Abstract

Recently, parallel high A-line speed and wide field imaging for optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) has become more prevalent, resulting in a dramatic increase of data quantity which poses a challenge for real time imaging even for GPU in data processing. In this manuscript, we propose a new OCTA processing technique, Gabor optical coherence tomographic angiography (GOCTA), for label-free human retinal angiography imaging. In spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT), k-space resampling and Fourier transform (FFT) are required for the entire data set of interference fringes to calculate blood flow information in previous OCTA algorithms, which are computationally intensive. As adults' eye anterior-posterior radii are nearly constant, only 3 A-scan lines need to be processed to obtain the gross orientation of the retina by using a sphere model. Subsequently, the en face microvascular images can be obtained by using the GOCTA algorithm from interference fringes directly without the steps of k-space resampling, numerical dispersion compensation, FFT, and maximum (mean) projection, resulting in a significant improvement of the data processing speed by 4 to 20 times faster than the existing methods. GOCTA is potentially suitable for SDOCT systems in en face preview applications requiring real-time microvascular imaging.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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2017 (2)

2016 (5)

2015 (2)

C. Chen, W. Shi, and W. Gao, “Imaginary part-based correlation mapping optical coherence tomography for imaging of blood vessels in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(11), 116009 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Chen, J. Liao, and W. Gao, “Cube data correlation-based imaging of small blood vessels,” Opt. Eng. 54(4), 043104 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

2013 (1)

2012 (2)

2011 (5)

2010 (3)

2008 (1)

2007 (2)

2005 (1)

2003 (1)

2000 (1)

1997 (2)

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

An, L.

Balaratnasingam, C.

M. Heisler, S. Lee, Z. Mammo, Y. Jian, M. Ju, A. Merkur, E. Navajas, C. Balaratnasingam, M. F. Beg, and M. V. Sarunic, “Strip-based registration of serially acquired optical coherence tomography angiography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(3), 036007 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barnes, E.

Barrick, J.

Barton, J.

Barton, J. K.

Beg, M. F.

M. Heisler, S. Lee, Z. Mammo, Y. Jian, M. Ju, A. Merkur, E. Navajas, C. Balaratnasingam, M. F. Beg, and M. V. Sarunic, “Strip-based registration of serially acquired optical coherence tomography angiography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(3), 036007 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cable, A.

Capps, A. G.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, C.

C. Chen, K. H. Y. Cheng, R. Jakubovic, J. Jivraj, J. Ramjist, R. Deorajh, W. Gao, E. Barnes, L. Chin, and V. X. D. Yang, “High speed, wide velocity dynamic range Doppler optical coherence tomography (Part V): Optimal utilization of multi-beam scanning for Doppler and speckle variance microvascular imaging,” Opt. Express 25(7), 7761–7777 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Chen, J. Liao, and W. Gao, “Cube data correlation-based imaging of small blood vessels,” Opt. Eng. 54(4), 043104 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Chen, W. Shi, and W. Gao, “Imaginary part-based correlation mapping optical coherence tomography for imaging of blood vessels in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(11), 116009 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Z.

Cheng, K. H. Y.

Chin, L.

Choi, B.

Chou, L.

de Boer, J. F.

Deorajh, R.

Doblas, A.

Dongye, C.

Enfield, J.

Fercher, A. F.

Fingler, J.

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fraser, S. E.

Fujimoto, J. G.

Y. Jia, O. Tan, J. Tokayer, B. Potsaid, Y. Wang, J. J. Liu, M. F. Kraus, H. Subhash, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Hornegger, and D. Huang, “Split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography with optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4710–4725 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gao, W.

C. Chen, K. H. Y. Cheng, R. Jakubovic, J. Jivraj, J. Ramjist, R. Deorajh, W. Gao, E. Barnes, L. Chin, and V. X. D. Yang, “High speed, wide velocity dynamic range Doppler optical coherence tomography (Part V): Optimal utilization of multi-beam scanning for Doppler and speckle variance microvascular imaging,” Opt. Express 25(7), 7761–7777 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Chen, W. Shi, and W. Gao, “Imaginary part-based correlation mapping optical coherence tomography for imaging of blood vessels in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(11), 116009 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Chen, J. Liao, and W. Gao, “Cube data correlation-based imaging of small blood vessels,” Opt. Eng. 54(4), 043104 (2015).
[Crossref]

Gardner, M. R.

