep. 5, 12957 (2015).

M. S. Bergholt, K. Lin, J. Wang, W. Zheng, H. Xu, Q. Huang, J. Ren, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, S. Srivastava, B. Wong, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Simultaneous fingerprint and high-wavenumber fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy enhances real-time in vivo diagnosis of adenomatous polyps during colonoscopy,” J. Biophotonics 201, 1–10 (2015).

Huang, Q.

M. S. Bergholt, K. Lin, J. Wang, W. Zheng, H. Xu, Q. Huang, J. Ren, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, S. Srivastava, B. Wong, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Simultaneous fingerprint and high-wavenumber fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy enhances real-time in vivo diagnosis of adenomatous polyps during colonoscopy,” J. Biophotonics 201, 1–10 (2015).

Huang, Z.

M. S. Bergholt, K. Lin, J. Wang, W. Zheng, H. Xu, Q. Huang, J. Ren, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, S. Srivastava, B. Wong, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Simultaneous fingerprint and high-wavenumber fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy enhances real-time in vivo diagnosis of adenomatous polyps during colonoscopy,” J. Biophotonics 201, 1–10 (2015).

J. Wang, K. Lin, W. Zheng, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy for in vivo diagnosis of gastric dysplasia,” Faraday Discuss. 1039, 151 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, K. Lin, W. Zheng, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Simultaneous fingerprint and high-wavenumber fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy improves in vivo diagnosis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma at endoscopy,” Sci. Rep. 5, 12957 (2015).

S. Duraipandian, W. Zheng, J. J. Low, J. Ng, A. Ilancheran, and Z. Huang, “Noninvasive analysis of hormonal variations and vagifem treatment effect on postmenopausal women using in vivo high wavenumber confocal Raman spectroscopy,” Analyst 138(14), 4120–4128 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, M. S. Bergholt, W. Zheng, and Z. Huang, “Development of a beveled fiber-optic confocal Raman probe for enhancing in vivo epithelial tissue Raman measurements at endoscopy,” Opt. Lett. 38(13), 2321–2323 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Duraipandian, W. Zheng, J. Ng, J. J. Low, A. Ilancheran, and Z. Huang, “Simultaneous fingerprint and high-wavenumber confocal Raman spectroscopy enhances early detection of cervical precancer in vivo,” Anal. Chem. 84(14), 5913–5919 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Shao, W. Zheng, and Z. Huang, “In vivo diagnosis of colonic precancer and cancer using near-infrared autofluorescence spectroscopy and biochemical modeling,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(6), 067005 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Shao, W. Zheng, and Z. Huang, “Polarized near-infrared autofluorescence imaging combined with near-infrared diffuse reflectance imaging for improving colonic cancer detection,” Opt. Express 18(23), 24293–24300 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Lin, W. Zheng, and Z. Huang, “Integrated autofluorescence endoscopic imaging and point-wise spectroscopy for real-time in vivo tissue measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(4), 040507 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Mo, W. Zheng, J. J. Low, J. Ng, A. Ilancheran, and Z. Huang, “High wavenumber Raman spectroscopy for in vivo detection of cervical dysplasia,” Anal. Chem. 81(21), 8908–8915 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Huang, H. Zeng, I. Hamzavi, A. Alajlan, E. Tan, D. I. McLean, and H. Lui, “Cutaneous melanin exhibiting fluorescence emission under near-infrared light excitation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(3), 034010 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ichimoto, K.

K. Ichimoto, K. Shinoda, T. Yamamoto, and J. Kiyohara, “Photopolarimetric measurement system of Mueller matrix with dual rotating waveplates,” Publ. Natl. Astron. Obs. Jpn. 9, 11–19 (2006).

Ikram, M.

I. Ahmad, M. Ahmad, K. Khan, S. Ashraf, S. Ahmad, and M. Ikram, “Ex vivo characterization of normal and adenocarcinoma colon samples by Mueller matrix polarimetry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(5), 056012 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ilancheran, A.

S. Duraipandian, W. Zheng, J. J. Low, J. Ng, A. Ilancheran, and Z. Huang, “Noninvasive analysis of hormonal variations and vagifem treatment effect on postmenopausal women using in vivo high wavenumber confocal Raman spectroscopy,” Analyst 138(14), 4120–4128 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Duraipandian, W. Zheng, J. Ng, J. J. Low, A. Ilancheran, and Z. Huang, “Simultaneous fingerprint and high-wavenumber confocal Raman spectroscopy enhances early detection of cervical precancer in vivo,” Anal. Chem. 84(14), 5913–5919 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Mo, W. Zheng, J. J. Low, J. Ng, A. Ilancheran, and Z. Huang, “High wavenumber Raman spectroscopy for in vivo detection of cervical dysplasia,” Anal. Chem. 81(21), 8908–8915 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Itzkan, I.

R. S. Gurjar, V. Backman, L. T. Perelman, I. Georgakoudi, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Imaging human epithelial properties with polarized light-scattering spectroscopy,” Nat. Med. 7(11), 1245–1248 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jacques, S. L.

