Abstract

Terahertz (THz) imaging was used to differentiate the metastatic states of frozen lymph nodes (LNs) by using spectroscopic integration technique (SIT). The metastatic states were classified into three groups: healthy LNs, completely metastatic LNs, and partially metastatic LNs, which were obtained from three mice without infection and six mice infected with murine melanoma cells for 30 days and 15 days, respectively. Under histological examination, the healthy LNs and completely metastatic LNs were found to have a homogeneous cellular structure but the partially metastatic LNs had interfaces of the melanoma and healthy tissue. THz signals between the experimental groups were not distinguished at room temperature due to high attenuation by water in the tissues. However, a signal gap between the healthy and completely metastatic LNs was detected at freezing temperature. The signal gap could be enhanced by using SIT that is a signal processing method dichotomizing the signal difference between the healthy cells and melanoma cells with their normalized spectral integration. This technique clearly imaged the interfaces in the partially metastatic LNs, which could not be achieved by existing methods using a peak point or spectral value. The image resolution was high enough to recognize a metastatic area of about 0.7 mm size in the partially metastatic LNs. Therefore, this pilot study demonstrated that THz imaging of the frozen specimen using SIT can be used to diagnose the metastatic state of LNs for clinical application.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
Direct visualization of changes of lymphatic function and drainage pathways in lymph node metastasis of B16F10 melanoma using near-infrared fluorescence imaging

Sunkuk Kwon, Germaine D. Agollah, Grace Wu, Wenyaw Chan, and Eva M. Sevick-Muraca
Biomed. Opt. Express 4(6) 967-977 (2013)

Optical clearing based cellular-level 3D visualization of intact lymph node cortex

Eunjoo Song, Howon Seo, Kibaek Choe, Yoonha Hwang, Jinhyo Ahn, Soyeon Ahn, and Pilhan Kim
Biomed. Opt. Express 6(10) 4154-4164 (2015)

Terahertz imaging of excised oral cancer at frozen temperature

Yookyeong Carolyn Sim, Jae Yeon Park, Kang-Min Ahn, Chansik Park, and Joo-Hiuk Son
Biomed. Opt. Express 4(8) 1413-1421 (2013)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. D. N. Krag, S. J. Anderson, T. B. Julian, A. M. Brown, S. P. Harlow, J. P. Costantino, T. Ashikaga, D. L. Weaver, E. P. Mamounas, L. M. Jalovec, T. G. Frazier, R. D. Noyes, A. Robidoux, H. M. Scarth, and N. Wolmark, “Sentinel-lymph-node resection compared with conventional axillary-lymph-node dissection in clinically node-negative patients with breast cancer: overall survival findings from the NSABP B-32 randomised phase 3 trial,” Lancet Oncol. 11(10), 927–933 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. J. E. Gershenwald and M. I. Ross, “Sentinel-lymph-node biopsy for cutaneous melanoma,” N. Engl. J. Med. 364(18), 1738–1745 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. M. Salhab, N. Patani, and K. Mokbel, “Sentinel lymph node micrometastasis in human breast cancer: an update,” Surg. Oncol. 20(4), e195–e206 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. T. H. Cheung, W. K. Lo, M. Y. Yu, W. T. Yang, and S. Ho, “Extended experience in the use of laparoscopic ultrasound to detect pelvic nodal metastasis in patients with cervical carcinoma,” Gynecol. Oncol. 92(3), 784–788 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. A. D. Williams, C. Cousins, W. P. Soutter, M. Mubashar, A. M. Peters, R. Dina, F. Fuchsel, G. A. McIndoe, and N. M. deSouza, “Detection of pelvic lymph node metastases in gynecologic malignancy: a comparison of CT, MR imaging, and positron emission tomography,” AJR Am. J. Roentgenol. 177(2), 343–348 (2001).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. M. Bellomi, G. Bonomo, F. Landoni, G. Villa, M. E. Leon, L. Bocciolone, A. Maggioni, and G. Viale, “Accuracy of computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in the detection of lymph node involvement in cervix carcinoma,” Eur. Radiol. 15(12), 2469–2474 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. H. J. Choi, J. W. Roh, S.-S. Seo, S. Lee, J.-Y. Kim, S.-K. Kim, K. W. Kang, J. S. Lee, J. Y. Jeong, and S.-Y. Park, “Comparison of the accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography/computed tomography in the presurgical detection of lymph node metastases in patients with uterine cervical carcinoma: a prospective study,” Cancer 106(4), 914–922 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. W. T. Yang, W. W. M. Lam, M. Y. Yu, T. H. Cheung, and C. Metreweli, “Comparison of dynamic helical CT and dynamic MR imaging in the evaluation of pelvic lymph nodes in cervical carcinoma,” AJR Am. J. Roentgenol. 175(3), 759–766 (2000).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. H.-H. Chou, T.-C. Chang, T.-C. Yen, K.-K. Ng, S. Hsueh, S.-Y. Ma, C.-J. Chang, H. J. Huang, A. Chao, T.-I. Wu, S.-M. Jung, Y.-C. Wu, C.-T. Lin, K.-G. Huang, and C.-H. Lai, “Low value of [18F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography in primary staging of early-stage cervical cancer before radical hysterectomy,” J. Clin. Oncol. 24(1), 123–128 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. E.-A. Jung, M.-H. Lim, K.-W. Moon, Y.-W. Do, S.-S. Lee, H.-W. Han, H.-J. Choi, K.-S. Cho, and K.-R. Kim, “Terahertz pulse imaging of micro-metastatic lymph nodes in early-stage cervical cancer patients,” J. Opt. Soc. Korea 15(2), 155–160 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  11. Y. C. Sim, J. Y. Park, K.-M. Ahn, C. Park, and J.-H. Son, “Terahertz imaging of excised oral cancer at frozen temperature,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(8), 1413–1421 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. Y. C. Sim, K.-M. Ahn, J. Y. Park, C.-S. Park, and J.-H. Son, “Temperature-dependent terahertz imaging of excised oral malignant melanoma,” IEEE J. Biomed. Health Inform. 17(4), 779–784 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3853–3863 (2002).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of human breast tumors,” Radiology 239(2), 533–540 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. J.-H. Son, “Terahertz electromagnetic interactions with biological matter and their applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(10), 102033 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  16. S. J. Oh, J. Kang, I. Maeng, J.-S. Suh, Y.-M. Huh, S. Haam, and J.-H. Son, “Nanoparticle-enabled terahertz imaging for cancer diagnosis,” Opt. Express 17(5), 3469–3475 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. J.-H. Son, “Principle and applications of terahertz molecular imaging,” Nanotechnology 24(21), 214001 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. Y. B. Ji, C. H. Park, H. Kim, S.-H. Kim, G. M. Lee, S. K. Noh, T.-I. Jeon, J.-H. Son, Y.-M. Huh, S. Haam, S. J. Oh, S. K. Lee, and J.-S. Suh, “Feasibility of terahertz reflectometry for discrimination of human early gastric cancers,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(4), 1398–1406 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. C. Ronne, R.-O. Astrand, A. Wallqvist, K. V. Mikkelsen, and S. R. Keiding, “Investigation of the temperature dependence of dielectric relaxation in liquid water by THz reflection spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulation,” J. Chem. Phys. 107(14), 5319–5331 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  20. S. J. Oh, S.-H. Kim, K. Jeong, Y. Park, Y.-M. Huh, J.-H. Son, and J.-S. Suh, “Measurement depth enhancement in terahertz imaging of biological tissues,” Opt. Express 21(18), 21299–21305 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. Y. Miura, A. Kamataki, M. Uzuki, T. Sasaki, J. Nishizawa, and T. Sawai, “Terahertz-wave spectroscopy for precise histopathological imaging of tumor and non-tumor lesions in paraffin sections,” Tohoku J. Exp. Med. 223(4), 291–296 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. J. Y. Park, H. J. Choi, K.-S. Cho, K.-R. Kim, and J.-H. Son, “Terahertz spectroscopic imaging of a rabbit VX2 hepatoma model,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(6), 064704 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  23. S. J. Oh, S.-H. Kim, Y. B. Ji, K. Jeong, Y. Park, J. Yang, D. W. Park, S. K. Noh, S.-G. Kang, Y.-M. Huh, J.-H. Son, and J.-S. Suh, “Study of freshly excised brain tissues using terahertz imaging,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(8), 2837–2842 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. P. C. Ashworth, E. Pickwell-MacPherson, E. Provenzano, S. E. Pinder, A. D. Purushotham, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy of freshly excised human breast cancer,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12444–12454 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. R. M. Woodward, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, B. E. Cole, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging of ex vivo basal cell carcinoma,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 120(1), 72–78 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. S. Fan, E. P. J. Parrott, B. S. Y. Ung, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Calibration method to improve the accuracy of THz imaging and spectroscopy in reflection geometry,” Photon. Res. 4(3), A29–A35 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  27. A. J. Fitzgerald, S. Pinder, A. D. Purushotham, P. O’Kelly, P. C. Ashworth, and V. P. Wallace, “Classification of terahertz-pulsed imaging data from excised breast tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(1), 016005 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  28. Y. He, B. S.-Y. Ung, E. P. J. Parrott, A. T. Ahuja, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Freeze-thaw hysteresis effects in terahertz imaging of biomedical tissues,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(11), 4711–4717 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  29. R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3853–3863 (2002).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  30. T. Löffler, K. Siebert, S. Czasch, T. Bauer, and H. G. Roskos, “Visualization and classification in biomedical terahertz pulsed imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3847–3852 (2002).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  31. C. B. Reid, A. Fitzgerald, G. Reese, R. Goldin, P. Tekkis, P. S. O’Kelly, E. Pickwell-MacPherson, A. P. Gibson, and V. P. Wallace, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of freshly excised human colonic tissues,” Phys. Med. Biol. 56(14), 4333–4353 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  32. K. W. Kim, K.-S. Kim, H. Kim, S. H. Lee, J.-H. Park, J.-H. Han, S.-H. Seok, J. Park, Y. Choi, Y. I. Kim, J. K. Han, and J.-H. Son, “Terahertz dynamic imaging of skin drug absorption,” Opt. Express 20(9), 9476–9484 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  33. K. W. Kim, H. Kim, J. Park, J. K. Han, and J.-H. Son, “Terahertz tomographic imaging of transdermal drug delivery,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 2(1), 99–106 (2012).
    [Crossref]

