Abstract

We present a tri-modality imaging system and fully integrated tri-modality probe for intravascular imaging. The tri-modality imaging system is able to simultaneously acquire optical coherence tomography (OCT), ultrasound (US), and fluorescence imaging. Moreover, for fluorescence imaging, we used the FDA-approved indocyanine green (ICG) dye as the contrast agent to target lipid-loaded macrophages. We conducted imaging from a male New Zealand white rabbit to evaluate the performance of the tri-modality system. In addition, tri-modality images of rabbit aortas were correlated with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) histology to check the measurement accuracy. The fully integrated miniature tri-modality probe, together with the use of ICG dye suggest that the system is of great potential for providing a more accurate assessment of vulnerable plaques in clinical applications.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part II,” Circulation 108(15), 1772–1778 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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  6. G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, E. F. Halpern, and B. E. Bouma, “Quantification of macrophage content in atherosclerotic plaques by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 107(1), 113–119 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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  8. M.A. Calfon, A. Rosenthal, G. Mallas, A. Mauskapf, R.N. Nudelman, V. Ntziachristos, and F.A. Jaffer, “In vivo near infrared fluorescence (NIRF) intravascular molecular imaging of inflammatory plaque, a multimodal approach to imaging of atherosclerosis,” J. Vis. Exp. 54, e2257 (2011).
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. S. Liang, T. Ma, J. Jing, X. Li, J. Li, K. K. Shung, Q. Zhou, J. Zhang, and Z. Chen, “Trimodality imaging system and intravascular endoscopic probe: combined optical coherence tomography, fluorescence imaging and ultrasound imaging,” Opt. Lett. 39(23), 6652–6655 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. M. Abran, G. Cloutier, M. H. Cardinal, B. Chayer, J.-C. Tardif, and F. Lesage, “Development of a photoacoustic, ultrasound and fluorescence imaging catheter for the study of atherosclerotic plaque,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Circuits Syst. 8(5), 696–703 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. C. Vinegoni, I. Botnaru, E. Aikawa, M. A. Calfon, Y. Iwamoto, E. J. Folco, V. Ntziachristos, R. Weissleder, P. Libby, and F. A. Jaffer, “Indocyanine green enables near-infrared fluorescence imaging of lipid-rich, inflamed atherosclerotic plaques,” Sci. Transl. Med. 3(84), 84ra45 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. J. Li, T. Ma, D. Mohar, E. Steward, M. Yu, Z. Piao, Y. He, K. K. Shung, Q. Zhou, P. M. Patel, and Z. Chen, “Ultrafast optical-ultrasonic system and miniaturized catheter for imaging and characterizing atherosclerotic plaques in vivo,” Sci. Rep. 5, 18406 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (5)

M. Abran, B.E. Stähli, N. Merlet, T. Mihalache-Avram, M. Mecteau, E. Rhéaume, D. Busseuil, J.C. Tardif, and F. Lesage, “Validating a bimodal intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) catheter for atherosclerotic plaque detection in rabbits,” Biomed Opt Express 6(10), 3989–3999 (2015).

Y. Li, X. Gong, C. Liu, R. Lin, W. Hau, X. Bai, and L. Song, “High-speed intravascular spectroscopic photoacoustic imaging at 1000 A-lines per second with a 0.9-mm diameter catheter,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(6), 065006 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. J. Ughi, J. Verjans, A. M. Fard, H. Wang, E. Osborn, T. Hara, A. Mauskapf, F. A. Jaffer, and G. J. Tearney, “Dual modality intravascular optical coherence tomography (OCT) and near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging: a fully automated algorithm for the distance-calibration of NIRF signal intensity for quantitative molecular imaging,” Int. J. Cardiovasc. Imaging 31(2), 259–268 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Li, T. Ma, D. Mohar, E. Steward, M. Yu, Z. Piao, Y. He, K. K. Shung, Q. Zhou, P. M. Patel, and Z. Chen, “Ultrafast optical-ultrasonic system and miniaturized catheter for imaging and characterizing atherosclerotic plaques in vivo,” Sci. Rep. 5, 18406 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Piao, T. Ma, J. Li, M. T. Wiedmann, S. Huang, M. Yu, K. K. Shung, Q. Zhou, C. S. Kim, and Z. Chen, “High speed intravascular photoacoustic imaging with fast optical parametric oscillator laser at 1.7 mum,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 083701 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (3)

S. Liang, T. Ma, J. Jing, X. Li, J. Li, K. K. Shung, Q. Zhou, J. Zhang, and Z. Chen, “Trimodality imaging system and intravascular endoscopic probe: combined optical coherence tomography, fluorescence imaging and ultrasound imaging,” Opt. Lett. 39(23), 6652–6655 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Abran, G. Cloutier, M. H. Cardinal, B. Chayer, J.-C. Tardif, and F. Lesage, “Development of a photoacoustic, ultrasound and fluorescence imaging catheter for the study of atherosclerotic plaque,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Circuits Syst. 8(5), 696–703 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Lee, M. W. Lee, H. S. Cho, J. W. Song, H. S. Nam, D. J. Oh, K. Park, W. Y. Oh, H. Yoo, and J. W. Kim, “Fully integrated high-speed intravascular optical coherence tomography/near-infrared fluorescence structural/molecular imaging in vivo using a clinically available near-infrared fluorescence-emitting indocyanine green to detect inflamed lipid-rich atheromata in coronary-sized vessels,” Circ. Cardiovasc. Interv. 7(4), 560–569 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

M.A. Calfon, A. Rosenthal, G. Mallas, A. Mauskapf, R.N. Nudelman, V. Ntziachristos, and F.A. Jaffer, “In vivo near infrared fluorescence (NIRF) intravascular molecular imaging of inflammatory plaque, a multimodal approach to imaging of atherosclerosis,” J. Vis. Exp. 54, e2257 (2011).

