Abstract

This study presents the screening of dengue virus (DENV) infection in human blood sera based on lactate concentration using Raman spectroscopy. A total of 70 samples, 50 from confirmed DENV infected patients and 20 from healthy volunteers have been used in this study. Raman spectra of all these samples have been acquired in the spectral range from 600 cm−1 to 1800 cm−1 using a 532 nm laser as an excitation source. Spectra of all these samples have been analyzed for assessing the biochemical changes resulting from infection. In DENV infected samples three prominent Raman peaks have been found at 750, 830 and 1450 cm−1. These peaks are most probably attributed to an elevated level of lactate due to an impaired function of different body organs in dengue infected patients. This has been proven by an addition of lactic acid solution to the healthy serum in a controlled manner. By the addition of lactic acid solution, the intense Raman bands at 1003, 1156 and 1516 cm−1 found in the spectrum of healthy serum got suppressed when the new peaks appeared around 750, 830, 925, 950, 1123, 1333, 1450, 1580 and 1730 cm−1. The current study predicts that lactate may possibly be a potential biomarker for the diagnosis of DENV infection.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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2016 (2)

S. Khan, R. Ullah, A. Khan, N. Wahab, M. Bilal, and M. Ahmed, “Analysis of dengue infection based on Raman spectroscopy and support vector machine (SVM),” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(6), 2249–2256 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Khan, R. Ullah, M. Saleem, M. Bilal, R. Rashid, I. Khan, A. Mahmood, and M. Nawaz, “Raman spectroscopic analysis of dengue virus infection in human blood sera,” J. Opt. 127, 2086–2088 (2016).

2015 (1)

M. Bilal, M. Saleem, S. T. Amanat, H. A. Shakoor, R. Rashid, A. Mahmood, and M. Ahmed, “Optical diagnosis of malaria infection in human plasma using Raman spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(1), 017002 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (2)

T. F. Póvoa, A. M. B. Alves, C. A. B. Oliveira, G. J. Nuovo, V. L. A. Chagas, and M. V. Paes, “The pathology of severe dengue in multiple organs of human fatal cases: histopathology, ultrastructure and virus replication,” PLoS One 9(4), e83386 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Sirikutt and S. Kalayanarooj, “Serum lactate and lactate dehydrogenase as parameters for the prediction of dengue severity,” J. Med. Assoc. Thai. 97(6Suppl 6), S220–S231 (2014).
[PubMed]

2013 (2)

M. Saleem, M. Bilal, S. Anwar, A. Rehman, and M. Ahmad, “Optical diagnosis of dengue virus infection in human blood serum using Raman spectroscopy,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(3), 035602 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. W. Andersen, J. Mackenhauer, J. C. Roberts, K. M. Berg, M. N. Cocchi, and M. W. Donnino, “Etiology and therapeutic approach to elevated lactate levels,” Mayo Clin. Proc. 88(10), 1127–1140 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

R. W. Peeling, H. Artsob, J. L. Pelegrino, P. Buchy, M. J. Cardosa, S. Devi, D. A. Enria, J. Farrar, D. J. Gubler, M. G. Guzman, S. B. Halstead, E. Hunsperger, S. Kliks, H. S. Margolis, C. M. Nathanson, V. C. Nguyen, N. Rizzo, S. Vázquez, and S. Yoksan, “Evaluation of diagnostic tests: dengue,” Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 8(12Suppl), S30–S37 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. van Hall, “Lactate kinetics in human tissues at rest and during exercise,” Acta Physiol. (Oxf.) 199(4), 499–508 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

R. S. Chhina, O. Goyala, D. K. Chhina, P. Goyala, R. Kumarb, and S. Puric, “Liver function tests in patients with dengue viral infection,” Dengue Bull. 32, 110–117 (2008).

A. Kabir, A. A. Abdullah, M. M. Sadeka, H. Ahmed, and M. A. Kahhar, “The impact of dengue on liver function as evaluated by aminotransferase levels,” J. Med. 9(2), 66–68 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

Z. Movasaghi, S. Rehman, and I. U. Rehman, “Raman spectroscopy of biological tissues,” Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 42(5), 493 (2007).
[Crossref]

L. Kittigul, P. Pitakarnjanakul, D. Sujirarat, and K. Siripanichgon, “The differences of clinical manifestations and laboratory findings in children and adults with dengue virus infection,” J. Clin. Virol. 39(2), 76–81 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

S. L. Seneviratnea, G. N. Malavige, and H. J. de Silva, “Pathogenensis of liver involvement during dengue viral infections,” J. of Trans. Royal Soc. Trop. Med. & Hygiene 100(7), 608–614 (2006).
[Crossref]

C. A. Owen, I. Notingher, R. Hill, M. Stevens, and L. L. Hench, “Progress in Raman spectroscopy in the fields of tissue engineering, diagnostics and toxicological testing,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Med. 17(11), 1019–1023 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

D. Guha-Sapir and B. Schimmer, “Dengue fever: new paradigms for a changing epidemiology,” Emerg. Themes Epidemiol. 2(1), 1 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. C. Carlos, K. Oishi, M. T. Cinco, C. A. Mapua, S. Inoue, D. J. Cruz, M. A. Pancho, C. Z. Tanig, R. R. Matias, K. Morita, F. F. Natividad, A. Igarashi, and T. Nagatake, “Comparison of clinical features and hematologic abnormalities between dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever among children in the Philippines,” Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 73(2), 435–440 (2005).
[PubMed]

2004 (2)

T. H. Nguyen, H. Y. Lei, T. L. Nguyen, Y. S. Lin, K. J. Huang, B. L. Le, C. F. Lin, T. M. Yeh, Q. H. Do, T. Q. Vu, L. C. Chen, J. H. Huang, T. M. Lam, C. C. Liu, and S. B. Halstead, “Dengue hemorrhagic fever in infants: a study of clinical and cytokine profiles,” J. Infect. Dis. 189(2), 221–232 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Crow, J. S. Uff, J. A. Farmer, M. P. Wright, and N. Stone, “The use of Raman spectroscopy to identify and characterize transitional cell carcinoma in vitro,” BJU Int. 93(9), 1232–1236 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

M. G. Guzmán, G. Kouri, J. Bravo, L. Valdes, S. Vazquez, and S. B. Halstead, “Effect of age on outcome of secondary dengue 2 infections,” Int. J. Infect. Dis. 6(2), 118–124 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. H. Libraty, P. R. Young, D. Pickering, T. P. Endy, S. Kalayanarooj, S. Green, D. W. Vaughn, A. Nisalak, F. A. Ennis, and A. L. Rothman, “High circulating levels of the dengue virus nonstructural protein NS1 early in dengue illness correlate with the development of dengue hemorrhagic fever,” J. Infect. Dis. 186(8), 1165–1168 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

S. Sawasdivorn, S. Vibulvattanakit, M. Sasavatpakdee, and S. Iamsirithavorn, “Efficacy of clinical diagnosis of dengue fever in paediatric age groups as determined by the WHO case definition 1997 in Thailand,” Dengue Bull. 25, 56–64 (2001).