2016 (2)

2015 (1)

2014 (1)

2013 (4)

Y. C. Sim, J. Y. Park, K.-M. Ahn, C. Park, and J.-H. Son, “Terahertz imaging of excised oral cancer at frozen temperature,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(8), 1413–1421 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. Oh, S.-H. Kim, K. Jeong, Y. Park, Y.-M. Huh, J.-H. Son, and J.-S. Suh, “Measurement depth enhancement in terahertz imaging of biological tissues,” Opt. Express 21(18), 21299–21305 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.-H. Son, “Principle and applications of terahertz molecular imaging,” Nanotechnology 24(21), 214001 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. C. Sim, K.-M. Ahn, J. Y. Park, C.-S. Park, and J.-H. Son, “Temperature-dependent terahertz imaging of excised oral malignant melanoma,” IEEE J. Biomed. Health Inform. 17(4), 779–784 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

A. J. Fitzgerald, S. Pinder, A. D. Purushotham, P. O’Kelly, P. C. Ashworth, and V. P. Wallace, “Classification of terahertz-pulsed imaging data from excised breast tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(1), 016005 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. W. Kim, H. Kim, J. Park, J. K. Han, and J.-H. Son, “Terahertz tomographic imaging of transdermal drug delivery,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 2(1), 99–106 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. W. Kim, K.-S. Kim, H. Kim, S. H. Lee, J.-H. Park, J.-H. Han, S.-H. Seok, J. Park, Y. Choi, Y. I. Kim, J. K. Han, and J.-H. Son, “Terahertz dynamic imaging of skin drug absorption,” Opt. Express 20(9), 9476–9484 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (6)

E.-A. Jung, M.-H. Lim, K.-W. Moon, Y.-W. Do, S.-S. Lee, H.-W. Han, H.-J. Choi, K.-S. Cho, and K.-R. Kim, “Terahertz pulse imaging of micro-metastatic lymph nodes in early-stage cervical cancer patients,” J. Opt. Soc. Korea 15(2), 155–160 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. B. Reid, A. Fitzgerald, G. Reese, R. Goldin, P. Tekkis, P. S. O’Kelly, E. Pickwell-MacPherson, A. P. Gibson, and V. P. Wallace, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of freshly excised human colonic tissues,” Phys. Med. Biol. 56(14), 4333–4353 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Miura, A. Kamataki, M. Uzuki, T. Sasaki, J. Nishizawa, and T. Sawai, “Terahertz-wave spectroscopy for precise histopathological imaging of tumor and non-tumor lesions in paraffin sections,” Tohoku J. Exp. Med. 223(4), 291–296 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Y. Park, H. J. Choi, K.-S. Cho, K.-R. Kim, and J.-H. Son, “Terahertz spectroscopic imaging of a rabbit VX2 hepatoma model,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(6), 064704 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. E. Gershenwald and M. I. Ross, “Sentinel-lymph-node biopsy for cutaneous melanoma,” N. Engl. J. Med. 364(18), 1738–1745 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Salhab, N. Patani, and K. Mokbel, “Sentinel lymph node micrometastasis in human breast cancer: an update,” Surg. Oncol. 20(4), e195–e206 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

D. N. Krag, S. J. Anderson, T. B. Julian, A. M. Brown, S. P. Harlow, J. P. Costantino, T. Ashikaga, D. L. Weaver, E. P. Mamounas, L. M. Jalovec, T. G. Frazier, R. D. Noyes, A. Robidoux, H. M. Scarth, and N. Wolmark, “Sentinel-lymph-node resection compared with conventional axillary-lymph-node dissection in clinically node-negative patients with breast cancer: overall survival findings from the NSABP B-32 randomised phase 3 trial,” Lancet Oncol. 11(10), 927–933 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

2006 (3)

H. J. Choi, J. W. Roh, S.-S. Seo, S. Lee, J.-Y. Kim, S.-K. Kim, K. W. Kang, J. S. Lee, J. Y. Jeong, and S.-Y. Park, “Comparison of the accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography/computed tomography in the presurgical detection of lymph node metastases in patients with uterine cervical carcinoma: a prospective study,” Cancer 106(4), 914–922 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-H. Chou, T.-C. Chang, T.-C. Yen, K.-K. Ng, S. Hsueh, S.-Y. Ma, C.-J. Chang, H. J. Huang, A. Chao, T.-I. Wu, S.-M. Jung, Y.-C. Wu, C.-T. Lin, K.-G. Huang, and C.-H. Lai, “Low value of [18F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography in primary staging of early-stage cervical cancer before radical hysterectomy,” J. Clin. Oncol. 24(1), 123–128 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of human breast tumors,” Radiology 239(2), 533–540 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

M. Bellomi, G. Bonomo, F. Landoni, G. Villa, M. E. Leon, L. Bocciolone, A. Maggioni, and G. Viale, “Accuracy of computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in the detection of lymph node involvement in cervix carcinoma,” Eur. Radiol. 15(12), 2469–2474 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

T. H. Cheung, W. K. Lo, M. Y. Yu, W. T. Yang, and S. Ho, “Extended experience in the use of laparoscopic ultrasound to detect pelvic nodal metastasis in patients with cervical carcinoma,” Gynecol. Oncol. 92(3), 784–788 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

R. M. Woodward, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, B. E. Cole, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging of ex vivo basal cell carcinoma,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 120(1), 72–78 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (3)

R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3853–3863 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Löffler, K. Siebert, S. Czasch, T. Bauer, and H. G. Roskos, “Visualization and classification in biomedical terahertz pulsed imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3847–3852 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3853–3863 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

A. D. Williams, C. Cousins, W. P. Soutter, M. Mubashar, A. M. Peters, R. Dina, F. Fuchsel, G. A. McIndoe, and N. M. deSouza, “Detection of pelvic lymph node metastases in gynecologic malignancy: a comparison of CT, MR imaging, and positron emission tomography,” AJR Am. J. Roentgenol. 177(2), 343–348 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

W. T. Yang, W. W. M. Lam, M. Y. Yu, T. H. Cheung, and C. Metreweli, “Comparison of dynamic helical CT and dynamic MR imaging in the evaluation of pelvic lymph nodes in cervical carcinoma,” AJR Am. J. Roentgenol. 175(3), 759–766 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

C. Ronne, R.-O. Astrand, A. Wallqvist, K. V. Mikkelsen, and S. R. Keiding, “Investigation of the temperature dependence of dielectric relaxation in liquid water by THz reflection spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulation,” J. Chem. Phys. 107(14), 5319–5331 (1997).
[Crossref]

Ahn, K.-M.

Y. C. Sim, J. Y. Park, K.-M. Ahn, C. Park, and J.-H. Son, “Terahertz imaging of excised oral cancer at frozen temperature,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(8), 1413–1421 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. C. Sim, K.-M. Ahn, J. Y. Park, C.-S. Park, and J.-H. Son, “Temperature-dependent terahertz imaging of excised oral malignant melanoma,” IEEE J. Biomed. Health Inform. 17(4), 779–784 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ahuja, A. T.

Anderson, S. J.

D. N. Krag, S. J. Anderson, T. B. Julian, A. M. Brown, S. P. Harlow, J. P. Costantino, T. Ashikaga, D. L. Weaver, E. P. Mamounas, L. M. Jalovec, T. G. Frazier, R. D. Noyes, A. Robidoux, H. M. Scarth, and N. Wolmark, “Sentinel-lymph-node resection compared with conventional axillary-lymph-node dissection in clinically node-negative patients with breast cancer: overall survival findings from the NSABP B-32 randomised phase 3 trial,” Lancet Oncol. 11(10), 927–933 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arnone, D. D.

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of human breast tumors,” Radiology 239(2), 533–540 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Woodward, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, B. E. Cole, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging of ex vivo basal cell carcinoma,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 120(1), 72–78 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3853–3863 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3853–3863 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ashikaga, T.