Gorczynska, I.

Gordon, M.

Grajciar, B.

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gruber, A.

Hanson, S. R.

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Heisler, M.

M. Heisler, S. Lee, Z. Mammo, Y. Jian, M. Ju, A. Merkur, E. Navajas, C. Balaratnasingam, M. F. Beg, and M. V. Sarunic, “Strip-based registration of serially acquired optical coherence tomography angiography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(3), 036007 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hornegger, J.

Huang, D.

Hurst, S.

Hwang, T. S.

Izatt, J. A.

Jacques, S. L.

Jakubovic, R.

Jarvi, M.

Jia, W.

Jia, Y.

Jian, Y.

M. Heisler, S. Lee, Z. Mammo, Y. Jian, M. Ju, A. Merkur, E. Navajas, C. Balaratnasingam, M. F. Beg, and M. V. Sarunic, “Strip-based registration of serially acquired optical coherence tomography angiography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(3), 036007 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jiang, J.

Jivraj, J.

Jonathan, E.

Ju, M.

M. Heisler, S. Lee, Z. Mammo, Y. Jian, M. Ju, A. Merkur, E. Navajas, C. Balaratnasingam, M. F. Beg, and M. V. Sarunic, “Strip-based registration of serially acquired optical coherence tomography angiography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(3), 036007 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jung, Y.

Khurana, M.

Kim, D. Y.

Kocaoglu, O. P.

Kraus, M. F.

Kulkarni, M. D.

Leahy, M.

Lee, K.

Lee, S.

M. Heisler, S. Lee, Z. Mammo, Y. Jian, M. Ju, A. Merkur, E. Navajas, C. Balaratnasingam, M. F. Beg, and M. V. Sarunic, “Strip-based registration of serially acquired optical coherence tomography angiography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(3), 036007 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lehareinger, Y.

Leitgeb, R. A.

Leung, M. K. K.

Li, D.

Liao, J.

C. Chen, J. Liao, and W. Gao, “Cube data correlation-based imaging of small blood vessels,” Opt. Eng. 54(4), 043104 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lin, A. J.

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, G.

Liu, J. J.

Liu, Z.

Lo, S.

Ma, Z.

Malekafzali, A.

Mammo, Z.

M. Heisler, S. Lee, Z. Mammo, Y. Jian, M. Ju, A. Merkur, E. Navajas, C. Balaratnasingam, M. F. Beg, and M. V. Sarunic, “Strip-based registration of serially acquired optical coherence tomography angiography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(3), 036007 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mariampillai, A.

Meemon, P.

Merkur, A.

M. Heisler, S. Lee, Z. Mammo, Y. Jian, M. Ju, A. Merkur, E. Navajas, C. Balaratnasingam, M. F. Beg, and M. V. Sarunic, “Strip-based registration of serially acquired optical coherence tomography angiography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(3), 036007 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Migacz, J. V.

Miller, D. T.

Milner, T. E.

Mok, A.

Moriyama, E. H.

Munce, N. R.

Navajas, E.

M. Heisler, S. Lee, Z. Mammo, Y. Jian, M. Ju, A. Merkur, E. Navajas, C. Balaratnasingam, M. F. Beg, and M. V. Sarunic, “Strip-based registration of serially acquired optical coherence tomography angiography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(3), 036007 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nelson, J. S.

Oldenburg, A. L.

Ostrowski, L. E.

Pechauer, A. D.

Pekar, J.

Potsaid, B.

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qi, B.

Qi, W.

Qi, X.

Qin, J.

Ramjist, J.

Rolland, J. P.

Sarunic, M. V.

M. Heisler, S. Lee, Z. Mammo, Y. Jian, M. Ju, A. Merkur, E. Navajas, C. Balaratnasingam, M. F. Beg, and M. V. Sarunic, “Strip-based registration of serially acquired optical coherence tomography angiography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(3), 036007 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Saxer, C.

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schwartz, D.

Schwartz, D. M.

Sears, P. R.

Seng-Yue, E.

Shen, Q.

Shen, T. T.