S. L. Jacques, J. R. Roman, and K. Lee, “Imaging superficial tissues with polarized light,” Lasers Surg. Med. 26(2), 119–129 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jemal, A.

L. A. Torre, F. Bray, R. L. Siegel, J. Ferlay, J. Lortet-Tieulent, and A. Jemal, “Global cancer statistics, 2012,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 65(2), 87–108 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Johnson, D.

S. Winawer, R. Fletcher, D. Rex, J. Bond, R. Burt, J. Ferrucci, T. Ganiats, T. Levin, S. Woolf, D. Johnson, L. Kirk, S. Litin, C. Simmang, and Gastrointestinal Consortium Panel, “Colorectal cancer screening and surveillance: clinical guidelines and rationale-update based on new evidence,” Gastroenterology 124(2), 544–560 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kartha, V. B.

J. G. Bayly, V. B. Kartha, and W. H. Stevens, “The absorption spectra of liquid phase H 2 O, HDO and D 2 O from 0.7 μm to 10 μm,” Infrared Phys. 3(4), 211–222 (1963).
[Crossref]

Khan, K.

I. Ahmad, M. Ahmad, K. Khan, S. Ashraf, S. Ahmad, and M. Ikram, “Ex vivo characterization of normal and adenocarcinoma colon samples by Mueller matrix polarimetry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(5), 056012 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kirk, L.

S. Winawer, R. Fletcher, D. Rex, J. Bond, R. Burt, J. Ferrucci, T. Ganiats, T. Levin, S. Woolf, D. Johnson, L. Kirk, S. Litin, C. Simmang, and Gastrointestinal Consortium Panel, “Colorectal cancer screening and surveillance: clinical guidelines and rationale-update based on new evidence,” Gastroenterology 124(2), 544–560 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kiyohara, J.

K. Ichimoto, K. Shinoda, T. Yamamoto, and J. Kiyohara, “Photopolarimetric measurement system of Mueller matrix with dual rotating waveplates,” Publ. Natl. Astron. Obs. Jpn. 9, 11–19 (2006).

Lance, P.

D. J. Robertson, D. A. Lieberman, S. J. Winawer, D. J. Ahnen, J. A. Baron, A. Schatzkin, A. J. Cross, A. G. Zauber, T. R. Church, P. Lance, E. R. Greenberg, and M. E. Martínez, “Colorectal cancers soon after colonoscopy: a pooled multicohort analysis,” Gut 63(6), 949–956 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, K.

S. L. Jacques, J. R. Roman, and K. Lee, “Imaging superficial tissues with polarized light,” Lasers Surg. Med. 26(2), 119–129 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Levin, T.

S. Winawer, R. Fletcher, D. Rex, J. Bond, R. Burt, J. Ferrucci, T. Ganiats, T. Levin, S. Woolf, D. Johnson, L. Kirk, S. Litin, C. Simmang, and Gastrointestinal Consortium Panel, “Colorectal cancer screening and surveillance: clinical guidelines and rationale-update based on new evidence,” Gastroenterology 124(2), 544–560 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lieberman, D. A.

D. J. Robertson, D. A. Lieberman, S. J. Winawer, D. J. Ahnen, J. A. Baron, A. Schatzkin, A. J. Cross, A. G. Zauber, T. R. Church, P. Lance, E. R. Greenberg, and M. E. Martínez, “Colorectal cancers soon after colonoscopy: a pooled multicohort analysis,” Gut 63(6), 949–956 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, K.

M. S. Bergholt, K. Lin, J. Wang, W. Zheng, H. Xu, Q. Huang, J. Ren, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, S. Srivastava, B. Wong, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Simultaneous fingerprint and high-wavenumber fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy enhances real-time in vivo diagnosis of adenomatous polyps during colonoscopy,” J. Biophotonics 201, 1–10 (2015).

J. Wang, K. Lin, W. Zheng, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Simultaneous fingerprint and high-wavenumber fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy improves in vivo diagnosis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma at endoscopy,” Sci. Rep. 5, 12957 (2015).

J. Wang, K. Lin, W. Zheng, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy for in vivo diagnosis of gastric dysplasia,” Faraday Discuss. 1039, 151 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Lin, W. Zheng, and Z. Huang, “Integrated autofluorescence endoscopic imaging and point-wise spectroscopy for real-time in vivo tissue measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(4), 040507 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Litin, S.

S. Winawer, R. Fletcher, D. Rex, J. Bond, R. Burt, J. Ferrucci, T. Ganiats, T. Levin, S. Woolf, D. Johnson, L. Kirk, S. Litin, C. Simmang, and Gastrointestinal Consortium Panel, “Colorectal cancer screening and surveillance: clinical guidelines and rationale-update based on new evidence,” Gastroenterology 124(2), 544–560 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, S.

Lizarbe, M. A.

