Abstract

We report that the Raman spectrum obtained from porcine skin varies significantly with the change of skin water content. At different water contents from 40 to 55 wt.%, the Raman spectra results using confocal Raman spectroscopy show that the spectral variation of porcine skin is highly affected by skin water content. Experimental data are consistent with the Monte Carlo calculation and it is proved that the intensity of the Raman spectrum depends on the angle distribution and collection efficiency of backscattered light from the sample surface for a varied water content. It is suggested that water content for a given skin sample should be controlled carefully to minimize errors and deviations in the Raman peak analyses.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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2016 (4)

I. P. Santos, P. J. Caspers, T. C. Bakker Schut, R. van Doorn, V. Noordhoek Hegt, S. Koljenović, and G. J. Puppels, “Raman spectroscopic characterization of melanoma and benign melanocytic lesions suspected of melanoma using high-wavenumber Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 88(15), 7683–7688 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Addis, N. Mohammed, O. Rotimi, D. Magee, A. Jha, and V. Subramanian, “Raman spectroscopy of endoscopic colonic biopsies from patients with ulcerative colitis to identify mucosal inflammation and healing,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(5), 2022–2035 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Pence and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “Clinical instrumentation and applications of Raman spectroscopy,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 45(7), 1958–1979 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Zhao, H. Zeng, S. Kalia, and H. Lui, “Wavenumber selection based analysis in Raman spectroscopy improves skin cancer diagnostic specificity,” Analyst (Lond.) 141(3), 1034–1043 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (1)

J. Wang, K. Lin, W. Zheng, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Comparative study of the endoscope-based bevelled and volume fiber-optic Raman probes for optical diagnosis of gastric dysplasia in vivo at endoscopy,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 407(27), 8303–8310 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (4)

L. Lim, B. Nichols, M. R. Migden, N. Rajaram, J. S. Reichenberg, M. K. Markey, M. I. Ross, and J. W. Tunnell, “Clinical study of noninvasive in vivo melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers using multimodal spectral diagnosis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(11), 117003 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Krishna, S. K. Majumder, P. Chaturvedi, M. Sidramesh, and P. K. Gupta, “In vivo Raman spectroscopy for detection of oral neoplasia: a pilot clinical study,” J. Biophotonics 7(9), 690–702 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. Bergholt, W. Zheng, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, J. B. Yan So, A. Shabbir, and Z. Huang, “Fiberoptic confocal raman spectroscopy for real-time in vivo diagnosis of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastroenterology 146(1), 27–32 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Shaikh, T. K. Dora, S. Chopra, A. Maheshwari, D. Kedar K, R. Bharat, and C. M. Krishna, “In vivo Raman spectroscopy of human uterine cervix: exploring the utility of vagina as an internal control,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(8), 087001 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

S. Feng, D. Lin, J. Lin, B. Li, Z. Huang, G. Chen, W. Zhang, L. Wang, J. Pan, R. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for non-invasive optical detection of cervical cancer,” Analyst (Lond.) 138(14), 3967–3974 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

H. Lui, J. Zhao, D. McLean, and H. Zeng, “Real-time Raman spectroscopy for in vivo skin cancer diagnosis,” Cancer Res. 72(10), 2491–2500 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Tfaili, C. Gobinet, G. Josse, J. F. Angiboust, M. Manfait, and O. Piot, “Confocal Raman microspectroscopy for skin characterization: a comparative study between human skin and pig skin,” Analyst (Lond.) 137(16), 3673–3682 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

E. Vargis, E. M. Kanter, S. K. Majumder, M. D. Keller, R. B. Beaven, G. G. Rao, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “Effect of normal variations on disease classification of Raman spectra from cervical tissue,” Analyst (Lond.) 136(14), 2981–2987 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

N. Nakagawa, M. Matsumoto, and S. Sakai, “In vivo measurement of the water content in the dermis by confocal Raman spectroscopy,” Skin Res. Technol. 16(2), 137–141 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

C. A. Lieber, S. K. Majumder, D. Billheimer, D. L. Ellis, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “Raman microspectroscopy for skin cancer detection in vitro,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024013 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

C. G. Rylander, O. F. Stumpp, T. E. Milner, N. J. Kemp, J. M. Mendenhall, K. R. Diller, and A. J. Welch, “Dehydration mechanism of optical clearing in tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 041117 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

M. H. Khan, B. Choi, S. Chess, K. M Kelly, J. McCullough, and J. S. Nelson, “Optical clearing of in vivo human skin: implications for light-based diagnostic imaging and therapeutics,” Lasers Surg. Med. 34(2), 83–85 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Gniadecka, P. A. Philipsen, S. Sigurdsson, S. Wessel, O. F. Nielsen, D. H. Christensen, J. Hercogova, K. Rossen, H. K. Thomsen, R. Gniadecki, L. K. Hansen, and H. C. Wulf, “Melanoma diagnosis by Raman spectroscopy and neural networks: structure alterations in proteins and lipids in intact cancer tissue,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 122(2), 443–449 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1997 (3)

N. J. Vardaxis, T. A. Brans, M. E. Boon, R. W. Kreis, and L. M. Marres, “Confocal laser scanning microscopy of porcine skin: implications for human wound healing studies,” J. Anat. 190(4), 601–611 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. V. Tuchin, I. L. Maksimova, D. A. Zimnyakov, I. L. Kon, A. H. Mavlyutov, and A. A. Mishin, “Light propagation in tissues with controlled optical properties,” J. Biomed. Opt. 2(4), 401–417 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Zheng, “CONV--convolution for responses to a finite diameter photon beam incident on multi-layered tissues,” Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 54(3), 141–150 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

M. G. Shim and B. C. Wilson, “The effects of ex vivo handling procedures on the near-infrared Raman spectra of normal mammalian tissues,” Photochem. Photobiol. 63(5), 662–671 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

L. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Zheng, “MCML--Monte Carlo modeling of light transport in multi-layered tissues,” Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47(2), 131–146 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1993 (2)

1991 (1)

R. M. Lavker, G. Dong, P. S. Zheng, and G. F. Murphy, “Hairless micropig skin. A novel model for studies of cutaneous biology,” Am. J. Pathol. 138(3), 687–697 (1991).
[PubMed]

1989 (2)

M. Motamedi, S. Rastegar, G. Lecarpentier, and A. J. Welch, “Light and temperature distribution in laser irradiated tissue: the influence of anisotropic scattering and refractive index,” Appl. Opt. 28(12), 2230–2237 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Rastegar, M. Motamedi, A. J. Welch, and L. J. Hayes, “A theoretical study of the effect of optical properties in laser ablation of tissue,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36(12), 1180–1187 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Addis, J.

