Abstract

A uniformly diffusing applicator can be advantageous for laser treatment of tubular tissue. The current study investigated various conical angles for diffuser tips as a critical factor for achieving radially uniform light emission. A customized goniometer was employed to characterize the spatial uniformity of the light propagation. An ex vivo model was developed to quantitatively compare the temperature development and irreversible tissue coagulation. The 10-mm diffuser tip with angle at 25° achieved a uniform longitudinal intensity profile (i.e., 0.90 ± 0.07) as well as a consistent thermal denaturation on the tissue. The proposed conical angle can be instrumental in determining the uniformity of light distribution for the photothermal treatment of tubular tissue.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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References

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2017 (4)

M. Ahn, Y. Chae, J. Hwang, Y. Ahn, and H. W. Kang, “Endoluminal application of glass‐capped diffuser for ex vivo endovenous photocoagulation,” J. Biophotonics 10(8), 997–1007 (2017).
[PubMed]

H. S. Lee, S. W. Kim, C. Oak, H. W. Kang, J. Oh, M. J. Jung, S. B. Kim, J. H. Won, and K. D. Lee, “Rabbit model of tracheal stenosis using cylindrical diffuser,” Lasers Surg. Med. 49(4), 372–379 (2017).
[PubMed]

E. U. Şimşek, B. Şimşek, and B. Ortaç, “CO2 laser polishing of conical shaped optical fiber deflectors,” Appl. Phys. B 123(6), 176 (2017).

N. T. Pham, S. L. Lee, S. Park, Y. W. Lee, and H. W. Kang, “Real-time temperature monitoring with fiber Bragg grating sensor during diffuser-assisted laser-induced interstitial thermotherapy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(4), 045008 (2017).
[PubMed]

2016 (3)

T. H. Nguyen, S. Park, K. K. Hlaing, and H. W. Kang, “Temperature feedback-controlled photothermal treatment with diffusing applicator: theoretical and experimental evaluations,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(5), 1932–1947 (2016).
[PubMed]

J. Hwang, N. T. Hau, S. Y. Park, Y.-H. Rhee, J.-C. Ahn, and H. W. Kang, “Ex vivo laser lipolysis assisted with radially diffusing optical applicator,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(5), 058001 (2016).
[PubMed]

B. Azadgoli and R. Y. Baker, “Laser applications in surgery,” Ann. Transl. Med. 4(23), 452 (2016).
[PubMed]

2015 (1)

2014 (1)

2011 (2)

M. A. Kosoglu, R. L. Hood, J. H. Rossmeisl, D. C. Grant, Y. Xu, J. L. Robertson, M. N. Rylander, and C. G. Rylander, “Fiberoptic microneedles: Novel optical diffusers for interstitial delivery of therapeutic light,” Lasers Surg. Med. 43(9), 914–920 (2011).
[PubMed]

R. George and L. J. Walsh, “Performance assessment of novel side firing safe tips for endodontic applications,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(4), 048004 (2011).

2010 (1)

V. V. Volkov, V. B. Loshchenov, V. I. Konov, and V. V. Kononenko, “Fibreoptic diffuse-light irradiators of biological tissues,” Quantum Electron. 40(8), 746–750 (2010).

2008 (1)

W. Small, P. R. Buckley, T. S. Wilson, J. M. Loge, K. D. Maitland, and D. J. Maitland, “Fabrication and characterization of cylindrical light diffusers comprised of shape memory polymer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024018 (2008).

2007 (2)

H. J. Nyst, R. L. van Veen, I. B. Tan, R. Peters, S. Spaniol, D. J. Robinson, F. A. Stewart, P. C. Levendag, and H. J. Sterenborg, “Performance of a dedicated light delivery and dosimetry device for photodynamic therapy of nasopharyngeal carcinoma: phantom and volunteer experiments,” Lasers Surg. Med. 39(8), 647–653 (2007).
[PubMed]

I. Peshko, V. Rubtsov, L. Vesselov, G. Sigal, and H. Laks, “Fiber photo-catheters for laser treatment of atrial fibrillation,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 45(4), 495–502 (2007).
[PubMed]

2006 (1)

R. G. Kolkman, W. Steenbergen, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “In vivo photoacoustic imaging of blood vessels with a pulsed laser diode,” Lasers Med. Sci. 21(3), 134–139 (2006).
[PubMed]

2005 (1)

2004 (2)

L. H. Haber, R. D. Schaller, J. C. Johnson, and R. J. Saykally, “Shape control of near-field probes using dynamic meniscus etching,” J. Microsc. 214(Pt 1), 27–35 (2004).
[PubMed]

L. M. Vesselov, W. Whittington, and L. Lilge, “Performance evaluation of cylindrical fiber optic light diffusers for biomedical applications,” Lasers Surg. Med. 34(4), 348–351 (2004).
[PubMed]

2001 (1)

J. P. Ritz, A. Roggan, C. Isbert, G. Müller, H. J. Buhr, and C. T. Germer, “Optical properties of native and coagulated porcine liver tissue between 400 and 2400 nm,” Lasers Surg. Med. 29(3), 205–212 (2001).
[PubMed]

1999 (2)

H. Muramatsu, K. Homma, N. Chiba, N. Yamamoto, and A. Egawa, “Dynamic etching method for fabricating a variety of tip shapes in the optical fibre probe of a scanning near-field optical microscope,” J. Microsc. 194(Pt 2-3), 383–387 (1999).
[PubMed]

P. Ripley, A. MacRobert, T. Mills, and S. Bown, “A comparative optical analysis of cylindrical diffuser fibres for laser therapy using fluorescence imaging,” Lasers Med. Sci. 14(4), 257–268 (1999).