S. Pilotto, M. T. Pacheco, L. Silveira, A. B. Villaverde, and R. A. Zângaro, “Analysis of near-infrared Raman spectroscopy as a new technique for a transcutaneous non-invasive diagnosis of blood components,” Lasers Med. Sci. 16(1), 2–9 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

S. Kalayanarooj, S. Nimmanitya, S. Suntayakorn, D. W. Vaughn, A. Nisalak, S. Green, V. Chansiriwongs, A. Roth-man, and F. A. Ennis, “Can doctors make an accurate diagnosis of dengue infections at an early stage?” Dengue Bull. 23, 1–9 (1999).

1997 (1)

T. L. Nguyen, T. H. Nguyen, and N. T. Tieu, “The impact of dengue haemorrhagic fever on liver function,” Res. Virol. 148(4), 273–277 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

A. Consoli, N. Nurjhan, J. J. Reilly, D. M. Bier, and J. E. Gerich, “Contribution of liver and skeletal muscle to alanine and lactate metabolism in humans,” Am. J. Physiol. 259(5 Pt 1), E677–E684 (1990).
[PubMed]

1975 (1)

P. C. Painter and J. L. Koenig, “Raman spectroscopic study of the structure of antibodies,” Biopolymers 14(3), 457–468 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1969 (1)

S. Nimmannitya, S. B. Halstead, S. N. Cohen, and M. R. Margiotta, “Dengue and chikungunya virus infection in man in Thailand, 1962-1964. I. Observations on hospitalized patients with hemorrhagic fever,” Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 18(6), 954–971 (1969).
[PubMed]

1966 (1)

S. N. Cohen and S. B. Halstead, “Shock associated with dengue infection. I. Clinical and physiologic manifestations of dengue hemorrhagic fever in Thailand, 1964,” J. Pediatr. 68(3), 448–456 (1966).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Abdullah, A. A.

A. Kabir, A. A. Abdullah, M. M. Sadeka, H. Ahmed, and M. A. Kahhar, “The impact of dengue on liver function as evaluated by aminotransferase levels,” J. Med. 9(2), 66–68 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ahmad, M.

M. Saleem, M. Bilal, S. Anwar, A. Rehman, and M. Ahmad, “Optical diagnosis of dengue virus infection in human blood serum using Raman spectroscopy,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(3), 035602 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ahmed, H.

A. Kabir, A. A. Abdullah, M. M. Sadeka, H. Ahmed, and M. A. Kahhar, “The impact of dengue on liver function as evaluated by aminotransferase levels,” J. Med. 9(2), 66–68 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ahmed, M.

S. Khan, R. Ullah, A. Khan, N. Wahab, M. Bilal, and M. Ahmed, “Analysis of dengue infection based on Raman spectroscopy and support vector machine (SVM),” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(6), 2249–2256 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Bilal, M. Saleem, S. T. Amanat, H. A. Shakoor, R. Rashid, A. Mahmood, and M. Ahmed, “Optical diagnosis of malaria infection in human plasma using Raman spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(1), 017002 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alves, A. M. B.

T. F. Póvoa, A. M. B. Alves, C. A. B. Oliveira, G. J. Nuovo, V. L. A. Chagas, and M. V. Paes, “The pathology of severe dengue in multiple organs of human fatal cases: histopathology, ultrastructure and virus replication,” PLoS One 9(4), e83386 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Amanat, S. T.

M. Bilal, M. Saleem, S. T. Amanat, H. A. Shakoor, R. Rashid, A. Mahmood, and M. Ahmed, “Optical diagnosis of malaria infection in human plasma using Raman spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(1), 017002 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Andersen, L. W.

L. W. Andersen, J. Mackenhauer, J. C. Roberts, K. M. Berg, M. N. Cocchi, and M. W. Donnino, “Etiology and therapeutic approach to elevated lactate levels,” Mayo Clin. Proc. 88(10), 1127–1140 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anwar, S.

M. Saleem, M. Bilal, S. Anwar, A. Rehman, and M. Ahmad, “Optical diagnosis of dengue virus infection in human blood serum using Raman spectroscopy,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(3), 035602 (2013).
[Crossref]

Artsob, H.

R. W. Peeling, H. Artsob, J. L. Pelegrino, P. Buchy, M. J. Cardosa, S. Devi, D. A. Enria, J. Farrar, D. J. Gubler, M. G. Guzman, S. B. Halstead, E. Hunsperger, S. Kliks, H. S. Margolis, C. M. Nathanson, V. C. Nguyen, N. Rizzo, S. Vázquez, and S. Yoksan, “Evaluation of diagnostic tests: dengue,” Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 8(12Suppl), S30–S37 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Berg, K. M.

L. W. Andersen, J. Mackenhauer, J. C. Roberts, K. M. Berg, M. N. Cocchi, and M. W. Donnino, “Etiology and therapeutic approach to elevated lactate levels,” Mayo Clin. Proc. 88(10), 1127–1140 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bier, D. M.

A. Consoli, N. Nurjhan, J. J. Reilly, D. M. Bier, and J. E. Gerich, “Contribution of liver and skeletal muscle to alanine and lactate metabolism in humans,” Am. J. Physiol. 259(5 Pt 1), E677–E684 (1990).
[PubMed]

Bilal, M.

S. Khan, R. Ullah, M. Saleem, M. Bilal, R. Rashid, I. Khan, A. Mahmood, and M. Nawaz, “Raman spectroscopic analysis of dengue virus infection in human blood sera,” J. Opt. 127, 2086–2088 (2016).

S. Khan, R. Ullah, A. Khan, N. Wahab, M. Bilal, and M. Ahmed, “Analysis of dengue infection based on Raman spectroscopy and support vector machine (SVM),” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(6), 2249–2256 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Bilal, M. Saleem, S. T. Amanat, H. A. Shakoor, R. Rashid, A. Mahmood, and M. Ahmed, “Optical diagnosis of malaria infection in human plasma using Raman spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(1), 017002 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Saleem, M. Bilal, S. Anwar, A. Rehman, and M. Ahmad, “Optical diagnosis of dengue virus infection in human blood serum using Raman spectroscopy,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(3), 035602 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bravo, J.

M. G. Guzmán, G. Kouri, J. Bravo, L. Valdes, S. Vazquez, and S. B. Halstead, “Effect of age on outcome of secondary dengue 2 infections,” Int. J. Infect. Dis. 6(2), 118–124 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Buchy, P.

R. W. Peeling, H. Artsob, J. L. Pelegrino, P. Buchy, M. J. Cardosa, S. Devi, D. A. Enria, J. Farrar, D. J. Gubler, M. G. Guzman, S. B. Halstead, E. Hunsperger, S. Kliks, H. S. Margolis, C. M. Nathanson, V. C. Nguyen, N. Rizzo, S. Vázquez, and S. Yoksan, “Evaluation of diagnostic tests: dengue,” Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 8(12Suppl), S30–S37 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cardosa, M. J.

