Abstract

Cardiovascular diseases are closely related to structural blood capillaries lesions. Herein, microscopic investigations of mouse blood capillaries were performed at multiple spatial resolution by using synchrotron X-ray in-line phase contrast tomography and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM). The chemically fixed blood capillaries without any contrast agents were selected. For the first time, a periodic bamboo-shaped structure was observed at nanoscale resolution by STXM, and the three-dimensional tomographic slices at sub-micrometer resolution further confirmed the periodic wave profile of the blood capillaries. Then, a periodic microstructural model was suggested based on the microscopic images. By using high-performance imaging techniques, this work provides a better understanding of the relationship between the structure and function of blood capillaries, will be helpful in elucidating the causes of cardiovascular system diseases.

© 2017 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2017 (2)

M.-W. Sohn, N. Epstein, E. S. Huang, Z. Huo, N. Emanuele, G. Stukenborg, M. Guihan, J. Li, and E. Budiman-Mak, “Visit-to-visit systolic blood pressure variability and microvascular complications among patients with diabetes,” J. Diabetes Complications 31(1), 195–201 (2017).
[PubMed]

Y. Zhu, J. Zhang, A. Li, Y. Zhang, and C. Fan, “Synchrotron-based X-ray microscopy for sub-100nm resolution cell imaging,” Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol. 39, 11–16 (2017).
[PubMed]

2016 (2)

J. J. Conesa, J. Otón, M. Chiappi, J. M. Carazo, E. Pereiro, F. J. Chichón, and J. L. Carrascosa, “Intracellular nanoparticles mass quantification by near-edge absorption soft X-ray nanotomography,” Sci. Rep. 6, 22354 (2016).
[PubMed]

Y. Liu, A. M. Kiss, D. H. Larsson, F. Yang, and P. Pianetta, “To get the most out of high resolution X-ray tomography: A review of the post-reconstruction analysis,” Spectrochim. Acta B At. Spectrosc. 117, 29–41 (2016).

2015 (5)

R. Xuan, X. Zhao, D. Hu, J. Jian, T. Wang, and C. Hu, “Three-dimensional visualization of the microvasculature of bile duct ligation-induced liver fibrosis in rats by x-ray phase-contrast imaging computed tomography,” Sci. Rep. 5, 11500 (2015).
[PubMed]

H. Wang, S. Berujon, J. Herzen, R. Atwood, D. Laundy, A. Hipp, and K. Sawhney, “X-ray phase contrast tomography by tracking near field speckle,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8762 (2015).
[PubMed]

M. Datta, L. E. Via, W. S. Kamoun, C. Liu, W. Chen, G. Seano, D. M. Weiner, D. Schimel, K. England, J. D. Martin, X. Gao, L. Xu, C. E. Barry, and R. K. Jain, “Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor treatment normalizes tuberculosis granuloma vasculature and improves small molecule delivery,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(6), 1827–1832 (2015).
[PubMed]

A. Sombke, E. Lipke, P. Michalik, G. Uhl, and S. Harzsch, “Potential and limitations of X-Ray micro-computed tomography in arthropod neuroanatomy: a methodological and comparative survey,” J. Comp. Neurol. 523(8), 1281–1295 (2015).
[PubMed]

J. C. Niclis, S. V. Murphy, D. Y. Parkinson, A. Zedan, A. H. Sathananthan, D. S. Cram, and P. Heraud, “Three-dimensional imaging of human stem cells using soft X-ray tomography,” J. R. Soc. Interface 12(108), 20150252 (2015).
[PubMed]

2014 (1)

Y. Zhu, T. Earnest, Q. Huang, X. Cai, Z. Wang, Z. Wu, and C. Fan, “Synchrotron-based X-ray-sensitive nanoprobes for cellular imaging,” Adv. Mater. 26(46), 7889–7895 (2014).
[PubMed]

2013 (1)

Y. Liu, J. Nelson, C. Holzner, J. C. Andrews, and P. Pianetta, “Recent advances in synchrotron-based hard x-ray phase contrast imaging,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 46, 494001 (2013).

2012 (4)

R.-C. Chen, D. Dreossi, L. Mancini, R. Menk, L. Rigon, T.-Q. Xiao, and R. Longo, “PITRE: software for phase-sensitive X-ray image processing and tomography reconstruction,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 19(Pt 5), 836–845 (2012).
[PubMed]

W. Chao, P. Fischer, T. Tyliszczak, S. Rekawa, E. Anderson, and P. Naulleau, “Real space soft X-ray imaging at 10 nm spatial resolution,” Opt. Express 20(9), 9777–9783 (2012).
[PubMed]

Y. Zhao, E. Brun, P. Coan, Z. Huang, A. Sztrókay, P. C. Diemoz, S. Liebhardt, A. Mittone, S. Gasilov, J. Miao, and A. Bravin, “High-resolution, low-dose phase contrast X-ray tomography for 3D diagnosis of human breast cancers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(45), 18290–18294 (2012).
[PubMed]

S. C. Mayo, A. W. Stevenson, and S. W. Wilkins, “In-line phase-contrast X-ray imaging and tomography for materials science,” Materials (Basel) 5(5), 937–965 (2012).
[PubMed]

2010 (1)

G. Schneider, P. Guttmann, S. Heim, S. Rehbein, F. Mueller, K. Nagashima, J. B. Heymann, W. G. Müller, and J. G. McNally, “Three-dimensional cellular ultrastructure resolved by X-ray microscopy,” Nat. Methods 7(12), 985–987 (2010).
[PubMed]

2008 (4)

E. de Smit, I. Swart, J. F. Creemer, G. H. Hoveling, M. K. Gilles, T. Tyliszczak, P. J. Kooyman, H. W. Zandbergen, C. Morin, B. M. Weckhuysen, and F. M. F. de Groot, “Nanoscale chemical imaging of a working catalyst by scanning transmission X-ray microscopy,” Nature 456(7219), 222–225 (2008).
[PubMed]

X. Wu, H. Liu, and A. Yan, “Phase-contrast X-ray tomography: contrast mechanism and roles of phase retrieval,” Eur. J. Radiol. 68(3Suppl), S8–S12 (2008).
[PubMed]

M. Shinohara, T. Yamashita, H. Tawa, M. Takeda, N. Sasaki, T. Takaya, R. Toh, A. Takeuchi, T. Ohigashi, and K. Shinohara, “Atherosclerotic plaque imaging using phase-contrast X-ray computed tomography,” Am. J. Physiol.- Heart C. 294, H1094–H1100 (2008).

R. S. Kerbel, “Tumor angiogenesis,” N. Engl. J. Med. 358(19), 2039–2049 (2008).
[PubMed]

2006 (1)

O. Rabin, J. Manuel Perez, J. Grimm, G. Wojtkiewicz, and R. Weissleder, “An X-ray computed tomography imaging agent based on long-circulating bismuth sulphide nanoparticles,” Nat. Mater. 5(2), 118–122 (2006).
[PubMed]

2005 (3)

P. Carmeliet, “Angiogenesis in life, disease and medicine,” Nature 438(7070), 932–936 (2005).
[PubMed]

R. K. Jain, “Normalization of tumor vasculature: an emerging concept in antiangiogenic therapy,” Science 307(5706), 58–62 (2005).
[PubMed]

N. Ferrara and R. S. Kerbel, “Angiogenesis as a therapeutic target,” Nature 438(7070), 967–974 (2005).
[PubMed]

2001 (1)

T. E. Gureyev, S. Mayo, S. W. Wilkins, D. Paganin, and A. W. Stevenson, “Quantitative in-line phase-contrast imaging with multienergy X rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(25), 5827–5830 (2001).
[PubMed]

1997 (1)

M. Mundhenke, B. Schwartzkopff, and B. E. Strauer, “Structural analysis of arteriolar and myocardial remodelling in the subendocardial region of patients with hypertensive heart disease and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy,” Virchows Arch. 431(4), 265–273 (1997).
[PubMed]

1996 (1)

A. Momose, T. Takeda, Y. Itai, and K. Hirano, “Phase-contrast X-ray computed tomography for observing biological soft tissues,” Nat. Med. 2(4), 473–475 (1996).
[PubMed]

1995 (1)

J. Kirz, C. Jacobsen, and M. Howells, “Soft X-ray Microscopes and Their Biological Applications,” Q. Rev. Biophys. 28(1), 33–130 (1995).
[PubMed]

1987 (1)

B. P. Flannery, H. W. Deckman, W. G. Roberge, and K. L. D’Amico, “Three-dimensional X-ray microtomography,” Science 237(4821), 1439–1444 (1987).
[PubMed]

1959 (1)

H. S. Bennett, J. H. Luft, and J. C. Hampton, “Morphological classifications of vertebrate blood capillaries,” Am. J. Physiol. 196(2), 381–390 (1959).
[PubMed]

Anderson, E.