1995 (1)

P. Hoffmann, B. Dutoit, and R.-P. Salathé, “Comparison of mechanically drawn and protection layer chemically etched optical fiber tips,” Ultramicroscopy 61(1–4), 165–170 (1995).

1993 (1)

R. Sroka, W. Beyer, M. Krug, A. Noack, E. Unsöld, and C. Ell, “Laser light application and light monitoring for photodynamic therapy in hollow organs,” Lasers Med. Sci. 8(1), 63–68 (1993).

1983 (1)

P. Squire, “Axisymmetric meniscus formation: a viscous-fluid model for cones,” J. Fluid Mech. 129, 91–108 (1983).

Ahn, J. C.

Ahn, J.-C.

J. Hwang, N. T. Hau, S. Y. Park, Y.-H. Rhee, J.-C. Ahn, and H. W. Kang, “Ex vivo laser lipolysis assisted with radially diffusing optical applicator,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(5), 058001 (2016).
[PubMed]

Ahn, M.

M. Ahn, Y. Chae, J. Hwang, Y. Ahn, and H. W. Kang, “Endoluminal application of glass‐capped diffuser for ex vivo endovenous photocoagulation,” J. Biophotonics 10(8), 997–1007 (2017).
[PubMed]

Ahn, Y.

M. Ahn, Y. Chae, J. Hwang, Y. Ahn, and H. W. Kang, “Endoluminal application of glass‐capped diffuser for ex vivo endovenous photocoagulation,” J. Biophotonics 10(8), 997–1007 (2017).
[PubMed]

Azadgoli, B.

B. Azadgoli and R. Y. Baker, “Laser applications in surgery,” Ann. Transl. Med. 4(23), 452 (2016).
[PubMed]

Baker, R. Y.

B. Azadgoli and R. Y. Baker, “Laser applications in surgery,” Ann. Transl. Med. 4(23), 452 (2016).
[PubMed]

Beyer, W.

R. Sroka, W. Beyer, M. Krug, A. Noack, E. Unsöld, and C. Ell, “Laser light application and light monitoring for photodynamic therapy in hollow organs,” Lasers Med. Sci. 8(1), 63–68 (1993).

Bown, S.

P. Ripley, A. MacRobert, T. Mills, and S. Bown, “A comparative optical analysis of cylindrical diffuser fibres for laser therapy using fluorescence imaging,” Lasers Med. Sci. 14(4), 257–268 (1999).

Buckley, P. R.

W. Small, P. R. Buckley, T. S. Wilson, J. M. Loge, K. D. Maitland, and D. J. Maitland, “Fabrication and characterization of cylindrical light diffusers comprised of shape memory polymer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024018 (2008).

Buhr, H. J.

J. P. Ritz, A. Roggan, C. Isbert, G. Müller, H. J. Buhr, and C. T. Germer, “Optical properties of native and coagulated porcine liver tissue between 400 and 2400 nm,” Lasers Surg. Med. 29(3), 205–212 (2001).
[PubMed]

Chae, Y.

M. Ahn, Y. Chae, J. Hwang, Y. Ahn, and H. W. Kang, “Endoluminal application of glass‐capped diffuser for ex vivo endovenous photocoagulation,” J. Biophotonics 10(8), 997–1007 (2017).
[PubMed]

Chiba, N.

H. Muramatsu, K. Homma, N. Chiba, N. Yamamoto, and A. Egawa, “Dynamic etching method for fabricating a variety of tip shapes in the optical fibre probe of a scanning near-field optical microscope,” J. Microsc. 194(Pt 2-3), 383–387 (1999).
[PubMed]

Dutoit, B.

P. Hoffmann, B. Dutoit, and R.-P. Salathé, “Comparison of mechanically drawn and protection layer chemically etched optical fiber tips,” Ultramicroscopy 61(1–4), 165–170 (1995).

Egawa, A.

H. Muramatsu, K. Homma, N. Chiba, N. Yamamoto, and A. Egawa, “Dynamic etching method for fabricating a variety of tip shapes in the optical fibre probe of a scanning near-field optical microscope,” J. Microsc. 194(Pt 2-3), 383–387 (1999).
[PubMed]

Ell, C.

R. Sroka, W. Beyer, M. Krug, A. Noack, E. Unsöld, and C. Ell, “Laser light application and light monitoring for photodynamic therapy in hollow organs,” Lasers Med. Sci. 8(1), 63–68 (1993).

George, R.

R. George and L. J. Walsh, “Performance assessment of novel side firing safe tips for endodontic applications,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(4), 048004 (2011).

Germer, C. T.

J. P. Ritz, A. Roggan, C. Isbert, G. Müller, H. J. Buhr, and C. T. Germer, “Optical properties of native and coagulated porcine liver tissue between 400 and 2400 nm,” Lasers Surg. Med. 29(3), 205–212 (2001).
[PubMed]

Grant, D. C.

M. A. Kosoglu, R. L. Hood, J. H. Rossmeisl, D. C. Grant, Y. Xu, J. L. Robertson, M. N. Rylander, and C. G. Rylander, “Fiberoptic microneedles: Novel optical diffusers for interstitial delivery of therapeutic light,” Lasers Surg. Med. 43(9), 914–920 (2011).
[PubMed]

Haber, L. H.

L. H. Haber, R. D. Schaller, J. C. Johnson, and R. J. Saykally, “Shape control of near-field probes using dynamic meniscus etching,” J. Microsc. 214(Pt 1), 27–35 (2004).
[PubMed]

Hajjarian, Z.