R. W. Peeling, H. Artsob, J. L. Pelegrino, P. Buchy, M. J. Cardosa, S. Devi, D. A. Enria, J. Farrar, D. J. Gubler, M. G. Guzman, S. B. Halstead, E. Hunsperger, S. Kliks, H. S. Margolis, C. M. Nathanson, V. C. Nguyen, N. Rizzo, S. Vázquez, and S. Yoksan, “Evaluation of diagnostic tests: dengue,” Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 8(12Suppl), S30–S37 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carlos, C. C.

C. C. Carlos, K. Oishi, M. T. Cinco, C. A. Mapua, S. Inoue, D. J. Cruz, M. A. Pancho, C. Z. Tanig, R. R. Matias, K. Morita, F. F. Natividad, A. Igarashi, and T. Nagatake, “Comparison of clinical features and hematologic abnormalities between dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever among children in the Philippines,” Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 73(2), 435–440 (2005).
[PubMed]

Chagas, V. L. A.

T. F. Póvoa, A. M. B. Alves, C. A. B. Oliveira, G. J. Nuovo, V. L. A. Chagas, and M. V. Paes, “The pathology of severe dengue in multiple organs of human fatal cases: histopathology, ultrastructure and virus replication,” PLoS One 9(4), e83386 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chansiriwongs, V.

S. Kalayanarooj, S. Nimmanitya, S. Suntayakorn, D. W. Vaughn, A. Nisalak, S. Green, V. Chansiriwongs, A. Roth-man, and F. A. Ennis, “Can doctors make an accurate diagnosis of dengue infections at an early stage?” Dengue Bull. 23, 1–9 (1999).

Chen, L. C.

T. H. Nguyen, H. Y. Lei, T. L. Nguyen, Y. S. Lin, K. J. Huang, B. L. Le, C. F. Lin, T. M. Yeh, Q. H. Do, T. Q. Vu, L. C. Chen, J. H. Huang, T. M. Lam, C. C. Liu, and S. B. Halstead, “Dengue hemorrhagic fever in infants: a study of clinical and cytokine profiles,” J. Infect. Dis. 189(2), 221–232 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chhina, D. K.

R. S. Chhina, O. Goyala, D. K. Chhina, P. Goyala, R. Kumarb, and S. Puric, “Liver function tests in patients with dengue viral infection,” Dengue Bull. 32, 110–117 (2008).

Chhina, R. S.

R. S. Chhina, O. Goyala, D. K. Chhina, P. Goyala, R. Kumarb, and S. Puric, “Liver function tests in patients with dengue viral infection,” Dengue Bull. 32, 110–117 (2008).

Cinco, M. T.

C. C. Carlos, K. Oishi, M. T. Cinco, C. A. Mapua, S. Inoue, D. J. Cruz, M. A. Pancho, C. Z. Tanig, R. R. Matias, K. Morita, F. F. Natividad, A. Igarashi, and T. Nagatake, “Comparison of clinical features and hematologic abnormalities between dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever among children in the Philippines,” Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 73(2), 435–440 (2005).
[PubMed]

Cocchi, M. N.

L. W. Andersen, J. Mackenhauer, J. C. Roberts, K. M. Berg, M. N. Cocchi, and M. W. Donnino, “Etiology and therapeutic approach to elevated lactate levels,” Mayo Clin. Proc. 88(10), 1127–1140 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cohen, S. N.

S. Nimmannitya, S. B. Halstead, S. N. Cohen, and M. R. Margiotta, “Dengue and chikungunya virus infection in man in Thailand, 1962-1964. I. Observations on hospitalized patients with hemorrhagic fever,” Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 18(6), 954–971 (1969).
[PubMed]

S. N. Cohen and S. B. Halstead, “Shock associated with dengue infection. I. Clinical and physiologic manifestations of dengue hemorrhagic fever in Thailand, 1964,” J. Pediatr. 68(3), 448–456 (1966).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Consoli, A.

A. Consoli, N. Nurjhan, J. J. Reilly, D. M. Bier, and J. E. Gerich, “Contribution of liver and skeletal muscle to alanine and lactate metabolism in humans,” Am. J. Physiol. 259(5 Pt 1), E677–E684 (1990).
[PubMed]

Crow, P.

P. Crow, J. S. Uff, J. A. Farmer, M. P. Wright, and N. Stone, “The use of Raman spectroscopy to identify and characterize transitional cell carcinoma in vitro,” BJU Int. 93(9), 1232–1236 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cruz, D. J.

C. C. Carlos, K. Oishi, M. T. Cinco, C. A. Mapua, S. Inoue, D. J. Cruz, M. A. Pancho, C. Z. Tanig, R. R. Matias, K. Morita, F. F. Natividad, A. Igarashi, and T. Nagatake, “Comparison of clinical features and hematologic abnormalities between dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever among children in the Philippines,” Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 73(2), 435–440 (2005).
[PubMed]

de Silva, H. J.

S. L. Seneviratnea, G. N. Malavige, and H. J. de Silva, “Pathogenensis of liver involvement during dengue viral infections,” J. of Trans. Royal Soc. Trop. Med. & Hygiene 100(7), 608–614 (2006).
[Crossref]

Devi, S.

R. W. Peeling, H. Artsob, J. L. Pelegrino, P. Buchy, M. J. Cardosa, S. Devi, D. A. Enria, J. Farrar, D. J. Gubler, M. G. Guzman, S. B. Halstead, E. Hunsperger, S. Kliks, H. S. Margolis, C. M. Nathanson, V. C. Nguyen, N. Rizzo, S. Vázquez, and S. Yoksan, “Evaluation of diagnostic tests: dengue,” Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 8(12Suppl), S30–S37 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Do, Q. H.

T. H. Nguyen, H. Y. Lei, T. L. Nguyen, Y. S. Lin, K. J. Huang, B. L. Le, C. F. Lin, T. M. Yeh, Q. H. Do, T. Q. Vu, L. C. Chen, J. H. Huang, T. M. Lam, C. C. Liu, and S. B. Halstead, “Dengue hemorrhagic fever in infants: a study of clinical and cytokine profiles,” J. Infect. Dis. 189(2), 221–232 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Donnino, M. W.

L. W. Andersen, J. Mackenhauer, J. C. Roberts, K. M. Berg, M. N. Cocchi, and M. W. Donnino, “Etiology and therapeutic approach to elevated lactate levels,” Mayo Clin. Proc. 88(10), 1127–1140 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Endy, T. P.

D. H. Libraty, P. R. Young, D. Pickering, T. P. Endy, S. Kalayanarooj, S. Green, D. W. Vaughn, A. Nisalak, F. A. Ennis, and A. L. Rothman, “High circulating levels of the dengue virus nonstructural protein NS1 early in dengue illness correlate with the development of dengue hemorrhagic fever,” J. Infect. Dis. 186(8), 1165–1168 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ennis, F. A.