C. Vinegoni, I. Botnaru, E. Aikawa, M. A. Calfon, Y. Iwamoto, E. J. Folco, V. Ntziachristos, R. Weissleder, P. Libby, and F. A. Jaffer, “Indocyanine green enables near-infrared fluorescence imaging of lipid-rich, inflamed atherosclerotic plaques,” Sci. Transl. Med. 3(84), 84ra45 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Yang, X. Li, T. Wang, P. D. Kumavor, A. Aguirre, K. K. Shung, Q. Zhou, M. Sanders, M. Brewer, and Q. Zhu, “Integrated optical coherence tomography, ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging for ovarian tissue characterization,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(9), 2551–2561 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

A. V. Finn, M. Nakano, J. Narula, F. D. Kolodgie, and R. Virmani, “Concept of Vulnerable/Unstable Plaque,” Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 30(7), 1282–1292 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. M. Garcia-Garcia, M. A. Costa, and P. W. Serruys, “Imaging of coronary atherosclerosis: intravascular ultrasound,” Eur. Heart J. 31(20), 2456–2469 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

S. Sethuraman, S. R. Aglyamov, J. H. Amirian, R. W. Smalling, and S. Y. Emelianov, “Intravascular photoacoustic imaging using an IVUS imaging catheter,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 54(5), 978–986 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, E. F. Halpern, and B. E. Bouma, “Quantification of macrophage content in atherosclerotic plaques by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 107(1), 113–119 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part II,” Circulation 108(15), 1772–1778 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

J. G. Fujimoto, S. A. Boppart, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, C. Pitris, and M. E. Brezinski, “High resolution in vivo intra-arterial imaging with optical coherence tomography,” Heart 82(2), 128–133 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

E. Falk, P. K. Shah, and V. Fuster, “Coronary Plaque Disruption,” Circulation 92(3), 657–671 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

J. A. Ambrose, M. A. Tannenbaum, D. Alexopoulos, C. E. Hjemdahl-Monsen, J. Leavy, M. Weiss, S. Borrico, R. Gorlin, and V. Fuster, “Angiographic progression of coronary artery disease and the development of myocardial infarction,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 12(1), 56–62 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Abran, M.

M. Abran, B.E. Stähli, N. Merlet, T. Mihalache-Avram, M. Mecteau, E. Rhéaume, D. Busseuil, J.C. Tardif, and F. Lesage, “Validating a bimodal intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) catheter for atherosclerotic plaque detection in rabbits,” Biomed Opt Express 6(10), 3989–3999 (2015).

M. Abran, G. Cloutier, M. H. Cardinal, B. Chayer, J.-C. Tardif, and F. Lesage, “Development of a photoacoustic, ultrasound and fluorescence imaging catheter for the study of atherosclerotic plaque,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Circuits Syst. 8(5), 696–703 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aglyamov, S. R.

S. Sethuraman, S. R. Aglyamov, J. H. Amirian, R. W. Smalling, and S. Y. Emelianov, “Intravascular photoacoustic imaging using an IVUS imaging catheter,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 54(5), 978–986 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aguirre, A.

Aikawa, E.

C. Vinegoni, I. Botnaru, E. Aikawa, M. A. Calfon, Y. Iwamoto, E. J. Folco, V. Ntziachristos, R. Weissleder, P. Libby, and F. A. Jaffer, “Indocyanine green enables near-infrared fluorescence imaging of lipid-rich, inflamed atherosclerotic plaques,” Sci. Transl. Med. 3(84), 84ra45 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aikawa, M.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part II,” Circulation 108(15), 1772–1778 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Airaksinen, K. E.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part II,” Circulation 108(15), 1772–1778 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alexopoulos, D.

J. A. Ambrose, M. A. Tannenbaum, D. Alexopoulos, C. E. Hjemdahl-Monsen, J. Leavy, M. Weiss, S. Borrico, R. Gorlin, and V. Fuster, “Angiographic progression of coronary artery disease and the development of myocardial infarction,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 12(1), 56–62 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ambrose, J. A.

J. A. Ambrose, M. A. Tannenbaum, D. Alexopoulos, C. E. Hjemdahl-Monsen, J. Leavy, M. Weiss, S. Borrico, R. Gorlin, and V. Fuster, “Angiographic progression of coronary artery disease and the development of myocardial infarction,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 12(1), 56–62 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Amirian, J. H.

S. Sethuraman, S. R. Aglyamov, J. H. Amirian, R. W. Smalling, and S. Y. Emelianov, “Intravascular photoacoustic imaging using an IVUS imaging catheter,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 54(5), 978–986 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aretz, H. T.

G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, E. F. Halpern, and B. E. Bouma, “Quantification of macrophage content in atherosclerotic plaques by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 107(1), 113–119 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Assmann, G.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part II,” Circulation 108(15), 1772–1778 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Badimon, J. J.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part II,” Circulation 108(15), 1772–1778 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bahr, R.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part II,” Circulation 108(15), 1772–1778 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bai, X.

Y. Li, X. Gong, C. Liu, R. Lin, W. Hau, X. Bai, and L. Song, “High-speed intravascular spectroscopic photoacoustic imaging at 1000 A-lines per second with a 0.9-mm diameter catheter,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(6), 065006 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ballantyne, C.