Hau, N. T.

J. Hwang, N. T. Hau, S. Y. Park, Y.-H. Rhee, J.-C. Ahn, and H. W. Kang, “Ex vivo laser lipolysis assisted with radially diffusing optical applicator,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(5), 058001 (2016).
[PubMed]

Hlaing, K. K.

Hoffmann, P.

P. Hoffmann, B. Dutoit, and R.-P. Salathé, “Comparison of mechanically drawn and protection layer chemically etched optical fiber tips,” Ultramicroscopy 61(1–4), 165–170 (1995).

Homma, K.

H. Muramatsu, K. Homma, N. Chiba, N. Yamamoto, and A. Egawa, “Dynamic etching method for fabricating a variety of tip shapes in the optical fibre probe of a scanning near-field optical microscope,” J. Microsc. 194(Pt 2-3), 383–387 (1999).
[PubMed]

Hood, R. L.

M. A. Kosoglu, R. L. Hood, J. H. Rossmeisl, D. C. Grant, Y. Xu, J. L. Robertson, M. N. Rylander, and C. G. Rylander, “Fiberoptic microneedles: Novel optical diffusers for interstitial delivery of therapeutic light,” Lasers Surg. Med. 43(9), 914–920 (2011).
[PubMed]

Hwang, J.

M. Ahn, Y. Chae, J. Hwang, Y. Ahn, and H. W. Kang, “Endoluminal application of glass‐capped diffuser for ex vivo endovenous photocoagulation,” J. Biophotonics 10(8), 997–1007 (2017).
[PubMed]

J. Hwang, N. T. Hau, S. Y. Park, Y.-H. Rhee, J.-C. Ahn, and H. W. Kang, “Ex vivo laser lipolysis assisted with radially diffusing optical applicator,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(5), 058001 (2016).
[PubMed]

Isbert, C.

J. P. Ritz, A. Roggan, C. Isbert, G. Müller, H. J. Buhr, and C. T. Germer, “Optical properties of native and coagulated porcine liver tissue between 400 and 2400 nm,” Lasers Surg. Med. 29(3), 205–212 (2001).
[PubMed]

Johnson, J. C.

L. H. Haber, R. D. Schaller, J. C. Johnson, and R. J. Saykally, “Shape control of near-field probes using dynamic meniscus etching,” J. Microsc. 214(Pt 1), 27–35 (2004).
[PubMed]

Jung, M. J.

H. S. Lee, S. W. Kim, C. Oak, H. W. Kang, J. Oh, M. J. Jung, S. B. Kim, J. H. Won, and K. D. Lee, “Rabbit model of tracheal stenosis using cylindrical diffuser,” Lasers Surg. Med. 49(4), 372–379 (2017).
[PubMed]

Kang, H. W.

H. S. Lee, S. W. Kim, C. Oak, H. W. Kang, J. Oh, M. J. Jung, S. B. Kim, J. H. Won, and K. D. Lee, “Rabbit model of tracheal stenosis using cylindrical diffuser,” Lasers Surg. Med. 49(4), 372–379 (2017).
[PubMed]

M. Ahn, Y. Chae, J. Hwang, Y. Ahn, and H. W. Kang, “Endoluminal application of glass‐capped diffuser for ex vivo endovenous photocoagulation,” J. Biophotonics 10(8), 997–1007 (2017).
[PubMed]

N. T. Pham, S. L. Lee, S. Park, Y. W. Lee, and H. W. Kang, “Real-time temperature monitoring with fiber Bragg grating sensor during diffuser-assisted laser-induced interstitial thermotherapy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(4), 045008 (2017).
[PubMed]

T. H. Nguyen, S. Park, K. K. Hlaing, and H. W. Kang, “Temperature feedback-controlled photothermal treatment with diffusing applicator: theoretical and experimental evaluations,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(5), 1932–1947 (2016).
[PubMed]

J. Hwang, N. T. Hau, S. Y. Park, Y.-H. Rhee, J.-C. Ahn, and H. W. Kang, “Ex vivo laser lipolysis assisted with radially diffusing optical applicator,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(5), 058001 (2016).
[PubMed]

T. H. Nguyen, Y. H. Rhee, J. C. Ahn, and H. W. Kang, “Circumferential irradiation for interstitial coagulation of urethral stricture,” Opt. Express 23(16), 20829–20840 (2015).
[PubMed]

Kim, S. B.

H. S. Lee, S. W. Kim, C. Oak, H. W. Kang, J. Oh, M. J. Jung, S. B. Kim, J. H. Won, and K. D. Lee, “Rabbit model of tracheal stenosis using cylindrical diffuser,” Lasers Surg. Med. 49(4), 372–379 (2017).
[PubMed]

Kim, S. W.

H. S. Lee, S. W. Kim, C. Oak, H. W. Kang, J. Oh, M. J. Jung, S. B. Kim, J. H. Won, and K. D. Lee, “Rabbit model of tracheal stenosis using cylindrical diffuser,” Lasers Surg. Med. 49(4), 372–379 (2017).
[PubMed]

Kolkman, R. G.

R. G. Kolkman, W. Steenbergen, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “In vivo photoacoustic imaging of blood vessels with a pulsed laser diode,” Lasers Med. Sci. 21(3), 134–139 (2006).
[PubMed]

Kononenko, V. V.

V. V. Volkov, V. B. Loshchenov, V. I. Konov, and V. V. Kononenko, “Fibreoptic diffuse-light irradiators of biological tissues,” Quantum Electron. 40(8), 746–750 (2010).