D. H. Libraty, P. R. Young, D. Pickering, T. P. Endy, S. Kalayanarooj, S. Green, D. W. Vaughn, A. Nisalak, F. A. Ennis, and A. L. Rothman, “High circulating levels of the dengue virus nonstructural protein NS1 early in dengue illness correlate with the development of dengue hemorrhagic fever,” J. Infect. Dis. 186(8), 1165–1168 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Kalayanarooj, S. Nimmanitya, S. Suntayakorn, D. W. Vaughn, A. Nisalak, S. Green, V. Chansiriwongs, A. Roth-man, and F. A. Ennis, “Can doctors make an accurate diagnosis of dengue infections at an early stage?” Dengue Bull. 23, 1–9 (1999).

Enria, D. A.

R. W. Peeling, H. Artsob, J. L. Pelegrino, P. Buchy, M. J. Cardosa, S. Devi, D. A. Enria, J. Farrar, D. J. Gubler, M. G. Guzman, S. B. Halstead, E. Hunsperger, S. Kliks, H. S. Margolis, C. M. Nathanson, V. C. Nguyen, N. Rizzo, S. Vázquez, and S. Yoksan, “Evaluation of diagnostic tests: dengue,” Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 8(12Suppl), S30–S37 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Farmer, J. A.

P. Crow, J. S. Uff, J. A. Farmer, M. P. Wright, and N. Stone, “The use of Raman spectroscopy to identify and characterize transitional cell carcinoma in vitro,” BJU Int. 93(9), 1232–1236 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Farrar, J.

R. W. Peeling, H. Artsob, J. L. Pelegrino, P. Buchy, M. J. Cardosa, S. Devi, D. A. Enria, J. Farrar, D. J. Gubler, M. G. Guzman, S. B. Halstead, E. Hunsperger, S. Kliks, H. S. Margolis, C. M. Nathanson, V. C. Nguyen, N. Rizzo, S. Vázquez, and S. Yoksan, “Evaluation of diagnostic tests: dengue,” Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 8(12Suppl), S30–S37 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gerich, J. E.

A. Consoli, N. Nurjhan, J. J. Reilly, D. M. Bier, and J. E. Gerich, “Contribution of liver and skeletal muscle to alanine and lactate metabolism in humans,” Am. J. Physiol. 259(5 Pt 1), E677–E684 (1990).
[PubMed]

Goyala, O.

R. S. Chhina, O. Goyala, D. K. Chhina, P. Goyala, R. Kumarb, and S. Puric, “Liver function tests in patients with dengue viral infection,” Dengue Bull. 32, 110–117 (2008).

Goyala, P.

R. S. Chhina, O. Goyala, D. K. Chhina, P. Goyala, R. Kumarb, and S. Puric, “Liver function tests in patients with dengue viral infection,” Dengue Bull. 32, 110–117 (2008).

Green, S.

D. H. Libraty, P. R. Young, D. Pickering, T. P. Endy, S. Kalayanarooj, S. Green, D. W. Vaughn, A. Nisalak, F. A. Ennis, and A. L. Rothman, “High circulating levels of the dengue virus nonstructural protein NS1 early in dengue illness correlate with the development of dengue hemorrhagic fever,” J. Infect. Dis. 186(8), 1165–1168 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Kalayanarooj, S. Nimmanitya, S. Suntayakorn, D. W. Vaughn, A. Nisalak, S. Green, V. Chansiriwongs, A. Roth-man, and F. A. Ennis, “Can doctors make an accurate diagnosis of dengue infections at an early stage?” Dengue Bull. 23, 1–9 (1999).

Gubler, D. J.

R. W. Peeling, H. Artsob, J. L. Pelegrino, P. Buchy, M. J. Cardosa, S. Devi, D. A. Enria, J. Farrar, D. J. Gubler, M. G. Guzman, S. B. Halstead, E. Hunsperger, S. Kliks, H. S. Margolis, C. M. Nathanson, V. C. Nguyen, N. Rizzo, S. Vázquez, and S. Yoksan, “Evaluation of diagnostic tests: dengue,” Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 8(12Suppl), S30–S37 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guha-Sapir, D.

D. Guha-Sapir and B. Schimmer, “Dengue fever: new paradigms for a changing epidemiology,” Emerg. Themes Epidemiol. 2(1), 1 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guzman, M. G.

R. W. Peeling, H. Artsob, J. L. Pelegrino, P. Buchy, M. J. Cardosa, S. Devi, D. A. Enria, J. Farrar, D. J. Gubler, M. G. Guzman, S. B. Halstead, E. Hunsperger, S. Kliks, H. S. Margolis, C. M. Nathanson, V. C. Nguyen, N. Rizzo, S. Vázquez, and S. Yoksan, “Evaluation of diagnostic tests: dengue,” Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 8(12Suppl), S30–S37 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guzmán, M. G.

M. G. Guzmán, G. Kouri, J. Bravo, L. Valdes, S. Vazquez, and S. B. Halstead, “Effect of age on outcome of secondary dengue 2 infections,” Int. J. Infect. Dis. 6(2), 118–124 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Halstead, S. B.

R. W. Peeling, H. Artsob, J. L. Pelegrino, P. Buchy, M. J. Cardosa, S. Devi, D. A. Enria, J. Farrar, D. J. Gubler, M. G. Guzman, S. B. Halstead, E. Hunsperger, S. Kliks, H. S. Margolis, C. M. Nathanson, V. C. Nguyen, N. Rizzo, S. Vázquez, and S. Yoksan, “Evaluation of diagnostic tests: dengue,” Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 8(12Suppl), S30–S37 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. H. Nguyen, H. Y. Lei, T. L. Nguyen, Y. S. Lin, K. J. Huang, B. L. Le, C. F. Lin, T. M. Yeh, Q. H. Do, T. Q. Vu, L. C. Chen, J. H. Huang, T. M. Lam, C. C. Liu, and S. B. Halstead, “Dengue hemorrhagic fever in infants: a study of clinical and cytokine profiles,” J. Infect. Dis. 189(2), 221–232 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. G. Guzmán, G. Kouri, J. Bravo, L. Valdes, S. Vazquez, and S. B. Halstead, “Effect of age on outcome of secondary dengue 2 infections,” Int. J. Infect. Dis. 6(2), 118–124 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Nimmannitya, S. B. Halstead, S. N. Cohen, and M. R. Margiotta, “Dengue and chikungunya virus infection in man in Thailand, 1962-1964. I. Observations on hospitalized patients with hemorrhagic fever,” Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 18(6), 954–971 (1969).
[PubMed]

S. N. Cohen and S. B. Halstead, “Shock associated with dengue infection. I. Clinical and physiologic manifestations of dengue hemorrhagic fever in Thailand, 1964,” J. Pediatr. 68(3), 448–456 (1966).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hench, L. L.