Angiboust, J. F.

S. Tfaili, C. Gobinet, G. Josse, J. F. Angiboust, M. Manfait, and O. Piot, “Confocal Raman microspectroscopy for skin characterization: a comparative study between human skin and pig skin,” Analyst (Lond.) 137(16), 3673–3682 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bakker Schut, T. C.

I. P. Santos, P. J. Caspers, T. C. Bakker Schut, R. van Doorn, V. Noordhoek Hegt, S. Koljenović, and G. J. Puppels, “Raman spectroscopic characterization of melanoma and benign melanocytic lesions suspected of melanoma using high-wavenumber Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 88(15), 7683–7688 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beaven, R. B.

E. Vargis, E. M. Kanter, S. K. Majumder, M. D. Keller, R. B. Beaven, G. G. Rao, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “Effect of normal variations on disease classification of Raman spectra from cervical tissue,” Analyst (Lond.) 136(14), 2981–2987 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beek, J. F.

Bergholt, M. S.

M. S. Bergholt, W. Zheng, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, J. B. Yan So, A. Shabbir, and Z. Huang, “Fiberoptic confocal raman spectroscopy for real-time in vivo diagnosis of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastroenterology 146(1), 27–32 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bharat, R.

R. Shaikh, T. K. Dora, S. Chopra, A. Maheshwari, D. Kedar K, R. Bharat, and C. M. Krishna, “In vivo Raman spectroscopy of human uterine cervix: exploring the utility of vagina as an internal control,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(8), 087001 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Billheimer, D.

C. A. Lieber, S. K. Majumder, D. Billheimer, D. L. Ellis, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “Raman microspectroscopy for skin cancer detection in vitro,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024013 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boon, M. E.

N. J. Vardaxis, T. A. Brans, M. E. Boon, R. W. Kreis, and L. M. Marres, “Confocal laser scanning microscopy of porcine skin: implications for human wound healing studies,” J. Anat. 190(4), 601–611 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brans, T. A.

N. J. Vardaxis, T. A. Brans, M. E. Boon, R. W. Kreis, and L. M. Marres, “Confocal laser scanning microscopy of porcine skin: implications for human wound healing studies,” J. Anat. 190(4), 601–611 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Caspers, P. J.

I. P. Santos, P. J. Caspers, T. C. Bakker Schut, R. van Doorn, V. Noordhoek Hegt, S. Koljenović, and G. J. Puppels, “Raman spectroscopic characterization of melanoma and benign melanocytic lesions suspected of melanoma using high-wavenumber Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 88(15), 7683–7688 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chaturvedi, P.

H. Krishna, S. K. Majumder, P. Chaturvedi, M. Sidramesh, and P. K. Gupta, “In vivo Raman spectroscopy for detection of oral neoplasia: a pilot clinical study,” J. Biophotonics 7(9), 690–702 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, G.

S. Feng, D. Lin, J. Lin, B. Li, Z. Huang, G. Chen, W. Zhang, L. Wang, J. Pan, R. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for non-invasive optical detection of cervical cancer,” Analyst (Lond.) 138(14), 3967–3974 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, R.

S. Feng, D. Lin, J. Lin, B. Li, Z. Huang, G. Chen, W. Zhang, L. Wang, J. Pan, R. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for non-invasive optical detection of cervical cancer,” Analyst (Lond.) 138(14), 3967–3974 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chess, S.

M. H. Khan, B. Choi, S. Chess, K. M Kelly, J. McCullough, and J. S. Nelson, “Optical clearing of in vivo human skin: implications for light-based diagnostic imaging and therapeutics,” Lasers Surg. Med. 34(2), 83–85 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, B.

M. H. Khan, B. Choi, S. Chess, K. M Kelly, J. McCullough, and J. S. Nelson, “Optical clearing of in vivo human skin: implications for light-based diagnostic imaging and therapeutics,” Lasers Surg. Med. 34(2), 83–85 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chopra, S.

R. Shaikh, T. K. Dora, S. Chopra, A. Maheshwari, D. Kedar K, R. Bharat, and C. M. Krishna, “In vivo Raman spectroscopy of human uterine cervix: exploring the utility of vagina as an internal control,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(8), 087001 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Christensen, D. H.

M. Gniadecka, P. A. Philipsen, S. Sigurdsson, S. Wessel, O. F. Nielsen, D. H. Christensen, J. Hercogova, K. Rossen, H. K. Thomsen, R. Gniadecki, L. K. Hansen, and H. C. Wulf, “Melanoma diagnosis by Raman spectroscopy and neural networks: structure alterations in proteins and lipids in intact cancer tissue,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 122(2), 443–449 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Diller, K. R.

C. G. Rylander, O. F. Stumpp, T. E. Milner, N. J. Kemp, J. M. Mendenhall, K. R. Diller, and A. J. Welch, “Dehydration mechanism of optical clearing in tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 041117 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dong, G.

R. M. Lavker, G. Dong, P. S. Zheng, and G. F. Murphy, “Hairless micropig skin. A novel model for studies of cutaneous biology,” Am. J. Pathol. 138(3), 687–697 (1991).
[PubMed]

Dora, T. K.

R. Shaikh, T. K. Dora, S. Chopra, A. Maheshwari, D. Kedar K, R. Bharat, and C. M. Krishna, “In vivo Raman spectroscopy of human uterine cervix: exploring the utility of vagina as an internal control,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(8), 087001 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ellis, D. L.

C. A. Lieber, S. K. Majumder, D. Billheimer, D. L. Ellis, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “Raman microspectroscopy for skin cancer detection in vitro,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024013 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feng, S.

S. Feng, D. Lin, J. Lin, B. Li, Z. Huang, G. Chen, W. Zhang, L. Wang, J. Pan, R. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for non-invasive optical detection of cervical cancer,” Analyst (Lond.) 138(14), 3967–3974 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gniadecka, M.

M. Gniadecka, P. A. Philipsen, S. Sigurdsson, S. Wessel, O. F. Nielsen, D. H. Christensen, J. Hercogova, K. Rossen, H. K. Thomsen, R. Gniadecki, L. K. Hansen, and H. C. Wulf, “Melanoma diagnosis by Raman spectroscopy and neural networks: structure alterations in proteins and lipids in intact cancer tissue,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 122(2), 443–449 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gniadecki, R.