Andrews, J. C.

Y. Liu, J. Nelson, C. Holzner, J. C. Andrews, and P. Pianetta, “Recent advances in synchrotron-based hard x-ray phase contrast imaging,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 46, 494001 (2013).

Atwood, R.

H. Wang, S. Berujon, J. Herzen, R. Atwood, D. Laundy, A. Hipp, and K. Sawhney, “X-ray phase contrast tomography by tracking near field speckle,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8762 (2015).
[PubMed]

Barry, C. E.

M. Datta, L. E. Via, W. S. Kamoun, C. Liu, W. Chen, G. Seano, D. M. Weiner, D. Schimel, K. England, J. D. Martin, X. Gao, L. Xu, C. E. Barry, and R. K. Jain, “Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor treatment normalizes tuberculosis granuloma vasculature and improves small molecule delivery,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(6), 1827–1832 (2015).
[PubMed]

Bennett, H. S.

H. S. Bennett, J. H. Luft, and J. C. Hampton, “Morphological classifications of vertebrate blood capillaries,” Am. J. Physiol. 196(2), 381–390 (1959).
[PubMed]

Berujon, S.

H. Wang, S. Berujon, J. Herzen, R. Atwood, D. Laundy, A. Hipp, and K. Sawhney, “X-ray phase contrast tomography by tracking near field speckle,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8762 (2015).
[PubMed]

Bravin, A.

Y. Zhao, E. Brun, P. Coan, Z. Huang, A. Sztrókay, P. C. Diemoz, S. Liebhardt, A. Mittone, S. Gasilov, J. Miao, and A. Bravin, “High-resolution, low-dose phase contrast X-ray tomography for 3D diagnosis of human breast cancers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(45), 18290–18294 (2012).
[PubMed]

Brun, E.

Y. Zhao, E. Brun, P. Coan, Z. Huang, A. Sztrókay, P. C. Diemoz, S. Liebhardt, A. Mittone, S. Gasilov, J. Miao, and A. Bravin, “High-resolution, low-dose phase contrast X-ray tomography for 3D diagnosis of human breast cancers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(45), 18290–18294 (2012).
[PubMed]

Budiman-Mak, E.

M.-W. Sohn, N. Epstein, E. S. Huang, Z. Huo, N. Emanuele, G. Stukenborg, M. Guihan, J. Li, and E. Budiman-Mak, “Visit-to-visit systolic blood pressure variability and microvascular complications among patients with diabetes,” J. Diabetes Complications 31(1), 195–201 (2017).
[PubMed]

Cai, X.

Y. Zhu, T. Earnest, Q. Huang, X. Cai, Z. Wang, Z. Wu, and C. Fan, “Synchrotron-based X-ray-sensitive nanoprobes for cellular imaging,” Adv. Mater. 26(46), 7889–7895 (2014).
[PubMed]

Carazo, J. M.

J. J. Conesa, J. Otón, M. Chiappi, J. M. Carazo, E. Pereiro, F. J. Chichón, and J. L. Carrascosa, “Intracellular nanoparticles mass quantification by near-edge absorption soft X-ray nanotomography,” Sci. Rep. 6, 22354 (2016).
[PubMed]

Carmeliet, P.

P. Carmeliet, “Angiogenesis in life, disease and medicine,” Nature 438(7070), 932–936 (2005).
[PubMed]

Carrascosa, J. L.

J. J. Conesa, J. Otón, M. Chiappi, J. M. Carazo, E. Pereiro, F. J. Chichón, and J. L. Carrascosa, “Intracellular nanoparticles mass quantification by near-edge absorption soft X-ray nanotomography,” Sci. Rep. 6, 22354 (2016).
[PubMed]

Chao, W.

Chen, R.-C.

R.-C. Chen, D. Dreossi, L. Mancini, R. Menk, L. Rigon, T.-Q. Xiao, and R. Longo, “PITRE: software for phase-sensitive X-ray image processing and tomography reconstruction,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 19(Pt 5), 836–845 (2012).
[PubMed]

Chen, W.

M. Datta, L. E. Via, W. S. Kamoun, C. Liu, W. Chen, G. Seano, D. M. Weiner, D. Schimel, K. England, J. D. Martin, X. Gao, L. Xu, C. E. Barry, and R. K. Jain, “Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor treatment normalizes tuberculosis granuloma vasculature and improves small molecule delivery,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(6), 1827–1832 (2015).
[PubMed]

Chiappi, M.

J. J. Conesa, J. Otón, M. Chiappi, J. M. Carazo, E. Pereiro, F. J. Chichón, and J. L. Carrascosa, “Intracellular nanoparticles mass quantification by near-edge absorption soft X-ray nanotomography,” Sci. Rep. 6, 22354 (2016).
[PubMed]

Chichón, F. J.

J. J. Conesa, J. Otón, M. Chiappi, J. M. Carazo, E. Pereiro, F. J. Chichón, and J. L. Carrascosa, “Intracellular nanoparticles mass quantification by near-edge absorption soft X-ray nanotomography,” Sci. Rep. 6, 22354 (2016).
[PubMed]

Coan, P.

Y. Zhao, E. Brun, P. Coan, Z. Huang, A. Sztrókay, P. C. Diemoz, S. Liebhardt, A. Mittone, S. Gasilov, J. Miao, and A. Bravin, “High-resolution, low-dose phase contrast X-ray tomography for 3D diagnosis of human breast cancers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(45), 18290–18294 (2012).
[PubMed]

Conesa, J. J.

J. J. Conesa, J. Otón, M. Chiappi, J. M. Carazo, E. Pereiro, F. J. Chichón, and J. L. Carrascosa, “Intracellular nanoparticles mass quantification by near-edge absorption soft X-ray nanotomography,” Sci. Rep. 6, 22354 (2016).
[PubMed]

Cram, D. S.

J. C. Niclis, S. V. Murphy, D. Y. Parkinson, A. Zedan, A. H. Sathananthan, D. S. Cram, and P. Heraud, “Three-dimensional imaging of human stem cells using soft X-ray tomography,” J. R. Soc. Interface 12(108), 20150252 (2015).
[PubMed]

Creemer, J. F.

E. de Smit, I. Swart, J. F. Creemer, G. H. Hoveling, M. K. Gilles, T. Tyliszczak, P. J. Kooyman, H. W. Zandbergen, C. Morin, B. M. Weckhuysen, and F. M. F. de Groot, “Nanoscale chemical imaging of a working catalyst by scanning transmission X-ray microscopy,” Nature 456(7219), 222–225 (2008).
[PubMed]

D’Amico, K. L.

B. P. Flannery, H. W. Deckman, W. G. Roberge, and K. L. D’Amico, “Three-dimensional X-ray microtomography,” Science 237(4821), 1439–1444 (1987).
[PubMed]

Datta, M.

M. Datta, L. E. Via, W. S. Kamoun, C. Liu, W. Chen, G. Seano, D. M. Weiner, D. Schimel, K. England, J. D. Martin, X. Gao, L. Xu, C. E. Barry, and R. K. Jain, “Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor treatment normalizes tuberculosis granuloma vasculature and improves small molecule delivery,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(6), 1827–1832 (2015).
[PubMed]

de Groot, F. M. F.

E. de Smit, I. Swart, J. F. Creemer, G. H. Hoveling, M. K. Gilles, T. Tyliszczak, P. J. Kooyman, H. W. Zandbergen, C. Morin, B. M. Weckhuysen, and F. M. F. de Groot, “Nanoscale chemical imaging of a working catalyst by scanning transmission X-ray microscopy,” Nature 456(7219), 222–225 (2008).
[PubMed]

de Smit, E.

E. de Smit, I. Swart, J. F. Creemer, G. H. Hoveling, M. K. Gilles, T. Tyliszczak, P. J. Kooyman, H. W. Zandbergen, C. Morin, B. M. Weckhuysen, and F. M. F. de Groot, “Nanoscale chemical imaging of a working catalyst by scanning transmission X-ray microscopy,” Nature 456(7219), 222–225 (2008).
[PubMed]

Deckman, H. W.