C. A. Owen, I. Notingher, R. Hill, M. Stevens, and L. L. Hench, “Progress in Raman spectroscopy in the fields of tissue engineering, diagnostics and toxicological testing,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Med. 17(11), 1019–1023 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hill, R.

C. A. Owen, I. Notingher, R. Hill, M. Stevens, and L. L. Hench, “Progress in Raman spectroscopy in the fields of tissue engineering, diagnostics and toxicological testing,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Med. 17(11), 1019–1023 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, J. H.

T. H. Nguyen, H. Y. Lei, T. L. Nguyen, Y. S. Lin, K. J. Huang, B. L. Le, C. F. Lin, T. M. Yeh, Q. H. Do, T. Q. Vu, L. C. Chen, J. H. Huang, T. M. Lam, C. C. Liu, and S. B. Halstead, “Dengue hemorrhagic fever in infants: a study of clinical and cytokine profiles,” J. Infect. Dis. 189(2), 221–232 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, K. J.

T. H. Nguyen, H. Y. Lei, T. L. Nguyen, Y. S. Lin, K. J. Huang, B. L. Le, C. F. Lin, T. M. Yeh, Q. H. Do, T. Q. Vu, L. C. Chen, J. H. Huang, T. M. Lam, C. C. Liu, and S. B. Halstead, “Dengue hemorrhagic fever in infants: a study of clinical and cytokine profiles,” J. Infect. Dis. 189(2), 221–232 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hunsperger, E.

R. W. Peeling, H. Artsob, J. L. Pelegrino, P. Buchy, M. J. Cardosa, S. Devi, D. A. Enria, J. Farrar, D. J. Gubler, M. G. Guzman, S. B. Halstead, E. Hunsperger, S. Kliks, H. S. Margolis, C. M. Nathanson, V. C. Nguyen, N. Rizzo, S. Vázquez, and S. Yoksan, “Evaluation of diagnostic tests: dengue,” Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 8(12Suppl), S30–S37 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Iamsirithavorn, S.

S. Sawasdivorn, S. Vibulvattanakit, M. Sasavatpakdee, and S. Iamsirithavorn, “Efficacy of clinical diagnosis of dengue fever in paediatric age groups as determined by the WHO case definition 1997 in Thailand,” Dengue Bull. 25, 56–64 (2001).

Igarashi, A.

C. C. Carlos, K. Oishi, M. T. Cinco, C. A. Mapua, S. Inoue, D. J. Cruz, M. A. Pancho, C. Z. Tanig, R. R. Matias, K. Morita, F. F. Natividad, A. Igarashi, and T. Nagatake, “Comparison of clinical features and hematologic abnormalities between dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever among children in the Philippines,” Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 73(2), 435–440 (2005).
[PubMed]

Inoue, S.

C. C. Carlos, K. Oishi, M. T. Cinco, C. A. Mapua, S. Inoue, D. J. Cruz, M. A. Pancho, C. Z. Tanig, R. R. Matias, K. Morita, F. F. Natividad, A. Igarashi, and T. Nagatake, “Comparison of clinical features and hematologic abnormalities between dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever among children in the Philippines,” Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 73(2), 435–440 (2005).
[PubMed]

Kabir, A.

A. Kabir, A. A. Abdullah, M. M. Sadeka, H. Ahmed, and M. A. Kahhar, “The impact of dengue on liver function as evaluated by aminotransferase levels,” J. Med. 9(2), 66–68 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kahhar, M. A.

A. Kabir, A. A. Abdullah, M. M. Sadeka, H. Ahmed, and M. A. Kahhar, “The impact of dengue on liver function as evaluated by aminotransferase levels,” J. Med. 9(2), 66–68 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kalayanarooj, S.

P. Sirikutt and S. Kalayanarooj, “Serum lactate and lactate dehydrogenase as parameters for the prediction of dengue severity,” J. Med. Assoc. Thai. 97(6Suppl 6), S220–S231 (2014).
[PubMed]

D. H. Libraty, P. R. Young, D. Pickering, T. P. Endy, S. Kalayanarooj, S. Green, D. W. Vaughn, A. Nisalak, F. A. Ennis, and A. L. Rothman, “High circulating levels of the dengue virus nonstructural protein NS1 early in dengue illness correlate with the development of dengue hemorrhagic fever,” J. Infect. Dis. 186(8), 1165–1168 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Kalayanarooj, S. Nimmanitya, S. Suntayakorn, D. W. Vaughn, A. Nisalak, S. Green, V. Chansiriwongs, A. Roth-man, and F. A. Ennis, “Can doctors make an accurate diagnosis of dengue infections at an early stage?” Dengue Bull. 23, 1–9 (1999).

Khan, A.

Khan, I.

S. Khan, R. Ullah, M. Saleem, M. Bilal, R. Rashid, I. Khan, A. Mahmood, and M. Nawaz, “Raman spectroscopic analysis of dengue virus infection in human blood sera,” J. Opt. 127, 2086–2088 (2016).

Khan, S.

S. Khan, R. Ullah, M. Saleem, M. Bilal, R. Rashid, I. Khan, A. Mahmood, and M. Nawaz, “Raman spectroscopic analysis of dengue virus infection in human blood sera,” J. Opt. 127, 2086–2088 (2016).

S. Khan, R. Ullah, A. Khan, N. Wahab, M. Bilal, and M. Ahmed, “Analysis of dengue infection based on Raman spectroscopy and support vector machine (SVM),” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(6), 2249–2256 (2016).
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Kittigul, L.

L. Kittigul, P. Pitakarnjanakul, D. Sujirarat, and K. Siripanichgon, “The differences of clinical manifestations and laboratory findings in children and adults with dengue virus infection,” J. Clin. Virol. 39(2), 76–81 (2007).
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Kliks, S.

R. W. Peeling, H. Artsob, J. L. Pelegrino, P. Buchy, M. J. Cardosa, S. Devi, D. A. Enria, J. Farrar, D. J. Gubler, M. G. Guzman, S. B. Halstead, E. Hunsperger, S. Kliks, H. S. Margolis, C. M. Nathanson, V. C. Nguyen, N. Rizzo, S. Vázquez, and S. Yoksan, “Evaluation of diagnostic tests: dengue,” Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 8(12Suppl), S30–S37 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Koenig, J. L.

P. C. Painter and J. L. Koenig, “Raman spectroscopic study of the structure of antibodies,” Biopolymers 14(3), 457–468 (1975).
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Kouri, G.

M. G. Guzmán, G. Kouri, J. Bravo, L. Valdes, S. Vazquez, and S. B. Halstead, “Effect of age on outcome of secondary dengue 2 infections,” Int. J. Infect. Dis. 6(2), 118–124 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kumarb, R.

R. S. Chhina, O. Goyala, D. K. Chhina, P. Goyala, R. Kumarb, and S. Puric, “Liver function tests in patients with dengue viral infection,” Dengue Bull. 32, 110–117 (2008).