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M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part II,” Circulation 108(15), 1772–1778 (2003).
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Folco, E. J.

C. Vinegoni, I. Botnaru, E. Aikawa, M. A. Calfon, Y. Iwamoto, E. J. Folco, V. Ntziachristos, R. Weissleder, P. Libby, and F. A. Jaffer, “Indocyanine green enables near-infrared fluorescence imaging of lipid-rich, inflamed atherosclerotic plaques,” Sci. Transl. Med. 3(84), 84ra45 (2011).
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J. G. Fujimoto, S. A. Boppart, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, C. Pitris, and M. E. Brezinski, “High resolution in vivo intra-arterial imaging with optical coherence tomography,” Heart 82(2), 128–133 (1999).
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Fuster, V.

E. Falk, P. K. Shah, and V. Fuster, “Coronary Plaque Disruption,” Circulation 92(3), 657–671 (1995).
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J. A. Ambrose, M. A. Tannenbaum, D. Alexopoulos, C. E. Hjemdahl-Monsen, J. Leavy, M. Weiss, S. Borrico, R. Gorlin, and V. Fuster, “Angiographic progression of coronary artery disease and the development of myocardial infarction,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 12(1), 56–62 (1988).
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Galis, Z. S.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part II,” Circulation 108(15), 1772–1778 (2003).
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Garcia-Garcia, H. M.

H. M. Garcia-Garcia, M. A. Costa, and P. W. Serruys, “Imaging of coronary atherosclerosis: intravascular ultrasound,” Eur. Heart J. 31(20), 2456–2469 (2010).
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Gong, X.

Y. Li, X. Gong, C. Liu, R. Lin, W. Hau, X. Bai, and L. Song, “High-speed intravascular spectroscopic photoacoustic imaging at 1000 A-lines per second with a 0.9-mm diameter catheter,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(6), 065006 (2015).
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Gorlin, R.

J. A. Ambrose, M. A. Tannenbaum, D. Alexopoulos, C. E. Hjemdahl-Monsen, J. Leavy, M. Weiss, S. Borrico, R. Gorlin, and V. Fuster, “Angiographic progression of coronary artery disease and the development of myocardial infarction,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 12(1), 56–62 (1988).
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Greenland, P.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part II,” Circulation 108(15), 1772–1778 (2003).
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Grundy, S. M.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part II,” Circulation 108(15), 1772–1778 (2003).
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Halpern, E. F.

G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, E. F. Halpern, and B. E. Bouma, “Quantification of macrophage content in atherosclerotic plaques by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 107(1), 113–119 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hansson, G. K.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part II,” Circulation 108(15), 1772–1778 (2003).
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Hara, T.

G. J. Ughi, J. Verjans, A. M. Fard, H. Wang, E. Osborn, T. Hara, A. Mauskapf, F. A. Jaffer, and G. J. Tearney, “Dual modality intravascular optical coherence tomography (OCT) and near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging: a fully automated algorithm for the distance-calibration of NIRF signal intensity for quantitative molecular imaging,” Int. J. Cardiovasc. Imaging 31(2), 259–268 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hau, W.

Y. Li, X. Gong, C. Liu, R. Lin, W. Hau, X. Bai, and L. Song, “High-speed intravascular spectroscopic photoacoustic imaging at 1000 A-lines per second with a 0.9-mm diameter catheter,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(6), 065006 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

He, Y.

J. Li, T. Ma, D. Mohar, E. Steward, M. Yu, Z. Piao, Y. He, K. K. Shung, Q. Zhou, P. M. Patel, and Z. Chen, “Ultrafast optical-ultrasonic system and miniaturized catheter for imaging and characterizing atherosclerotic plaques in vivo,” Sci. Rep. 5, 18406 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hjemdahl-Monsen, C. E.

J. A. Ambrose, M. A. Tannenbaum, D. Alexopoulos, C. E. Hjemdahl-Monsen, J. Leavy, M. Weiss, S. Borrico, R. Gorlin, and V. Fuster, “Angiographic progression of coronary artery disease and the development of myocardial infarction,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 12(1), 56–62 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Houser, S. L.

G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, E. F. Halpern, and B. E. Bouma, “Quantification of macrophage content in atherosclerotic plaques by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 107(1), 113–119 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, S.

Z. Piao, T. Ma, J. Li, M. T. Wiedmann, S. Huang, M. Yu, K. K. Shung, Q. Zhou, C. S. Kim, and Z. Chen, “High speed intravascular photoacoustic imaging with fast optical parametric oscillator laser at 1.7 mum,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 083701 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Insull, W.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part II,” Circulation 108(15), 1772–1778 (2003).
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Iwamoto, Y.

C. Vinegoni, I. Botnaru, E. Aikawa, M. A. Calfon, Y. Iwamoto, E. J. Folco, V. Ntziachristos, R. Weissleder, P. Libby, and F. A. Jaffer, “Indocyanine green enables near-infrared fluorescence imaging of lipid-rich, inflamed atherosclerotic plaques,” Sci. Transl. Med. 3(84), 84ra45 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jackson, C.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part II,” Circulation 108(15), 1772–1778 (2003).
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Jaffer, F. A.