B. P. Flannery, H. W. Deckman, W. G. Roberge, and K. L. D’Amico, “Three-dimensional X-ray microtomography,” Science 237(4821), 1439–1444 (1987).
[PubMed]

Diemoz, P. C.

Y. Zhao, E. Brun, P. Coan, Z. Huang, A. Sztrókay, P. C. Diemoz, S. Liebhardt, A. Mittone, S. Gasilov, J. Miao, and A. Bravin, “High-resolution, low-dose phase contrast X-ray tomography for 3D diagnosis of human breast cancers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(45), 18290–18294 (2012).
[PubMed]

Dreossi, D.

R.-C. Chen, D. Dreossi, L. Mancini, R. Menk, L. Rigon, T.-Q. Xiao, and R. Longo, “PITRE: software for phase-sensitive X-ray image processing and tomography reconstruction,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 19(Pt 5), 836–845 (2012).
[PubMed]

Earnest, T.

Y. Zhu, T. Earnest, Q. Huang, X. Cai, Z. Wang, Z. Wu, and C. Fan, “Synchrotron-based X-ray-sensitive nanoprobes for cellular imaging,” Adv. Mater. 26(46), 7889–7895 (2014).
[PubMed]

Emanuele, N.

M.-W. Sohn, N. Epstein, E. S. Huang, Z. Huo, N. Emanuele, G. Stukenborg, M. Guihan, J. Li, and E. Budiman-Mak, “Visit-to-visit systolic blood pressure variability and microvascular complications among patients with diabetes,” J. Diabetes Complications 31(1), 195–201 (2017).
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M. Datta, L. E. Via, W. S. Kamoun, C. Liu, W. Chen, G. Seano, D. M. Weiner, D. Schimel, K. England, J. D. Martin, X. Gao, L. Xu, C. E. Barry, and R. K. Jain, “Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor treatment normalizes tuberculosis granuloma vasculature and improves small molecule delivery,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(6), 1827–1832 (2015).
[PubMed]

Epstein, N.

M.-W. Sohn, N. Epstein, E. S. Huang, Z. Huo, N. Emanuele, G. Stukenborg, M. Guihan, J. Li, and E. Budiman-Mak, “Visit-to-visit systolic blood pressure variability and microvascular complications among patients with diabetes,” J. Diabetes Complications 31(1), 195–201 (2017).
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Y. Zhu, J. Zhang, A. Li, Y. Zhang, and C. Fan, “Synchrotron-based X-ray microscopy for sub-100nm resolution cell imaging,” Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol. 39, 11–16 (2017).
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Y. Zhu, T. Earnest, Q. Huang, X. Cai, Z. Wang, Z. Wu, and C. Fan, “Synchrotron-based X-ray-sensitive nanoprobes for cellular imaging,” Adv. Mater. 26(46), 7889–7895 (2014).
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N. Ferrara and R. S. Kerbel, “Angiogenesis as a therapeutic target,” Nature 438(7070), 967–974 (2005).
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B. P. Flannery, H. W. Deckman, W. G. Roberge, and K. L. D’Amico, “Three-dimensional X-ray microtomography,” Science 237(4821), 1439–1444 (1987).
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M. Datta, L. E. Via, W. S. Kamoun, C. Liu, W. Chen, G. Seano, D. M. Weiner, D. Schimel, K. England, J. D. Martin, X. Gao, L. Xu, C. E. Barry, and R. K. Jain, “Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor treatment normalizes tuberculosis granuloma vasculature and improves small molecule delivery,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(6), 1827–1832 (2015).
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Y. Zhao, E. Brun, P. Coan, Z. Huang, A. Sztrókay, P. C. Diemoz, S. Liebhardt, A. Mittone, S. Gasilov, J. Miao, and A. Bravin, “High-resolution, low-dose phase contrast X-ray tomography for 3D diagnosis of human breast cancers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(45), 18290–18294 (2012).
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E. de Smit, I. Swart, J. F. Creemer, G. H. Hoveling, M. K. Gilles, T. Tyliszczak, P. J. Kooyman, H. W. Zandbergen, C. Morin, B. M. Weckhuysen, and F. M. F. de Groot, “Nanoscale chemical imaging of a working catalyst by scanning transmission X-ray microscopy,” Nature 456(7219), 222–225 (2008).
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Grimm, J.

O. Rabin, J. Manuel Perez, J. Grimm, G. Wojtkiewicz, and R. Weissleder, “An X-ray computed tomography imaging agent based on long-circulating bismuth sulphide nanoparticles,” Nat. Mater. 5(2), 118–122 (2006).
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M.-W. Sohn, N. Epstein, E. S. Huang, Z. Huo, N. Emanuele, G. Stukenborg, M. Guihan, J. Li, and E. Budiman-Mak, “Visit-to-visit systolic blood pressure variability and microvascular complications among patients with diabetes,” J. Diabetes Complications 31(1), 195–201 (2017).
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T. E. Gureyev, S. Mayo, S. W. Wilkins, D. Paganin, and A. W. Stevenson, “Quantitative in-line phase-contrast imaging with multienergy X rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(25), 5827–5830 (2001).
[PubMed]

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G. Schneider, P. Guttmann, S. Heim, S. Rehbein, F. Mueller, K. Nagashima, J. B. Heymann, W. G. Müller, and J. G. McNally, “Three-dimensional cellular ultrastructure resolved by X-ray microscopy,” Nat. Methods 7(12), 985–987 (2010).
[PubMed]

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H. S. Bennett, J. H. Luft, and J. C. Hampton, “Morphological classifications of vertebrate blood capillaries,” Am. J. Physiol. 196(2), 381–390 (1959).
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A. Sombke, E. Lipke, P. Michalik, G. Uhl, and S. Harzsch, “Potential and limitations of X-Ray micro-computed tomography in arthropod neuroanatomy: a methodological and comparative survey,” J. Comp. Neurol. 523(8), 1281–1295 (2015).
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G. Schneider, P. Guttmann, S. Heim, S. Rehbein, F. Mueller, K. Nagashima, J. B. Heymann, W. G. Müller, and J. G. McNally, “Three-dimensional cellular ultrastructure resolved by X-ray microscopy,” Nat. Methods 7(12), 985–987 (2010).
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J. C. Niclis, S. V. Murphy, D. Y. Parkinson, A. Zedan, A. H. Sathananthan, D. S. Cram, and P. Heraud, “Three-dimensional imaging of human stem cells using soft X-ray tomography,” J. R. Soc. Interface 12(108), 20150252 (2015).
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H. Wang, S. Berujon, J. Herzen, R. Atwood, D. Laundy, A. Hipp, and K. Sawhney, “X-ray phase contrast tomography by tracking near field speckle,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8762 (2015).
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G. Schneider, P. Guttmann, S. Heim, S. Rehbein, F. Mueller, K. Nagashima, J. B. Heymann, W. G. Müller, and J. G. McNally, “Three-dimensional cellular ultrastructure resolved by X-ray microscopy,” Nat. Methods 7(12), 985–987 (2010).
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Hipp, A.

H. Wang, S. Berujon, J. Herzen, R. Atwood, D. Laundy, A. Hipp, and K. Sawhney, “X-ray phase contrast tomography by tracking near field speckle,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8762 (2015).
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A. Momose, T. Takeda, Y. Itai, and K. Hirano, “Phase-contrast X-ray computed tomography for observing biological soft tissues,” Nat. Med. 2(4), 473–475 (1996).
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Y. Liu, J. Nelson, C. Holzner, J. C. Andrews, and P. Pianetta, “Recent advances in synchrotron-based hard x-ray phase contrast imaging,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 46, 494001 (2013).

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E. de Smit, I. Swart, J. F. Creemer, G. H. Hoveling, M. K. Gilles, T. Tyliszczak, P. J. Kooyman, H. W. Zandbergen, C. Morin, B. M. Weckhuysen, and F. M. F. de Groot, “Nanoscale chemical imaging of a working catalyst by scanning transmission X-ray microscopy,” Nature 456(7219), 222–225 (2008).
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Hu, D.