M. Gniadecka, P. A. Philipsen, S. Sigurdsson, S. Wessel, O. F. Nielsen, D. H. Christensen, J. Hercogova, K. Rossen, H. K. Thomsen, R. Gniadecki, L. K. Hansen, and H. C. Wulf, “Melanoma diagnosis by Raman spectroscopy and neural networks: structure alterations in proteins and lipids in intact cancer tissue,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 122(2), 443–449 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gobinet, C.

S. Tfaili, C. Gobinet, G. Josse, J. F. Angiboust, M. Manfait, and O. Piot, “Confocal Raman microspectroscopy for skin characterization: a comparative study between human skin and pig skin,” Analyst (Lond.) 137(16), 3673–3682 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gupta, P. K.

H. Krishna, S. K. Majumder, P. Chaturvedi, M. Sidramesh, and P. K. Gupta, “In vivo Raman spectroscopy for detection of oral neoplasia: a pilot clinical study,” J. Biophotonics 7(9), 690–702 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hansen, L. K.

M. Gniadecka, P. A. Philipsen, S. Sigurdsson, S. Wessel, O. F. Nielsen, D. H. Christensen, J. Hercogova, K. Rossen, H. K. Thomsen, R. Gniadecki, L. K. Hansen, and H. C. Wulf, “Melanoma diagnosis by Raman spectroscopy and neural networks: structure alterations in proteins and lipids in intact cancer tissue,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 122(2), 443–449 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hayes, L. J.

S. Rastegar, M. Motamedi, A. J. Welch, and L. J. Hayes, “A theoretical study of the effect of optical properties in laser ablation of tissue,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36(12), 1180–1187 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hercogova, J.

M. Gniadecka, P. A. Philipsen, S. Sigurdsson, S. Wessel, O. F. Nielsen, D. H. Christensen, J. Hercogova, K. Rossen, H. K. Thomsen, R. Gniadecki, L. K. Hansen, and H. C. Wulf, “Melanoma diagnosis by Raman spectroscopy and neural networks: structure alterations in proteins and lipids in intact cancer tissue,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 122(2), 443–449 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ho, K. Y.

J. Wang, K. Lin, W. Zheng, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Comparative study of the endoscope-based bevelled and volume fiber-optic Raman probes for optical diagnosis of gastric dysplasia in vivo at endoscopy,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 407(27), 8303–8310 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. Bergholt, W. Zheng, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, J. B. Yan So, A. Shabbir, and Z. Huang, “Fiberoptic confocal raman spectroscopy for real-time in vivo diagnosis of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastroenterology 146(1), 27–32 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, Z.

J. Wang, K. Lin, W. Zheng, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Comparative study of the endoscope-based bevelled and volume fiber-optic Raman probes for optical diagnosis of gastric dysplasia in vivo at endoscopy,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 407(27), 8303–8310 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. Bergholt, W. Zheng, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, J. B. Yan So, A. Shabbir, and Z. Huang, “Fiberoptic confocal raman spectroscopy for real-time in vivo diagnosis of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastroenterology 146(1), 27–32 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Feng, D. Lin, J. Lin, B. Li, Z. Huang, G. Chen, W. Zhang, L. Wang, J. Pan, R. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for non-invasive optical detection of cervical cancer,” Analyst (Lond.) 138(14), 3967–3974 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jacques, S. L.

L. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Zheng, “CONV--convolution for responses to a finite diameter photon beam incident on multi-layered tissues,” Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 54(3), 141–150 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Zheng, “MCML--Monte Carlo modeling of light transport in multi-layered tissues,” Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47(2), 131–146 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jha, A.

Josse, G.

S. Tfaili, C. Gobinet, G. Josse, J. F. Angiboust, M. Manfait, and O. Piot, “Confocal Raman microspectroscopy for skin characterization: a comparative study between human skin and pig skin,” Analyst (Lond.) 137(16), 3673–3682 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kalia, S.

J. Zhao, H. Zeng, S. Kalia, and H. Lui, “Wavenumber selection based analysis in Raman spectroscopy improves skin cancer diagnostic specificity,” Analyst (Lond.) 141(3), 1034–1043 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kanter, E. M.

E. Vargis, E. M. Kanter, S. K. Majumder, M. D. Keller, R. B. Beaven, G. G. Rao, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “Effect of normal variations on disease classification of Raman spectra from cervical tissue,” Analyst (Lond.) 136(14), 2981–2987 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kedar K, D.

R. Shaikh, T. K. Dora, S. Chopra, A. Maheshwari, D. Kedar K, R. Bharat, and C. M. Krishna, “In vivo Raman spectroscopy of human uterine cervix: exploring the utility of vagina as an internal control,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(8), 087001 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Keller, M. D.

E. Vargis, E. M. Kanter, S. K. Majumder, M. D. Keller, R. B. Beaven, G. G. Rao, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “Effect of normal variations on disease classification of Raman spectra from cervical tissue,” Analyst (Lond.) 136(14), 2981–2987 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kemp, N. J.

C. G. Rylander, O. F. Stumpp, T. E. Milner, N. J. Kemp, J. M. Mendenhall, K. R. Diller, and A. J. Welch, “Dehydration mechanism of optical clearing in tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 041117 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Khan, M. H.

M. H. Khan, B. Choi, S. Chess, K. M Kelly, J. McCullough, and J. S. Nelson, “Optical clearing of in vivo human skin: implications for light-based diagnostic imaging and therapeutics,” Lasers Surg. Med. 34(2), 83–85 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Koljenovic, S.

I. P. Santos, P. J. Caspers, T. C. Bakker Schut, R. van Doorn, V. Noordhoek Hegt, S. Koljenović, and G. J. Puppels, “Raman spectroscopic characterization of melanoma and benign melanocytic lesions suspected of melanoma using high-wavenumber Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 88(15), 7683–7688 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kon, I. L.

V. V. Tuchin, I. L. Maksimova, D. A. Zimnyakov, I. L. Kon, A. H. Mavlyutov, and A. A. Mishin, “Light propagation in tissues with controlled optical properties,” J. Biomed. Opt. 2(4), 401–417 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kreis, R. W.

N. J. Vardaxis, T. A. Brans, M. E. Boon, R. W. Kreis, and L. M. Marres, “Confocal laser scanning microscopy of porcine skin: implications for human wound healing studies,” J. Anat. 190(4), 601–611 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Krishna, C. M.

R. Shaikh, T. K. Dora, S. Chopra, A. Maheshwari, D. Kedar K, R. Bharat, and C. M. Krishna, “In vivo Raman spectroscopy of human uterine cervix: exploring the utility of vagina as an internal control,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(8), 087001 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Krishna, H.