J. Turnay, N. Olmo, J. G. Gavilanes, and M. A. Lizarbe, “Collagen metabolism in human colon adenocarcinoma,” Connect. Tissue Res. 23(4), 251–260 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lortet-Tieulent, J.

L. A. Torre, F. Bray, R. L. Siegel, J. Ferlay, J. Lortet-Tieulent, and A. Jemal, “Global cancer statistics, 2012,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 65(2), 87–108 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Low, J. J.

S. Duraipandian, W. Zheng, J. J. Low, J. Ng, A. Ilancheran, and Z. Huang, “Noninvasive analysis of hormonal variations and vagifem treatment effect on postmenopausal women using in vivo high wavenumber confocal Raman spectroscopy,” Analyst 138(14), 4120–4128 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Duraipandian, W. Zheng, J. Ng, J. J. Low, A. Ilancheran, and Z. Huang, “Simultaneous fingerprint and high-wavenumber confocal Raman spectroscopy enhances early detection of cervical precancer in vivo,” Anal. Chem. 84(14), 5913–5919 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Mo, W. Zheng, J. J. Low, J. Ng, A. Ilancheran, and Z. Huang, “High wavenumber Raman spectroscopy for in vivo detection of cervical dysplasia,” Anal. Chem. 81(21), 8908–8915 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lu, S.-Y.

Lui, H.

X. Han, H. Lui, D. I. McLean, and H. Zeng, “Near-infrared autofluorescence imaging of cutaneous melanins and human skin in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024017 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Huang, H. Zeng, I. Hamzavi, A. Alajlan, E. Tan, D. I. McLean, and H. Lui, “Cutaneous melanin exhibiting fluorescence emission under near-infrared light excitation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(3), 034010 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ma, H.

Martínez, M. E.

D. J. Robertson, D. A. Lieberman, S. J. Winawer, D. J. Ahnen, J. A. Baron, A. Schatzkin, A. J. Cross, A. G. Zauber, T. R. Church, P. Lance, E. R. Greenberg, and M. E. Martínez, “Colorectal cancers soon after colonoscopy: a pooled multicohort analysis,” Gut 63(6), 949–956 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McLean, D. I.

X. Han, H. Lui, D. I. McLean, and H. Zeng, “Near-infrared autofluorescence imaging of cutaneous melanins and human skin in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024017 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Huang, H. Zeng, I. Hamzavi, A. Alajlan, E. Tan, D. I. McLean, and H. Lui, “Cutaneous melanin exhibiting fluorescence emission under near-infrared light excitation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(3), 034010 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mehta, S. B.

S. B. Mehta, M. Shribak, and R. Oldenbourg, “Polarized light imaging of birefringence and diattenuation at high resolution and high sensitivity,” J. Opt. 15(9), 094007 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Merritt, S. I.

S. H. Chung, A. E. Cerussi, S. I. Merritt, J. Ruth, and B. J. Tromberg, “Non-invasive tissue temperature measurements based on quantitative diffuse optical spectroscopy (DOS) of water,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(13), 3753–3765 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mo, J.

J. Mo, W. Zheng, J. J. Low, J. Ng, A. Ilancheran, and Z. Huang, “High wavenumber Raman spectroscopy for in vivo detection of cervical dysplasia,” Anal. Chem. 81(21), 8908–8915 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moore, R. D.

R. D. Allen, J. Brault, and R. D. Moore, “A new method of polarization microscopic analysis I. Scanning with a birefringence detection system,” J. Cell Biol. 18(2), 223–235 (1963).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ng, J.

S. Duraipandian, W. Zheng, J. J. Low, J. Ng, A. Ilancheran, and Z. Huang, “Noninvasive analysis of hormonal variations and vagifem treatment effect on postmenopausal women using in vivo high wavenumber confocal Raman spectroscopy,” Analyst 138(14), 4120–4128 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Duraipandian, W. Zheng, J. Ng, J. J. Low, A. Ilancheran, and Z. Huang, “Simultaneous fingerprint and high-wavenumber confocal Raman spectroscopy enhances early detection of cervical precancer in vivo,” Anal. Chem. 84(14), 5913–5919 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Mo, W. Zheng, J. J. Low, J. Ng, A. Ilancheran, and Z. Huang, “High wavenumber Raman spectroscopy for in vivo detection of cervical dysplasia,” Anal. Chem. 81(21), 8908–8915 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Novikova, T.

Oldenbourg, R.

S. B. Mehta, M. Shribak, and R. Oldenbourg, “Polarized light imaging of birefringence and diattenuation at high resolution and high sensitivity,” J. Opt. 15(9), 094007 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Olmo, N.

J. Turnay, N. Olmo, J. G. Gavilanes, and M. A. Lizarbe, “Collagen metabolism in human colon adenocarcinoma,” Connect. Tissue Res. 23(4), 251–260 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Perelman, L. T.

R. S. Gurjar, V. Backman, L. T. Perelman, I. Georgakoudi, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Imaging human epithelial properties with polarized light-scattering spectroscopy,” Nat. Med. 7(11), 1245–1248 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Petek, M.