L. An, T. T. Shen, and R. K. Wang, “Using ultrahigh sensitive optical microangiography to achieve comprehensive depth resolved microvasculature mapping for human retina,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(10), 106013 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shi, W.

C. Chen, W. Shi, and W. Gao, “Imaginary part-based correlation mapping optical coherence tomography for imaging of blood vessels in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(11), 116009 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Song, S.

Srinivas, S.

Standish, B. A.

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stromski, S.

Subhash, H.

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tan, O.

Tokayer, J.

Tromberg, B. J.

Turner, T. L.

van Gemert, M. J. C.

Vitkin, A.

Vitkin, I.

Vitkin, I. A.

Wang, J.

Wang, R. K.

Wang, X.

Wang, Y.

Wei, W.

Welch, A. J.

Werner, J. S.

Widjaja, J.

Wilson, B.

Wilson, B. C.

Wilson, D. J.

Xiang, S.

Xu, J.

Yang, C.

Yang, V.

Yang, V. X. D.

Yazdanfar, S.

Yousefi, S.

Zang, P.

Zawadzki, R. J.

Zhang, M.

Zhao, Y.

Zhi, Z.

Biomed. Opt. Express (9)

D. Y. Kim, J. Fingler, J. S. Werner, D. M. Schwartz, S. E. Fraser, and R. J. Zawadzki, “In vivo volumetric imaging of human retinal circulation with phase-variance optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(6), 1504–1513 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Gorczynska, J. V. Migacz, R. J. Zawadzki, A. G. Capps, and J. S. Werner, “Comparison of amplitude-decorrelation, speckle-variance and phase-variance OCT angiography methods for imaging the human retina and choroid,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(3), 911–942 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Liu, A. J. Lin, B. J. Tromberg, and Z. Chen, “A comparison of Doppler optical coherence tomography methods,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(10), 2669–2680 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Enfield, E. Jonathan, and M. Leahy, “In vivo imaging of the microcirculation of the volar forearm using correlation mapping optical coherence tomography (cmOCT),” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(5), 1184–1193 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Zhi, Y. Jung, Y. Jia, L. An, and R. K. Wang, “Highly sensitive imaging of renal microcirculation in vivo using ultrahigh sensitive optical microangiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(5), 1059–1068 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Yousefi, J. Qin, and R. K. Wang, “Super-resolution spectral estimation of optical micro-angiography for quantifying blood flow within microcirculatory tissue beds in vivo,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(7), 1214–1228 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. P. Kocaoglu, T. L. Turner, Z. Liu, and D. T. Miller, “Adaptive optics optical coherence tomography at 1 MHz,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(12), 4186–4200 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Xu, W. Wei, S. Song, X. Qi, and R. K. Wang, “Scalable wide-field optical coherence tomography-based angiography for in vivo imaging applications,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(5), 1905–1919 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Zang, G. Liu, M. Zhang, C. Dongye, J. Wang, A. D. Pechauer, T. S. Hwang, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, D. Li, and Y. Jia, “Automated motion correction using parallel-strip registration for wide-field en face OCT angiogram,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(7), 2823–2836 (2016).
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J. Biomed. Opt. (3)

M. Heisler, S. Lee, Z. Mammo, Y. Jian, M. Ju, A. Merkur, E. Navajas, C. Balaratnasingam, M. F. Beg, and M. V. Sarunic, “Strip-based registration of serially acquired optical coherence tomography angiography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(3), 036007 (2017).
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Opt. Eng. (1)

C. Chen, J. Liao, and W. Gao, “Cube data correlation-based imaging of small blood vessels,” Opt. Eng. 54(4), 043104 (2015).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (9)