H. Krishna, S. K. Majumder, P. Chaturvedi, M. Sidramesh, and P. K. Gupta, “In vivo Raman spectroscopy for detection of oral neoplasia: a pilot clinical study,” J. Biophotonics 7(9), 690–702 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lavker, R. M.

R. M. Lavker, G. Dong, P. S. Zheng, and G. F. Murphy, “Hairless micropig skin. A novel model for studies of cutaneous biology,” Am. J. Pathol. 138(3), 687–697 (1991).
[PubMed]

Lecarpentier, G.

Li, B.

S. Feng, D. Lin, J. Lin, B. Li, Z. Huang, G. Chen, W. Zhang, L. Wang, J. Pan, R. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for non-invasive optical detection of cervical cancer,” Analyst (Lond.) 138(14), 3967–3974 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lieber, C. A.

C. A. Lieber, S. K. Majumder, D. Billheimer, D. L. Ellis, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “Raman microspectroscopy for skin cancer detection in vitro,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024013 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lim, L.

L. Lim, B. Nichols, M. R. Migden, N. Rajaram, J. S. Reichenberg, M. K. Markey, M. I. Ross, and J. W. Tunnell, “Clinical study of noninvasive in vivo melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers using multimodal spectral diagnosis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(11), 117003 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, D.

S. Feng, D. Lin, J. Lin, B. Li, Z. Huang, G. Chen, W. Zhang, L. Wang, J. Pan, R. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for non-invasive optical detection of cervical cancer,” Analyst (Lond.) 138(14), 3967–3974 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, J.

S. Feng, D. Lin, J. Lin, B. Li, Z. Huang, G. Chen, W. Zhang, L. Wang, J. Pan, R. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for non-invasive optical detection of cervical cancer,” Analyst (Lond.) 138(14), 3967–3974 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, K.

J. Wang, K. Lin, W. Zheng, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Comparative study of the endoscope-based bevelled and volume fiber-optic Raman probes for optical diagnosis of gastric dysplasia in vivo at endoscopy,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 407(27), 8303–8310 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lui, H.

J. Zhao, H. Zeng, S. Kalia, and H. Lui, “Wavenumber selection based analysis in Raman spectroscopy improves skin cancer diagnostic specificity,” Analyst (Lond.) 141(3), 1034–1043 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Lui, J. Zhao, D. McLean, and H. Zeng, “Real-time Raman spectroscopy for in vivo skin cancer diagnosis,” Cancer Res. 72(10), 2491–2500 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Zhao, H. Lui, D. I. McLean, and H. Zeng, “Automated autofluorescence background subtraction algorithm for biomedical Raman spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc. 61(11), 1225–1232 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M Kelly, K.

M. H. Khan, B. Choi, S. Chess, K. M Kelly, J. McCullough, and J. S. Nelson, “Optical clearing of in vivo human skin: implications for light-based diagnostic imaging and therapeutics,” Lasers Surg. Med. 34(2), 83–85 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Magee, D.

Mahadevan-Jansen, A.

I. Pence and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “Clinical instrumentation and applications of Raman spectroscopy,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 45(7), 1958–1979 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Vargis, E. M. Kanter, S. K. Majumder, M. D. Keller, R. B. Beaven, G. G. Rao, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “Effect of normal variations on disease classification of Raman spectra from cervical tissue,” Analyst (Lond.) 136(14), 2981–2987 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. A. Lieber, S. K. Majumder, D. Billheimer, D. L. Ellis, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “Raman microspectroscopy for skin cancer detection in vitro,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024013 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maheshwari, A.

R. Shaikh, T. K. Dora, S. Chopra, A. Maheshwari, D. Kedar K, R. Bharat, and C. M. Krishna, “In vivo Raman spectroscopy of human uterine cervix: exploring the utility of vagina as an internal control,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(8), 087001 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Majumder, S. K.

H. Krishna, S. K. Majumder, P. Chaturvedi, M. Sidramesh, and P. K. Gupta, “In vivo Raman spectroscopy for detection of oral neoplasia: a pilot clinical study,” J. Biophotonics 7(9), 690–702 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Vargis, E. M. Kanter, S. K. Majumder, M. D. Keller, R. B. Beaven, G. G. Rao, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “Effect of normal variations on disease classification of Raman spectra from cervical tissue,” Analyst (Lond.) 136(14), 2981–2987 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. A. Lieber, S. K. Majumder, D. Billheimer, D. L. Ellis, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “Raman microspectroscopy for skin cancer detection in vitro,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024013 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maksimova, I. L.

V. V. Tuchin, I. L. Maksimova, D. A. Zimnyakov, I. L. Kon, A. H. Mavlyutov, and A. A. Mishin, “Light propagation in tissues with controlled optical properties,” J. Biomed. Opt. 2(4), 401–417 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Manfait, M.

S. Tfaili, C. Gobinet, G. Josse, J. F. Angiboust, M. Manfait, and O. Piot, “Confocal Raman microspectroscopy for skin characterization: a comparative study between human skin and pig skin,” Analyst (Lond.) 137(16), 3673–3682 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Markey, M. K.

L. Lim, B. Nichols, M. R. Migden, N. Rajaram, J. S. Reichenberg, M. K. Markey, M. I. Ross, and J. W. Tunnell, “Clinical study of noninvasive in vivo melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers using multimodal spectral diagnosis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(11), 117003 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Marres, L. M.

N. J. Vardaxis, T. A. Brans, M. E. Boon, R. W. Kreis, and L. M. Marres, “Confocal laser scanning microscopy of porcine skin: implications for human wound healing studies,” J. Anat. 190(4), 601–611 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Matsumoto, M.

N. Nakagawa, M. Matsumoto, and S. Sakai, “In vivo measurement of the water content in the dermis by confocal Raman spectroscopy,” Skin Res. Technol. 16(2), 137–141 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mavlyutov, A. H.

V. V. Tuchin, I. L. Maksimova, D. A. Zimnyakov, I. L. Kon, A. H. Mavlyutov, and A. A. Mishin, “Light propagation in tissues with controlled optical properties,” J. Biomed. Opt. 2(4), 401–417 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McCullough, J.

M. H. Khan, B. Choi, S. Chess, K. M Kelly, J. McCullough, and J. S. Nelson, “Optical clearing of in vivo human skin: implications for light-based diagnostic imaging and therapeutics,” Lasers Surg. Med. 34(2), 83–85 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McLean, D.