Konov, V. I.

V. V. Volkov, V. B. Loshchenov, V. I. Konov, and V. V. Kononenko, “Fibreoptic diffuse-light irradiators of biological tissues,” Quantum Electron. 40(8), 746–750 (2010).

Kosoglu, M. A.

M. A. Kosoglu, R. L. Hood, J. H. Rossmeisl, D. C. Grant, Y. Xu, J. L. Robertson, M. N. Rylander, and C. G. Rylander, “Fiberoptic microneedles: Novel optical diffusers for interstitial delivery of therapeutic light,” Lasers Surg. Med. 43(9), 914–920 (2011).
[PubMed]

Krug, M.

R. Sroka, W. Beyer, M. Krug, A. Noack, E. Unsöld, and C. Ell, “Laser light application and light monitoring for photodynamic therapy in hollow organs,” Lasers Med. Sci. 8(1), 63–68 (1993).

Laks, H.

I. Peshko, V. Rubtsov, L. Vesselov, G. Sigal, and H. Laks, “Fiber photo-catheters for laser treatment of atrial fibrillation,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 45(4), 495–502 (2007).
[PubMed]

Lee, H. S.

H. S. Lee, S. W. Kim, C. Oak, H. W. Kang, J. Oh, M. J. Jung, S. B. Kim, J. H. Won, and K. D. Lee, “Rabbit model of tracheal stenosis using cylindrical diffuser,” Lasers Surg. Med. 49(4), 372–379 (2017).
[PubMed]

Lee, K. D.

H. S. Lee, S. W. Kim, C. Oak, H. W. Kang, J. Oh, M. J. Jung, S. B. Kim, J. H. Won, and K. D. Lee, “Rabbit model of tracheal stenosis using cylindrical diffuser,” Lasers Surg. Med. 49(4), 372–379 (2017).
[PubMed]

Lee, S. L.

N. T. Pham, S. L. Lee, S. Park, Y. W. Lee, and H. W. Kang, “Real-time temperature monitoring with fiber Bragg grating sensor during diffuser-assisted laser-induced interstitial thermotherapy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(4), 045008 (2017).
[PubMed]

Lee, Y. W.

N. T. Pham, S. L. Lee, S. Park, Y. W. Lee, and H. W. Kang, “Real-time temperature monitoring with fiber Bragg grating sensor during diffuser-assisted laser-induced interstitial thermotherapy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(4), 045008 (2017).
[PubMed]

Levendag, P. C.

H. J. Nyst, R. L. van Veen, I. B. Tan, R. Peters, S. Spaniol, D. J. Robinson, F. A. Stewart, P. C. Levendag, and H. J. Sterenborg, “Performance of a dedicated light delivery and dosimetry device for photodynamic therapy of nasopharyngeal carcinoma: phantom and volunteer experiments,” Lasers Surg. Med. 39(8), 647–653 (2007).
[PubMed]

Lilge, L.

L. Vesselov, W. Whittington, and L. Lilge, “Design and performance of thin cylindrical diffusers created in Ge-doped multimode optical fibers,” Appl. Opt. 44(14), 2754–2758 (2005).
[PubMed]

L. M. Vesselov, W. Whittington, and L. Lilge, “Performance evaluation of cylindrical fiber optic light diffusers for biomedical applications,” Lasers Surg. Med. 34(4), 348–351 (2004).
[PubMed]

Loge, J. M.

W. Small, P. R. Buckley, T. S. Wilson, J. M. Loge, K. D. Maitland, and D. J. Maitland, “Fabrication and characterization of cylindrical light diffusers comprised of shape memory polymer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024018 (2008).

Loshchenov, V. B.

V. V. Volkov, V. B. Loshchenov, V. I. Konov, and V. V. Kononenko, “Fibreoptic diffuse-light irradiators of biological tissues,” Quantum Electron. 40(8), 746–750 (2010).

MacRobert, A.

P. Ripley, A. MacRobert, T. Mills, and S. Bown, “A comparative optical analysis of cylindrical diffuser fibres for laser therapy using fluorescence imaging,” Lasers Med. Sci. 14(4), 257–268 (1999).

Maitland, D. J.

W. Small, P. R. Buckley, T. S. Wilson, J. M. Loge, K. D. Maitland, and D. J. Maitland, “Fabrication and characterization of cylindrical light diffusers comprised of shape memory polymer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024018 (2008).

Maitland, K. D.

W. Small, P. R. Buckley, T. S. Wilson, J. M. Loge, K. D. Maitland, and D. J. Maitland, “Fabrication and characterization of cylindrical light diffusers comprised of shape memory polymer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024018 (2008).

Mills, T.

P. Ripley, A. MacRobert, T. Mills, and S. Bown, “A comparative optical analysis of cylindrical diffuser fibres for laser therapy using fluorescence imaging,” Lasers Med. Sci. 14(4), 257–268 (1999).

Müller, G.

J. P. Ritz, A. Roggan, C. Isbert, G. Müller, H. J. Buhr, and C. T. Germer, “Optical properties of native and coagulated porcine liver tissue between 400 and 2400 nm,” Lasers Surg. Med. 29(3), 205–212 (2001).
[PubMed]

Muramatsu, H.

H. Muramatsu, K. Homma, N. Chiba, N. Yamamoto, and A. Egawa, “Dynamic etching method for fabricating a variety of tip shapes in the optical fibre probe of a scanning near-field optical microscope,” J. Microsc. 194(Pt 2-3), 383–387 (1999).
[PubMed]

Nadkarni, S. K.

Nguyen, T. H.