D. N. Krag, S. J. Anderson, T. B. Julian, A. M. Brown, S. P. Harlow, J. P. Costantino, T. Ashikaga, D. L. Weaver, E. P. Mamounas, L. M. Jalovec, T. G. Frazier, R. D. Noyes, A. Robidoux, H. M. Scarth, and N. Wolmark, “Sentinel-lymph-node resection compared with conventional axillary-lymph-node dissection in clinically node-negative patients with breast cancer: overall survival findings from the NSABP B-32 randomised phase 3 trial,” Lancet Oncol. 11(10), 927–933 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ashworth, P. C.

A. J. Fitzgerald, S. Pinder, A. D. Purushotham, P. O’Kelly, P. C. Ashworth, and V. P. Wallace, “Classification of terahertz-pulsed imaging data from excised breast tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(1), 016005 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. C. Ashworth, E. Pickwell-MacPherson, E. Provenzano, S. E. Pinder, A. D. Purushotham, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy of freshly excised human breast cancer,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12444–12454 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Astrand, R.-O.

C. Ronne, R.-O. Astrand, A. Wallqvist, K. V. Mikkelsen, and S. R. Keiding, “Investigation of the temperature dependence of dielectric relaxation in liquid water by THz reflection spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulation,” J. Chem. Phys. 107(14), 5319–5331 (1997).
[Crossref]

Bauer, T.

T. Löffler, K. Siebert, S. Czasch, T. Bauer, and H. G. Roskos, “Visualization and classification in biomedical terahertz pulsed imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3847–3852 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bellomi, M.

M. Bellomi, G. Bonomo, F. Landoni, G. Villa, M. E. Leon, L. Bocciolone, A. Maggioni, and G. Viale, “Accuracy of computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in the detection of lymph node involvement in cervix carcinoma,” Eur. Radiol. 15(12), 2469–2474 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bobrow, L.

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of human breast tumors,” Radiology 239(2), 533–540 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bocciolone, L.

M. Bellomi, G. Bonomo, F. Landoni, G. Villa, M. E. Leon, L. Bocciolone, A. Maggioni, and G. Viale, “Accuracy of computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in the detection of lymph node involvement in cervix carcinoma,” Eur. Radiol. 15(12), 2469–2474 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bonomo, G.

M. Bellomi, G. Bonomo, F. Landoni, G. Villa, M. E. Leon, L. Bocciolone, A. Maggioni, and G. Viale, “Accuracy of computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in the detection of lymph node involvement in cervix carcinoma,” Eur. Radiol. 15(12), 2469–2474 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brown, A. M.

D. N. Krag, S. J. Anderson, T. B. Julian, A. M. Brown, S. P. Harlow, J. P. Costantino, T. Ashikaga, D. L. Weaver, E. P. Mamounas, L. M. Jalovec, T. G. Frazier, R. D. Noyes, A. Robidoux, H. M. Scarth, and N. Wolmark, “Sentinel-lymph-node resection compared with conventional axillary-lymph-node dissection in clinically node-negative patients with breast cancer: overall survival findings from the NSABP B-32 randomised phase 3 trial,” Lancet Oncol. 11(10), 927–933 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, C.-J.

H.-H. Chou, T.-C. Chang, T.-C. Yen, K.-K. Ng, S. Hsueh, S.-Y. Ma, C.-J. Chang, H. J. Huang, A. Chao, T.-I. Wu, S.-M. Jung, Y.-C. Wu, C.-T. Lin, K.-G. Huang, and C.-H. Lai, “Low value of [18F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography in primary staging of early-stage cervical cancer before radical hysterectomy,” J. Clin. Oncol. 24(1), 123–128 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, T.-C.

H.-H. Chou, T.-C. Chang, T.-C. Yen, K.-K. Ng, S. Hsueh, S.-Y. Ma, C.-J. Chang, H. J. Huang, A. Chao, T.-I. Wu, S.-M. Jung, Y.-C. Wu, C.-T. Lin, K.-G. Huang, and C.-H. Lai, “Low value of [18F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography in primary staging of early-stage cervical cancer before radical hysterectomy,” J. Clin. Oncol. 24(1), 123–128 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chao, A.

H.-H. Chou, T.-C. Chang, T.-C. Yen, K.-K. Ng, S. Hsueh, S.-Y. Ma, C.-J. Chang, H. J. Huang, A. Chao, T.-I. Wu, S.-M. Jung, Y.-C. Wu, C.-T. Lin, K.-G. Huang, and C.-H. Lai, “Low value of [18F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography in primary staging of early-stage cervical cancer before radical hysterectomy,” J. Clin. Oncol. 24(1), 123–128 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheung, T. H.

T. H. Cheung, W. K. Lo, M. Y. Yu, W. T. Yang, and S. Ho, “Extended experience in the use of laparoscopic ultrasound to detect pelvic nodal metastasis in patients with cervical carcinoma,” Gynecol. Oncol. 92(3), 784–788 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. T. Yang, W. W. M. Lam, M. Y. Yu, T. H. Cheung, and C. Metreweli, “Comparison of dynamic helical CT and dynamic MR imaging in the evaluation of pelvic lymph nodes in cervical carcinoma,” AJR Am. J. Roentgenol. 175(3), 759–766 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cho, K.-S.

Choi, H. J.

J. Y. Park, H. J. Choi, K.-S. Cho, K.-R. Kim, and J.-H. Son, “Terahertz spectroscopic imaging of a rabbit VX2 hepatoma model,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(6), 064704 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. J. Choi, J. W. Roh, S.-S. Seo, S. Lee, J.-Y. Kim, S.-K. Kim, K. W. Kang, J. S. Lee, J. Y. Jeong, and S.-Y. Park, “Comparison of the accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography/computed tomography in the presurgical detection of lymph node metastases in patients with uterine cervical carcinoma: a prospective study,” Cancer 106(4), 914–922 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, H.-J.

Choi, Y.

Chou, H.-H.

H.-H. Chou, T.-C. Chang, T.-C. Yen, K.-K. Ng, S. Hsueh, S.-Y. Ma, C.-J. Chang, H. J. Huang, A. Chao, T.-I. Wu, S.-M. Jung, Y.-C. Wu, C.-T. Lin, K.-G. Huang, and C.-H. Lai, “Low value of [18F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography in primary staging of early-stage cervical cancer before radical hysterectomy,” J. Clin. Oncol. 24(1), 123–128 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cole, B. E.

R. M. Woodward, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, B. E. Cole, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging of ex vivo basal cell carcinoma,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 120(1), 72–78 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3853–3863 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3853–3863 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Costantino, J. P.

D. N. Krag, S. J. Anderson, T. B. Julian, A. M. Brown, S. P. Harlow, J. P. Costantino, T. Ashikaga, D. L. Weaver, E. P. Mamounas, L. M. Jalovec, T. G. Frazier, R. D. Noyes, A. Robidoux, H. M. Scarth, and N. Wolmark, “Sentinel-lymph-node resection compared with conventional axillary-lymph-node dissection in clinically node-negative patients with breast cancer: overall survival findings from the NSABP B-32 randomised phase 3 trial,” Lancet Oncol. 11(10), 927–933 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cousins, C.

A. D. Williams, C. Cousins, W. P. Soutter, M. Mubashar, A. M. Peters, R. Dina, F. Fuchsel, G. A. McIndoe, and N. M. deSouza, “Detection of pelvic lymph node metastases in gynecologic malignancy: a comparison of CT, MR imaging, and positron emission tomography,” AJR Am. J. Roentgenol. 177(2), 343–348 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Czasch, S.

T. Löffler, K. Siebert, S. Czasch, T. Bauer, and H. G. Roskos, “Visualization and classification in biomedical terahertz pulsed imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3847–3852 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

deSouza, N. M.

A. D. Williams, C. Cousins, W. P. Soutter, M. Mubashar, A. M. Peters, R. Dina, F. Fuchsel, G. A. McIndoe, and N. M. deSouza, “Detection of pelvic lymph node metastases in gynecologic malignancy: a comparison of CT, MR imaging, and positron emission tomography,” AJR Am. J. Roentgenol. 177(2), 343–348 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dina, R.

A. D. Williams, C. Cousins, W. P. Soutter, M. Mubashar, A. M. Peters, R. Dina, F. Fuchsel, G. A. McIndoe, and N. M. deSouza, “Detection of pelvic lymph node metastases in gynecologic malignancy: a comparison of CT, MR imaging, and positron emission tomography,” AJR Am. J. Roentgenol. 177(2), 343–348 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Do, Y.-W.

Fan, S.

Fitzgerald, A.

C. B. Reid, A. Fitzgerald, G. Reese, R. Goldin, P. Tekkis, P. S. O’Kelly, E. Pickwell-MacPherson, A. P. Gibson, and V. P. Wallace, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of freshly excised human colonic tissues,” Phys. Med. Biol. 56(14), 4333–4353 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fitzgerald, A. J.

A. J. Fitzgerald, S. Pinder, A. D. Purushotham, P. O’Kelly, P. C. Ashworth, and V. P. Wallace, “Classification of terahertz-pulsed imaging data from excised breast tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(1), 016005 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of human breast tumors,” Radiology 239(2), 533–540 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Frazier, T. G.