G. J. Ughi, J. Verjans, A. M. Fard, H. Wang, E. Osborn, T. Hara, A. Mauskapf, F. A. Jaffer, and G. J. Tearney, “Dual modality intravascular optical coherence tomography (OCT) and near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging: a fully automated algorithm for the distance-calibration of NIRF signal intensity for quantitative molecular imaging,” Int. J. Cardiovasc. Imaging 31(2), 259–268 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Vinegoni, I. Botnaru, E. Aikawa, M. A. Calfon, Y. Iwamoto, E. J. Folco, V. Ntziachristos, R. Weissleder, P. Libby, and F. A. Jaffer, “Indocyanine green enables near-infrared fluorescence imaging of lipid-rich, inflamed atherosclerotic plaques,” Sci. Transl. Med. 3(84), 84ra45 (2011).
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Jaffer, F.A.

M.A. Calfon, A. Rosenthal, G. Mallas, A. Mauskapf, R.N. Nudelman, V. Ntziachristos, and F.A. Jaffer, “In vivo near infrared fluorescence (NIRF) intravascular molecular imaging of inflammatory plaque, a multimodal approach to imaging of atherosclerosis,” J. Vis. Exp. 54, e2257 (2011).

Jang, I. K.

G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, E. F. Halpern, and B. E. Bouma, “Quantification of macrophage content in atherosclerotic plaques by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 107(1), 113–119 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part II,” Circulation 108(15), 1772–1778 (2003).
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Jing, J.

Kauffman, C. R.

G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, E. F. Halpern, and B. E. Bouma, “Quantification of macrophage content in atherosclerotic plaques by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 107(1), 113–119 (2003).
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Kaul, S.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part II,” Circulation 108(15), 1772–1778 (2003).
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Kim, C. S.

Z. Piao, T. Ma, J. Li, M. T. Wiedmann, S. Huang, M. Yu, K. K. Shung, Q. Zhou, C. S. Kim, and Z. Chen, “High speed intravascular photoacoustic imaging with fast optical parametric oscillator laser at 1.7 mum,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 083701 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, J. W.

S. Lee, M. W. Lee, H. S. Cho, J. W. Song, H. S. Nam, D. J. Oh, K. Park, W. Y. Oh, H. Yoo, and J. W. Kim, “Fully integrated high-speed intravascular optical coherence tomography/near-infrared fluorescence structural/molecular imaging in vivo using a clinically available near-infrared fluorescence-emitting indocyanine green to detect inflamed lipid-rich atheromata in coronary-sized vessels,” Circ. Cardiovasc. Interv. 7(4), 560–569 (2014).
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Koenig, W.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part II,” Circulation 108(15), 1772–1778 (2003).
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Kolodgie, F. D.

A. V. Finn, M. Nakano, J. Narula, F. D. Kolodgie, and R. Virmani, “Concept of Vulnerable/Unstable Plaque,” Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 30(7), 1282–1292 (2010).
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Leavy, J.

J. A. Ambrose, M. A. Tannenbaum, D. Alexopoulos, C. E. Hjemdahl-Monsen, J. Leavy, M. Weiss, S. Borrico, R. Gorlin, and V. Fuster, “Angiographic progression of coronary artery disease and the development of myocardial infarction,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 12(1), 56–62 (1988).
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Lee, M. W.

S. Lee, M. W. Lee, H. S. Cho, J. W. Song, H. S. Nam, D. J. Oh, K. Park, W. Y. Oh, H. Yoo, and J. W. Kim, “Fully integrated high-speed intravascular optical coherence tomography/near-infrared fluorescence structural/molecular imaging in vivo using a clinically available near-infrared fluorescence-emitting indocyanine green to detect inflamed lipid-rich atheromata in coronary-sized vessels,” Circ. Cardiovasc. Interv. 7(4), 560–569 (2014).
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Lee, S.

S. Lee, M. W. Lee, H. S. Cho, J. W. Song, H. S. Nam, D. J. Oh, K. Park, W. Y. Oh, H. Yoo, and J. W. Kim, “Fully integrated high-speed intravascular optical coherence tomography/near-infrared fluorescence structural/molecular imaging in vivo using a clinically available near-infrared fluorescence-emitting indocyanine green to detect inflamed lipid-rich atheromata in coronary-sized vessels,” Circ. Cardiovasc. Interv. 7(4), 560–569 (2014).
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Lesage, F.

M. Abran, B.E. Stähli, N. Merlet, T. Mihalache-Avram, M. Mecteau, E. Rhéaume, D. Busseuil, J.C. Tardif, and F. Lesage, “Validating a bimodal intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) catheter for atherosclerotic plaque detection in rabbits,” Biomed Opt Express 6(10), 3989–3999 (2015).

M. Abran, G. Cloutier, M. H. Cardinal, B. Chayer, J.-C. Tardif, and F. Lesage, “Development of a photoacoustic, ultrasound and fluorescence imaging catheter for the study of atherosclerotic plaque,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Circuits Syst. 8(5), 696–703 (2014).
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Li, J.

J. Li, T. Ma, D. Mohar, E. Steward, M. Yu, Z. Piao, Y. He, K. K. Shung, Q. Zhou, P. M. Patel, and Z. Chen, “Ultrafast optical-ultrasonic system and miniaturized catheter for imaging and characterizing atherosclerotic plaques in vivo,” Sci. Rep. 5, 18406 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Piao, T. Ma, J. Li, M. T. Wiedmann, S. Huang, M. Yu, K. K. Shung, Q. Zhou, C. S. Kim, and Z. Chen, “High speed intravascular photoacoustic imaging with fast optical parametric oscillator laser at 1.7 mum,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 083701 (2015).
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S. Liang, T. Ma, J. Jing, X. Li, J. Li, K. K. Shung, Q. Zhou, J. Zhang, and Z. Chen, “Trimodality imaging system and intravascular endoscopic probe: combined optical coherence tomography, fluorescence imaging and ultrasound imaging,” Opt. Lett. 39(23), 6652–6655 (2014).
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Li, X.