Noack, A.

R. Sroka, W. Beyer, M. Krug, A. Noack, E. Unsöld, and C. Ell, “Laser light application and light monitoring for photodynamic therapy in hollow organs,” Lasers Med. Sci. 8(1), 63–68 (1993).

Nyst, H. J.

H. J. Nyst, R. L. van Veen, I. B. Tan, R. Peters, S. Spaniol, D. J. Robinson, F. A. Stewart, P. C. Levendag, and H. J. Sterenborg, “Performance of a dedicated light delivery and dosimetry device for photodynamic therapy of nasopharyngeal carcinoma: phantom and volunteer experiments,” Lasers Surg. Med. 39(8), 647–653 (2007).
[PubMed]

Oak, C.

H. S. Lee, S. W. Kim, C. Oak, H. W. Kang, J. Oh, M. J. Jung, S. B. Kim, J. H. Won, and K. D. Lee, “Rabbit model of tracheal stenosis using cylindrical diffuser,” Lasers Surg. Med. 49(4), 372–379 (2017).
[PubMed]

Oh, J.

H. S. Lee, S. W. Kim, C. Oak, H. W. Kang, J. Oh, M. J. Jung, S. B. Kim, J. H. Won, and K. D. Lee, “Rabbit model of tracheal stenosis using cylindrical diffuser,” Lasers Surg. Med. 49(4), 372–379 (2017).
[PubMed]

Ortaç, B.

E. U. Şimşek, B. Şimşek, and B. Ortaç, “CO2 laser polishing of conical shaped optical fiber deflectors,” Appl. Phys. B 123(6), 176 (2017).

Park, S.

N. T. Pham, S. L. Lee, S. Park, Y. W. Lee, and H. W. Kang, “Real-time temperature monitoring with fiber Bragg grating sensor during diffuser-assisted laser-induced interstitial thermotherapy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(4), 045008 (2017).
[PubMed]

T. H. Nguyen, S. Park, K. K. Hlaing, and H. W. Kang, “Temperature feedback-controlled photothermal treatment with diffusing applicator: theoretical and experimental evaluations,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(5), 1932–1947 (2016).
[PubMed]

Park, S. Y.

J. Hwang, N. T. Hau, S. Y. Park, Y.-H. Rhee, J.-C. Ahn, and H. W. Kang, “Ex vivo laser lipolysis assisted with radially diffusing optical applicator,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(5), 058001 (2016).
[PubMed]

Peshko, I.

I. Peshko, V. Rubtsov, L. Vesselov, G. Sigal, and H. Laks, “Fiber photo-catheters for laser treatment of atrial fibrillation,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 45(4), 495–502 (2007).
[PubMed]

Peters, R.

H. J. Nyst, R. L. van Veen, I. B. Tan, R. Peters, S. Spaniol, D. J. Robinson, F. A. Stewart, P. C. Levendag, and H. J. Sterenborg, “Performance of a dedicated light delivery and dosimetry device for photodynamic therapy of nasopharyngeal carcinoma: phantom and volunteer experiments,” Lasers Surg. Med. 39(8), 647–653 (2007).
[PubMed]

Pham, N. T.

N. T. Pham, S. L. Lee, S. Park, Y. W. Lee, and H. W. Kang, “Real-time temperature monitoring with fiber Bragg grating sensor during diffuser-assisted laser-induced interstitial thermotherapy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(4), 045008 (2017).
[PubMed]

Rhee, Y. H.

Rhee, Y.-H.

J. Hwang, N. T. Hau, S. Y. Park, Y.-H. Rhee, J.-C. Ahn, and H. W. Kang, “Ex vivo laser lipolysis assisted with radially diffusing optical applicator,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(5), 058001 (2016).
[PubMed]

Ripley, P.

P. Ripley, A. MacRobert, T. Mills, and S. Bown, “A comparative optical analysis of cylindrical diffuser fibres for laser therapy using fluorescence imaging,” Lasers Med. Sci. 14(4), 257–268 (1999).

Ritz, J. P.

J. P. Ritz, A. Roggan, C. Isbert, G. Müller, H. J. Buhr, and C. T. Germer, “Optical properties of native and coagulated porcine liver tissue between 400 and 2400 nm,” Lasers Surg. Med. 29(3), 205–212 (2001).
[PubMed]

Robertson, J. L.

M. A. Kosoglu, R. L. Hood, J. H. Rossmeisl, D. C. Grant, Y. Xu, J. L. Robertson, M. N. Rylander, and C. G. Rylander, “Fiberoptic microneedles: Novel optical diffusers for interstitial delivery of therapeutic light,” Lasers Surg. Med. 43(9), 914–920 (2011).
[PubMed]

Robinson, D. J.

H. J. Nyst, R. L. van Veen, I. B. Tan, R. Peters, S. Spaniol, D. J. Robinson, F. A. Stewart, P. C. Levendag, and H. J. Sterenborg, “Performance of a dedicated light delivery and dosimetry device for photodynamic therapy of nasopharyngeal carcinoma: phantom and volunteer experiments,” Lasers Surg. Med. 39(8), 647–653 (2007).
[PubMed]

Roggan, A.

J. P. Ritz, A. Roggan, C. Isbert, G. Müller, H. J. Buhr, and C. T. Germer, “Optical properties of native and coagulated porcine liver tissue between 400 and 2400 nm,” Lasers Surg. Med. 29(3), 205–212 (2001).
[PubMed]

Rossmeisl, J. H.