R. Xuan, X. Zhao, D. Hu, J. Jian, T. Wang, and C. Hu, “Three-dimensional visualization of the microvasculature of bile duct ligation-induced liver fibrosis in rats by x-ray phase-contrast imaging computed tomography,” Sci. Rep. 5, 11500 (2015).
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M.-W. Sohn, N. Epstein, E. S. Huang, Z. Huo, N. Emanuele, G. Stukenborg, M. Guihan, J. Li, and E. Budiman-Mak, “Visit-to-visit systolic blood pressure variability and microvascular complications among patients with diabetes,” J. Diabetes Complications 31(1), 195–201 (2017).
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Y. Zhu, T. Earnest, Q. Huang, X. Cai, Z. Wang, Z. Wu, and C. Fan, “Synchrotron-based X-ray-sensitive nanoprobes for cellular imaging,” Adv. Mater. 26(46), 7889–7895 (2014).
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Y. Zhao, E. Brun, P. Coan, Z. Huang, A. Sztrókay, P. C. Diemoz, S. Liebhardt, A. Mittone, S. Gasilov, J. Miao, and A. Bravin, “High-resolution, low-dose phase contrast X-ray tomography for 3D diagnosis of human breast cancers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(45), 18290–18294 (2012).
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M.-W. Sohn, N. Epstein, E. S. Huang, Z. Huo, N. Emanuele, G. Stukenborg, M. Guihan, J. Li, and E. Budiman-Mak, “Visit-to-visit systolic blood pressure variability and microvascular complications among patients with diabetes,” J. Diabetes Complications 31(1), 195–201 (2017).
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A. Momose, T. Takeda, Y. Itai, and K. Hirano, “Phase-contrast X-ray computed tomography for observing biological soft tissues,” Nat. Med. 2(4), 473–475 (1996).
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J. Kirz, C. Jacobsen, and M. Howells, “Soft X-ray Microscopes and Their Biological Applications,” Q. Rev. Biophys. 28(1), 33–130 (1995).
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M. Datta, L. E. Via, W. S. Kamoun, C. Liu, W. Chen, G. Seano, D. M. Weiner, D. Schimel, K. England, J. D. Martin, X. Gao, L. Xu, C. E. Barry, and R. K. Jain, “Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor treatment normalizes tuberculosis granuloma vasculature and improves small molecule delivery,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(6), 1827–1832 (2015).
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R. Xuan, X. Zhao, D. Hu, J. Jian, T. Wang, and C. Hu, “Three-dimensional visualization of the microvasculature of bile duct ligation-induced liver fibrosis in rats by x-ray phase-contrast imaging computed tomography,” Sci. Rep. 5, 11500 (2015).
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M. Datta, L. E. Via, W. S. Kamoun, C. Liu, W. Chen, G. Seano, D. M. Weiner, D. Schimel, K. England, J. D. Martin, X. Gao, L. Xu, C. E. Barry, and R. K. Jain, “Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor treatment normalizes tuberculosis granuloma vasculature and improves small molecule delivery,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(6), 1827–1832 (2015).
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R. S. Kerbel, “Tumor angiogenesis,” N. Engl. J. Med. 358(19), 2039–2049 (2008).
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N. Ferrara and R. S. Kerbel, “Angiogenesis as a therapeutic target,” Nature 438(7070), 967–974 (2005).
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J. Kirz, C. Jacobsen, and M. Howells, “Soft X-ray Microscopes and Their Biological Applications,” Q. Rev. Biophys. 28(1), 33–130 (1995).
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Kiss, A. M.

Y. Liu, A. M. Kiss, D. H. Larsson, F. Yang, and P. Pianetta, “To get the most out of high resolution X-ray tomography: A review of the post-reconstruction analysis,” Spectrochim. Acta B At. Spectrosc. 117, 29–41 (2016).

Kooyman, P. J.

E. de Smit, I. Swart, J. F. Creemer, G. H. Hoveling, M. K. Gilles, T. Tyliszczak, P. J. Kooyman, H. W. Zandbergen, C. Morin, B. M. Weckhuysen, and F. M. F. de Groot, “Nanoscale chemical imaging of a working catalyst by scanning transmission X-ray microscopy,” Nature 456(7219), 222–225 (2008).
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Larsson, D. H.

Y. Liu, A. M. Kiss, D. H. Larsson, F. Yang, and P. Pianetta, “To get the most out of high resolution X-ray tomography: A review of the post-reconstruction analysis,” Spectrochim. Acta B At. Spectrosc. 117, 29–41 (2016).

Laundy, D.

H. Wang, S. Berujon, J. Herzen, R. Atwood, D. Laundy, A. Hipp, and K. Sawhney, “X-ray phase contrast tomography by tracking near field speckle,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8762 (2015).
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Li, A.

Y. Zhu, J. Zhang, A. Li, Y. Zhang, and C. Fan, “Synchrotron-based X-ray microscopy for sub-100nm resolution cell imaging,” Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol. 39, 11–16 (2017).
[PubMed]

Li, J.

M.-W. Sohn, N. Epstein, E. S. Huang, Z. Huo, N. Emanuele, G. Stukenborg, M. Guihan, J. Li, and E. Budiman-Mak, “Visit-to-visit systolic blood pressure variability and microvascular complications among patients with diabetes,” J. Diabetes Complications 31(1), 195–201 (2017).
[PubMed]

Liebhardt, S.

Y. Zhao, E. Brun, P. Coan, Z. Huang, A. Sztrókay, P. C. Diemoz, S. Liebhardt, A. Mittone, S. Gasilov, J. Miao, and A. Bravin, “High-resolution, low-dose phase contrast X-ray tomography for 3D diagnosis of human breast cancers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(45), 18290–18294 (2012).
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Lipke, E.

A. Sombke, E. Lipke, P. Michalik, G. Uhl, and S. Harzsch, “Potential and limitations of X-Ray micro-computed tomography in arthropod neuroanatomy: a methodological and comparative survey,” J. Comp. Neurol. 523(8), 1281–1295 (2015).
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M. Datta, L. E. Via, W. S. Kamoun, C. Liu, W. Chen, G. Seano, D. M. Weiner, D. Schimel, K. England, J. D. Martin, X. Gao, L. Xu, C. E. Barry, and R. K. Jain, “Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor treatment normalizes tuberculosis granuloma vasculature and improves small molecule delivery,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(6), 1827–1832 (2015).
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Y. Liu, A. M. Kiss, D. H. Larsson, F. Yang, and P. Pianetta, “To get the most out of high resolution X-ray tomography: A review of the post-reconstruction analysis,” Spectrochim. Acta B At. Spectrosc. 117, 29–41 (2016).

Y. Liu, J. Nelson, C. Holzner, J. C. Andrews, and P. Pianetta, “Recent advances in synchrotron-based hard x-ray phase contrast imaging,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 46, 494001 (2013).

Longo, R.

R.-C. Chen, D. Dreossi, L. Mancini, R. Menk, L. Rigon, T.-Q. Xiao, and R. Longo, “PITRE: software for phase-sensitive X-ray image processing and tomography reconstruction,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 19(Pt 5), 836–845 (2012).
[PubMed]

Luft, J. H.

H. S. Bennett, J. H. Luft, and J. C. Hampton, “Morphological classifications of vertebrate blood capillaries,” Am. J. Physiol. 196(2), 381–390 (1959).
[PubMed]

Mancini, L.

R.-C. Chen, D. Dreossi, L. Mancini, R. Menk, L. Rigon, T.-Q. Xiao, and R. Longo, “PITRE: software for phase-sensitive X-ray image processing and tomography reconstruction,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 19(Pt 5), 836–845 (2012).
[PubMed]

Manuel Perez, J.

O. Rabin, J. Manuel Perez, J. Grimm, G. Wojtkiewicz, and R. Weissleder, “An X-ray computed tomography imaging agent based on long-circulating bismuth sulphide nanoparticles,” Nat. Mater. 5(2), 118–122 (2006).
[PubMed]

Martin, J. D.

M. Datta, L. E. Via, W. S. Kamoun, C. Liu, W. Chen, G. Seano, D. M. Weiner, D. Schimel, K. England, J. D. Martin, X. Gao, L. Xu, C. E. Barry, and R. K. Jain, “Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor treatment normalizes tuberculosis granuloma vasculature and improves small molecule delivery,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(6), 1827–1832 (2015).
[PubMed]

Mayo, S.

T. E. Gureyev, S. Mayo, S. W. Wilkins, D. Paganin, and A. W. Stevenson, “Quantitative in-line phase-contrast imaging with multienergy X rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(25), 5827–5830 (2001).
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S. C. Mayo, A. W. Stevenson, and S. W. Wilkins, “In-line phase-contrast X-ray imaging and tomography for materials science,” Materials (Basel) 5(5), 937–965 (2012).
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G. Schneider, P. Guttmann, S. Heim, S. Rehbein, F. Mueller, K. Nagashima, J. B. Heymann, W. G. Müller, and J. G. McNally, “Three-dimensional cellular ultrastructure resolved by X-ray microscopy,” Nat. Methods 7(12), 985–987 (2010).
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Menk, R.