Li, Y.

Y. Li, X. Gong, C. Liu, R. Lin, W. Hau, X. Bai, and L. Song, “High-speed intravascular spectroscopic photoacoustic imaging at 1000 A-lines per second with a 0.9-mm diameter catheter,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(6), 065006 (2015).
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Liang, S.

Libby, P.

C. Vinegoni, I. Botnaru, E. Aikawa, M. A. Calfon, Y. Iwamoto, E. J. Folco, V. Ntziachristos, R. Weissleder, P. Libby, and F. A. Jaffer, “Indocyanine green enables near-infrared fluorescence imaging of lipid-rich, inflamed atherosclerotic plaques,” Sci. Transl. Med. 3(84), 84ra45 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part II,” Circulation 108(15), 1772–1778 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, R.

Y. Li, X. Gong, C. Liu, R. Lin, W. Hau, X. Bai, and L. Song, “High-speed intravascular spectroscopic photoacoustic imaging at 1000 A-lines per second with a 0.9-mm diameter catheter,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(6), 065006 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Litovsky, S.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part II,” Circulation 108(15), 1772–1778 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, C.

Y. Li, X. Gong, C. Liu, R. Lin, W. Hau, X. Bai, and L. Song, “High-speed intravascular spectroscopic photoacoustic imaging at 1000 A-lines per second with a 0.9-mm diameter catheter,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(6), 065006 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lodder, R. A.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part II,” Circulation 108(15), 1772–1778 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ma, T.

J. Li, T. Ma, D. Mohar, E. Steward, M. Yu, Z. Piao, Y. He, K. K. Shung, Q. Zhou, P. M. Patel, and Z. Chen, “Ultrafast optical-ultrasonic system and miniaturized catheter for imaging and characterizing atherosclerotic plaques in vivo,” Sci. Rep. 5, 18406 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Piao, T. Ma, J. Li, M. T. Wiedmann, S. Huang, M. Yu, K. K. Shung, Q. Zhou, C. S. Kim, and Z. Chen, “High speed intravascular photoacoustic imaging with fast optical parametric oscillator laser at 1.7 mum,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 083701 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Liang, T. Ma, J. Jing, X. Li, J. Li, K. K. Shung, Q. Zhou, J. Zhang, and Z. Chen, “Trimodality imaging system and intravascular endoscopic probe: combined optical coherence tomography, fluorescence imaging and ultrasound imaging,” Opt. Lett. 39(23), 6652–6655 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Madjid, M.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part II,” Circulation 108(15), 1772–1778 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mallas, G.

M.A. Calfon, A. Rosenthal, G. Mallas, A. Mauskapf, R.N. Nudelman, V. Ntziachristos, and F.A. Jaffer, “In vivo near infrared fluorescence (NIRF) intravascular molecular imaging of inflammatory plaque, a multimodal approach to imaging of atherosclerosis,” J. Vis. Exp. 54, e2257 (2011).

March, K.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part II,” Circulation 108(15), 1772–1778 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mauskapf, A.

G. J. Ughi, J. Verjans, A. M. Fard, H. Wang, E. Osborn, T. Hara, A. Mauskapf, F. A. Jaffer, and G. J. Tearney, “Dual modality intravascular optical coherence tomography (OCT) and near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging: a fully automated algorithm for the distance-calibration of NIRF signal intensity for quantitative molecular imaging,” Int. J. Cardiovasc. Imaging 31(2), 259–268 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M.A. Calfon, A. Rosenthal, G. Mallas, A. Mauskapf, R.N. Nudelman, V. Ntziachristos, and F.A. Jaffer, “In vivo near infrared fluorescence (NIRF) intravascular molecular imaging of inflammatory plaque, a multimodal approach to imaging of atherosclerosis,” J. Vis. Exp. 54, e2257 (2011).

Mecteau, M.

M. Abran, B.E. Stähli, N. Merlet, T. Mihalache-Avram, M. Mecteau, E. Rhéaume, D. Busseuil, J.C. Tardif, and F. Lesage, “Validating a bimodal intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) catheter for atherosclerotic plaque detection in rabbits,” Biomed Opt Express 6(10), 3989–3999 (2015).

Mehran, R.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part II,” Circulation 108(15), 1772–1778 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Merlet, N.

M. Abran, B.E. Stähli, N. Merlet, T. Mihalache-Avram, M. Mecteau, E. Rhéaume, D. Busseuil, J.C. Tardif, and F. Lesage, “Validating a bimodal intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) catheter for atherosclerotic plaque detection in rabbits,” Biomed Opt Express 6(10), 3989–3999 (2015).

Mihalache-Avram, T.

M. Abran, B.E. Stähli, N. Merlet, T. Mihalache-Avram, M. Mecteau, E. Rhéaume, D. Busseuil, J.C. Tardif, and F. Lesage, “Validating a bimodal intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) catheter for atherosclerotic plaque detection in rabbits,” Biomed Opt Express 6(10), 3989–3999 (2015).

Mohar, D.

J. Li, T. Ma, D. Mohar, E. Steward, M. Yu, Z. Piao, Y. He, K. K. Shung, Q. Zhou, P. M. Patel, and Z. Chen, “Ultrafast optical-ultrasonic system and miniaturized catheter for imaging and characterizing atherosclerotic plaques in vivo,” Sci. Rep. 5, 18406 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moreno, P.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part II,” Circulation 108(15), 1772–1778 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Muller, J. E.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part II,” Circulation 108(15), 1772–1778 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Naghavi, M.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part II,” Circulation 108(15), 1772–1778 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nakano, M.