M. A. Kosoglu, R. L. Hood, J. H. Rossmeisl, D. C. Grant, Y. Xu, J. L. Robertson, M. N. Rylander, and C. G. Rylander, “Fiberoptic microneedles: Novel optical diffusers for interstitial delivery of therapeutic light,” Lasers Surg. Med. 43(9), 914–920 (2011).
[PubMed]

Rubtsov, V.

I. Peshko, V. Rubtsov, L. Vesselov, G. Sigal, and H. Laks, “Fiber photo-catheters for laser treatment of atrial fibrillation,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 45(4), 495–502 (2007).
[PubMed]

Rylander, C. G.

M. A. Kosoglu, R. L. Hood, J. H. Rossmeisl, D. C. Grant, Y. Xu, J. L. Robertson, M. N. Rylander, and C. G. Rylander, “Fiberoptic microneedles: Novel optical diffusers for interstitial delivery of therapeutic light,” Lasers Surg. Med. 43(9), 914–920 (2011).
[PubMed]

Rylander, M. N.

M. A. Kosoglu, R. L. Hood, J. H. Rossmeisl, D. C. Grant, Y. Xu, J. L. Robertson, M. N. Rylander, and C. G. Rylander, “Fiberoptic microneedles: Novel optical diffusers for interstitial delivery of therapeutic light,” Lasers Surg. Med. 43(9), 914–920 (2011).
[PubMed]

Salathé, R.-P.

P. Hoffmann, B. Dutoit, and R.-P. Salathé, “Comparison of mechanically drawn and protection layer chemically etched optical fiber tips,” Ultramicroscopy 61(1–4), 165–170 (1995).

Saykally, R. J.

L. H. Haber, R. D. Schaller, J. C. Johnson, and R. J. Saykally, “Shape control of near-field probes using dynamic meniscus etching,” J. Microsc. 214(Pt 1), 27–35 (2004).
[PubMed]

Schaller, R. D.

L. H. Haber, R. D. Schaller, J. C. Johnson, and R. J. Saykally, “Shape control of near-field probes using dynamic meniscus etching,” J. Microsc. 214(Pt 1), 27–35 (2004).
[PubMed]

Sigal, G.

I. Peshko, V. Rubtsov, L. Vesselov, G. Sigal, and H. Laks, “Fiber photo-catheters for laser treatment of atrial fibrillation,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 45(4), 495–502 (2007).
[PubMed]

Simsek, B.

E. U. Şimşek, B. Şimşek, and B. Ortaç, “CO2 laser polishing of conical shaped optical fiber deflectors,” Appl. Phys. B 123(6), 176 (2017).

Simsek, E. U.

E. U. Şimşek, B. Şimşek, and B. Ortaç, “CO2 laser polishing of conical shaped optical fiber deflectors,” Appl. Phys. B 123(6), 176 (2017).

Small, W.

W. Small, P. R. Buckley, T. S. Wilson, J. M. Loge, K. D. Maitland, and D. J. Maitland, “Fabrication and characterization of cylindrical light diffusers comprised of shape memory polymer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024018 (2008).

Spaniol, S.

H. J. Nyst, R. L. van Veen, I. B. Tan, R. Peters, S. Spaniol, D. J. Robinson, F. A. Stewart, P. C. Levendag, and H. J. Sterenborg, “Performance of a dedicated light delivery and dosimetry device for photodynamic therapy of nasopharyngeal carcinoma: phantom and volunteer experiments,” Lasers Surg. Med. 39(8), 647–653 (2007).
[PubMed]

Squire, P.

P. Squire, “Axisymmetric meniscus formation: a viscous-fluid model for cones,” J. Fluid Mech. 129, 91–108 (1983).

Sroka, R.

R. Sroka, W. Beyer, M. Krug, A. Noack, E. Unsöld, and C. Ell, “Laser light application and light monitoring for photodynamic therapy in hollow organs,” Lasers Med. Sci. 8(1), 63–68 (1993).

Steenbergen, W.

R. G. Kolkman, W. Steenbergen, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “In vivo photoacoustic imaging of blood vessels with a pulsed laser diode,” Lasers Med. Sci. 21(3), 134–139 (2006).
[PubMed]

Sterenborg, H. J.

H. J. Nyst, R. L. van Veen, I. B. Tan, R. Peters, S. Spaniol, D. J. Robinson, F. A. Stewart, P. C. Levendag, and H. J. Sterenborg, “Performance of a dedicated light delivery and dosimetry device for photodynamic therapy of nasopharyngeal carcinoma: phantom and volunteer experiments,” Lasers Surg. Med. 39(8), 647–653 (2007).
[PubMed]

Stewart, F. A.

H. J. Nyst, R. L. van Veen, I. B. Tan, R. Peters, S. Spaniol, D. J. Robinson, F. A. Stewart, P. C. Levendag, and H. J. Sterenborg, “Performance of a dedicated light delivery and dosimetry device for photodynamic therapy of nasopharyngeal carcinoma: phantom and volunteer experiments,” Lasers Surg. Med. 39(8), 647–653 (2007).
[PubMed]

Tan, I. B.

H. J. Nyst, R. L. van Veen, I. B. Tan, R. Peters, S. Spaniol, D. J. Robinson, F. A. Stewart, P. C. Levendag, and H. J. Sterenborg, “Performance of a dedicated light delivery and dosimetry device for photodynamic therapy of nasopharyngeal carcinoma: phantom and volunteer experiments,” Lasers Surg. Med. 39(8), 647–653 (2007).
[PubMed]

Tripathi, M. M.

Unsöld, E.