Y. S. Fawzy, M. Petek, M. Tercelj, and H. Zeng, “In vivo assessment and evaluation of lung tissue morphologic and physiological changes from non-contact endoscopic reflectance spectroscopy for improving lung cancer detection,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 044003 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pierangelo, A.

Puppels, G. J.

R. Wolthuis, M. van Aken, K. Fountas, J. S. Robinson, H. A. Bruining, and G. J. Puppels, “Determination of water concentration in brain tissue by Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 73(16), 3915–3920 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qi, J.

Ravula, S.

M. Fleming, S. Ravula, S. F. Tatishchev, and H. L. Wang, “Colorectal carcinoma: Pathologic aspects,” J. Gastrointest. Oncol. 3(3), 153–173 (2012).
[PubMed]

Ren, J.

M. S. Bergholt, K. Lin, J. Wang, W. Zheng, H. Xu, Q. Huang, J. Ren, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, S. Srivastava, B. Wong, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Simultaneous fingerprint and high-wavenumber fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy enhances real-time in vivo diagnosis of adenomatous polyps during colonoscopy,” J. Biophotonics 201, 1–10 (2015).

Rex, D.

S. Winawer, R. Fletcher, D. Rex, J. Bond, R. Burt, J. Ferrucci, T. Ganiats, T. Levin, S. Woolf, D. Johnson, L. Kirk, S. Litin, C. Simmang, and Gastrointestinal Consortium Panel, “Colorectal cancer screening and surveillance: clinical guidelines and rationale-update based on new evidence,” Gastroenterology 124(2), 544–560 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Richards-Kortum, R.

Robertson, D. J.

D. J. Robertson, D. A. Lieberman, S. J. Winawer, D. J. Ahnen, J. A. Baron, A. Schatzkin, A. J. Cross, A. G. Zauber, T. R. Church, P. Lance, E. R. Greenberg, and M. E. Martínez, “Colorectal cancers soon after colonoscopy: a pooled multicohort analysis,” Gut 63(6), 949–956 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Robinson, J. S.

R. Wolthuis, M. van Aken, K. Fountas, J. S. Robinson, H. A. Bruining, and G. J. Puppels, “Determination of water concentration in brain tissue by Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 73(16), 3915–3920 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Roman, J. R.

S. L. Jacques, J. R. Roman, and K. Lee, “Imaging superficial tissues with polarized light,” Lasers Surg. Med. 26(2), 119–129 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ruth, J.

S. H. Chung, A. E. Cerussi, S. I. Merritt, J. Ruth, and B. J. Tromberg, “Non-invasive tissue temperature measurements based on quantitative diffuse optical spectroscopy (DOS) of water,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(13), 3753–3765 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Saclarides, T. J.

T. J. Saclarides, “Angiogenesis in colorectal cancer,” Surg. Clin. North Am. 77(1), 253–260 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schatzkin, A.

D. J. Robertson, D. A. Lieberman, S. J. Winawer, D. J. Ahnen, J. A. Baron, A. Schatzkin, A. J. Cross, A. G. Zauber, T. R. Church, P. Lance, E. R. Greenberg, and M. E. Martínez, “Colorectal cancers soon after colonoscopy: a pooled multicohort analysis,” Gut 63(6), 949–956 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shao, X.

X. Shao, W. Zheng, and Z. Huang, “In vivo diagnosis of colonic precancer and cancer using near-infrared autofluorescence spectroscopy and biochemical modeling,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(6), 067005 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Shao, W. Zheng, and Z. Huang, “Polarized near-infrared autofluorescence imaging combined with near-infrared diffuse reflectance imaging for improving colonic cancer detection,” Opt. Express 18(23), 24293–24300 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shinoda, K.

K. Ichimoto, K. Shinoda, T. Yamamoto, and J. Kiyohara, “Photopolarimetric measurement system of Mueller matrix with dual rotating waveplates,” Publ. Natl. Astron. Obs. Jpn. 9, 11–19 (2006).

Shribak, M.

S. B. Mehta, M. Shribak, and R. Oldenbourg, “Polarized light imaging of birefringence and diattenuation at high resolution and high sensitivity,” J. Opt. 15(9), 094007 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Siegel, R. L.

L. A. Torre, F. Bray, R. L. Siegel, J. Ferlay, J. Lortet-Tieulent, and A. Jemal, “Global cancer statistics, 2012,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 65(2), 87–108 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Simmang, C.

S. Winawer, R. Fletcher, D. Rex, J. Bond, R. Burt, J. Ferrucci, T. Ganiats, T. Levin, S. Woolf, D. Johnson, L. Kirk, S. Litin, C. Simmang, and Gastrointestinal Consortium Panel, “Colorectal cancer screening and surveillance: clinical guidelines and rationale-update based on new evidence,” Gastroenterology 124(2), 544–560 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Singh, M.

Smith, A. N.