D. N. Krag, S. J. Anderson, T. B. Julian, A. M. Brown, S. P. Harlow, J. P. Costantino, T. Ashikaga, D. L. Weaver, E. P. Mamounas, L. M. Jalovec, T. G. Frazier, R. D. Noyes, A. Robidoux, H. M. Scarth, and N. Wolmark, “Sentinel-lymph-node resection compared with conventional axillary-lymph-node dissection in clinically node-negative patients with breast cancer: overall survival findings from the NSABP B-32 randomised phase 3 trial,” Lancet Oncol. 11(10), 927–933 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fuchsel, F.

A. D. Williams, C. Cousins, W. P. Soutter, M. Mubashar, A. M. Peters, R. Dina, F. Fuchsel, G. A. McIndoe, and N. M. deSouza, “Detection of pelvic lymph node metastases in gynecologic malignancy: a comparison of CT, MR imaging, and positron emission tomography,” AJR Am. J. Roentgenol. 177(2), 343–348 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gershenwald, J. E.

J. E. Gershenwald and M. I. Ross, “Sentinel-lymph-node biopsy for cutaneous melanoma,” N. Engl. J. Med. 364(18), 1738–1745 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gibson, A. P.

C. B. Reid, A. Fitzgerald, G. Reese, R. Goldin, P. Tekkis, P. S. O’Kelly, E. Pickwell-MacPherson, A. P. Gibson, and V. P. Wallace, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of freshly excised human colonic tissues,” Phys. Med. Biol. 56(14), 4333–4353 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Goldin, R.

C. B. Reid, A. Fitzgerald, G. Reese, R. Goldin, P. Tekkis, P. S. O’Kelly, E. Pickwell-MacPherson, A. P. Gibson, and V. P. Wallace, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of freshly excised human colonic tissues,” Phys. Med. Biol. 56(14), 4333–4353 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Haam, S.

Han, H.-W.

Han, J. K.

K. W. Kim, K.-S. Kim, H. Kim, S. H. Lee, J.-H. Park, J.-H. Han, S.-H. Seok, J. Park, Y. Choi, Y. I. Kim, J. K. Han, and J.-H. Son, “Terahertz dynamic imaging of skin drug absorption,” Opt. Express 20(9), 9476–9484 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. W. Kim, H. Kim, J. Park, J. K. Han, and J.-H. Son, “Terahertz tomographic imaging of transdermal drug delivery,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 2(1), 99–106 (2012).
[Crossref]

Han, J.-H.

Harlow, S. P.

D. N. Krag, S. J. Anderson, T. B. Julian, A. M. Brown, S. P. Harlow, J. P. Costantino, T. Ashikaga, D. L. Weaver, E. P. Mamounas, L. M. Jalovec, T. G. Frazier, R. D. Noyes, A. Robidoux, H. M. Scarth, and N. Wolmark, “Sentinel-lymph-node resection compared with conventional axillary-lymph-node dissection in clinically node-negative patients with breast cancer: overall survival findings from the NSABP B-32 randomised phase 3 trial,” Lancet Oncol. 11(10), 927–933 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

He, Y.

Ho, S.

T. H. Cheung, W. K. Lo, M. Y. Yu, W. T. Yang, and S. Ho, “Extended experience in the use of laparoscopic ultrasound to detect pelvic nodal metastasis in patients with cervical carcinoma,” Gynecol. Oncol. 92(3), 784–788 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hsueh, S.

H.-H. Chou, T.-C. Chang, T.-C. Yen, K.-K. Ng, S. Hsueh, S.-Y. Ma, C.-J. Chang, H. J. Huang, A. Chao, T.-I. Wu, S.-M. Jung, Y.-C. Wu, C.-T. Lin, K.-G. Huang, and C.-H. Lai, “Low value of [18F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography in primary staging of early-stage cervical cancer before radical hysterectomy,” J. Clin. Oncol. 24(1), 123–128 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, H. J.

H.-H. Chou, T.-C. Chang, T.-C. Yen, K.-K. Ng, S. Hsueh, S.-Y. Ma, C.-J. Chang, H. J. Huang, A. Chao, T.-I. Wu, S.-M. Jung, Y.-C. Wu, C.-T. Lin, K.-G. Huang, and C.-H. Lai, “Low value of [18F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography in primary staging of early-stage cervical cancer before radical hysterectomy,” J. Clin. Oncol. 24(1), 123–128 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, K.-G.

H.-H. Chou, T.-C. Chang, T.-C. Yen, K.-K. Ng, S. Hsueh, S.-Y. Ma, C.-J. Chang, H. J. Huang, A. Chao, T.-I. Wu, S.-M. Jung, Y.-C. Wu, C.-T. Lin, K.-G. Huang, and C.-H. Lai, “Low value of [18F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography in primary staging of early-stage cervical cancer before radical hysterectomy,” J. Clin. Oncol. 24(1), 123–128 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huh, Y.-M.

Jalovec, L. M.

D. N. Krag, S. J. Anderson, T. B. Julian, A. M. Brown, S. P. Harlow, J. P. Costantino, T. Ashikaga, D. L. Weaver, E. P. Mamounas, L. M. Jalovec, T. G. Frazier, R. D. Noyes, A. Robidoux, H. M. Scarth, and N. Wolmark, “Sentinel-lymph-node resection compared with conventional axillary-lymph-node dissection in clinically node-negative patients with breast cancer: overall survival findings from the NSABP B-32 randomised phase 3 trial,” Lancet Oncol. 11(10), 927–933 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jeon, T.-I.

Jeong, J. Y.

H. J. Choi, J. W. Roh, S.-S. Seo, S. Lee, J.-Y. Kim, S.-K. Kim, K. W. Kang, J. S. Lee, J. Y. Jeong, and S.-Y. Park, “Comparison of the accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography/computed tomography in the presurgical detection of lymph node metastases in patients with uterine cervical carcinoma: a prospective study,” Cancer 106(4), 914–922 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jeong, K.

Ji, Y. B.

Jimenez-Linan, M.

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of human breast tumors,” Radiology 239(2), 533–540 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Julian, T. B.

D. N. Krag, S. J. Anderson, T. B. Julian, A. M. Brown, S. P. Harlow, J. P. Costantino, T. Ashikaga, D. L. Weaver, E. P. Mamounas, L. M. Jalovec, T. G. Frazier, R. D. Noyes, A. Robidoux, H. M. Scarth, and N. Wolmark, “Sentinel-lymph-node resection compared with conventional axillary-lymph-node dissection in clinically node-negative patients with breast cancer: overall survival findings from the NSABP B-32 randomised phase 3 trial,” Lancet Oncol. 11(10), 927–933 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jung, E.-A.

Jung, S.-M.

H.-H. Chou, T.-C. Chang, T.-C. Yen, K.-K. Ng, S. Hsueh, S.-Y. Ma, C.-J. Chang, H. J. Huang, A. Chao, T.-I. Wu, S.-M. Jung, Y.-C. Wu, C.-T. Lin, K.-G. Huang, and C.-H. Lai, “Low value of [18F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography in primary staging of early-stage cervical cancer before radical hysterectomy,” J. Clin. Oncol. 24(1), 123–128 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kamataki, A.

Y. Miura, A. Kamataki, M. Uzuki, T. Sasaki, J. Nishizawa, and T. Sawai, “Terahertz-wave spectroscopy for precise histopathological imaging of tumor and non-tumor lesions in paraffin sections,” Tohoku J. Exp. Med. 223(4), 291–296 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kang, J.

Kang, K. W.

H. J. Choi, J. W. Roh, S.-S. Seo, S. Lee, J.-Y. Kim, S.-K. Kim, K. W. Kang, J. S. Lee, J. Y. Jeong, and S.-Y. Park, “Comparison of the accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography/computed tomography in the presurgical detection of lymph node metastases in patients with uterine cervical carcinoma: a prospective study,” Cancer 106(4), 914–922 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kang, S.-G.

Keiding, S. R.

C. Ronne, R.-O. Astrand, A. Wallqvist, K. V. Mikkelsen, and S. R. Keiding, “Investigation of the temperature dependence of dielectric relaxation in liquid water by THz reflection spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulation,” J. Chem. Phys. 107(14), 5319–5331 (1997).
[Crossref]

Kim, H.

Kim, J.-Y.

H. J. Choi, J. W. Roh, S.-S. Seo, S. Lee, J.-Y. Kim, S.-K. Kim, K. W. Kang, J. S. Lee, J. Y. Jeong, and S.-Y. Park, “Comparison of the accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography/computed tomography in the presurgical detection of lymph node metastases in patients with uterine cervical carcinoma: a prospective study,” Cancer 106(4), 914–922 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, K. W.

K. W. Kim, H. Kim, J. Park, J. K. Han, and J.-H. Son, “Terahertz tomographic imaging of transdermal drug delivery,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 2(1), 99–106 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. W. Kim, K.-S. Kim, H. Kim, S. H. Lee, J.-H. Park, J.-H. Han, S.-H. Seok, J. Park, Y. Choi, Y. I. Kim, J. K. Han, and J.-H. Son, “Terahertz dynamic imaging of skin drug absorption,” Opt. Express 20(9), 9476–9484 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, K.-R.