R. Sroka, W. Beyer, M. Krug, A. Noack, E. Unsöld, and C. Ell, “Laser light application and light monitoring for photodynamic therapy in hollow organs,” Lasers Med. Sci. 8(1), 63–68 (1993).

Van Cott, E. M.

van Leeuwen, T. G.

R. G. Kolkman, W. Steenbergen, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “In vivo photoacoustic imaging of blood vessels with a pulsed laser diode,” Lasers Med. Sci. 21(3), 134–139 (2006).
[PubMed]

van Veen, R. L.

H. J. Nyst, R. L. van Veen, I. B. Tan, R. Peters, S. Spaniol, D. J. Robinson, F. A. Stewart, P. C. Levendag, and H. J. Sterenborg, “Performance of a dedicated light delivery and dosimetry device for photodynamic therapy of nasopharyngeal carcinoma: phantom and volunteer experiments,” Lasers Surg. Med. 39(8), 647–653 (2007).
[PubMed]

Vesselov, L.

I. Peshko, V. Rubtsov, L. Vesselov, G. Sigal, and H. Laks, “Fiber photo-catheters for laser treatment of atrial fibrillation,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 45(4), 495–502 (2007).
[PubMed]

L. Vesselov, W. Whittington, and L. Lilge, “Design and performance of thin cylindrical diffusers created in Ge-doped multimode optical fibers,” Appl. Opt. 44(14), 2754–2758 (2005).
[PubMed]

Vesselov, L. M.

L. M. Vesselov, W. Whittington, and L. Lilge, “Performance evaluation of cylindrical fiber optic light diffusers for biomedical applications,” Lasers Surg. Med. 34(4), 348–351 (2004).
[PubMed]

Volkov, V. V.

V. V. Volkov, V. B. Loshchenov, V. I. Konov, and V. V. Kononenko, “Fibreoptic diffuse-light irradiators of biological tissues,” Quantum Electron. 40(8), 746–750 (2010).

Walsh, L. J.

R. George and L. J. Walsh, “Performance assessment of novel side firing safe tips for endodontic applications,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(4), 048004 (2011).

Whittington, W.

L. Vesselov, W. Whittington, and L. Lilge, “Design and performance of thin cylindrical diffusers created in Ge-doped multimode optical fibers,” Appl. Opt. 44(14), 2754–2758 (2005).
[PubMed]

L. M. Vesselov, W. Whittington, and L. Lilge, “Performance evaluation of cylindrical fiber optic light diffusers for biomedical applications,” Lasers Surg. Med. 34(4), 348–351 (2004).
[PubMed]

Wilson, T. S.

W. Small, P. R. Buckley, T. S. Wilson, J. M. Loge, K. D. Maitland, and D. J. Maitland, “Fabrication and characterization of cylindrical light diffusers comprised of shape memory polymer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024018 (2008).

Won, J. H.

H. S. Lee, S. W. Kim, C. Oak, H. W. Kang, J. Oh, M. J. Jung, S. B. Kim, J. H. Won, and K. D. Lee, “Rabbit model of tracheal stenosis using cylindrical diffuser,” Lasers Surg. Med. 49(4), 372–379 (2017).
[PubMed]

Xu, Y.

M. A. Kosoglu, R. L. Hood, J. H. Rossmeisl, D. C. Grant, Y. Xu, J. L. Robertson, M. N. Rylander, and C. G. Rylander, “Fiberoptic microneedles: Novel optical diffusers for interstitial delivery of therapeutic light,” Lasers Surg. Med. 43(9), 914–920 (2011).
[PubMed]

Yamamoto, N.

H. Muramatsu, K. Homma, N. Chiba, N. Yamamoto, and A. Egawa, “Dynamic etching method for fabricating a variety of tip shapes in the optical fibre probe of a scanning near-field optical microscope,” J. Microsc. 194(Pt 2-3), 383–387 (1999).
[PubMed]

Ann. Transl. Med. (1)

B. Azadgoli and R. Y. Baker, “Laser applications in surgery,” Ann. Transl. Med. 4(23), 452 (2016).
[PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

E. U. Şimşek, B. Şimşek, and B. Ortaç, “CO2 laser polishing of conical shaped optical fiber deflectors,” Appl. Phys. B 123(6), 176 (2017).

Biomed. Opt. Express (2)

J. Biomed. Opt. (4)

W. Small, P. R. Buckley, T. S. Wilson, J. M. Loge, K. D. Maitland, and D. J. Maitland, “Fabrication and characterization of cylindrical light diffusers comprised of shape memory polymer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024018 (2008).

N. T. Pham, S. L. Lee, S. Park, Y. W. Lee, and H. W. Kang, “Real-time temperature monitoring with fiber Bragg grating sensor during diffuser-assisted laser-induced interstitial thermotherapy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(4), 045008 (2017).
[PubMed]

J. Hwang, N. T. Hau, S. Y. Park, Y.-H. Rhee, J.-C. Ahn, and H. W. Kang, “Ex vivo laser lipolysis assisted with radially diffusing optical applicator,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(5), 058001 (2016).
[PubMed]

R. George and L. J. Walsh, “Performance assessment of novel side firing safe tips for endodontic applications,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(4), 048004 (2011).