H. J. Thomson, A. Busuttil, M. A. Eastwood, A. N. Smith, and R. A. Elton, “The submucosa of the human colon,” J. Ultrastruct. Mol. Struct. Res. 96(1-3), 22–30 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sokolov, K.

Srivastava, S.

M. S. Bergholt, K. Lin, J. Wang, W. Zheng, H. Xu, Q. Huang, J. Ren, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, S. Srivastava, B. Wong, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Simultaneous fingerprint and high-wavenumber fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy enhances real-time in vivo diagnosis of adenomatous polyps during colonoscopy,” J. Biophotonics 201, 1–10 (2015).

Stevens, W. H.

J. G. Bayly, V. B. Kartha, and W. H. Stevens, “The absorption spectra of liquid phase H 2 O, HDO and D 2 O from 0.7 μm to 10 μm,” Infrared Phys. 3(4), 211–222 (1963).
[Crossref]

Sun, M.

Tan, E.

Z. Huang, H. Zeng, I. Hamzavi, A. Alajlan, E. Tan, D. I. McLean, and H. Lui, “Cutaneous melanin exhibiting fluorescence emission under near-infrared light excitation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(3), 034010 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tatishchev, S. F.

M. Fleming, S. Ravula, S. F. Tatishchev, and H. L. Wang, “Colorectal carcinoma: Pathologic aspects,” J. Gastrointest. Oncol. 3(3), 153–173 (2012).
[PubMed]

Teh, M.

J. Wang, K. Lin, W. Zheng, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy for in vivo diagnosis of gastric dysplasia,” Faraday Discuss. 1039, 151 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. S. Bergholt, K. Lin, J. Wang, W. Zheng, H. Xu, Q. Huang, J. Ren, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, S. Srivastava, B. Wong, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Simultaneous fingerprint and high-wavenumber fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy enhances real-time in vivo diagnosis of adenomatous polyps during colonoscopy,” J. Biophotonics 201, 1–10 (2015).

J. Wang, K. Lin, W. Zheng, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Simultaneous fingerprint and high-wavenumber fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy improves in vivo diagnosis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma at endoscopy,” Sci. Rep. 5, 12957 (2015).

Tercelj, M.

Y. S. Fawzy, M. Petek, M. Tercelj, and H. Zeng, “In vivo assessment and evaluation of lung tissue morphologic and physiological changes from non-contact endoscopic reflectance spectroscopy for improving lung cancer detection,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 044003 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thomson, H. J.

H. J. Thomson, A. Busuttil, M. A. Eastwood, A. N. Smith, and R. A. Elton, “The submucosa of the human colon,” J. Ultrastruct. Mol. Struct. Res. 96(1-3), 22–30 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Torre, L. A.

L. A. Torre, F. Bray, R. L. Siegel, J. Ferlay, J. Lortet-Tieulent, and A. Jemal, “Global cancer statistics, 2012,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 65(2), 87–108 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tromberg, B. J.

S. H. Chung, A. E. Cerussi, S. I. Merritt, J. Ruth, and B. J. Tromberg, “Non-invasive tissue temperature measurements based on quantitative diffuse optical spectroscopy (DOS) of water,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(13), 3753–3765 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Turnay, J.

J. Turnay, N. Olmo, J. G. Gavilanes, and M. A. Lizarbe, “Collagen metabolism in human colon adenocarcinoma,” Connect. Tissue Res. 23(4), 251–260 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Validire, P.

van Aken, M.

R. Wolthuis, M. van Aken, K. Fountas, J. S. Robinson, H. A. Bruining, and G. J. Puppels, “Determination of water concentration in brain tissue by Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 73(16), 3915–3920 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vitkin, A.

S. Alali and A. Vitkin, “Polarized light imaging in biomedicine: emerging Mueller matrix methodologies for bulk tissue assessment,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(6), 061104 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vitkin, I. A.

N. Ghosh and I. A. Vitkin, “Tissue polarimetry: concepts, challenges, applications, and outlook,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(11), 110801 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, H. L.

M. Fleming, S. Ravula, S. F. Tatishchev, and H. L. Wang, “Colorectal carcinoma: Pathologic aspects,” J. Gastrointest. Oncol. 3(3), 153–173 (2012).
[PubMed]

Wang, J.

J. Wang, K. Lin, W. Zheng, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy for in vivo diagnosis of gastric dysplasia,” Faraday Discuss. 1039, 151 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, K. Lin, W. Zheng, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Simultaneous fingerprint and high-wavenumber fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy improves in vivo diagnosis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma at endoscopy,” Sci. Rep. 5, 12957 (2015).

M. S. Bergholt, K. Lin, J. Wang, W. Zheng, H. Xu, Q. Huang, J. Ren, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, S. Srivastava, B. Wong, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Simultaneous fingerprint and high-wavenumber fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy enhances real-time in vivo diagnosis of adenomatous polyps during colonoscopy,” J. Biophotonics 201, 1–10 (2015).