Kim, K.-S.

Kim, S.-H.

Kim, S.-K.

H. J. Choi, J. W. Roh, S.-S. Seo, S. Lee, J.-Y. Kim, S.-K. Kim, K. W. Kang, J. S. Lee, J. Y. Jeong, and S.-Y. Park, “Comparison of the accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography/computed tomography in the presurgical detection of lymph node metastases in patients with uterine cervical carcinoma: a prospective study,” Cancer 106(4), 914–922 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, Y. I.

Krag, D. N.

D. N. Krag, S. J. Anderson, T. B. Julian, A. M. Brown, S. P. Harlow, J. P. Costantino, T. Ashikaga, D. L. Weaver, E. P. Mamounas, L. M. Jalovec, T. G. Frazier, R. D. Noyes, A. Robidoux, H. M. Scarth, and N. Wolmark, “Sentinel-lymph-node resection compared with conventional axillary-lymph-node dissection in clinically node-negative patients with breast cancer: overall survival findings from the NSABP B-32 randomised phase 3 trial,” Lancet Oncol. 11(10), 927–933 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lai, C.-H.

H.-H. Chou, T.-C. Chang, T.-C. Yen, K.-K. Ng, S. Hsueh, S.-Y. Ma, C.-J. Chang, H. J. Huang, A. Chao, T.-I. Wu, S.-M. Jung, Y.-C. Wu, C.-T. Lin, K.-G. Huang, and C.-H. Lai, “Low value of [18F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography in primary staging of early-stage cervical cancer before radical hysterectomy,” J. Clin. Oncol. 24(1), 123–128 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lam, W. W. M.

W. T. Yang, W. W. M. Lam, M. Y. Yu, T. H. Cheung, and C. Metreweli, “Comparison of dynamic helical CT and dynamic MR imaging in the evaluation of pelvic lymph nodes in cervical carcinoma,” AJR Am. J. Roentgenol. 175(3), 759–766 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Landoni, F.

M. Bellomi, G. Bonomo, F. Landoni, G. Villa, M. E. Leon, L. Bocciolone, A. Maggioni, and G. Viale, “Accuracy of computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in the detection of lymph node involvement in cervix carcinoma,” Eur. Radiol. 15(12), 2469–2474 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, G. M.

Lee, J. S.

H. J. Choi, J. W. Roh, S.-S. Seo, S. Lee, J.-Y. Kim, S.-K. Kim, K. W. Kang, J. S. Lee, J. Y. Jeong, and S.-Y. Park, “Comparison of the accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography/computed tomography in the presurgical detection of lymph node metastases in patients with uterine cervical carcinoma: a prospective study,” Cancer 106(4), 914–922 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, S.

H. J. Choi, J. W. Roh, S.-S. Seo, S. Lee, J.-Y. Kim, S.-K. Kim, K. W. Kang, J. S. Lee, J. Y. Jeong, and S.-Y. Park, “Comparison of the accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography/computed tomography in the presurgical detection of lymph node metastases in patients with uterine cervical carcinoma: a prospective study,” Cancer 106(4), 914–922 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, S. H.

Lee, S. K.

Lee, S.-S.

Leon, M. E.

M. Bellomi, G. Bonomo, F. Landoni, G. Villa, M. E. Leon, L. Bocciolone, A. Maggioni, and G. Viale, “Accuracy of computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in the detection of lymph node involvement in cervix carcinoma,” Eur. Radiol. 15(12), 2469–2474 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lim, M.-H.

Lin, C.-T.

H.-H. Chou, T.-C. Chang, T.-C. Yen, K.-K. Ng, S. Hsueh, S.-Y. Ma, C.-J. Chang, H. J. Huang, A. Chao, T.-I. Wu, S.-M. Jung, Y.-C. Wu, C.-T. Lin, K.-G. Huang, and C.-H. Lai, “Low value of [18F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography in primary staging of early-stage cervical cancer before radical hysterectomy,” J. Clin. Oncol. 24(1), 123–128 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Linfield, E. H.

R. M. Woodward, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, B. E. Cole, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging of ex vivo basal cell carcinoma,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 120(1), 72–78 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3853–3863 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3853–3863 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lo, W. K.

T. H. Cheung, W. K. Lo, M. Y. Yu, W. T. Yang, and S. Ho, “Extended experience in the use of laparoscopic ultrasound to detect pelvic nodal metastasis in patients with cervical carcinoma,” Gynecol. Oncol. 92(3), 784–788 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Löffler, T.

T. Löffler, K. Siebert, S. Czasch, T. Bauer, and H. G. Roskos, “Visualization and classification in biomedical terahertz pulsed imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3847–3852 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ma, S.-Y.

H.-H. Chou, T.-C. Chang, T.-C. Yen, K.-K. Ng, S. Hsueh, S.-Y. Ma, C.-J. Chang, H. J. Huang, A. Chao, T.-I. Wu, S.-M. Jung, Y.-C. Wu, C.-T. Lin, K.-G. Huang, and C.-H. Lai, “Low value of [18F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography in primary staging of early-stage cervical cancer before radical hysterectomy,” J. Clin. Oncol. 24(1), 123–128 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maeng, I.

Maggioni, A.

M. Bellomi, G. Bonomo, F. Landoni, G. Villa, M. E. Leon, L. Bocciolone, A. Maggioni, and G. Viale, “Accuracy of computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in the detection of lymph node involvement in cervix carcinoma,” Eur. Radiol. 15(12), 2469–2474 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mamounas, E. P.

D. N. Krag, S. J. Anderson, T. B. Julian, A. M. Brown, S. P. Harlow, J. P. Costantino, T. Ashikaga, D. L. Weaver, E. P. Mamounas, L. M. Jalovec, T. G. Frazier, R. D. Noyes, A. Robidoux, H. M. Scarth, and N. Wolmark, “Sentinel-lymph-node resection compared with conventional axillary-lymph-node dissection in clinically node-negative patients with breast cancer: overall survival findings from the NSABP B-32 randomised phase 3 trial,” Lancet Oncol. 11(10), 927–933 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McIndoe, G. A.

A. D. Williams, C. Cousins, W. P. Soutter, M. Mubashar, A. M. Peters, R. Dina, F. Fuchsel, G. A. McIndoe, and N. M. deSouza, “Detection of pelvic lymph node metastases in gynecologic malignancy: a comparison of CT, MR imaging, and positron emission tomography,” AJR Am. J. Roentgenol. 177(2), 343–348 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Metreweli, C.

W. T. Yang, W. W. M. Lam, M. Y. Yu, T. H. Cheung, and C. Metreweli, “Comparison of dynamic helical CT and dynamic MR imaging in the evaluation of pelvic lymph nodes in cervical carcinoma,” AJR Am. J. Roentgenol. 175(3), 759–766 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mikkelsen, K. V.

C. Ronne, R.-O. Astrand, A. Wallqvist, K. V. Mikkelsen, and S. R. Keiding, “Investigation of the temperature dependence of dielectric relaxation in liquid water by THz reflection spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulation,” J. Chem. Phys. 107(14), 5319–5331 (1997).
[Crossref]

Miura, Y.

Y. Miura, A. Kamataki, M. Uzuki, T. Sasaki, J. Nishizawa, and T. Sawai, “Terahertz-wave spectroscopy for precise histopathological imaging of tumor and non-tumor lesions in paraffin sections,” Tohoku J. Exp. Med. 223(4), 291–296 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mokbel, K.

M. Salhab, N. Patani, and K. Mokbel, “Sentinel lymph node micrometastasis in human breast cancer: an update,” Surg. Oncol. 20(4), e195–e206 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moon, K.-W.

Mubashar, M.

A. D. Williams, C. Cousins, W. P. Soutter, M. Mubashar, A. M. Peters, R. Dina, F. Fuchsel, G. A. McIndoe, and N. M. deSouza, “Detection of pelvic lymph node metastases in gynecologic malignancy: a comparison of CT, MR imaging, and positron emission tomography,” AJR Am. J. Roentgenol. 177(2), 343–348 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ng, K.-K.

H.-H. Chou, T.-C. Chang, T.-C. Yen, K.-K. Ng, S. Hsueh, S.-Y. Ma, C.-J. Chang, H. J. Huang, A. Chao, T.-I. Wu, S.-M. Jung, Y.-C. Wu, C.-T. Lin, K.-G. Huang, and C.-H. Lai, “Low value of [18F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography in primary staging of early-stage cervical cancer before radical hysterectomy,” J. Clin. Oncol. 24(1), 123–128 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nishizawa, J.

Y. Miura, A. Kamataki, M. Uzuki, T. Sasaki, J. Nishizawa, and T. Sawai, “Terahertz-wave spectroscopy for precise histopathological imaging of tumor and non-tumor lesions in paraffin sections,” Tohoku J. Exp. Med. 223(4), 291–296 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Noh, S. K.

Noyes, R. D.