R.-C. Chen, D. Dreossi, L. Mancini, R. Menk, L. Rigon, T.-Q. Xiao, and R. Longo, “PITRE: software for phase-sensitive X-ray image processing and tomography reconstruction,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 19(Pt 5), 836–845 (2012).
[PubMed]

Miao, J.

Y. Zhao, E. Brun, P. Coan, Z. Huang, A. Sztrókay, P. C. Diemoz, S. Liebhardt, A. Mittone, S. Gasilov, J. Miao, and A. Bravin, “High-resolution, low-dose phase contrast X-ray tomography for 3D diagnosis of human breast cancers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(45), 18290–18294 (2012).
[PubMed]

Michalik, P.

A. Sombke, E. Lipke, P. Michalik, G. Uhl, and S. Harzsch, “Potential and limitations of X-Ray micro-computed tomography in arthropod neuroanatomy: a methodological and comparative survey,” J. Comp. Neurol. 523(8), 1281–1295 (2015).
[PubMed]

Mittone, A.

Y. Zhao, E. Brun, P. Coan, Z. Huang, A. Sztrókay, P. C. Diemoz, S. Liebhardt, A. Mittone, S. Gasilov, J. Miao, and A. Bravin, “High-resolution, low-dose phase contrast X-ray tomography for 3D diagnosis of human breast cancers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(45), 18290–18294 (2012).
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Momose, A.

A. Momose, T. Takeda, Y. Itai, and K. Hirano, “Phase-contrast X-ray computed tomography for observing biological soft tissues,” Nat. Med. 2(4), 473–475 (1996).
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Morin, C.

E. de Smit, I. Swart, J. F. Creemer, G. H. Hoveling, M. K. Gilles, T. Tyliszczak, P. J. Kooyman, H. W. Zandbergen, C. Morin, B. M. Weckhuysen, and F. M. F. de Groot, “Nanoscale chemical imaging of a working catalyst by scanning transmission X-ray microscopy,” Nature 456(7219), 222–225 (2008).
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Mueller, F.

G. Schneider, P. Guttmann, S. Heim, S. Rehbein, F. Mueller, K. Nagashima, J. B. Heymann, W. G. Müller, and J. G. McNally, “Three-dimensional cellular ultrastructure resolved by X-ray microscopy,” Nat. Methods 7(12), 985–987 (2010).
[PubMed]

Müller, W. G.

G. Schneider, P. Guttmann, S. Heim, S. Rehbein, F. Mueller, K. Nagashima, J. B. Heymann, W. G. Müller, and J. G. McNally, “Three-dimensional cellular ultrastructure resolved by X-ray microscopy,” Nat. Methods 7(12), 985–987 (2010).
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M. Mundhenke, B. Schwartzkopff, and B. E. Strauer, “Structural analysis of arteriolar and myocardial remodelling in the subendocardial region of patients with hypertensive heart disease and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy,” Virchows Arch. 431(4), 265–273 (1997).
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Murphy, S. V.

J. C. Niclis, S. V. Murphy, D. Y. Parkinson, A. Zedan, A. H. Sathananthan, D. S. Cram, and P. Heraud, “Three-dimensional imaging of human stem cells using soft X-ray tomography,” J. R. Soc. Interface 12(108), 20150252 (2015).
[PubMed]

Nagashima, K.

G. Schneider, P. Guttmann, S. Heim, S. Rehbein, F. Mueller, K. Nagashima, J. B. Heymann, W. G. Müller, and J. G. McNally, “Three-dimensional cellular ultrastructure resolved by X-ray microscopy,” Nat. Methods 7(12), 985–987 (2010).
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Naulleau, P.

Nelson, J.

Y. Liu, J. Nelson, C. Holzner, J. C. Andrews, and P. Pianetta, “Recent advances in synchrotron-based hard x-ray phase contrast imaging,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 46, 494001 (2013).

Niclis, J. C.

J. C. Niclis, S. V. Murphy, D. Y. Parkinson, A. Zedan, A. H. Sathananthan, D. S. Cram, and P. Heraud, “Three-dimensional imaging of human stem cells using soft X-ray tomography,” J. R. Soc. Interface 12(108), 20150252 (2015).
[PubMed]

Ohigashi, T.

M. Shinohara, T. Yamashita, H. Tawa, M. Takeda, N. Sasaki, T. Takaya, R. Toh, A. Takeuchi, T. Ohigashi, and K. Shinohara, “Atherosclerotic plaque imaging using phase-contrast X-ray computed tomography,” Am. J. Physiol.- Heart C. 294, H1094–H1100 (2008).

Otón, J.

J. J. Conesa, J. Otón, M. Chiappi, J. M. Carazo, E. Pereiro, F. J. Chichón, and J. L. Carrascosa, “Intracellular nanoparticles mass quantification by near-edge absorption soft X-ray nanotomography,” Sci. Rep. 6, 22354 (2016).
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Paganin, D.

T. E. Gureyev, S. Mayo, S. W. Wilkins, D. Paganin, and A. W. Stevenson, “Quantitative in-line phase-contrast imaging with multienergy X rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(25), 5827–5830 (2001).
[PubMed]

Parkinson, D. Y.

J. C. Niclis, S. V. Murphy, D. Y. Parkinson, A. Zedan, A. H. Sathananthan, D. S. Cram, and P. Heraud, “Three-dimensional imaging of human stem cells using soft X-ray tomography,” J. R. Soc. Interface 12(108), 20150252 (2015).
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J. J. Conesa, J. Otón, M. Chiappi, J. M. Carazo, E. Pereiro, F. J. Chichón, and J. L. Carrascosa, “Intracellular nanoparticles mass quantification by near-edge absorption soft X-ray nanotomography,” Sci. Rep. 6, 22354 (2016).
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Pianetta, P.

Y. Liu, A. M. Kiss, D. H. Larsson, F. Yang, and P. Pianetta, “To get the most out of high resolution X-ray tomography: A review of the post-reconstruction analysis,” Spectrochim. Acta B At. Spectrosc. 117, 29–41 (2016).

Y. Liu, J. Nelson, C. Holzner, J. C. Andrews, and P. Pianetta, “Recent advances in synchrotron-based hard x-ray phase contrast imaging,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 46, 494001 (2013).

Rabin, O.

O. Rabin, J. Manuel Perez, J. Grimm, G. Wojtkiewicz, and R. Weissleder, “An X-ray computed tomography imaging agent based on long-circulating bismuth sulphide nanoparticles,” Nat. Mater. 5(2), 118–122 (2006).
[PubMed]

Rehbein, S.

G. Schneider, P. Guttmann, S. Heim, S. Rehbein, F. Mueller, K. Nagashima, J. B. Heymann, W. G. Müller, and J. G. McNally, “Three-dimensional cellular ultrastructure resolved by X-ray microscopy,” Nat. Methods 7(12), 985–987 (2010).
[PubMed]

Rekawa, S.

Rigon, L.

R.-C. Chen, D. Dreossi, L. Mancini, R. Menk, L. Rigon, T.-Q. Xiao, and R. Longo, “PITRE: software for phase-sensitive X-ray image processing and tomography reconstruction,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 19(Pt 5), 836–845 (2012).
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Roberge, W. G.

B. P. Flannery, H. W. Deckman, W. G. Roberge, and K. L. D’Amico, “Three-dimensional X-ray microtomography,” Science 237(4821), 1439–1444 (1987).
[PubMed]

Sasaki, N.

M. Shinohara, T. Yamashita, H. Tawa, M. Takeda, N. Sasaki, T. Takaya, R. Toh, A. Takeuchi, T. Ohigashi, and K. Shinohara, “Atherosclerotic plaque imaging using phase-contrast X-ray computed tomography,” Am. J. Physiol.- Heart C. 294, H1094–H1100 (2008).

Sathananthan, A. H.

J. C. Niclis, S. V. Murphy, D. Y. Parkinson, A. Zedan, A. H. Sathananthan, D. S. Cram, and P. Heraud, “Three-dimensional imaging of human stem cells using soft X-ray tomography,” J. R. Soc. Interface 12(108), 20150252 (2015).
[PubMed]

Sawhney, K.