J. Wang, M. S. Bergholt, W. Zheng, and Z. Huang, “Development of a beveled fiber-optic confocal Raman probe for enhancing in vivo epithelial tissue Raman measurements at endoscopy,” Opt. Lett. 38(13), 2321–2323 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, W. B.

J. H. Ali, W. B. Wang, M. Zevallos, and R. R. Alfano, “Near infrared spectroscopy and imaging to probe differences in water content in normal and cancer human prostate tissues,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 3(5), 491–497 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Winawer, S.

S. Winawer, R. Fletcher, D. Rex, J. Bond, R. Burt, J. Ferrucci, T. Ganiats, T. Levin, S. Woolf, D. Johnson, L. Kirk, S. Litin, C. Simmang, and Gastrointestinal Consortium Panel, “Colorectal cancer screening and surveillance: clinical guidelines and rationale-update based on new evidence,” Gastroenterology 124(2), 544–560 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Winawer, S. J.

D. J. Robertson, D. A. Lieberman, S. J. Winawer, D. J. Ahnen, J. A. Baron, A. Schatzkin, A. J. Cross, A. G. Zauber, T. R. Church, P. Lance, E. R. Greenberg, and M. E. Martínez, “Colorectal cancers soon after colonoscopy: a pooled multicohort analysis,” Gut 63(6), 949–956 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wolthuis, R.

R. Wolthuis, M. van Aken, K. Fountas, J. S. Robinson, H. A. Bruining, and G. J. Puppels, “Determination of water concentration in brain tissue by Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 73(16), 3915–3920 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wong, B.

M. S. Bergholt, K. Lin, J. Wang, W. Zheng, H. Xu, Q. Huang, J. Ren, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, S. Srivastava, B. Wong, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Simultaneous fingerprint and high-wavenumber fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy enhances real-time in vivo diagnosis of adenomatous polyps during colonoscopy,” J. Biophotonics 201, 1–10 (2015).

Woolf, S.

S. Winawer, R. Fletcher, D. Rex, J. Bond, R. Burt, J. Ferrucci, T. Ganiats, T. Levin, S. Woolf, D. Johnson, L. Kirk, S. Litin, C. Simmang, and Gastrointestinal Consortium Panel, “Colorectal cancer screening and surveillance: clinical guidelines and rationale-update based on new evidence,” Gastroenterology 124(2), 544–560 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, J.

Xu, H.

M. S. Bergholt, K. Lin, J. Wang, W. Zheng, H. Xu, Q. Huang, J. Ren, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, S. Srivastava, B. Wong, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Simultaneous fingerprint and high-wavenumber fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy enhances real-time in vivo diagnosis of adenomatous polyps during colonoscopy,” J. Biophotonics 201, 1–10 (2015).

Yamamoto, T.

K. Ichimoto, K. Shinoda, T. Yamamoto, and J. Kiyohara, “Photopolarimetric measurement system of Mueller matrix with dual rotating waveplates,” Publ. Natl. Astron. Obs. Jpn. 9, 11–19 (2006).

Ye, M.

Yeoh, K. G.

M. S. Bergholt, K. Lin, J. Wang, W. Zheng, H. Xu, Q. Huang, J. Ren, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, S. Srivastava, B. Wong, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Simultaneous fingerprint and high-wavenumber fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy enhances real-time in vivo diagnosis of adenomatous polyps during colonoscopy,” J. Biophotonics 201, 1–10 (2015).

J. Wang, K. Lin, W. Zheng, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Simultaneous fingerprint and high-wavenumber fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy improves in vivo diagnosis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma at endoscopy,” Sci. Rep. 5, 12957 (2015).

J. Wang, K. Lin, W. Zheng, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy for in vivo diagnosis of gastric dysplasia,” Faraday Discuss. 1039, 151 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zauber, A. G.

D. J. Robertson, D. A. Lieberman, S. J. Winawer, D. J. Ahnen, J. A. Baron, A. Schatzkin, A. J. Cross, A. G. Zauber, T. R. Church, P. Lance, E. R. Greenberg, and M. E. Martínez, “Colorectal cancers soon after colonoscopy: a pooled multicohort analysis,” Gut 63(6), 949–956 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zeng, H.

X. Han, H. Lui, D. I. McLean, and H. Zeng, “Near-infrared autofluorescence imaging of cutaneous melanins and human skin in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024017 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. S. Fawzy, M. Petek, M. Tercelj, and H. Zeng, “In vivo assessment and evaluation of lung tissue morphologic and physiological changes from non-contact endoscopic reflectance spectroscopy for improving lung cancer detection,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 044003 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Huang, H. Zeng, I. Hamzavi, A. Alajlan, E. Tan, D. I. McLean, and H. Lui, “Cutaneous melanin exhibiting fluorescence emission under near-infrared light excitation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(3), 034010 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. S. Fawzy and H. Zeng, “Determination of scattering volume fraction and particle size distribution in the superficial layer of a turbid medium by using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 45(16), 3902–3912 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zeng, N.