D. N. Krag, S. J. Anderson, T. B. Julian, A. M. Brown, S. P. Harlow, J. P. Costantino, T. Ashikaga, D. L. Weaver, E. P. Mamounas, L. M. Jalovec, T. G. Frazier, R. D. Noyes, A. Robidoux, H. M. Scarth, and N. Wolmark, “Sentinel-lymph-node resection compared with conventional axillary-lymph-node dissection in clinically node-negative patients with breast cancer: overall survival findings from the NSABP B-32 randomised phase 3 trial,” Lancet Oncol. 11(10), 927–933 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O’Kelly, P.

A. J. Fitzgerald, S. Pinder, A. D. Purushotham, P. O’Kelly, P. C. Ashworth, and V. P. Wallace, “Classification of terahertz-pulsed imaging data from excised breast tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(1), 016005 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O’Kelly, P. S.

C. B. Reid, A. Fitzgerald, G. Reese, R. Goldin, P. Tekkis, P. S. O’Kelly, E. Pickwell-MacPherson, A. P. Gibson, and V. P. Wallace, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of freshly excised human colonic tissues,” Phys. Med. Biol. 56(14), 4333–4353 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Oh, S. J.

Park, C.

Park, C. H.

Park, C.-S.

Y. C. Sim, K.-M. Ahn, J. Y. Park, C.-S. Park, and J.-H. Son, “Temperature-dependent terahertz imaging of excised oral malignant melanoma,” IEEE J. Biomed. Health Inform. 17(4), 779–784 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, D. W.

Park, J.

K. W. Kim, K.-S. Kim, H. Kim, S. H. Lee, J.-H. Park, J.-H. Han, S.-H. Seok, J. Park, Y. Choi, Y. I. Kim, J. K. Han, and J.-H. Son, “Terahertz dynamic imaging of skin drug absorption,” Opt. Express 20(9), 9476–9484 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. W. Kim, H. Kim, J. Park, J. K. Han, and J.-H. Son, “Terahertz tomographic imaging of transdermal drug delivery,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 2(1), 99–106 (2012).
[Crossref]

Park, J. Y.

Y. C. Sim, K.-M. Ahn, J. Y. Park, C.-S. Park, and J.-H. Son, “Temperature-dependent terahertz imaging of excised oral malignant melanoma,” IEEE J. Biomed. Health Inform. 17(4), 779–784 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. C. Sim, J. Y. Park, K.-M. Ahn, C. Park, and J.-H. Son, “Terahertz imaging of excised oral cancer at frozen temperature,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(8), 1413–1421 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Y. Park, H. J. Choi, K.-S. Cho, K.-R. Kim, and J.-H. Son, “Terahertz spectroscopic imaging of a rabbit VX2 hepatoma model,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(6), 064704 (2011).
[Crossref]

Park, J.-H.

Park, S.-Y.

H. J. Choi, J. W. Roh, S.-S. Seo, S. Lee, J.-Y. Kim, S.-K. Kim, K. W. Kang, J. S. Lee, J. Y. Jeong, and S.-Y. Park, “Comparison of the accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography/computed tomography in the presurgical detection of lymph node metastases in patients with uterine cervical carcinoma: a prospective study,” Cancer 106(4), 914–922 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, Y.

Parrott, E. P. J.

Patani, N.

M. Salhab, N. Patani, and K. Mokbel, “Sentinel lymph node micrometastasis in human breast cancer: an update,” Surg. Oncol. 20(4), e195–e206 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pepper, M.

P. C. Ashworth, E. Pickwell-MacPherson, E. Provenzano, S. E. Pinder, A. D. Purushotham, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy of freshly excised human breast cancer,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12444–12454 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Woodward, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, B. E. Cole, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging of ex vivo basal cell carcinoma,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 120(1), 72–78 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3853–3863 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3853–3863 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Peters, A. M.

A. D. Williams, C. Cousins, W. P. Soutter, M. Mubashar, A. M. Peters, R. Dina, F. Fuchsel, G. A. McIndoe, and N. M. deSouza, “Detection of pelvic lymph node metastases in gynecologic malignancy: a comparison of CT, MR imaging, and positron emission tomography,” AJR Am. J. Roentgenol. 177(2), 343–348 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pickwell-MacPherson, E.

Pinder, S.

A. J. Fitzgerald, S. Pinder, A. D. Purushotham, P. O’Kelly, P. C. Ashworth, and V. P. Wallace, “Classification of terahertz-pulsed imaging data from excised breast tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(1), 016005 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pinder, S. E.

Provenzano, E.

Purushotham, A. D.

A. J. Fitzgerald, S. Pinder, A. D. Purushotham, P. O’Kelly, P. C. Ashworth, and V. P. Wallace, “Classification of terahertz-pulsed imaging data from excised breast tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(1), 016005 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. C. Ashworth, E. Pickwell-MacPherson, E. Provenzano, S. E. Pinder, A. D. Purushotham, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy of freshly excised human breast cancer,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12444–12454 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of human breast tumors,” Radiology 239(2), 533–540 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pye, R. J.

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of human breast tumors,” Radiology 239(2), 533–540 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Woodward, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, B. E. Cole, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging of ex vivo basal cell carcinoma,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 120(1), 72–78 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3853–3863 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3853–3863 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reese, G.

C. B. Reid, A. Fitzgerald, G. Reese, R. Goldin, P. Tekkis, P. S. O’Kelly, E. Pickwell-MacPherson, A. P. Gibson, and V. P. Wallace, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of freshly excised human colonic tissues,” Phys. Med. Biol. 56(14), 4333–4353 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reid, C. B.

C. B. Reid, A. Fitzgerald, G. Reese, R. Goldin, P. Tekkis, P. S. O’Kelly, E. Pickwell-MacPherson, A. P. Gibson, and V. P. Wallace, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of freshly excised human colonic tissues,” Phys. Med. Biol. 56(14), 4333–4353 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Robidoux, A.

D. N. Krag, S. J. Anderson, T. B. Julian, A. M. Brown, S. P. Harlow, J. P. Costantino, T. Ashikaga, D. L. Weaver, E. P. Mamounas, L. M. Jalovec, T. G. Frazier, R. D. Noyes, A. Robidoux, H. M. Scarth, and N. Wolmark, “Sentinel-lymph-node resection compared with conventional axillary-lymph-node dissection in clinically node-negative patients with breast cancer: overall survival findings from the NSABP B-32 randomised phase 3 trial,” Lancet Oncol. 11(10), 927–933 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Roh, J. W.

H. J. Choi, J. W. Roh, S.-S. Seo, S. Lee, J.-Y. Kim, S.-K. Kim, K. W. Kang, J. S. Lee, J. Y. Jeong, and S.-Y. Park, “Comparison of the accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography/computed tomography in the presurgical detection of lymph node metastases in patients with uterine cervical carcinoma: a prospective study,” Cancer 106(4), 914–922 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ronne, C.

C. Ronne, R.-O. Astrand, A. Wallqvist, K. V. Mikkelsen, and S. R. Keiding, “Investigation of the temperature dependence of dielectric relaxation in liquid water by THz reflection spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulation,” J. Chem. Phys. 107(14), 5319–5331 (1997).
[Crossref]

Roskos, H. G.

T. Löffler, K. Siebert, S. Czasch, T. Bauer, and H. G. Roskos, “Visualization and classification in biomedical terahertz pulsed imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3847–3852 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ross, M. I.

J. E. Gershenwald and M. I. Ross, “Sentinel-lymph-node biopsy for cutaneous melanoma,” N. Engl. J. Med. 364(18), 1738–1745 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Salhab, M.

M. Salhab, N. Patani, and K. Mokbel, “Sentinel lymph node micrometastasis in human breast cancer: an update,” Surg. Oncol. 20(4), e195–e206 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sasaki, T.

Y. Miura, A. Kamataki, M. Uzuki, T. Sasaki, J. Nishizawa, and T. Sawai, “Terahertz-wave spectroscopy for precise histopathological imaging of tumor and non-tumor lesions in paraffin sections,” Tohoku J. Exp. Med. 223(4), 291–296 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sawai, T.

Y. Miura, A. Kamataki, M. Uzuki, T. Sasaki, J. Nishizawa, and T. Sawai, “Terahertz-wave spectroscopy for precise histopathological imaging of tumor and non-tumor lesions in paraffin sections,” Tohoku J. Exp. Med. 223(4), 291–296 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Scarth, H. M.

D. N. Krag, S. J. Anderson, T. B. Julian, A. M. Brown, S. P. Harlow, J. P. Costantino, T. Ashikaga, D. L. Weaver, E. P. Mamounas, L. M. Jalovec, T. G. Frazier, R. D. Noyes, A. Robidoux, H. M. Scarth, and N. Wolmark, “Sentinel-lymph-node resection compared with conventional axillary-lymph-node dissection in clinically node-negative patients with breast cancer: overall survival findings from the NSABP B-32 randomised phase 3 trial,” Lancet Oncol. 11(10), 927–933 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Seo, S.-S.

H. J. Choi, J. W. Roh, S.-S. Seo, S. Lee, J.-Y. Kim, S.-K. Kim, K. W. Kang, J. S. Lee, J. Y. Jeong, and S.-Y. Park, “Comparison of the accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography/computed tomography in the presurgical detection of lymph node metastases in patients with uterine cervical carcinoma: a prospective study,” Cancer 106(4), 914–922 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Seok, S.-H.