A. V. Finn, M. Nakano, J. Narula, F. D. Kolodgie, and R. Virmani, “Concept of Vulnerable/Unstable Plaque,” Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 30(7), 1282–1292 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nam, H. S.

S. Lee, M. W. Lee, H. S. Cho, J. W. Song, H. S. Nam, D. J. Oh, K. Park, W. Y. Oh, H. Yoo, and J. W. Kim, “Fully integrated high-speed intravascular optical coherence tomography/near-infrared fluorescence structural/molecular imaging in vivo using a clinically available near-infrared fluorescence-emitting indocyanine green to detect inflamed lipid-rich atheromata in coronary-sized vessels,” Circ. Cardiovasc. Interv. 7(4), 560–569 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Narula, J.

A. V. Finn, M. Nakano, J. Narula, F. D. Kolodgie, and R. Virmani, “Concept of Vulnerable/Unstable Plaque,” Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 30(7), 1282–1292 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Navab, M.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part II,” Circulation 108(15), 1772–1778 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ntziachristos, V.

M.A. Calfon, A. Rosenthal, G. Mallas, A. Mauskapf, R.N. Nudelman, V. Ntziachristos, and F.A. Jaffer, “In vivo near infrared fluorescence (NIRF) intravascular molecular imaging of inflammatory plaque, a multimodal approach to imaging of atherosclerosis,” J. Vis. Exp. 54, e2257 (2011).

C. Vinegoni, I. Botnaru, E. Aikawa, M. A. Calfon, Y. Iwamoto, E. J. Folco, V. Ntziachristos, R. Weissleder, P. Libby, and F. A. Jaffer, “Indocyanine green enables near-infrared fluorescence imaging of lipid-rich, inflamed atherosclerotic plaques,” Sci. Transl. Med. 3(84), 84ra45 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nudelman, R.N.

M.A. Calfon, A. Rosenthal, G. Mallas, A. Mauskapf, R.N. Nudelman, V. Ntziachristos, and F.A. Jaffer, “In vivo near infrared fluorescence (NIRF) intravascular molecular imaging of inflammatory plaque, a multimodal approach to imaging of atherosclerosis,” J. Vis. Exp. 54, e2257 (2011).

Oh, D. J.

S. Lee, M. W. Lee, H. S. Cho, J. W. Song, H. S. Nam, D. J. Oh, K. Park, W. Y. Oh, H. Yoo, and J. W. Kim, “Fully integrated high-speed intravascular optical coherence tomography/near-infrared fluorescence structural/molecular imaging in vivo using a clinically available near-infrared fluorescence-emitting indocyanine green to detect inflamed lipid-rich atheromata in coronary-sized vessels,” Circ. Cardiovasc. Interv. 7(4), 560–569 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Oh, W. Y.

S. Lee, M. W. Lee, H. S. Cho, J. W. Song, H. S. Nam, D. J. Oh, K. Park, W. Y. Oh, H. Yoo, and J. W. Kim, “Fully integrated high-speed intravascular optical coherence tomography/near-infrared fluorescence structural/molecular imaging in vivo using a clinically available near-infrared fluorescence-emitting indocyanine green to detect inflamed lipid-rich atheromata in coronary-sized vessels,” Circ. Cardiovasc. Interv. 7(4), 560–569 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Osborn, E.

G. J. Ughi, J. Verjans, A. M. Fard, H. Wang, E. Osborn, T. Hara, A. Mauskapf, F. A. Jaffer, and G. J. Tearney, “Dual modality intravascular optical coherence tomography (OCT) and near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging: a fully automated algorithm for the distance-calibration of NIRF signal intensity for quantitative molecular imaging,” Int. J. Cardiovasc. Imaging 31(2), 259–268 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, K.

S. Lee, M. W. Lee, H. S. Cho, J. W. Song, H. S. Nam, D. J. Oh, K. Park, W. Y. Oh, H. Yoo, and J. W. Kim, “Fully integrated high-speed intravascular optical coherence tomography/near-infrared fluorescence structural/molecular imaging in vivo using a clinically available near-infrared fluorescence-emitting indocyanine green to detect inflamed lipid-rich atheromata in coronary-sized vessels,” Circ. Cardiovasc. Interv. 7(4), 560–569 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pasterkamp, G.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part II,” Circulation 108(15), 1772–1778 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Patel, P. M.

J. Li, T. Ma, D. Mohar, E. Steward, M. Yu, Z. Piao, Y. He, K. K. Shung, Q. Zhou, P. M. Patel, and Z. Chen, “Ultrafast optical-ultrasonic system and miniaturized catheter for imaging and characterizing atherosclerotic plaques in vivo,” Sci. Rep. 5, 18406 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Piao, Z.

Z. Piao, T. Ma, J. Li, M. T. Wiedmann, S. Huang, M. Yu, K. K. Shung, Q. Zhou, C. S. Kim, and Z. Chen, “High speed intravascular photoacoustic imaging with fast optical parametric oscillator laser at 1.7 mum,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 083701 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Li, T. Ma, D. Mohar, E. Steward, M. Yu, Z. Piao, Y. He, K. K. Shung, Q. Zhou, P. M. Patel, and Z. Chen, “Ultrafast optical-ultrasonic system and miniaturized catheter for imaging and characterizing atherosclerotic plaques in vivo,” Sci. Rep. 5, 18406 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pitris, C.