Lam, T. M.

T. H. Nguyen, H. Y. Lei, T. L. Nguyen, Y. S. Lin, K. J. Huang, B. L. Le, C. F. Lin, T. M. Yeh, Q. H. Do, T. Q. Vu, L. C. Chen, J. H. Huang, T. M. Lam, C. C. Liu, and S. B. Halstead, “Dengue hemorrhagic fever in infants: a study of clinical and cytokine profiles,” J. Infect. Dis. 189(2), 221–232 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Le, B. L.

T. H. Nguyen, H. Y. Lei, T. L. Nguyen, Y. S. Lin, K. J. Huang, B. L. Le, C. F. Lin, T. M. Yeh, Q. H. Do, T. Q. Vu, L. C. Chen, J. H. Huang, T. M. Lam, C. C. Liu, and S. B. Halstead, “Dengue hemorrhagic fever in infants: a study of clinical and cytokine profiles,” J. Infect. Dis. 189(2), 221–232 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lei, H. Y.

T. H. Nguyen, H. Y. Lei, T. L. Nguyen, Y. S. Lin, K. J. Huang, B. L. Le, C. F. Lin, T. M. Yeh, Q. H. Do, T. Q. Vu, L. C. Chen, J. H. Huang, T. M. Lam, C. C. Liu, and S. B. Halstead, “Dengue hemorrhagic fever in infants: a study of clinical and cytokine profiles,” J. Infect. Dis. 189(2), 221–232 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Libraty, D. H.

D. H. Libraty, P. R. Young, D. Pickering, T. P. Endy, S. Kalayanarooj, S. Green, D. W. Vaughn, A. Nisalak, F. A. Ennis, and A. L. Rothman, “High circulating levels of the dengue virus nonstructural protein NS1 early in dengue illness correlate with the development of dengue hemorrhagic fever,” J. Infect. Dis. 186(8), 1165–1168 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, C. F.

T. H. Nguyen, H. Y. Lei, T. L. Nguyen, Y. S. Lin, K. J. Huang, B. L. Le, C. F. Lin, T. M. Yeh, Q. H. Do, T. Q. Vu, L. C. Chen, J. H. Huang, T. M. Lam, C. C. Liu, and S. B. Halstead, “Dengue hemorrhagic fever in infants: a study of clinical and cytokine profiles,” J. Infect. Dis. 189(2), 221–232 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, Y. S.

T. H. Nguyen, H. Y. Lei, T. L. Nguyen, Y. S. Lin, K. J. Huang, B. L. Le, C. F. Lin, T. M. Yeh, Q. H. Do, T. Q. Vu, L. C. Chen, J. H. Huang, T. M. Lam, C. C. Liu, and S. B. Halstead, “Dengue hemorrhagic fever in infants: a study of clinical and cytokine profiles,” J. Infect. Dis. 189(2), 221–232 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, C. C.

T. H. Nguyen, H. Y. Lei, T. L. Nguyen, Y. S. Lin, K. J. Huang, B. L. Le, C. F. Lin, T. M. Yeh, Q. H. Do, T. Q. Vu, L. C. Chen, J. H. Huang, T. M. Lam, C. C. Liu, and S. B. Halstead, “Dengue hemorrhagic fever in infants: a study of clinical and cytokine profiles,” J. Infect. Dis. 189(2), 221–232 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mackenhauer, J.

L. W. Andersen, J. Mackenhauer, J. C. Roberts, K. M. Berg, M. N. Cocchi, and M. W. Donnino, “Etiology and therapeutic approach to elevated lactate levels,” Mayo Clin. Proc. 88(10), 1127–1140 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mahmood, A.

S. Khan, R. Ullah, M. Saleem, M. Bilal, R. Rashid, I. Khan, A. Mahmood, and M. Nawaz, “Raman spectroscopic analysis of dengue virus infection in human blood sera,” J. Opt. 127, 2086–2088 (2016).

M. Bilal, M. Saleem, S. T. Amanat, H. A. Shakoor, R. Rashid, A. Mahmood, and M. Ahmed, “Optical diagnosis of malaria infection in human plasma using Raman spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(1), 017002 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Malavige, G. N.

S. L. Seneviratnea, G. N. Malavige, and H. J. de Silva, “Pathogenensis of liver involvement during dengue viral infections,” J. of Trans. Royal Soc. Trop. Med. & Hygiene 100(7), 608–614 (2006).
[Crossref]

Mapua, C. A.

C. C. Carlos, K. Oishi, M. T. Cinco, C. A. Mapua, S. Inoue, D. J. Cruz, M. A. Pancho, C. Z. Tanig, R. R. Matias, K. Morita, F. F. Natividad, A. Igarashi, and T. Nagatake, “Comparison of clinical features and hematologic abnormalities between dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever among children in the Philippines,” Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 73(2), 435–440 (2005).
[PubMed]

Margiotta, M. R.

S. Nimmannitya, S. B. Halstead, S. N. Cohen, and M. R. Margiotta, “Dengue and chikungunya virus infection in man in Thailand, 1962-1964. I. Observations on hospitalized patients with hemorrhagic fever,” Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 18(6), 954–971 (1969).
[PubMed]

Margolis, H. S.

R. W. Peeling, H. Artsob, J. L. Pelegrino, P. Buchy, M. J. Cardosa, S. Devi, D. A. Enria, J. Farrar, D. J. Gubler, M. G. Guzman, S. B. Halstead, E. Hunsperger, S. Kliks, H. S. Margolis, C. M. Nathanson, V. C. Nguyen, N. Rizzo, S. Vázquez, and S. Yoksan, “Evaluation of diagnostic tests: dengue,” Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 8(12Suppl), S30–S37 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Matias, R. R.

C. C. Carlos, K. Oishi, M. T. Cinco, C. A. Mapua, S. Inoue, D. J. Cruz, M. A. Pancho, C. Z. Tanig, R. R. Matias, K. Morita, F. F. Natividad, A. Igarashi, and T. Nagatake, “Comparison of clinical features and hematologic abnormalities between dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever among children in the Philippines,” Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 73(2), 435–440 (2005).
[PubMed]

Morita, K.

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C. C. Carlos, K. Oishi, M. T. Cinco, C. A. Mapua, S. Inoue, D. J. Cruz, M. A. Pancho, C. Z. Tanig, R. R. Matias, K. Morita, F. F. Natividad, A. Igarashi, and T. Nagatake, “Comparison of clinical features and hematologic abnormalities between dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever among children in the Philippines,” Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 73(2), 435–440 (2005).
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R. W. Peeling, H. Artsob, J. L. Pelegrino, P. Buchy, M. J. Cardosa, S. Devi, D. A. Enria, J. Farrar, D. J. Gubler, M. G. Guzman, S. B. Halstead, E. Hunsperger, S. Kliks, H. S. Margolis, C. M. Nathanson, V. C. Nguyen, N. Rizzo, S. Vázquez, and S. Yoksan, “Evaluation of diagnostic tests: dengue,” Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 8(12Suppl), S30–S37 (2010).
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S. Khan, R. Ullah, M. Saleem, M. Bilal, R. Rashid, I. Khan, A. Mahmood, and M. Nawaz, “Raman spectroscopic analysis of dengue virus infection in human blood sera,” J. Opt. 127, 2086–2088 (2016).