Siebert, K.

T. Löffler, K. Siebert, S. Czasch, T. Bauer, and H. G. Roskos, “Visualization and classification in biomedical terahertz pulsed imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3847–3852 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sim, Y. C.

Y. C. Sim, K.-M. Ahn, J. Y. Park, C.-S. Park, and J.-H. Son, “Temperature-dependent terahertz imaging of excised oral malignant melanoma,” IEEE J. Biomed. Health Inform. 17(4), 779–784 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. C. Sim, J. Y. Park, K.-M. Ahn, C. Park, and J.-H. Son, “Terahertz imaging of excised oral cancer at frozen temperature,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(8), 1413–1421 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Son, J.-H.

Y. B. Ji, C. H. Park, H. Kim, S.-H. Kim, G. M. Lee, S. K. Noh, T.-I. Jeon, J.-H. Son, Y.-M. Huh, S. Haam, S. J. Oh, S. K. Lee, and J.-S. Suh, “Feasibility of terahertz reflectometry for discrimination of human early gastric cancers,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(4), 1398–1406 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. Oh, S.-H. Kim, Y. B. Ji, K. Jeong, Y. Park, J. Yang, D. W. Park, S. K. Noh, S.-G. Kang, Y.-M. Huh, J.-H. Son, and J.-S. Suh, “Study of freshly excised brain tissues using terahertz imaging,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(8), 2837–2842 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.-H. Son, “Principle and applications of terahertz molecular imaging,” Nanotechnology 24(21), 214001 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. Oh, S.-H. Kim, K. Jeong, Y. Park, Y.-M. Huh, J.-H. Son, and J.-S. Suh, “Measurement depth enhancement in terahertz imaging of biological tissues,” Opt. Express 21(18), 21299–21305 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. C. Sim, J. Y. Park, K.-M. Ahn, C. Park, and J.-H. Son, “Terahertz imaging of excised oral cancer at frozen temperature,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(8), 1413–1421 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. C. Sim, K.-M. Ahn, J. Y. Park, C.-S. Park, and J.-H. Son, “Temperature-dependent terahertz imaging of excised oral malignant melanoma,” IEEE J. Biomed. Health Inform. 17(4), 779–784 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. W. Kim, K.-S. Kim, H. Kim, S. H. Lee, J.-H. Park, J.-H. Han, S.-H. Seok, J. Park, Y. Choi, Y. I. Kim, J. K. Han, and J.-H. Son, “Terahertz dynamic imaging of skin drug absorption,” Opt. Express 20(9), 9476–9484 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. W. Kim, H. Kim, J. Park, J. K. Han, and J.-H. Son, “Terahertz tomographic imaging of transdermal drug delivery,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 2(1), 99–106 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Y. Park, H. J. Choi, K.-S. Cho, K.-R. Kim, and J.-H. Son, “Terahertz spectroscopic imaging of a rabbit VX2 hepatoma model,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(6), 064704 (2011).
[Crossref]

J.-H. Son, “Terahertz electromagnetic interactions with biological matter and their applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(10), 102033 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. J. Oh, J. Kang, I. Maeng, J.-S. Suh, Y.-M. Huh, S. Haam, and J.-H. Son, “Nanoparticle-enabled terahertz imaging for cancer diagnosis,” Opt. Express 17(5), 3469–3475 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Soutter, W. P.

A. D. Williams, C. Cousins, W. P. Soutter, M. Mubashar, A. M. Peters, R. Dina, F. Fuchsel, G. A. McIndoe, and N. M. deSouza, “Detection of pelvic lymph node metastases in gynecologic malignancy: a comparison of CT, MR imaging, and positron emission tomography,” AJR Am. J. Roentgenol. 177(2), 343–348 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Suh, J.-S.

Tekkis, P.

C. B. Reid, A. Fitzgerald, G. Reese, R. Goldin, P. Tekkis, P. S. O’Kelly, E. Pickwell-MacPherson, A. P. Gibson, and V. P. Wallace, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of freshly excised human colonic tissues,” Phys. Med. Biol. 56(14), 4333–4353 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ung, B. S. Y.

Ung, B. S.-Y.

Uzuki, M.

Y. Miura, A. Kamataki, M. Uzuki, T. Sasaki, J. Nishizawa, and T. Sawai, “Terahertz-wave spectroscopy for precise histopathological imaging of tumor and non-tumor lesions in paraffin sections,” Tohoku J. Exp. Med. 223(4), 291–296 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Viale, G.

M. Bellomi, G. Bonomo, F. Landoni, G. Villa, M. E. Leon, L. Bocciolone, A. Maggioni, and G. Viale, “Accuracy of computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in the detection of lymph node involvement in cervix carcinoma,” Eur. Radiol. 15(12), 2469–2474 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Villa, G.

M. Bellomi, G. Bonomo, F. Landoni, G. Villa, M. E. Leon, L. Bocciolone, A. Maggioni, and G. Viale, “Accuracy of computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in the detection of lymph node involvement in cervix carcinoma,” Eur. Radiol. 15(12), 2469–2474 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wallace, V. P.

A. J. Fitzgerald, S. Pinder, A. D. Purushotham, P. O’Kelly, P. C. Ashworth, and V. P. Wallace, “Classification of terahertz-pulsed imaging data from excised breast tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(1), 016005 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. B. Reid, A. Fitzgerald, G. Reese, R. Goldin, P. Tekkis, P. S. O’Kelly, E. Pickwell-MacPherson, A. P. Gibson, and V. P. Wallace, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of freshly excised human colonic tissues,” Phys. Med. Biol. 56(14), 4333–4353 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. C. Ashworth, E. Pickwell-MacPherson, E. Provenzano, S. E. Pinder, A. D. Purushotham, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy of freshly excised human breast cancer,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12444–12454 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of human breast tumors,” Radiology 239(2), 533–540 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Woodward, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, B. E. Cole, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging of ex vivo basal cell carcinoma,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 120(1), 72–78 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3853–3863 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3853–3863 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wallqvist, A.

C. Ronne, R.-O. Astrand, A. Wallqvist, K. V. Mikkelsen, and S. R. Keiding, “Investigation of the temperature dependence of dielectric relaxation in liquid water by THz reflection spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulation,” J. Chem. Phys. 107(14), 5319–5331 (1997).
[Crossref]

Weaver, D. L.

D. N. Krag, S. J. Anderson, T. B. Julian, A. M. Brown, S. P. Harlow, J. P. Costantino, T. Ashikaga, D. L. Weaver, E. P. Mamounas, L. M. Jalovec, T. G. Frazier, R. D. Noyes, A. Robidoux, H. M. Scarth, and N. Wolmark, “Sentinel-lymph-node resection compared with conventional axillary-lymph-node dissection in clinically node-negative patients with breast cancer: overall survival findings from the NSABP B-32 randomised phase 3 trial,” Lancet Oncol. 11(10), 927–933 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Williams, A. D.

A. D. Williams, C. Cousins, W. P. Soutter, M. Mubashar, A. M. Peters, R. Dina, F. Fuchsel, G. A. McIndoe, and N. M. deSouza, “Detection of pelvic lymph node metastases in gynecologic malignancy: a comparison of CT, MR imaging, and positron emission tomography,” AJR Am. J. Roentgenol. 177(2), 343–348 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wolmark, N.

D. N. Krag, S. J. Anderson, T. B. Julian, A. M. Brown, S. P. Harlow, J. P. Costantino, T. Ashikaga, D. L. Weaver, E. P. Mamounas, L. M. Jalovec, T. G. Frazier, R. D. Noyes, A. Robidoux, H. M. Scarth, and N. Wolmark, “Sentinel-lymph-node resection compared with conventional axillary-lymph-node dissection in clinically node-negative patients with breast cancer: overall survival findings from the NSABP B-32 randomised phase 3 trial,” Lancet Oncol. 11(10), 927–933 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Woodward, R. M.

R. M. Woodward, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, B. E. Cole, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging of ex vivo basal cell carcinoma,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 120(1), 72–78 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3853–3863 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3853–3863 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, T.-I.

H.-H. Chou, T.-C. Chang, T.-C. Yen, K.-K. Ng, S. Hsueh, S.-Y. Ma, C.-J. Chang, H. J. Huang, A. Chao, T.-I. Wu, S.-M. Jung, Y.-C. Wu, C.-T. Lin, K.-G. Huang, and C.-H. Lai, “Low value of [18F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography in primary staging of early-stage cervical cancer before radical hysterectomy,” J. Clin. Oncol. 24(1), 123–128 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, Y.-C.

H.-H. Chou, T.-C. Chang, T.-C. Yen, K.-K. Ng, S. Hsueh, S.-Y. Ma, C.-J. Chang, H. J. Huang, A. Chao, T.-I. Wu, S.-M. Jung, Y.-C. Wu, C.-T. Lin, K.-G. Huang, and C.-H. Lai, “Low value of [18F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography in primary staging of early-stage cervical cancer before radical hysterectomy,” J. Clin. Oncol. 24(1), 123–128 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, J.