J. G. Fujimoto, S. A. Boppart, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, C. Pitris, and M. E. Brezinski, “High resolution in vivo intra-arterial imaging with optical coherence tomography,” Heart 82(2), 128–133 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Priori, S. G.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part II,” Circulation 108(15), 1772–1778 (2003).
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Raggi, P.

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Wang, T.

Waxman, S.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part II,” Circulation 108(15), 1772–1778 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weiss, M.

J. A. Ambrose, M. A. Tannenbaum, D. Alexopoulos, C. E. Hjemdahl-Monsen, J. Leavy, M. Weiss, S. Borrico, R. Gorlin, and V. Fuster, “Angiographic progression of coronary artery disease and the development of myocardial infarction,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 12(1), 56–62 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weissleder, R.

C. Vinegoni, I. Botnaru, E. Aikawa, M. A. Calfon, Y. Iwamoto, E. J. Folco, V. Ntziachristos, R. Weissleder, P. Libby, and F. A. Jaffer, “Indocyanine green enables near-infrared fluorescence imaging of lipid-rich, inflamed atherosclerotic plaques,” Sci. Transl. Med. 3(84), 84ra45 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wiedmann, M. T.

Z. Piao, T. Ma, J. Li, M. T. Wiedmann, S. Huang, M. Yu, K. K. Shung, Q. Zhou, C. S. Kim, and Z. Chen, “High speed intravascular photoacoustic imaging with fast optical parametric oscillator laser at 1.7 mum,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 083701 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Willerson, J. T.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part II,” Circulation 108(15), 1772–1778 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yabushita, H.

G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, E. F. Halpern, and B. E. Bouma, “Quantification of macrophage content in atherosclerotic plaques by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 107(1), 113–119 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, Y.

Yoo, H.

S. Lee, M. W. Lee, H. S. Cho, J. W. Song, H. S. Nam, D. J. Oh, K. Park, W. Y. Oh, H. Yoo, and J. W. Kim, “Fully integrated high-speed intravascular optical coherence tomography/near-infrared fluorescence structural/molecular imaging in vivo using a clinically available near-infrared fluorescence-emitting indocyanine green to detect inflamed lipid-rich atheromata in coronary-sized vessels,” Circ. Cardiovasc. Interv. 7(4), 560–569 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, M.

Z. Piao, T. Ma, J. Li, M. T. Wiedmann, S. Huang, M. Yu, K. K. Shung, Q. Zhou, C. S. Kim, and Z. Chen, “High speed intravascular photoacoustic imaging with fast optical parametric oscillator laser at 1.7 mum,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 083701 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Li, T. Ma, D. Mohar, E. Steward, M. Yu, Z. Piao, Y. He, K. K. Shung, Q. Zhou, P. M. Patel, and Z. Chen, “Ultrafast optical-ultrasonic system and miniaturized catheter for imaging and characterizing atherosclerotic plaques in vivo,” Sci. Rep. 5, 18406 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yuan, C.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part II,” Circulation 108(15), 1772–1778 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zarrabi, A.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part II,” Circulation 108(15), 1772–1778 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, J.

Zhou, Q.

Z. Piao, T. Ma, J. Li, M. T. Wiedmann, S. Huang, M. Yu, K. K. Shung, Q. Zhou, C. S. Kim, and Z. Chen, “High speed intravascular photoacoustic imaging with fast optical parametric oscillator laser at 1.7 mum,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 083701 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Li, T. Ma, D. Mohar, E. Steward, M. Yu, Z. Piao, Y. He, K. K. Shung, Q. Zhou, P. M. Patel, and Z. Chen, “Ultrafast optical-ultrasonic system and miniaturized catheter for imaging and characterizing atherosclerotic plaques in vivo,” Sci. Rep. 5, 18406 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Liang, T. Ma, J. Jing, X. Li, J. Li, K. K. Shung, Q. Zhou, J. Zhang, and Z. Chen, “Trimodality imaging system and intravascular endoscopic probe: combined optical coherence tomography, fluorescence imaging and ultrasound imaging,” Opt. Lett. 39(23), 6652–6655 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Yang, X. Li, T. Wang, P. D. Kumavor, A. Aguirre, K. K. Shung, Q. Zhou, M. Sanders, M. Brewer, and Q. Zhu, “Integrated optical coherence tomography, ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging for ovarian tissue characterization,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(9), 2551–2561 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhu, Q.

Zipes, D. P.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part II,” Circulation 108(15), 1772–1778 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

Z. Piao, T. Ma, J. Li, M. T. Wiedmann, S. Huang, M. Yu, K. K. Shung, Q. Zhou, C. S. Kim, and Z. Chen, “High speed intravascular photoacoustic imaging with fast optical parametric oscillator laser at 1.7 mum,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 083701 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. (1)

A. V. Finn, M. Nakano, J. Narula, F. D. Kolodgie, and R. Virmani, “Concept of Vulnerable/Unstable Plaque,” Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 30(7), 1282–1292 (2010).
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Biomed Opt Express (1)

M. Abran, B.E. Stähli, N. Merlet, T. Mihalache-Avram, M. Mecteau, E. Rhéaume, D. Busseuil, J.C. Tardif, and F. Lesage, “Validating a bimodal intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) catheter for atherosclerotic plaque detection in rabbits,” Biomed Opt Express 6(10), 3989–3999 (2015).