H. Lui, J. Zhao, D. McLean, and H. Zeng, “Real-time Raman spectroscopy for in vivo skin cancer diagnosis,” Cancer Res. 72(10), 2491–2500 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McLean, D. I.

Mendenhall, J. M.

C. G. Rylander, O. F. Stumpp, T. E. Milner, N. J. Kemp, J. M. Mendenhall, K. R. Diller, and A. J. Welch, “Dehydration mechanism of optical clearing in tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 041117 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Migden, M. R.

L. Lim, B. Nichols, M. R. Migden, N. Rajaram, J. S. Reichenberg, M. K. Markey, M. I. Ross, and J. W. Tunnell, “Clinical study of noninvasive in vivo melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers using multimodal spectral diagnosis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(11), 117003 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Milner, T. E.

C. G. Rylander, O. F. Stumpp, T. E. Milner, N. J. Kemp, J. M. Mendenhall, K. R. Diller, and A. J. Welch, “Dehydration mechanism of optical clearing in tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 041117 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mishin, A. A.

V. V. Tuchin, I. L. Maksimova, D. A. Zimnyakov, I. L. Kon, A. H. Mavlyutov, and A. A. Mishin, “Light propagation in tissues with controlled optical properties,” J. Biomed. Opt. 2(4), 401–417 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mohammed, N.

Motamedi, M.

M. Motamedi, S. Rastegar, G. Lecarpentier, and A. J. Welch, “Light and temperature distribution in laser irradiated tissue: the influence of anisotropic scattering and refractive index,” Appl. Opt. 28(12), 2230–2237 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Rastegar, M. Motamedi, A. J. Welch, and L. J. Hayes, “A theoretical study of the effect of optical properties in laser ablation of tissue,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36(12), 1180–1187 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Murphy, G. F.

R. M. Lavker, G. Dong, P. S. Zheng, and G. F. Murphy, “Hairless micropig skin. A novel model for studies of cutaneous biology,” Am. J. Pathol. 138(3), 687–697 (1991).
[PubMed]

Nakagawa, N.

N. Nakagawa, M. Matsumoto, and S. Sakai, “In vivo measurement of the water content in the dermis by confocal Raman spectroscopy,” Skin Res. Technol. 16(2), 137–141 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nelson, J. S.

M. H. Khan, B. Choi, S. Chess, K. M Kelly, J. McCullough, and J. S. Nelson, “Optical clearing of in vivo human skin: implications for light-based diagnostic imaging and therapeutics,” Lasers Surg. Med. 34(2), 83–85 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nichols, B.

L. Lim, B. Nichols, M. R. Migden, N. Rajaram, J. S. Reichenberg, M. K. Markey, M. I. Ross, and J. W. Tunnell, “Clinical study of noninvasive in vivo melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers using multimodal spectral diagnosis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(11), 117003 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nielsen, O. F.

M. Gniadecka, P. A. Philipsen, S. Sigurdsson, S. Wessel, O. F. Nielsen, D. H. Christensen, J. Hercogova, K. Rossen, H. K. Thomsen, R. Gniadecki, L. K. Hansen, and H. C. Wulf, “Melanoma diagnosis by Raman spectroscopy and neural networks: structure alterations in proteins and lipids in intact cancer tissue,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 122(2), 443–449 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Noordhoek Hegt, V.

I. P. Santos, P. J. Caspers, T. C. Bakker Schut, R. van Doorn, V. Noordhoek Hegt, S. Koljenović, and G. J. Puppels, “Raman spectroscopic characterization of melanoma and benign melanocytic lesions suspected of melanoma using high-wavenumber Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 88(15), 7683–7688 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pan, J.

S. Feng, D. Lin, J. Lin, B. Li, Z. Huang, G. Chen, W. Zhang, L. Wang, J. Pan, R. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for non-invasive optical detection of cervical cancer,” Analyst (Lond.) 138(14), 3967–3974 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pence, I.

I. Pence and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “Clinical instrumentation and applications of Raman spectroscopy,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 45(7), 1958–1979 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Philipsen, P. A.

M. Gniadecka, P. A. Philipsen, S. Sigurdsson, S. Wessel, O. F. Nielsen, D. H. Christensen, J. Hercogova, K. Rossen, H. K. Thomsen, R. Gniadecki, L. K. Hansen, and H. C. Wulf, “Melanoma diagnosis by Raman spectroscopy and neural networks: structure alterations in proteins and lipids in intact cancer tissue,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 122(2), 443–449 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pickering, J. W.

Piot, O.

S. Tfaili, C. Gobinet, G. Josse, J. F. Angiboust, M. Manfait, and O. Piot, “Confocal Raman microspectroscopy for skin characterization: a comparative study between human skin and pig skin,” Analyst (Lond.) 137(16), 3673–3682 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Prahl, S. A.

Puppels, G. J.

I. P. Santos, P. J. Caspers, T. C. Bakker Schut, R. van Doorn, V. Noordhoek Hegt, S. Koljenović, and G. J. Puppels, “Raman spectroscopic characterization of melanoma and benign melanocytic lesions suspected of melanoma using high-wavenumber Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 88(15), 7683–7688 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rajaram, N.

L. Lim, B. Nichols, M. R. Migden, N. Rajaram, J. S. Reichenberg, M. K. Markey, M. I. Ross, and J. W. Tunnell, “Clinical study of noninvasive in vivo melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers using multimodal spectral diagnosis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(11), 117003 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rao, G. G.

E. Vargis, E. M. Kanter, S. K. Majumder, M. D. Keller, R. B. Beaven, G. G. Rao, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “Effect of normal variations on disease classification of Raman spectra from cervical tissue,” Analyst (Lond.) 136(14), 2981–2987 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rastegar, S.

M. Motamedi, S. Rastegar, G. Lecarpentier, and A. J. Welch, “Light and temperature distribution in laser irradiated tissue: the influence of anisotropic scattering and refractive index,” Appl. Opt. 28(12), 2230–2237 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Rastegar, M. Motamedi, A. J. Welch, and L. J. Hayes, “A theoretical study of the effect of optical properties in laser ablation of tissue,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36(12), 1180–1187 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reichenberg, J. S.

L. Lim, B. Nichols, M. R. Migden, N. Rajaram, J. S. Reichenberg, M. K. Markey, M. I. Ross, and J. W. Tunnell, “Clinical study of noninvasive in vivo melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers using multimodal spectral diagnosis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(11), 117003 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ross, M. I.