Yang, W. T.

T. H. Cheung, W. K. Lo, M. Y. Yu, W. T. Yang, and S. Ho, “Extended experience in the use of laparoscopic ultrasound to detect pelvic nodal metastasis in patients with cervical carcinoma,” Gynecol. Oncol. 92(3), 784–788 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. T. Yang, W. W. M. Lam, M. Y. Yu, T. H. Cheung, and C. Metreweli, “Comparison of dynamic helical CT and dynamic MR imaging in the evaluation of pelvic lymph nodes in cervical carcinoma,” AJR Am. J. Roentgenol. 175(3), 759–766 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yen, T.-C.

H.-H. Chou, T.-C. Chang, T.-C. Yen, K.-K. Ng, S. Hsueh, S.-Y. Ma, C.-J. Chang, H. J. Huang, A. Chao, T.-I. Wu, S.-M. Jung, Y.-C. Wu, C.-T. Lin, K.-G. Huang, and C.-H. Lai, “Low value of [18F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography in primary staging of early-stage cervical cancer before radical hysterectomy,” J. Clin. Oncol. 24(1), 123–128 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, M. Y.

T. H. Cheung, W. K. Lo, M. Y. Yu, W. T. Yang, and S. Ho, “Extended experience in the use of laparoscopic ultrasound to detect pelvic nodal metastasis in patients with cervical carcinoma,” Gynecol. Oncol. 92(3), 784–788 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. T. Yang, W. W. M. Lam, M. Y. Yu, T. H. Cheung, and C. Metreweli, “Comparison of dynamic helical CT and dynamic MR imaging in the evaluation of pelvic lymph nodes in cervical carcinoma,” AJR Am. J. Roentgenol. 175(3), 759–766 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

AJR Am. J. Roentgenol. (2)

A. D. Williams, C. Cousins, W. P. Soutter, M. Mubashar, A. M. Peters, R. Dina, F. Fuchsel, G. A. McIndoe, and N. M. deSouza, “Detection of pelvic lymph node metastases in gynecologic malignancy: a comparison of CT, MR imaging, and positron emission tomography,” AJR Am. J. Roentgenol. 177(2), 343–348 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. T. Yang, W. W. M. Lam, M. Y. Yu, T. H. Cheung, and C. Metreweli, “Comparison of dynamic helical CT and dynamic MR imaging in the evaluation of pelvic lymph nodes in cervical carcinoma,” AJR Am. J. Roentgenol. 175(3), 759–766 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biomed. Opt. Express (4)

Cancer (1)

H. J. Choi, J. W. Roh, S.-S. Seo, S. Lee, J.-Y. Kim, S.-K. Kim, K. W. Kang, J. S. Lee, J. Y. Jeong, and S.-Y. Park, “Comparison of the accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography/computed tomography in the presurgical detection of lymph node metastases in patients with uterine cervical carcinoma: a prospective study,” Cancer 106(4), 914–922 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eur. Radiol. (1)

M. Bellomi, G. Bonomo, F. Landoni, G. Villa, M. E. Leon, L. Bocciolone, A. Maggioni, and G. Viale, “Accuracy of computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in the detection of lymph node involvement in cervix carcinoma,” Eur. Radiol. 15(12), 2469–2474 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gynecol. Oncol. (1)

T. H. Cheung, W. K. Lo, M. Y. Yu, W. T. Yang, and S. Ho, “Extended experience in the use of laparoscopic ultrasound to detect pelvic nodal metastasis in patients with cervical carcinoma,” Gynecol. Oncol. 92(3), 784–788 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Biomed. Health Inform. (1)

Y. C. Sim, K.-M. Ahn, J. Y. Park, C.-S. Park, and J.-H. Son, “Temperature-dependent terahertz imaging of excised oral malignant melanoma,” IEEE J. Biomed. Health Inform. 17(4), 779–784 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. (1)

K. W. Kim, H. Kim, J. Park, J. K. Han, and J.-H. Son, “Terahertz tomographic imaging of transdermal drug delivery,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 2(1), 99–106 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

J.-H. Son, “Terahertz electromagnetic interactions with biological matter and their applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(10), 102033 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Y. Park, H. J. Choi, K.-S. Cho, K.-R. Kim, and J.-H. Son, “Terahertz spectroscopic imaging of a rabbit VX2 hepatoma model,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(6), 064704 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

A. J. Fitzgerald, S. Pinder, A. D. Purushotham, P. O’Kelly, P. C. Ashworth, and V. P. Wallace, “Classification of terahertz-pulsed imaging data from excised breast tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(1), 016005 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

C. Ronne, R.-O. Astrand, A. Wallqvist, K. V. Mikkelsen, and S. R. Keiding, “Investigation of the temperature dependence of dielectric relaxation in liquid water by THz reflection spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulation,” J. Chem. Phys. 107(14), 5319–5331 (1997).
[Crossref]

J. Clin. Oncol. (1)

H.-H. Chou, T.-C. Chang, T.-C. Yen, K.-K. Ng, S. Hsueh, S.-Y. Ma, C.-J. Chang, H. J. Huang, A. Chao, T.-I. Wu, S.-M. Jung, Y.-C. Wu, C.-T. Lin, K.-G. Huang, and C.-H. Lai, “Low value of [18F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography in primary staging of early-stage cervical cancer before radical hysterectomy,” J. Clin. Oncol. 24(1), 123–128 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Invest. Dermatol. (1)

R. M. Woodward, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, B. E. Cole, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging of ex vivo basal cell carcinoma,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 120(1), 72–78 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Korea (1)

Lancet Oncol. (1)

D. N. Krag, S. J. Anderson, T. B. Julian, A. M. Brown, S. P. Harlow, J. P. Costantino, T. Ashikaga, D. L. Weaver, E. P. Mamounas, L. M. Jalovec, T. G. Frazier, R. D. Noyes, A. Robidoux, H. M. Scarth, and N. Wolmark, “Sentinel-lymph-node resection compared with conventional axillary-lymph-node dissection in clinically node-negative patients with breast cancer: overall survival findings from the NSABP B-32 randomised phase 3 trial,” Lancet Oncol. 11(10), 927–933 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Engl. J. Med. (1)

J. E. Gershenwald and M. I. Ross, “Sentinel-lymph-node biopsy for cutaneous melanoma,” N. Engl. J. Med. 364(18), 1738–1745 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nanotechnology (1)

J.-H. Son, “Principle and applications of terahertz molecular imaging,” Nanotechnology 24(21), 214001 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (4)

Photon. Res. (1)

Phys. Med. Biol. (4)

R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3853–3863 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Löffler, K. Siebert, S. Czasch, T. Bauer, and H. G. Roskos, “Visualization and classification in biomedical terahertz pulsed imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3847–3852 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. B. Reid, A. Fitzgerald, G. Reese, R. Goldin, P. Tekkis, P. S. O’Kelly, E. Pickwell-MacPherson, A. P. Gibson, and V. P. Wallace, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of freshly excised human colonic tissues,” Phys. Med. Biol. 56(14), 4333–4353 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3853–3863 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Radiology (1)

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of human breast tumors,” Radiology 239(2), 533–540 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Surg. Oncol. (1)

M. Salhab, N. Patani, and K. Mokbel, “Sentinel lymph node micrometastasis in human breast cancer: an update,” Surg. Oncol. 20(4), e195–e206 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tohoku J. Exp. Med. (1)

Y. Miura, A. Kamataki, M. Uzuki, T. Sasaki, J. Nishizawa, and T. Sawai, “Terahertz-wave spectroscopy for precise histopathological imaging of tumor and non-tumor lesions in paraffin sections,” Tohoku J. Exp. Med. 223(4), 291–296 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Excised LNs on the quartz plate (a-c: LNs with no melanoma cells, d-f: LNs with melanoma cells for 15 days, g-i: LNs with melanoma cells for 30 days). The aluminum film was used for acquiring a reference signal.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Setup of the reflection-mode THz imaging system, with the temperature-controlled sample stage.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Histological images of LNs. (a) A healthy LN, (b) a completely metastatic LN, and (c) a partially metastatic LN, with a boundary (dashed line) between (c1) the non-metastatic tissue and (c2) the region with melanoma cells.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 THz time-domain waveforms and their Fourier spectra at 20 °C ((a) and (b)) and −20 °C ((c) and (d)).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Distributions of normalized integration factors for LNs (a-c: healthy LNs, d-f: completely metastatic LNs, g-i: partially metastatic LNs) at −20 °C (bar graph) and their polynomial fits (red curves).
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Fits to S distributions for the healthy LNs (a, b, and c) and completely metastatic LNs (g, h, and i), at −20 °C.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 THz imaging results for the three groups of LNs: (a) healthy LNs, (b) completely metastatic LNs, and (c) partially metastatic LNs. The bottom panel shows the THz images in two colors, corresponding to the normalized integration factor, S being above or below the critical point of 0.53. The images successfully resolved a very small metastatic area with the linear dimension of ~0.7 mm.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

G i = FT(E (t) i )dω
S i = | G i G min | G max G min

Metrics