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

Circ. Cardiovasc. Interv. (1)

S. Lee, M. W. Lee, H. S. Cho, J. W. Song, H. S. Nam, D. J. Oh, K. Park, W. Y. Oh, H. Yoo, and J. W. Kim, “Fully integrated high-speed intravascular optical coherence tomography/near-infrared fluorescence structural/molecular imaging in vivo using a clinically available near-infrared fluorescence-emitting indocyanine green to detect inflamed lipid-rich atheromata in coronary-sized vessels,” Circ. Cardiovasc. Interv. 7(4), 560–569 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Circulation (3)

G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, E. F. Halpern, and B. E. Bouma, “Quantification of macrophage content in atherosclerotic plaques by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 107(1), 113–119 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part II,” Circulation 108(15), 1772–1778 (2003).
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Heart (1)

J. G. Fujimoto, S. A. Boppart, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, C. Pitris, and M. E. Brezinski, “High resolution in vivo intra-arterial imaging with optical coherence tomography,” Heart 82(2), 128–133 (1999).
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IEEE Trans. Biomed. Circuits Syst. (1)

M. Abran, G. Cloutier, M. H. Cardinal, B. Chayer, J.-C. Tardif, and F. Lesage, “Development of a photoacoustic, ultrasound and fluorescence imaging catheter for the study of atherosclerotic plaque,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Circuits Syst. 8(5), 696–703 (2014).
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IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control (1)

S. Sethuraman, S. R. Aglyamov, J. H. Amirian, R. W. Smalling, and S. Y. Emelianov, “Intravascular photoacoustic imaging using an IVUS imaging catheter,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 54(5), 978–986 (2007).
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Int. J. Cardiovasc. Imaging (1)

G. J. Ughi, J. Verjans, A. M. Fard, H. Wang, E. Osborn, T. Hara, A. Mauskapf, F. A. Jaffer, and G. J. Tearney, “Dual modality intravascular optical coherence tomography (OCT) and near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging: a fully automated algorithm for the distance-calibration of NIRF signal intensity for quantitative molecular imaging,” Int. J. Cardiovasc. Imaging 31(2), 259–268 (2015).
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J. A. Ambrose, M. A. Tannenbaum, D. Alexopoulos, C. E. Hjemdahl-Monsen, J. Leavy, M. Weiss, S. Borrico, R. Gorlin, and V. Fuster, “Angiographic progression of coronary artery disease and the development of myocardial infarction,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 12(1), 56–62 (1988).
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J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

Y. Li, X. Gong, C. Liu, R. Lin, W. Hau, X. Bai, and L. Song, “High-speed intravascular spectroscopic photoacoustic imaging at 1000 A-lines per second with a 0.9-mm diameter catheter,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(6), 065006 (2015).
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M.A. Calfon, A. Rosenthal, G. Mallas, A. Mauskapf, R.N. Nudelman, V. Ntziachristos, and F.A. Jaffer, “In vivo near infrared fluorescence (NIRF) intravascular molecular imaging of inflammatory plaque, a multimodal approach to imaging of atherosclerosis,” J. Vis. Exp. 54, e2257 (2011).

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Sci. Rep. (1)

J. Li, T. Ma, D. Mohar, E. Steward, M. Yu, Z. Piao, Y. He, K. K. Shung, Q. Zhou, P. M. Patel, and Z. Chen, “Ultrafast optical-ultrasonic system and miniaturized catheter for imaging and characterizing atherosclerotic plaques in vivo,” Sci. Rep. 5, 18406 (2015).
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Sci. Transl. Med. (1)

C. Vinegoni, I. Botnaru, E. Aikawa, M. A. Calfon, Y. Iwamoto, E. J. Folco, V. Ntziachristos, R. Weissleder, P. Libby, and F. A. Jaffer, “Indocyanine green enables near-infrared fluorescence imaging of lipid-rich, inflamed atherosclerotic plaques,” Sci. Transl. Med. 3(84), 84ra45 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Overall design of the tri-modality system. WDM: wavelength division multiplexer. PMT: photomultiplier tube. DCF coupler: double clad fiber coupler.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Tip of the tri-modality probe. (a) Overall schematics. (b) Top view of the probe.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Tri-modality images of lipid-mimicking phantom. (Ia-IVa) combined OCT (inner) and fluorescence (outer), (Ib-IVb) US, (Ic-IVc) fused tri-modality. The artifact circles in the IVUS images are caused by the ultrasound pulse ring-down effect and the reflection of the catheter sheath. The artifact that is similar to real OCT images but with much lower amplitude is caused by the interference between the target and the interface of the GRIN lens. (I),(III) and (IV) Healthy artery. (II) Healthy artery with ICG. Scale bars are 1 mm.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 3D tri-modality images of lipid-mimicking phantom. (Ia) and (IIa) fluorescence, (Ib) and (IIb) OCT, (Ic) and (IIc) US. Scale bars are 1 mm. The high signal region (in Ia) indicates the existence of ICG.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Tri-modality images of atherosclerotic rabbit . (Ia-IVa) combined OCT (inner) and fluorescence (outer), (Ib-IVb) US, (Ic-IVc) fused tri-modality and (Id-IVd) hematoxylin and eosin(H&E) histology. The artifact circles in the IVUS images are caused by the ultrasound pulse ring-down effect and the reflection of the catheter sheath. (II) and (III) aorta with plaque, indicated by white arrows. (I) and (IV) are healthy aorta. Scale bars are 1 mm.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 3D tri-modality images of atherosclerotic rabbit. (Ia) and (IIa) Fluorescence, (Ib) and (IIb) OCT, (Ic) and (IIc)US. Scale bars are 1 mm.

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