L. Lim, B. Nichols, M. R. Migden, N. Rajaram, J. S. Reichenberg, M. K. Markey, M. I. Ross, and J. W. Tunnell, “Clinical study of noninvasive in vivo melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers using multimodal spectral diagnosis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(11), 117003 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rossen, K.

M. Gniadecka, P. A. Philipsen, S. Sigurdsson, S. Wessel, O. F. Nielsen, D. H. Christensen, J. Hercogova, K. Rossen, H. K. Thomsen, R. Gniadecki, L. K. Hansen, and H. C. Wulf, “Melanoma diagnosis by Raman spectroscopy and neural networks: structure alterations in proteins and lipids in intact cancer tissue,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 122(2), 443–449 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rotimi, O.

Rylander, C. G.

C. G. Rylander, O. F. Stumpp, T. E. Milner, N. J. Kemp, J. M. Mendenhall, K. R. Diller, and A. J. Welch, “Dehydration mechanism of optical clearing in tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 041117 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sakai, S.

N. Nakagawa, M. Matsumoto, and S. Sakai, “In vivo measurement of the water content in the dermis by confocal Raman spectroscopy,” Skin Res. Technol. 16(2), 137–141 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Santos, I. P.

I. P. Santos, P. J. Caspers, T. C. Bakker Schut, R. van Doorn, V. Noordhoek Hegt, S. Koljenović, and G. J. Puppels, “Raman spectroscopic characterization of melanoma and benign melanocytic lesions suspected of melanoma using high-wavenumber Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 88(15), 7683–7688 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shabbir, A.

M. S. Bergholt, W. Zheng, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, J. B. Yan So, A. Shabbir, and Z. Huang, “Fiberoptic confocal raman spectroscopy for real-time in vivo diagnosis of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastroenterology 146(1), 27–32 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shaikh, R.

R. Shaikh, T. K. Dora, S. Chopra, A. Maheshwari, D. Kedar K, R. Bharat, and C. M. Krishna, “In vivo Raman spectroscopy of human uterine cervix: exploring the utility of vagina as an internal control,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(8), 087001 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shim, M. G.

M. G. Shim and B. C. Wilson, “The effects of ex vivo handling procedures on the near-infrared Raman spectra of normal mammalian tissues,” Photochem. Photobiol. 63(5), 662–671 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sidramesh, M.

H. Krishna, S. K. Majumder, P. Chaturvedi, M. Sidramesh, and P. K. Gupta, “In vivo Raman spectroscopy for detection of oral neoplasia: a pilot clinical study,” J. Biophotonics 7(9), 690–702 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sigurdsson, S.

M. Gniadecka, P. A. Philipsen, S. Sigurdsson, S. Wessel, O. F. Nielsen, D. H. Christensen, J. Hercogova, K. Rossen, H. K. Thomsen, R. Gniadecki, L. K. Hansen, and H. C. Wulf, “Melanoma diagnosis by Raman spectroscopy and neural networks: structure alterations in proteins and lipids in intact cancer tissue,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 122(2), 443–449 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sterenborg, H. J. C. M.

Stumpp, O. F.

C. G. Rylander, O. F. Stumpp, T. E. Milner, N. J. Kemp, J. M. Mendenhall, K. R. Diller, and A. J. Welch, “Dehydration mechanism of optical clearing in tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 041117 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Subramanian, V.

Teh, M.

J. Wang, K. Lin, W. Zheng, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Comparative study of the endoscope-based bevelled and volume fiber-optic Raman probes for optical diagnosis of gastric dysplasia in vivo at endoscopy,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 407(27), 8303–8310 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. Bergholt, W. Zheng, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, J. B. Yan So, A. Shabbir, and Z. Huang, “Fiberoptic confocal raman spectroscopy for real-time in vivo diagnosis of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastroenterology 146(1), 27–32 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tfaili, S.

S. Tfaili, C. Gobinet, G. Josse, J. F. Angiboust, M. Manfait, and O. Piot, “Confocal Raman microspectroscopy for skin characterization: a comparative study between human skin and pig skin,” Analyst (Lond.) 137(16), 3673–3682 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thomsen, H. K.

M. Gniadecka, P. A. Philipsen, S. Sigurdsson, S. Wessel, O. F. Nielsen, D. H. Christensen, J. Hercogova, K. Rossen, H. K. Thomsen, R. Gniadecki, L. K. Hansen, and H. C. Wulf, “Melanoma diagnosis by Raman spectroscopy and neural networks: structure alterations in proteins and lipids in intact cancer tissue,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 122(2), 443–449 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tuchin, V. V.

V. V. Tuchin, I. L. Maksimova, D. A. Zimnyakov, I. L. Kon, A. H. Mavlyutov, and A. A. Mishin, “Light propagation in tissues with controlled optical properties,” J. Biomed. Opt. 2(4), 401–417 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tunnell, J. W.

L. Lim, B. Nichols, M. R. Migden, N. Rajaram, J. S. Reichenberg, M. K. Markey, M. I. Ross, and J. W. Tunnell, “Clinical study of noninvasive in vivo melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers using multimodal spectral diagnosis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(11), 117003 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

van Doorn, R.

I. P. Santos, P. J. Caspers, T. C. Bakker Schut, R. van Doorn, V. Noordhoek Hegt, S. Koljenović, and G. J. Puppels, “Raman spectroscopic characterization of melanoma and benign melanocytic lesions suspected of melanoma using high-wavenumber Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 88(15), 7683–7688 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

van Gemert, M. J. C.

van Wieringen, N.

Vardaxis, N. J.

N. J. Vardaxis, T. A. Brans, M. E. Boon, R. W. Kreis, and L. M. Marres, “Confocal laser scanning microscopy of porcine skin: implications for human wound healing studies,” J. Anat. 190(4), 601–611 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vargis, E.

E. Vargis, E. M. Kanter, S. K. Majumder, M. D. Keller, R. B. Beaven, G. G. Rao, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “Effect of normal variations on disease classification of Raman spectra from cervical tissue,” Analyst (Lond.) 136(14), 2981–2987 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, J.

J. Wang, K. Lin, W. Zheng, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Comparative study of the endoscope-based bevelled and volume fiber-optic Raman probes for optical diagnosis of gastric dysplasia in vivo at endoscopy,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 407(27), 8303–8310 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, L.

S. Feng, D. Lin, J. Lin, B. Li, Z. Huang, G. Chen, W. Zhang, L. Wang, J. Pan, R. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for non-invasive optical detection of cervical cancer,” Analyst (Lond.) 138(14), 3967–3974 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Zheng, “CONV--convolution for responses to a finite diameter photon beam incident on multi-layered tissues,” Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 54(3), 141–150 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Zheng, “MCML--Monte Carlo modeling of light transport in multi-layered tissues,” Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47(2), 131–146 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Welch, A. J.