H. Wang, S. Berujon, J. Herzen, R. Atwood, D. Laundy, A. Hipp, and K. Sawhney, “X-ray phase contrast tomography by tracking near field speckle,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8762 (2015).
[PubMed]

Schimel, D.

M. Datta, L. E. Via, W. S. Kamoun, C. Liu, W. Chen, G. Seano, D. M. Weiner, D. Schimel, K. England, J. D. Martin, X. Gao, L. Xu, C. E. Barry, and R. K. Jain, “Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor treatment normalizes tuberculosis granuloma vasculature and improves small molecule delivery,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(6), 1827–1832 (2015).
[PubMed]

Schneider, G.

G. Schneider, P. Guttmann, S. Heim, S. Rehbein, F. Mueller, K. Nagashima, J. B. Heymann, W. G. Müller, and J. G. McNally, “Three-dimensional cellular ultrastructure resolved by X-ray microscopy,” Nat. Methods 7(12), 985–987 (2010).
[PubMed]

Schwartzkopff, B.

M. Mundhenke, B. Schwartzkopff, and B. E. Strauer, “Structural analysis of arteriolar and myocardial remodelling in the subendocardial region of patients with hypertensive heart disease and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy,” Virchows Arch. 431(4), 265–273 (1997).
[PubMed]

Seano, G.

M. Datta, L. E. Via, W. S. Kamoun, C. Liu, W. Chen, G. Seano, D. M. Weiner, D. Schimel, K. England, J. D. Martin, X. Gao, L. Xu, C. E. Barry, and R. K. Jain, “Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor treatment normalizes tuberculosis granuloma vasculature and improves small molecule delivery,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(6), 1827–1832 (2015).
[PubMed]

Shinohara, K.

M. Shinohara, T. Yamashita, H. Tawa, M. Takeda, N. Sasaki, T. Takaya, R. Toh, A. Takeuchi, T. Ohigashi, and K. Shinohara, “Atherosclerotic plaque imaging using phase-contrast X-ray computed tomography,” Am. J. Physiol.- Heart C. 294, H1094–H1100 (2008).

Shinohara, M.

M. Shinohara, T. Yamashita, H. Tawa, M. Takeda, N. Sasaki, T. Takaya, R. Toh, A. Takeuchi, T. Ohigashi, and K. Shinohara, “Atherosclerotic plaque imaging using phase-contrast X-ray computed tomography,” Am. J. Physiol.- Heart C. 294, H1094–H1100 (2008).

Sohn, M.-W.

M.-W. Sohn, N. Epstein, E. S. Huang, Z. Huo, N. Emanuele, G. Stukenborg, M. Guihan, J. Li, and E. Budiman-Mak, “Visit-to-visit systolic blood pressure variability and microvascular complications among patients with diabetes,” J. Diabetes Complications 31(1), 195–201 (2017).
[PubMed]

Sombke, A.

A. Sombke, E. Lipke, P. Michalik, G. Uhl, and S. Harzsch, “Potential and limitations of X-Ray micro-computed tomography in arthropod neuroanatomy: a methodological and comparative survey,” J. Comp. Neurol. 523(8), 1281–1295 (2015).
[PubMed]

Stevenson, A. W.

S. C. Mayo, A. W. Stevenson, and S. W. Wilkins, “In-line phase-contrast X-ray imaging and tomography for materials science,” Materials (Basel) 5(5), 937–965 (2012).
[PubMed]

T. E. Gureyev, S. Mayo, S. W. Wilkins, D. Paganin, and A. W. Stevenson, “Quantitative in-line phase-contrast imaging with multienergy X rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(25), 5827–5830 (2001).
[PubMed]

Strauer, B. E.

M. Mundhenke, B. Schwartzkopff, and B. E. Strauer, “Structural analysis of arteriolar and myocardial remodelling in the subendocardial region of patients with hypertensive heart disease and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy,” Virchows Arch. 431(4), 265–273 (1997).
[PubMed]

Stukenborg, G.

M.-W. Sohn, N. Epstein, E. S. Huang, Z. Huo, N. Emanuele, G. Stukenborg, M. Guihan, J. Li, and E. Budiman-Mak, “Visit-to-visit systolic blood pressure variability and microvascular complications among patients with diabetes,” J. Diabetes Complications 31(1), 195–201 (2017).
[PubMed]

Swart, I.

E. de Smit, I. Swart, J. F. Creemer, G. H. Hoveling, M. K. Gilles, T. Tyliszczak, P. J. Kooyman, H. W. Zandbergen, C. Morin, B. M. Weckhuysen, and F. M. F. de Groot, “Nanoscale chemical imaging of a working catalyst by scanning transmission X-ray microscopy,” Nature 456(7219), 222–225 (2008).
[PubMed]

Sztrókay, A.

Y. Zhao, E. Brun, P. Coan, Z. Huang, A. Sztrókay, P. C. Diemoz, S. Liebhardt, A. Mittone, S. Gasilov, J. Miao, and A. Bravin, “High-resolution, low-dose phase contrast X-ray tomography for 3D diagnosis of human breast cancers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(45), 18290–18294 (2012).
[PubMed]

Takaya, T.

M. Shinohara, T. Yamashita, H. Tawa, M. Takeda, N. Sasaki, T. Takaya, R. Toh, A. Takeuchi, T. Ohigashi, and K. Shinohara, “Atherosclerotic plaque imaging using phase-contrast X-ray computed tomography,” Am. J. Physiol.- Heart C. 294, H1094–H1100 (2008).

Takeda, M.

M. Shinohara, T. Yamashita, H. Tawa, M. Takeda, N. Sasaki, T. Takaya, R. Toh, A. Takeuchi, T. Ohigashi, and K. Shinohara, “Atherosclerotic plaque imaging using phase-contrast X-ray computed tomography,” Am. J. Physiol.- Heart C. 294, H1094–H1100 (2008).

Takeda, T.

A. Momose, T. Takeda, Y. Itai, and K. Hirano, “Phase-contrast X-ray computed tomography for observing biological soft tissues,” Nat. Med. 2(4), 473–475 (1996).
[PubMed]

Takeuchi, A.

M. Shinohara, T. Yamashita, H. Tawa, M. Takeda, N. Sasaki, T. Takaya, R. Toh, A. Takeuchi, T. Ohigashi, and K. Shinohara, “Atherosclerotic plaque imaging using phase-contrast X-ray computed tomography,” Am. J. Physiol.- Heart C. 294, H1094–H1100 (2008).

Tawa, H.

M. Shinohara, T. Yamashita, H. Tawa, M. Takeda, N. Sasaki, T. Takaya, R. Toh, A. Takeuchi, T. Ohigashi, and K. Shinohara, “Atherosclerotic plaque imaging using phase-contrast X-ray computed tomography,” Am. J. Physiol.- Heart C. 294, H1094–H1100 (2008).

Toh, R.

M. Shinohara, T. Yamashita, H. Tawa, M. Takeda, N. Sasaki, T. Takaya, R. Toh, A. Takeuchi, T. Ohigashi, and K. Shinohara, “Atherosclerotic plaque imaging using phase-contrast X-ray computed tomography,” Am. J. Physiol.- Heart C. 294, H1094–H1100 (2008).

Tyliszczak, T.

W. Chao, P. Fischer, T. Tyliszczak, S. Rekawa, E. Anderson, and P. Naulleau, “Real space soft X-ray imaging at 10 nm spatial resolution,” Opt. Express 20(9), 9777–9783 (2012).
[PubMed]

E. de Smit, I. Swart, J. F. Creemer, G. H. Hoveling, M. K. Gilles, T. Tyliszczak, P. J. Kooyman, H. W. Zandbergen, C. Morin, B. M. Weckhuysen, and F. M. F. de Groot, “Nanoscale chemical imaging of a working catalyst by scanning transmission X-ray microscopy,” Nature 456(7219), 222–225 (2008).
[PubMed]

Uhl, G.

A. Sombke, E. Lipke, P. Michalik, G. Uhl, and S. Harzsch, “Potential and limitations of X-Ray micro-computed tomography in arthropod neuroanatomy: a methodological and comparative survey,” J. Comp. Neurol. 523(8), 1281–1295 (2015).
[PubMed]

Via, L. E.