Zevallos, M.

J. H. Ali, W. B. Wang, M. Zevallos, and R. R. Alfano, “Near infrared spectroscopy and imaging to probe differences in water content in normal and cancer human prostate tissues,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 3(5), 491–497 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zheng, W.

J. Wang, K. Lin, W. Zheng, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy for in vivo diagnosis of gastric dysplasia,” Faraday Discuss. 1039, 151 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. S. Bergholt, K. Lin, J. Wang, W. Zheng, H. Xu, Q. Huang, J. Ren, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, S. Srivastava, B. Wong, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Simultaneous fingerprint and high-wavenumber fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy enhances real-time in vivo diagnosis of adenomatous polyps during colonoscopy,” J. Biophotonics 201, 1–10 (2015).

J. Wang, K. Lin, W. Zheng, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Simultaneous fingerprint and high-wavenumber fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy improves in vivo diagnosis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma at endoscopy,” Sci. Rep. 5, 12957 (2015).

S. Duraipandian, W. Zheng, J. J. Low, J. Ng, A. Ilancheran, and Z. Huang, “Noninvasive analysis of hormonal variations and vagifem treatment effect on postmenopausal women using in vivo high wavenumber confocal Raman spectroscopy,” Analyst 138(14), 4120–4128 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, M. S. Bergholt, W. Zheng, and Z. Huang, “Development of a beveled fiber-optic confocal Raman probe for enhancing in vivo epithelial tissue Raman measurements at endoscopy,” Opt. Lett. 38(13), 2321–2323 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Duraipandian, W. Zheng, J. Ng, J. J. Low, A. Ilancheran, and Z. Huang, “Simultaneous fingerprint and high-wavenumber confocal Raman spectroscopy enhances early detection of cervical precancer in vivo,” Anal. Chem. 84(14), 5913–5919 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Shao, W. Zheng, and Z. Huang, “In vivo diagnosis of colonic precancer and cancer using near-infrared autofluorescence spectroscopy and biochemical modeling,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(6), 067005 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Shao, W. Zheng, and Z. Huang, “Polarized near-infrared autofluorescence imaging combined with near-infrared diffuse reflectance imaging for improving colonic cancer detection,” Opt. Express 18(23), 24293–24300 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Lin, W. Zheng, and Z. Huang, “Integrated autofluorescence endoscopic imaging and point-wise spectroscopy for real-time in vivo tissue measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(4), 040507 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Mo, W. Zheng, J. J. Low, J. Ng, A. Ilancheran, and Z. Huang, “High wavenumber Raman spectroscopy for in vivo detection of cervical dysplasia,” Anal. Chem. 81(21), 8908–8915 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anal. Chem. (3)

J. Mo, W. Zheng, J. J. Low, J. Ng, A. Ilancheran, and Z. Huang, “High wavenumber Raman spectroscopy for in vivo detection of cervical dysplasia,” Anal. Chem. 81(21), 8908–8915 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Duraipandian, W. Zheng, J. Ng, J. J. Low, A. Ilancheran, and Z. Huang, “Simultaneous fingerprint and high-wavenumber confocal Raman spectroscopy enhances early detection of cervical precancer in vivo,” Anal. Chem. 84(14), 5913–5919 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Wolthuis, M. van Aken, K. Fountas, J. S. Robinson, H. A. Bruining, and G. J. Puppels, “Determination of water concentration in brain tissue by Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 73(16), 3915–3920 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Analyst (1)

S. Duraipandian, W. Zheng, J. J. Low, J. Ng, A. Ilancheran, and Z. Huang, “Noninvasive analysis of hormonal variations and vagifem treatment effect on postmenopausal women using in vivo high wavenumber confocal Raman spectroscopy,” Analyst 138(14), 4120–4128 (2013).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Biomed. Opt. Express (2)

CA Cancer J. Clin. (1)

L. A. Torre, F. Bray, R. L. Siegel, J. Ferlay, J. Lortet-Tieulent, and A. Jemal, “Global cancer statistics, 2012,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 65(2), 87–108 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Connect. Tissue Res. (1)

J. Turnay, N. Olmo, J. G. Gavilanes, and M. A. Lizarbe, “Collagen metabolism in human colon adenocarcinoma,” Connect. Tissue Res. 23(4), 251–260 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Faraday Discuss. (1)

J. Wang, K. Lin, W. Zheng, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy for in vivo diagnosis of gastric dysplasia,” Faraday Discuss. 1039, 151 (2015).
[Crossref]

Gastroenterology (1)

S. Winawer, R. Fletcher, D. Rex, J. Bond, R. Burt, J. Ferrucci, T. Ganiats, T. Levin, S. Woolf, D. Johnson, L. Kirk, S. Litin, C. Simmang, and Gastrointestinal Consortium Panel, “Colorectal cancer screening and surveillance: clinical guidelines and rationale-update based on new evidence,” Gastroenterology 124(2), 544–560 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gut (1)