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T. H. Nguyen, H. Y. Lei, T. L. Nguyen, Y. S. Lin, K. J. Huang, B. L. Le, C. F. Lin, T. M. Yeh, Q. H. Do, T. Q. Vu, L. C. Chen, J. H. Huang, T. M. Lam, C. C. Liu, and S. B. Halstead, “Dengue hemorrhagic fever in infants: a study of clinical and cytokine profiles,” J. Infect. Dis. 189(2), 221–232 (2004).
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T. L. Nguyen, T. H. Nguyen, and N. T. Tieu, “The impact of dengue haemorrhagic fever on liver function,” Res. Virol. 148(4), 273–277 (1997).
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R. W. Peeling, H. Artsob, J. L. Pelegrino, P. Buchy, M. J. Cardosa, S. Devi, D. A. Enria, J. Farrar, D. J. Gubler, M. G. Guzman, S. B. Halstead, E. Hunsperger, S. Kliks, H. S. Margolis, C. M. Nathanson, V. C. Nguyen, N. Rizzo, S. Vázquez, and S. Yoksan, “Evaluation of diagnostic tests: dengue,” Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 8(12Suppl), S30–S37 (2010).
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D. H. Libraty, P. R. Young, D. Pickering, T. P. Endy, S. Kalayanarooj, S. Green, D. W. Vaughn, A. Nisalak, F. A. Ennis, and A. L. Rothman, “High circulating levels of the dengue virus nonstructural protein NS1 early in dengue illness correlate with the development of dengue hemorrhagic fever,” J. Infect. Dis. 186(8), 1165–1168 (2002).
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S. Kalayanarooj, S. Nimmanitya, S. Suntayakorn, D. W. Vaughn, A. Nisalak, S. Green, V. Chansiriwongs, A. Roth-man, and F. A. Ennis, “Can doctors make an accurate diagnosis of dengue infections at an early stage?” Dengue Bull. 23, 1–9 (1999).

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C. A. Owen, I. Notingher, R. Hill, M. Stevens, and L. L. Hench, “Progress in Raman spectroscopy in the fields of tissue engineering, diagnostics and toxicological testing,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Med. 17(11), 1019–1023 (2006).
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T. F. Póvoa, A. M. B. Alves, C. A. B. Oliveira, G. J. Nuovo, V. L. A. Chagas, and M. V. Paes, “The pathology of severe dengue in multiple organs of human fatal cases: histopathology, ultrastructure and virus replication,” PLoS One 9(4), e83386 (2014).
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A. Consoli, N. Nurjhan, J. J. Reilly, D. M. Bier, and J. E. Gerich, “Contribution of liver and skeletal muscle to alanine and lactate metabolism in humans,” Am. J. Physiol. 259(5 Pt 1), E677–E684 (1990).
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C. C. Carlos, K. Oishi, M. T. Cinco, C. A. Mapua, S. Inoue, D. J. Cruz, M. A. Pancho, C. Z. Tanig, R. R. Matias, K. Morita, F. F. Natividad, A. Igarashi, and T. Nagatake, “Comparison of clinical features and hematologic abnormalities between dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever among children in the Philippines,” Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 73(2), 435–440 (2005).
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T. F. Póvoa, A. M. B. Alves, C. A. B. Oliveira, G. J. Nuovo, V. L. A. Chagas, and M. V. Paes, “The pathology of severe dengue in multiple organs of human fatal cases: histopathology, ultrastructure and virus replication,” PLoS One 9(4), e83386 (2014).
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C. A. Owen, I. Notingher, R. Hill, M. Stevens, and L. L. Hench, “Progress in Raman spectroscopy in the fields of tissue engineering, diagnostics and toxicological testing,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Med. 17(11), 1019–1023 (2006).
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S. Pilotto, M. T. Pacheco, L. Silveira, A. B. Villaverde, and R. A. Zângaro, “Analysis of near-infrared Raman spectroscopy as a new technique for a transcutaneous non-invasive diagnosis of blood components,” Lasers Med. Sci. 16(1), 2–9 (2001).
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T. F. Póvoa, A. M. B. Alves, C. A. B. Oliveira, G. J. Nuovo, V. L. A. Chagas, and M. V. Paes, “The pathology of severe dengue in multiple organs of human fatal cases: histopathology, ultrastructure and virus replication,” PLoS One 9(4), e83386 (2014).
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P. C. Painter and J. L. Koenig, “Raman spectroscopic study of the structure of antibodies,” Biopolymers 14(3), 457–468 (1975).
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C. C. Carlos, K. Oishi, M. T. Cinco, C. A. Mapua, S. Inoue, D. J. Cruz, M. A. Pancho, C. Z. Tanig, R. R. Matias, K. Morita, F. F. Natividad, A. Igarashi, and T. Nagatake, “Comparison of clinical features and hematologic abnormalities between dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever among children in the Philippines,” Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 73(2), 435–440 (2005).
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R. W. Peeling, H. Artsob, J. L. Pelegrino, P. Buchy, M. J. Cardosa, S. Devi, D. A. Enria, J. Farrar, D. J. Gubler, M. G. Guzman, S. B. Halstead, E. Hunsperger, S. Kliks, H. S. Margolis, C. M. Nathanson, V. C. Nguyen, N. Rizzo, S. Vázquez, and S. Yoksan, “Evaluation of diagnostic tests: dengue,” Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 8(12Suppl), S30–S37 (2010).
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R. W. Peeling, H. Artsob, J. L. Pelegrino, P. Buchy, M. J. Cardosa, S. Devi, D. A. Enria, J. Farrar, D. J. Gubler, M. G. Guzman, S. B. Halstead, E. Hunsperger, S. Kliks, H. S. Margolis, C. M. Nathanson, V. C. Nguyen, N. Rizzo, S. Vázquez, and S. Yoksan, “Evaluation of diagnostic tests: dengue,” Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 8(12Suppl), S30–S37 (2010).
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D. H. Libraty, P. R. Young, D. Pickering, T. P. Endy, S. Kalayanarooj, S. Green, D. W. Vaughn, A. Nisalak, F. A. Ennis, and A. L. Rothman, “High circulating levels of the dengue virus nonstructural protein NS1 early in dengue illness correlate with the development of dengue hemorrhagic fever,” J. Infect. Dis. 186(8), 1165–1168 (2002).
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S. Pilotto, M. T. Pacheco, L. Silveira, A. B. Villaverde, and R. A. Zângaro, “Analysis of near-infrared Raman spectroscopy as a new technique for a transcutaneous non-invasive diagnosis of blood components,” Lasers Med. Sci. 16(1), 2–9 (2001).
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L. Kittigul, P. Pitakarnjanakul, D. Sujirarat, and K. Siripanichgon, “The differences of clinical manifestations and laboratory findings in children and adults with dengue virus infection,” J. Clin. Virol. 39(2), 76–81 (2007).
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T. F. Póvoa, A. M. B. Alves, C. A. B. Oliveira, G. J. Nuovo, V. L. A. Chagas, and M. V. Paes, “The pathology of severe dengue in multiple organs of human fatal cases: histopathology, ultrastructure and virus replication,” PLoS One 9(4), e83386 (2014).
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R. S. Chhina, O. Goyala, D. K. Chhina, P. Goyala, R. Kumarb, and S. Puric, “Liver function tests in patients with dengue viral infection,” Dengue Bull. 32, 110–117 (2008).