M. Datta, L. E. Via, W. S. Kamoun, C. Liu, W. Chen, G. Seano, D. M. Weiner, D. Schimel, K. England, J. D. Martin, X. Gao, L. Xu, C. E. Barry, and R. K. Jain, “Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor treatment normalizes tuberculosis granuloma vasculature and improves small molecule delivery,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(6), 1827–1832 (2015).
[PubMed]

Wang, H.

H. Wang, S. Berujon, J. Herzen, R. Atwood, D. Laundy, A. Hipp, and K. Sawhney, “X-ray phase contrast tomography by tracking near field speckle,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8762 (2015).
[PubMed]

Wang, T.

R. Xuan, X. Zhao, D. Hu, J. Jian, T. Wang, and C. Hu, “Three-dimensional visualization of the microvasculature of bile duct ligation-induced liver fibrosis in rats by x-ray phase-contrast imaging computed tomography,” Sci. Rep. 5, 11500 (2015).
[PubMed]

Wang, Z.

Y. Zhu, T. Earnest, Q. Huang, X. Cai, Z. Wang, Z. Wu, and C. Fan, “Synchrotron-based X-ray-sensitive nanoprobes for cellular imaging,” Adv. Mater. 26(46), 7889–7895 (2014).
[PubMed]

Weckhuysen, B. M.

E. de Smit, I. Swart, J. F. Creemer, G. H. Hoveling, M. K. Gilles, T. Tyliszczak, P. J. Kooyman, H. W. Zandbergen, C. Morin, B. M. Weckhuysen, and F. M. F. de Groot, “Nanoscale chemical imaging of a working catalyst by scanning transmission X-ray microscopy,” Nature 456(7219), 222–225 (2008).
[PubMed]

Weiner, D. M.

M. Datta, L. E. Via, W. S. Kamoun, C. Liu, W. Chen, G. Seano, D. M. Weiner, D. Schimel, K. England, J. D. Martin, X. Gao, L. Xu, C. E. Barry, and R. K. Jain, “Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor treatment normalizes tuberculosis granuloma vasculature and improves small molecule delivery,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(6), 1827–1832 (2015).
[PubMed]

Weissleder, R.

O. Rabin, J. Manuel Perez, J. Grimm, G. Wojtkiewicz, and R. Weissleder, “An X-ray computed tomography imaging agent based on long-circulating bismuth sulphide nanoparticles,” Nat. Mater. 5(2), 118–122 (2006).
[PubMed]

Wilkins, S. W.

S. C. Mayo, A. W. Stevenson, and S. W. Wilkins, “In-line phase-contrast X-ray imaging and tomography for materials science,” Materials (Basel) 5(5), 937–965 (2012).
[PubMed]

T. E. Gureyev, S. Mayo, S. W. Wilkins, D. Paganin, and A. W. Stevenson, “Quantitative in-line phase-contrast imaging with multienergy X rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(25), 5827–5830 (2001).
[PubMed]

Wojtkiewicz, G.

O. Rabin, J. Manuel Perez, J. Grimm, G. Wojtkiewicz, and R. Weissleder, “An X-ray computed tomography imaging agent based on long-circulating bismuth sulphide nanoparticles,” Nat. Mater. 5(2), 118–122 (2006).
[PubMed]

Wu, X.

X. Wu, H. Liu, and A. Yan, “Phase-contrast X-ray tomography: contrast mechanism and roles of phase retrieval,” Eur. J. Radiol. 68(3Suppl), S8–S12 (2008).
[PubMed]

Wu, Z.

Y. Zhu, T. Earnest, Q. Huang, X. Cai, Z. Wang, Z. Wu, and C. Fan, “Synchrotron-based X-ray-sensitive nanoprobes for cellular imaging,” Adv. Mater. 26(46), 7889–7895 (2014).
[PubMed]

Xiao, T.-Q.

R.-C. Chen, D. Dreossi, L. Mancini, R. Menk, L. Rigon, T.-Q. Xiao, and R. Longo, “PITRE: software for phase-sensitive X-ray image processing and tomography reconstruction,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 19(Pt 5), 836–845 (2012).
[PubMed]

Xu, L.

M. Datta, L. E. Via, W. S. Kamoun, C. Liu, W. Chen, G. Seano, D. M. Weiner, D. Schimel, K. England, J. D. Martin, X. Gao, L. Xu, C. E. Barry, and R. K. Jain, “Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor treatment normalizes tuberculosis granuloma vasculature and improves small molecule delivery,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(6), 1827–1832 (2015).
[PubMed]

Xuan, R.

R. Xuan, X. Zhao, D. Hu, J. Jian, T. Wang, and C. Hu, “Three-dimensional visualization of the microvasculature of bile duct ligation-induced liver fibrosis in rats by x-ray phase-contrast imaging computed tomography,” Sci. Rep. 5, 11500 (2015).
[PubMed]

Yamashita, T.

M. Shinohara, T. Yamashita, H. Tawa, M. Takeda, N. Sasaki, T. Takaya, R. Toh, A. Takeuchi, T. Ohigashi, and K. Shinohara, “Atherosclerotic plaque imaging using phase-contrast X-ray computed tomography,” Am. J. Physiol.- Heart C. 294, H1094–H1100 (2008).

Yan, A.

X. Wu, H. Liu, and A. Yan, “Phase-contrast X-ray tomography: contrast mechanism and roles of phase retrieval,” Eur. J. Radiol. 68(3Suppl), S8–S12 (2008).
[PubMed]

Yang, F.

Y. Liu, A. M. Kiss, D. H. Larsson, F. Yang, and P. Pianetta, “To get the most out of high resolution X-ray tomography: A review of the post-reconstruction analysis,” Spectrochim. Acta B At. Spectrosc. 117, 29–41 (2016).

Zandbergen, H. W.

E. de Smit, I. Swart, J. F. Creemer, G. H. Hoveling, M. K. Gilles, T. Tyliszczak, P. J. Kooyman, H. W. Zandbergen, C. Morin, B. M. Weckhuysen, and F. M. F. de Groot, “Nanoscale chemical imaging of a working catalyst by scanning transmission X-ray microscopy,” Nature 456(7219), 222–225 (2008).
[PubMed]

Zedan, A.

J. C. Niclis, S. V. Murphy, D. Y. Parkinson, A. Zedan, A. H. Sathananthan, D. S. Cram, and P. Heraud, “Three-dimensional imaging of human stem cells using soft X-ray tomography,” J. R. Soc. Interface 12(108), 20150252 (2015).
[PubMed]

Zhang, J.

Y. Zhu, J. Zhang, A. Li, Y. Zhang, and C. Fan, “Synchrotron-based X-ray microscopy for sub-100nm resolution cell imaging,” Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol. 39, 11–16 (2017).
[PubMed]

Zhang, Y.

Y. Zhu, J. Zhang, A. Li, Y. Zhang, and C. Fan, “Synchrotron-based X-ray microscopy for sub-100nm resolution cell imaging,” Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol. 39, 11–16 (2017).
[PubMed]

Zhao, X.

R. Xuan, X. Zhao, D. Hu, J. Jian, T. Wang, and C. Hu, “Three-dimensional visualization of the microvasculature of bile duct ligation-induced liver fibrosis in rats by x-ray phase-contrast imaging computed tomography,” Sci. Rep. 5, 11500 (2015).
[PubMed]

Zhao, Y.

Y. Zhao, E. Brun, P. Coan, Z. Huang, A. Sztrókay, P. C. Diemoz, S. Liebhardt, A. Mittone, S. Gasilov, J. Miao, and A. Bravin, “High-resolution, low-dose phase contrast X-ray tomography for 3D diagnosis of human breast cancers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(45), 18290–18294 (2012).
[PubMed]

Zhu, Y.

Y. Zhu, J. Zhang, A. Li, Y. Zhang, and C. Fan, “Synchrotron-based X-ray microscopy for sub-100nm resolution cell imaging,” Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol. 39, 11–16 (2017).
[PubMed]

Y. Zhu, T. Earnest, Q. Huang, X. Cai, Z. Wang, Z. Wu, and C. Fan, “Synchrotron-based X-ray-sensitive nanoprobes for cellular imaging,” Adv. Mater. 26(46), 7889–7895 (2014).
[PubMed]

Adv. Mater. (1)

Y. Zhu, T. Earnest, Q. Huang, X. Cai, Z. Wang, Z. Wu, and C. Fan, “Synchrotron-based X-ray-sensitive nanoprobes for cellular imaging,” Adv. Mater. 26(46), 7889–7895 (2014).
[PubMed]

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H. S. Bennett, J. H. Luft, and J. C. Hampton, “Morphological classifications of vertebrate blood capillaries,” Am. J. Physiol. 196(2), 381–390 (1959).
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M. Shinohara, T. Yamashita, H. Tawa, M. Takeda, N. Sasaki, T. Takaya, R. Toh, A. Takeuchi, T. Ohigashi, and K. Shinohara, “Atherosclerotic plaque imaging using phase-contrast X-ray computed tomography,” Am. J. Physiol.- Heart C. 294, H1094–H1100 (2008).

Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol. (1)

Y. Zhu, J. Zhang, A. Li, Y. Zhang, and C. Fan, “Synchrotron-based X-ray microscopy for sub-100nm resolution cell imaging,” Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol. 39, 11–16 (2017).
[PubMed]

Eur. J. Radiol. (1)

X. Wu, H. Liu, and A. Yan, “Phase-contrast X-ray tomography: contrast mechanism and roles of phase retrieval,” Eur. J. Radiol. 68(3Suppl), S8–S12 (2008).
[PubMed]

J. Comp. Neurol. (1)

A. Sombke, E. Lipke, P. Michalik, G. Uhl, and S. Harzsch, “Potential and limitations of X-Ray micro-computed tomography in arthropod neuroanatomy: a methodological and comparative survey,” J. Comp. Neurol. 523(8), 1281–1295 (2015).
[PubMed]

J. Diabetes Complications (1)

M.-W. Sohn, N. Epstein, E. S. Huang, Z. Huo, N. Emanuele, G. Stukenborg, M. Guihan, J. Li, and E. Budiman-Mak, “Visit-to-visit systolic blood pressure variability and microvascular complications among patients with diabetes,” J. Diabetes Complications 31(1), 195–201 (2017).
[PubMed]

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (1)

Y. Liu, J. Nelson, C. Holzner, J. C. Andrews, and P. Pianetta, “Recent advances in synchrotron-based hard x-ray phase contrast imaging,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 46, 494001 (2013).

J. R. Soc. Interface (1)

J. C. Niclis, S. V. Murphy, D. Y. Parkinson, A. Zedan, A. H. Sathananthan, D. S. Cram, and P. Heraud, “Three-dimensional imaging of human stem cells using soft X-ray tomography,” J. R. Soc. Interface 12(108), 20150252 (2015).
[PubMed]

J. Synchrotron Radiat. (1)

R.-C. Chen, D. Dreossi, L. Mancini, R. Menk, L. Rigon, T.-Q. Xiao, and R. Longo, “PITRE: software for phase-sensitive X-ray image processing and tomography reconstruction,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 19(Pt 5), 836–845 (2012).
[PubMed]

Materials (Basel) (1)

S. C. Mayo, A. W. Stevenson, and S. W. Wilkins, “In-line phase-contrast X-ray imaging and tomography for materials science,” Materials (Basel) 5(5), 937–965 (2012).
[PubMed]

N. Engl. J. Med. (1)

R. S. Kerbel, “Tumor angiogenesis,” N. Engl. J. Med. 358(19), 2039–2049 (2008).
[PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (1)

O. Rabin, J. Manuel Perez, J. Grimm, G. Wojtkiewicz, and R. Weissleder, “An X-ray computed tomography imaging agent based on long-circulating bismuth sulphide nanoparticles,” Nat. Mater. 5(2), 118–122 (2006).
[PubMed]

Nat. Med. (1)

A. Momose, T. Takeda, Y. Itai, and K. Hirano, “Phase-contrast X-ray computed tomography for observing biological soft tissues,” Nat. Med. 2(4), 473–475 (1996).
[PubMed]

Nat. Methods (1)

G. Schneider, P. Guttmann, S. Heim, S. Rehbein, F. Mueller, K. Nagashima, J. B. Heymann, W. G. Müller, and J. G. McNally, “Three-dimensional cellular ultrastructure resolved by X-ray microscopy,” Nat. Methods 7(12), 985–987 (2010).
[PubMed]

Nature (3)

E. de Smit, I. Swart, J. F. Creemer, G. H. Hoveling, M. K. Gilles, T. Tyliszczak, P. J. Kooyman, H. W. Zandbergen, C. Morin, B. M. Weckhuysen, and F. M. F. de Groot, “Nanoscale chemical imaging of a working catalyst by scanning transmission X-ray microscopy,” Nature 456(7219), 222–225 (2008).
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P. Carmeliet, “Angiogenesis in life, disease and medicine,” Nature 438(7070), 932–936 (2005).
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N. Ferrara and R. S. Kerbel, “Angiogenesis as a therapeutic target,” Nature 438(7070), 967–974 (2005).
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Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

T. E. Gureyev, S. Mayo, S. W. Wilkins, D. Paganin, and A. W. Stevenson, “Quantitative in-line phase-contrast imaging with multienergy X rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(25), 5827–5830 (2001).
[PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2)

M. Datta, L. E. Via, W. S. Kamoun, C. Liu, W. Chen, G. Seano, D. M. Weiner, D. Schimel, K. England, J. D. Martin, X. Gao, L. Xu, C. E. Barry, and R. K. Jain, “Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor treatment normalizes tuberculosis granuloma vasculature and improves small molecule delivery,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(6), 1827–1832 (2015).
[PubMed]

Y. Zhao, E. Brun, P. Coan, Z. Huang, A. Sztrókay, P. C. Diemoz, S. Liebhardt, A. Mittone, S. Gasilov, J. Miao, and A. Bravin, “High-resolution, low-dose phase contrast X-ray tomography for 3D diagnosis of human breast cancers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(45), 18290–18294 (2012).
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Q. Rev. Biophys. (1)

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Sci. Rep. (3)

J. J. Conesa, J. Otón, M. Chiappi, J. M. Carazo, E. Pereiro, F. J. Chichón, and J. L. Carrascosa, “Intracellular nanoparticles mass quantification by near-edge absorption soft X-ray nanotomography,” Sci. Rep. 6, 22354 (2016).
[PubMed]

R. Xuan, X. Zhao, D. Hu, J. Jian, T. Wang, and C. Hu, “Three-dimensional visualization of the microvasculature of bile duct ligation-induced liver fibrosis in rats by x-ray phase-contrast imaging computed tomography,” Sci. Rep. 5, 11500 (2015).
[PubMed]

H. Wang, S. Berujon, J. Herzen, R. Atwood, D. Laundy, A. Hipp, and K. Sawhney, “X-ray phase contrast tomography by tracking near field speckle,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8762 (2015).
[PubMed]

Science (2)

R. K. Jain, “Normalization of tumor vasculature: an emerging concept in antiangiogenic therapy,” Science 307(5706), 58–62 (2005).
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Spectrochim. Acta B At. Spectrosc. (1)

Y. Liu, A. M. Kiss, D. H. Larsson, F. Yang, and P. Pianetta, “To get the most out of high resolution X-ray tomography: A review of the post-reconstruction analysis,” Spectrochim. Acta B At. Spectrosc. 117, 29–41 (2016).

Virchows Arch. (1)

M. Mundhenke, B. Schwartzkopff, and B. E. Strauer, “Structural analysis of arteriolar and myocardial remodelling in the subendocardial region of patients with hypertensive heart disease and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy,” Virchows Arch. 431(4), 265–273 (1997).
[PubMed]

Supplementary Material (1)

NameDescription
» Visualization 1       3D rendering of a blood capillary

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic diagram of soft X-ray transmission microscopy (STXM).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Schematic diagram of in-line phase contrast X-ray microscopy.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 2D images of three different blood capillaries observed by different methods at various spatial resolutions. (A) In-line phase contrast X-ray radiography. The red rectangle labels a small section used for line scan analysis. (B) Optical image. (C)STXM image. (D) The line scan of the region labelled in the red rectangle.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The power spectral density (PSD) reveals that the STXM resolution was ~76 nm.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (A) 3D rendering of a blood capillary (see Visualization 1). (B) A virtual slice extracted from the 3D image. (C) Zoomed-in view of the blood capillary. The red curve was plotted along its profile. (D) The contour and periodic structure model suggested.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (A) Outside surface of wave structure. L1, arc length; r, radius; l1 chord length. The central angle is 60°. (B) Inside surface of wave structure. L2, arc length; l2, chord length; d, straight length of the capillary. The central angle is ~120°.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

R 1 = L 1 - l 1 l 1
R 2 = L 2 - l 2 l 2 +2d
R= R 1 + R 2

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