D. J. Robertson, D. A. Lieberman, S. J. Winawer, D. J. Ahnen, J. A. Baron, A. Schatzkin, A. J. Cross, A. G. Zauber, T. R. Church, P. Lance, E. R. Greenberg, and M. E. Martínez, “Colorectal cancers soon after colonoscopy: a pooled multicohort analysis,” Gut 63(6), 949–956 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Infrared Phys. (1)

J. G. Bayly, V. B. Kartha, and W. H. Stevens, “The absorption spectra of liquid phase H 2 O, HDO and D 2 O from 0.7 μm to 10 μm,” Infrared Phys. 3(4), 211–222 (1963).
[Crossref]

J. Biomed. Opt. (8)

N. Ghosh and I. A. Vitkin, “Tissue polarimetry: concepts, challenges, applications, and outlook,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(11), 110801 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Lin, W. Zheng, and Z. Huang, “Integrated autofluorescence endoscopic imaging and point-wise spectroscopy for real-time in vivo tissue measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(4), 040507 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Han, H. Lui, D. I. McLean, and H. Zeng, “Near-infrared autofluorescence imaging of cutaneous melanins and human skin in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024017 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Huang, H. Zeng, I. Hamzavi, A. Alajlan, E. Tan, D. I. McLean, and H. Lui, “Cutaneous melanin exhibiting fluorescence emission under near-infrared light excitation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(3), 034010 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Ahmad, M. Ahmad, K. Khan, S. Ashraf, S. Ahmad, and M. Ikram, “Ex vivo characterization of normal and adenocarcinoma colon samples by Mueller matrix polarimetry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(5), 056012 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Alali and A. Vitkin, “Polarized light imaging in biomedicine: emerging Mueller matrix methodologies for bulk tissue assessment,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(6), 061104 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. S. Fawzy, M. Petek, M. Tercelj, and H. Zeng, “In vivo assessment and evaluation of lung tissue morphologic and physiological changes from non-contact endoscopic reflectance spectroscopy for improving lung cancer detection,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 044003 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Shao, W. Zheng, and Z. Huang, “In vivo diagnosis of colonic precancer and cancer using near-infrared autofluorescence spectroscopy and biochemical modeling,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(6), 067005 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Biophotonics (1)

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic of the integrated Mueller-Matrix NIR imaging and point-wise Mueller-Matrix diffuse reflectance spectroscopy system developed for colonic tissue measurements: collimator (C); long pass filter (LP); lens (L); polarizer (P); quarter waveplate (QWP).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Example of an NIR diffuse reflectance image of a paired colon tissues (~6 x 3 x 3 mm3). Normal tissue is on the upper part, while cancer tissue is in the lower part of the image. One notes that the dark spot (~0.2 mm in diameter) is due to the refection of gold mirror coated in the point spectrum optical adapter (Fig. 1).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Normalized Muller matrix NIR images of the paired (normal vs cancer) colonic tissues. All the Mueller-Matrix elements (except m11) are normalized to m11.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The processed (a) diattentuation image, (b) depolarization image, and (c) retardance image. Intensity profiles (d-f) along the black dotted lines as indicated on the decomposed Mueller-Matrix NIR images in (a-c).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Representative 4 by 4 Muller-Matrix NIR DR spectra recorded of normal and cancer colonic tissue. (Normal: __________ ; Cancer: _________).
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Mean diattentuation ± 1 standard error (SE) (shaded area); (b) Mean depolarization ± 1 SE, and (c) Mean retardance ± 1 SE, for the paired (normal (n = 30) vs cancer (n = 30)) colonic tissue.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Diagnostic results of colonic cancer by using Mueller-matrix DR spectroscopy together with PLS-DA and LOSCV

Equations (12)

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I= a 0 + n=1 12 ( a n cosnwt+ b n sinnwt)
M = [ m 11 m 12 m 13 m 14 m 21 m 22 m 23 m 24 m 31 m 32 m 33 m 34 m 41 m 42 m 43 m 44 ]
M = M Δ M R M D
D ¯ = 1 m 11 ( m 12 , m 13 , m 14 )
D= 1 m 11 m 12 2 + m 13 2 + m 14 2
M D = m 11 [ 1 D T D m D ]
M'=M M D 1
M Δ M R =M M D 1 =[ 1 0 T P Δ m Δ ][ 1 0 T 0 m R ] =[ 1 0 T P Δ m Δ m R ] =[ 1 0 T P Δ m Δ m R ] =[ 1 0 T P Δ m' ]=M'
m Δ =± [ m' (m') T +( λ 1 λ 2 + λ 2 λ 3 + λ 3 λ 1 )I ] 1 ×[ ( λ 1 + λ 2 + λ 3 )m' (m') T + λ 1 λ 2 λ 3 I ]
M R = M Δ 1 M'
Δ=1 | trace( M Δ 1) | 3
R= cos 1 [ trace( M R ) 2 1]

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