C. G. Rylander, O. F. Stumpp, T. E. Milner, N. J. Kemp, J. M. Mendenhall, K. R. Diller, and A. J. Welch, “Dehydration mechanism of optical clearing in tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 041117 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. A. Prahl, M. J. C. van Gemert, and A. J. Welch, “Determining the optical properties of turbid mediaby using the adding-doubling method,” Appl. Opt. 32(4), 559–568 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Motamedi, S. Rastegar, G. Lecarpentier, and A. J. Welch, “Light and temperature distribution in laser irradiated tissue: the influence of anisotropic scattering and refractive index,” Appl. Opt. 28(12), 2230–2237 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Rastegar, M. Motamedi, A. J. Welch, and L. J. Hayes, “A theoretical study of the effect of optical properties in laser ablation of tissue,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36(12), 1180–1187 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wessel, S.

M. Gniadecka, P. A. Philipsen, S. Sigurdsson, S. Wessel, O. F. Nielsen, D. H. Christensen, J. Hercogova, K. Rossen, H. K. Thomsen, R. Gniadecki, L. K. Hansen, and H. C. Wulf, “Melanoma diagnosis by Raman spectroscopy and neural networks: structure alterations in proteins and lipids in intact cancer tissue,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 122(2), 443–449 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wilson, B. C.

M. G. Shim and B. C. Wilson, “The effects of ex vivo handling procedures on the near-infrared Raman spectra of normal mammalian tissues,” Photochem. Photobiol. 63(5), 662–671 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wulf, H. C.

M. Gniadecka, P. A. Philipsen, S. Sigurdsson, S. Wessel, O. F. Nielsen, D. H. Christensen, J. Hercogova, K. Rossen, H. K. Thomsen, R. Gniadecki, L. K. Hansen, and H. C. Wulf, “Melanoma diagnosis by Raman spectroscopy and neural networks: structure alterations in proteins and lipids in intact cancer tissue,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 122(2), 443–449 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yan So, J. B.

M. S. Bergholt, W. Zheng, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, J. B. Yan So, A. Shabbir, and Z. Huang, “Fiberoptic confocal raman spectroscopy for real-time in vivo diagnosis of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastroenterology 146(1), 27–32 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yeoh, K. G.

J. Wang, K. Lin, W. Zheng, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Comparative study of the endoscope-based bevelled and volume fiber-optic Raman probes for optical diagnosis of gastric dysplasia in vivo at endoscopy,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 407(27), 8303–8310 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. Bergholt, W. Zheng, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, J. B. Yan So, A. Shabbir, and Z. Huang, “Fiberoptic confocal raman spectroscopy for real-time in vivo diagnosis of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastroenterology 146(1), 27–32 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zeng, H.

J. Zhao, H. Zeng, S. Kalia, and H. Lui, “Wavenumber selection based analysis in Raman spectroscopy improves skin cancer diagnostic specificity,” Analyst (Lond.) 141(3), 1034–1043 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Feng, D. Lin, J. Lin, B. Li, Z. Huang, G. Chen, W. Zhang, L. Wang, J. Pan, R. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for non-invasive optical detection of cervical cancer,” Analyst (Lond.) 138(14), 3967–3974 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Lui, J. Zhao, D. McLean, and H. Zeng, “Real-time Raman spectroscopy for in vivo skin cancer diagnosis,” Cancer Res. 72(10), 2491–2500 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Zhao, H. Lui, D. I. McLean, and H. Zeng, “Automated autofluorescence background subtraction algorithm for biomedical Raman spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc. 61(11), 1225–1232 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, W.

S. Feng, D. Lin, J. Lin, B. Li, Z. Huang, G. Chen, W. Zhang, L. Wang, J. Pan, R. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for non-invasive optical detection of cervical cancer,” Analyst (Lond.) 138(14), 3967–3974 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, J.

J. Zhao, H. Zeng, S. Kalia, and H. Lui, “Wavenumber selection based analysis in Raman spectroscopy improves skin cancer diagnostic specificity,” Analyst (Lond.) 141(3), 1034–1043 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Lui, J. Zhao, D. McLean, and H. Zeng, “Real-time Raman spectroscopy for in vivo skin cancer diagnosis,” Cancer Res. 72(10), 2491–2500 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Zhao, H. Lui, D. I. McLean, and H. Zeng, “Automated autofluorescence background subtraction algorithm for biomedical Raman spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc. 61(11), 1225–1232 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zheng, L.

L. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Zheng, “CONV--convolution for responses to a finite diameter photon beam incident on multi-layered tissues,” Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 54(3), 141–150 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Zheng, “MCML--Monte Carlo modeling of light transport in multi-layered tissues,” Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47(2), 131–146 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zheng, P. S.

R. M. Lavker, G. Dong, P. S. Zheng, and G. F. Murphy, “Hairless micropig skin. A novel model for studies of cutaneous biology,” Am. J. Pathol. 138(3), 687–697 (1991).
[PubMed]

Zheng, W.

J. Wang, K. Lin, W. Zheng, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Comparative study of the endoscope-based bevelled and volume fiber-optic Raman probes for optical diagnosis of gastric dysplasia in vivo at endoscopy,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 407(27), 8303–8310 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. Bergholt, W. Zheng, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, J. B. Yan So, A. Shabbir, and Z. Huang, “Fiberoptic confocal raman spectroscopy for real-time in vivo diagnosis of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastroenterology 146(1), 27–32 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zimnyakov, D. A.