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R. K. Wang, S. L. Jacques, Z. Ma, S. Hurst, S. R. Hanson, and A. Gruber, “Three Dimensional Optical Angiography,” Opt. Express 15(7), 4083–4097 (2007).
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J. Fingler, D. Schwartz, C. Yang, and S. E. Fraser, “Mobility and transverse flow visualization using phase variance contrast with spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 15(20), 12636–12653 (2007).
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G. Liu, L. Chou, W. Jia, W. Qi, B. Choi, and Z. Chen, “Intensity-based modified Doppler variance algorithm: application to phase instable and phase stable optical coherence tomography systems,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11429–11440 (2011).
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C. Chen, K. H. Y. Cheng, R. Jakubovic, J. Jivraj, J. Ramjist, R. Deorajh, W. Gao, E. Barnes, L. Chin, and V. X. D. Yang, “High speed, wide velocity dynamic range Doppler optical coherence tomography (Part V): Optimal utilization of multi-beam scanning for Doppler and speckle variance microvascular imaging,” Opt. Express 25(7), 7761–7777 (2017).
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J. Barton and S. Stromski, “Flow measurement without phase information in optical coherence tomography images,” Opt. Express 13(14), 5234–5239 (2005).
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L. An, J. Qin, and R. K. Wang, “Ultrahigh sensitive optical microangiography for in vivo imaging of microcirculations within human skin tissue beds,” Opt. Express 18(8), 8220–8228 (2010).
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W. Shi, W. Gao, C. Chen, and V. X. D. Yang, “Differential standard deviation of log-scale intensity based optical coherence tomography angiography,” J. Biophoton. (2017).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Processing flow chart of Gabor optical coherence tomographic angiography (GOCTA). The right side showed 3 A-scans calculated once to determine the approximate retinal surface location of the entire 3D data set and provided Gabor filter parameters for the B-scan processing on the left side.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Structure of human eye. For the region covered by the dashed box, the curvature of the retinal surface can be approximated by the anterio-posterior (AP) diameter.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Comparison of the microvascular images at optical nerve head region. (a) The structural surface calculated by using Eq. (3), the three corners marked by black circles were calculated by FFT. (b) The images outputted from the commercial system. (c) The mask for dynamic blood flow signals (red) and background (blue) on a local region marked by the dashed rectangles in (d) - (g). (d) - (g) are the microvascular images obtained by GOCTA, SVOCT, UHS-OMAG and SSADA, respectively. (h), (j), (l) and (n) are the zoomed-in local regions marked by the dashed white rectangles in (d) - (g), respectively. (i), (k), (m) and (o) are the histograms of the intensity values covered by mask (c), where the red and the blue represent dynamic flow signal and background, respectively. (b) and (d) - (g) share the scale bar.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Comparison of the microvascular images at fovea region. (a) The structural surface calculated by using Eq. (3), the three corners marked by black circles were calculated by FFT. (b) The images outputted from the commercial system. (c) The mask for dynamic blood flow signals (red) and background (blue) on a local region marked by the dashed rectangles in (d) - (g). (d) - (g) are the microvascular images obtained by GOCTA, SVOCT, UHS-OMAG and SSADA, respectively. (h), (j), (l) and (n) are the zoomed-in local regions marked by the dashed white rectangles in (d) - (g), respectively. (i), (k), (m) and (o) are the histograms of the intensity values covered by mask (c), where the red and the blue represent dynamic flow signal and background, respectively. (b) and (d) - (g) share the scale bar.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 The comparison of data processing time for each two B-scans from the same position

Tables Icon

Table 2 The data processing time for entire 3D (608 × 2048 × 304) data set by CPU and GPU

Equations (8)

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I ( x , λ , y ) = S ( λ ) R ( x , z , y ) R r γ s γ r cos ( 4 π λ n z + ϕ ( x , y ) + ϕ d i s ( λ ) ) d z ,
I ' ( x , λ , y ) = I ( x , λ , y 1 ) I ( x , λ , y 2 ) ,
( x x 0 ) 2 + ( y y 0 ) 2 + ( z s z 0 ) 2 = R 2 ,
G ( x , k , y ) = exp [ π 2 ( n Δ z ) 2 ( k k 0 ) 2 ln 2 ] cos [ 2 π ( k k 0 ) ( z s ( x , y ) + 2 n δ z ) + φ 0 ] ,
I ' ' ( x , λ , y ) = I ' ( x , λ , y ) G ( x , λ , y ) ,
G O C T A ( x , y ) = 1 M n = 1 M [ I ' ' ( x , λ n , y ) I ' ' m e a n ( x , y ) ] 2 ,
S N R = I ¯ d y / σ b g ,
C N R = ( I ¯ d y I ¯ b g ) / σ b g ,

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