J. Biophotonics (1)

M. Ahn, Y. Chae, J. Hwang, Y. Ahn, and H. W. Kang, “Endoluminal application of glass‐capped diffuser for ex vivo endovenous photocoagulation,” J. Biophotonics 10(8), 997–1007 (2017).
[PubMed]

J. Fluid Mech. (1)

P. Squire, “Axisymmetric meniscus formation: a viscous-fluid model for cones,” J. Fluid Mech. 129, 91–108 (1983).

J. Microsc. (2)

H. Muramatsu, K. Homma, N. Chiba, N. Yamamoto, and A. Egawa, “Dynamic etching method for fabricating a variety of tip shapes in the optical fibre probe of a scanning near-field optical microscope,” J. Microsc. 194(Pt 2-3), 383–387 (1999).
[PubMed]

L. H. Haber, R. D. Schaller, J. C. Johnson, and R. J. Saykally, “Shape control of near-field probes using dynamic meniscus etching,” J. Microsc. 214(Pt 1), 27–35 (2004).
[PubMed]

Lasers Med. Sci. (3)

P. Ripley, A. MacRobert, T. Mills, and S. Bown, “A comparative optical analysis of cylindrical diffuser fibres for laser therapy using fluorescence imaging,” Lasers Med. Sci. 14(4), 257–268 (1999).

R. Sroka, W. Beyer, M. Krug, A. Noack, E. Unsöld, and C. Ell, “Laser light application and light monitoring for photodynamic therapy in hollow organs,” Lasers Med. Sci. 8(1), 63–68 (1993).

R. G. Kolkman, W. Steenbergen, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “In vivo photoacoustic imaging of blood vessels with a pulsed laser diode,” Lasers Med. Sci. 21(3), 134–139 (2006).
[PubMed]

Lasers Surg. Med. (5)

H. S. Lee, S. W. Kim, C. Oak, H. W. Kang, J. Oh, M. J. Jung, S. B. Kim, J. H. Won, and K. D. Lee, “Rabbit model of tracheal stenosis using cylindrical diffuser,” Lasers Surg. Med. 49(4), 372–379 (2017).
[PubMed]

M. A. Kosoglu, R. L. Hood, J. H. Rossmeisl, D. C. Grant, Y. Xu, J. L. Robertson, M. N. Rylander, and C. G. Rylander, “Fiberoptic microneedles: Novel optical diffusers for interstitial delivery of therapeutic light,” Lasers Surg. Med. 43(9), 914–920 (2011).
[PubMed]

H. J. Nyst, R. L. van Veen, I. B. Tan, R. Peters, S. Spaniol, D. J. Robinson, F. A. Stewart, P. C. Levendag, and H. J. Sterenborg, “Performance of a dedicated light delivery and dosimetry device for photodynamic therapy of nasopharyngeal carcinoma: phantom and volunteer experiments,” Lasers Surg. Med. 39(8), 647–653 (2007).
[PubMed]

L. M. Vesselov, W. Whittington, and L. Lilge, “Performance evaluation of cylindrical fiber optic light diffusers for biomedical applications,” Lasers Surg. Med. 34(4), 348–351 (2004).
[PubMed]

J. P. Ritz, A. Roggan, C. Isbert, G. Müller, H. J. Buhr, and C. T. Germer, “Optical properties of native and coagulated porcine liver tissue between 400 and 2400 nm,” Lasers Surg. Med. 29(3), 205–212 (2001).
[PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lasers Eng. (1)

I. Peshko, V. Rubtsov, L. Vesselov, G. Sigal, and H. Laks, “Fiber photo-catheters for laser treatment of atrial fibrillation,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 45(4), 495–502 (2007).
[PubMed]

Quantum Electron. (1)

V. V. Volkov, V. B. Loshchenov, V. I. Konov, and V. V. Kononenko, “Fibreoptic diffuse-light irradiators of biological tissues,” Quantum Electron. 40(8), 746–750 (2010).

Ultramicroscopy (1)

P. Hoffmann, B. Dutoit, and R.-P. Salathé, “Comparison of mechanically drawn and protection layer chemically etched optical fiber tips,” Ultramicroscopy 61(1–4), 165–170 (1995).

Other (3)

M. Domke, J. Gratt, and R. Sroka, “Fabrication of homogeneously emitting optical fiber diffusors using fs-laser ablation,” in SPIE LASE (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2016), pp. 97400–97401.

A. J. Welch and M. J. Van Gemert, Optical-thermal response of laser-irradiated tissue (Springer, 1995).

J. Powell, CO2 laser cutting (Springer, 1993).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Experimental setup for (a) fiber tapering using dynamic meniscus etching method, (b) customized goniometer, and (c) ex vivo 980-nm laser coagulation on porcine liver tissue.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Characterization of fabricated fiber tips: (a) conical angle as a function of fiber speed and SEM images of (b) etched fiber tips at different angles and (c) fabricated fiber tips.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Evaluations of spatial light distribution at various conical angles: (a) longitudinal and (b) polar angle emissions (P = proximal and D = distal ends; λ = 632 nm).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Thermal profiles of fiber tips with various conical angles (9, 25, and 45°): (a) 2D thermal imaging (before and 90 s after laser irradiation) and (b) 3D temperature profile. Note that the red color and dotted lines represent 99 and 70% of the peak temperature, respectively.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Temporal development of temperature (left graph) and denatured area (right images) at various irradiation times (30, 60, and 90 s under 4-W, 980 nm irradiation) for three different conical angles (P = proximal and D = distal ends).
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Comparison of normalized variations in (a) temperature and (b) denatured area between proximal (P) and distal (D) ends for various conical angles.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Compilation of cross-sectional images of tissue after laser irradiation with different conical angle tips (P = proximal and D = distal ends). The dotted lines represent the denatured tissue regions.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Quantitative comparison between normalized light intensity (black) and coagulation thickness (blue) along diffuser axis (i.e., longitudinal distance) after 90 s of photocoagulation at 4 W for various conical angles.

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