V. V. Tuchin, I. L. Maksimova, D. A. Zimnyakov, I. L. Kon, A. H. Mavlyutov, and A. A. Mishin, “Light propagation in tissues with controlled optical properties,” J. Biomed. Opt. 2(4), 401–417 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Am. J. Pathol. (1)

R. M. Lavker, G. Dong, P. S. Zheng, and G. F. Murphy, “Hairless micropig skin. A novel model for studies of cutaneous biology,” Am. J. Pathol. 138(3), 687–697 (1991).
[PubMed]

Anal. Bioanal. Chem. (1)

J. Wang, K. Lin, W. Zheng, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Comparative study of the endoscope-based bevelled and volume fiber-optic Raman probes for optical diagnosis of gastric dysplasia in vivo at endoscopy,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 407(27), 8303–8310 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anal. Chem. (1)

I. P. Santos, P. J. Caspers, T. C. Bakker Schut, R. van Doorn, V. Noordhoek Hegt, S. Koljenović, and G. J. Puppels, “Raman spectroscopic characterization of melanoma and benign melanocytic lesions suspected of melanoma using high-wavenumber Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 88(15), 7683–7688 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Analyst (Lond.) (4)

E. Vargis, E. M. Kanter, S. K. Majumder, M. D. Keller, R. B. Beaven, G. G. Rao, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “Effect of normal variations on disease classification of Raman spectra from cervical tissue,” Analyst (Lond.) 136(14), 2981–2987 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Feng, D. Lin, J. Lin, B. Li, Z. Huang, G. Chen, W. Zhang, L. Wang, J. Pan, R. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for non-invasive optical detection of cervical cancer,” Analyst (Lond.) 138(14), 3967–3974 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Zhao, H. Zeng, S. Kalia, and H. Lui, “Wavenumber selection based analysis in Raman spectroscopy improves skin cancer diagnostic specificity,” Analyst (Lond.) 141(3), 1034–1043 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Tfaili, C. Gobinet, G. Josse, J. F. Angiboust, M. Manfait, and O. Piot, “Confocal Raman microspectroscopy for skin characterization: a comparative study between human skin and pig skin,” Analyst (Lond.) 137(16), 3673–3682 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Spectrosc. (1)

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

Cancer Res. (1)

H. Lui, J. Zhao, D. McLean, and H. Zeng, “Real-time Raman spectroscopy for in vivo skin cancer diagnosis,” Cancer Res. 72(10), 2491–2500 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chem. Soc. Rev. (1)

I. Pence and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “Clinical instrumentation and applications of Raman spectroscopy,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 45(7), 1958–1979 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. (2)

L. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Zheng, “MCML--Monte Carlo modeling of light transport in multi-layered tissues,” Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47(2), 131–146 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Zheng, “CONV--convolution for responses to a finite diameter photon beam incident on multi-layered tissues,” Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 54(3), 141–150 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gastroenterology (1)

M. S. Bergholt, W. Zheng, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, J. B. Yan So, A. Shabbir, and Z. Huang, “Fiberoptic confocal raman spectroscopy for real-time in vivo diagnosis of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastroenterology 146(1), 27–32 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. (1)

S. Rastegar, M. Motamedi, A. J. Welch, and L. J. Hayes, “A theoretical study of the effect of optical properties in laser ablation of tissue,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36(12), 1180–1187 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Anat. (1)

N. J. Vardaxis, T. A. Brans, M. E. Boon, R. W. Kreis, and L. M. Marres, “Confocal laser scanning microscopy of porcine skin: implications for human wound healing studies,” J. Anat. 190(4), 601–611 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (5)

V. V. Tuchin, I. L. Maksimova, D. A. Zimnyakov, I. L. Kon, A. H. Mavlyutov, and A. A. Mishin, “Light propagation in tissues with controlled optical properties,” J. Biomed. Opt. 2(4), 401–417 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. G. Rylander, O. F. Stumpp, T. E. Milner, N. J. Kemp, J. M. Mendenhall, K. R. Diller, and A. J. Welch, “Dehydration mechanism of optical clearing in tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 041117 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Lim, B. Nichols, M. R. Migden, N. Rajaram, J. S. Reichenberg, M. K. Markey, M. I. Ross, and J. W. Tunnell, “Clinical study of noninvasive in vivo melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers using multimodal spectral diagnosis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(11), 117003 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. A. Lieber, S. K. Majumder, D. Billheimer, D. L. Ellis, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “Raman microspectroscopy for skin cancer detection in vitro,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024013 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Shaikh, T. K. Dora, S. Chopra, A. Maheshwari, D. Kedar K, R. Bharat, and C. M. Krishna, “In vivo Raman spectroscopy of human uterine cervix: exploring the utility of vagina as an internal control,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(8), 087001 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Biophotonics (1)

H. Krishna, S. K. Majumder, P. Chaturvedi, M. Sidramesh, and P. K. Gupta, “In vivo Raman spectroscopy for detection of oral neoplasia: a pilot clinical study,” J. Biophotonics 7(9), 690–702 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Invest. Dermatol. (1)

M. Gniadecka, P. A. Philipsen, S. Sigurdsson, S. Wessel, O. F. Nielsen, D. H. Christensen, J. Hercogova, K. Rossen, H. K. Thomsen, R. Gniadecki, L. K. Hansen, and H. C. Wulf, “Melanoma diagnosis by Raman spectroscopy and neural networks: structure alterations in proteins and lipids in intact cancer tissue,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 122(2), 443–449 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lasers Surg. Med. (1)

M. H. Khan, B. Choi, S. Chess, K. M Kelly, J. McCullough, and J. S. Nelson, “Optical clearing of in vivo human skin: implications for light-based diagnostic imaging and therapeutics,” Lasers Surg. Med. 34(2), 83–85 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Photochem. Photobiol. (1)

M. G. Shim and B. C. Wilson, “The effects of ex vivo handling procedures on the near-infrared Raman spectra of normal mammalian tissues,” Photochem. Photobiol. 63(5), 662–671 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Skin Res. Technol. (1)

N. Nakagawa, M. Matsumoto, and S. Sakai, “In vivo measurement of the water content in the dermis by confocal Raman spectroscopy,” Skin Res. Technol. 16(2), 137–141 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (2)

S. A. Prahl, “Inverse adding-doubling,” http://omlc.org/software/iad/index.html .

L. Wang and S. L. Jacques, “Monte Carlo modeling of light transport in multi-layered tissues in standard C,” http://omlc.org/software/mc/index.html .

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic of the confocal Raman microscope system using the fiber core as pinhole.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Raman spectra of porcine skin in (a) fingerprint and (b) high wave-number measured at varying water content.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Absorption (μa) and reduced scattering (μs') coefficients and (b) diffuse reflectance in different water content samples. The error bars is for standard deviation.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Single layer model of porcine skin for Monte Carlo simulation and (b) simulation results of diffuse reflectance profiles in different water content porcine skin.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Calculated diffuse reflectance considered to be collected by the objective lens (10 × , NA 0.3) in different water content samples.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 The ratio of Raman peak intensities between the CH2 deformation and Amide I in proteins (I1450 cm−1 / I1660cm−1) in different water content samples. The error bars is for standard deviation. The p-value calculated using the ANOVA of mean differences is less than 0.001.

Equations (1)

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w t = M wet M dry M wet ×100.

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