Rashid, R.

S. Khan, R. Ullah, M. Saleem, M. Bilal, R. Rashid, I. Khan, A. Mahmood, and M. Nawaz, “Raman spectroscopic analysis of dengue virus infection in human blood sera,” J. Opt. 127, 2086–2088 (2016).

M. Bilal, M. Saleem, S. T. Amanat, H. A. Shakoor, R. Rashid, A. Mahmood, and M. Ahmed, “Optical diagnosis of malaria infection in human plasma using Raman spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(1), 017002 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rehman, A.

M. Saleem, M. Bilal, S. Anwar, A. Rehman, and M. Ahmad, “Optical diagnosis of dengue virus infection in human blood serum using Raman spectroscopy,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(3), 035602 (2013).
[Crossref]

Rehman, I. U.

Z. Movasaghi, S. Rehman, and I. U. Rehman, “Raman spectroscopy of biological tissues,” Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 42(5), 493 (2007).
[Crossref]

Rehman, S.

Z. Movasaghi, S. Rehman, and I. U. Rehman, “Raman spectroscopy of biological tissues,” Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 42(5), 493 (2007).
[Crossref]

Reilly, J. J.

A. Consoli, N. Nurjhan, J. J. Reilly, D. M. Bier, and J. E. Gerich, “Contribution of liver and skeletal muscle to alanine and lactate metabolism in humans,” Am. J. Physiol. 259(5 Pt 1), E677–E684 (1990).
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R. W. Peeling, H. Artsob, J. L. Pelegrino, P. Buchy, M. J. Cardosa, S. Devi, D. A. Enria, J. Farrar, D. J. Gubler, M. G. Guzman, S. B. Halstead, E. Hunsperger, S. Kliks, H. S. Margolis, C. M. Nathanson, V. C. Nguyen, N. Rizzo, S. Vázquez, and S. Yoksan, “Evaluation of diagnostic tests: dengue,” Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 8(12Suppl), S30–S37 (2010).
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D. H. Libraty, P. R. Young, D. Pickering, T. P. Endy, S. Kalayanarooj, S. Green, D. W. Vaughn, A. Nisalak, F. A. Ennis, and A. L. Rothman, “High circulating levels of the dengue virus nonstructural protein NS1 early in dengue illness correlate with the development of dengue hemorrhagic fever,” J. Infect. Dis. 186(8), 1165–1168 (2002).
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S. Kalayanarooj, S. Nimmanitya, S. Suntayakorn, D. W. Vaughn, A. Nisalak, S. Green, V. Chansiriwongs, A. Roth-man, and F. A. Ennis, “Can doctors make an accurate diagnosis of dengue infections at an early stage?” Dengue Bull. 23, 1–9 (1999).

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A. Kabir, A. A. Abdullah, M. M. Sadeka, H. Ahmed, and M. A. Kahhar, “The impact of dengue on liver function as evaluated by aminotransferase levels,” J. Med. 9(2), 66–68 (2008).
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S. Khan, R. Ullah, M. Saleem, M. Bilal, R. Rashid, I. Khan, A. Mahmood, and M. Nawaz, “Raman spectroscopic analysis of dengue virus infection in human blood sera,” J. Opt. 127, 2086–2088 (2016).

M. Bilal, M. Saleem, S. T. Amanat, H. A. Shakoor, R. Rashid, A. Mahmood, and M. Ahmed, “Optical diagnosis of malaria infection in human plasma using Raman spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(1), 017002 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Saleem, M. Bilal, S. Anwar, A. Rehman, and M. Ahmad, “Optical diagnosis of dengue virus infection in human blood serum using Raman spectroscopy,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(3), 035602 (2013).
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Sasavatpakdee, M.

S. Sawasdivorn, S. Vibulvattanakit, M. Sasavatpakdee, and S. Iamsirithavorn, “Efficacy of clinical diagnosis of dengue fever in paediatric age groups as determined by the WHO case definition 1997 in Thailand,” Dengue Bull. 25, 56–64 (2001).

Sawasdivorn, S.

S. Sawasdivorn, S. Vibulvattanakit, M. Sasavatpakdee, and S. Iamsirithavorn, “Efficacy of clinical diagnosis of dengue fever in paediatric age groups as determined by the WHO case definition 1997 in Thailand,” Dengue Bull. 25, 56–64 (2001).

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D. Guha-Sapir and B. Schimmer, “Dengue fever: new paradigms for a changing epidemiology,” Emerg. Themes Epidemiol. 2(1), 1 (2005).
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S. L. Seneviratnea, G. N. Malavige, and H. J. de Silva, “Pathogenensis of liver involvement during dengue viral infections,” J. of Trans. Royal Soc. Trop. Med. & Hygiene 100(7), 608–614 (2006).
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Shakoor, H. A.

M. Bilal, M. Saleem, S. T. Amanat, H. A. Shakoor, R. Rashid, A. Mahmood, and M. Ahmed, “Optical diagnosis of malaria infection in human plasma using Raman spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(1), 017002 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Silveira, L.

S. Pilotto, M. T. Pacheco, L. Silveira, A. B. Villaverde, and R. A. Zângaro, “Analysis of near-infrared Raman spectroscopy as a new technique for a transcutaneous non-invasive diagnosis of blood components,” Lasers Med. Sci. 16(1), 2–9 (2001).
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P. Sirikutt and S. Kalayanarooj, “Serum lactate and lactate dehydrogenase as parameters for the prediction of dengue severity,” J. Med. Assoc. Thai. 97(6Suppl 6), S220–S231 (2014).
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L. Kittigul, P. Pitakarnjanakul, D. Sujirarat, and K. Siripanichgon, “The differences of clinical manifestations and laboratory findings in children and adults with dengue virus infection,” J. Clin. Virol. 39(2), 76–81 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stevens, M.

C. A. Owen, I. Notingher, R. Hill, M. Stevens, and L. L. Hench, “Progress in Raman spectroscopy in the fields of tissue engineering, diagnostics and toxicological testing,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Med. 17(11), 1019–1023 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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P. Crow, J. S. Uff, J. A. Farmer, M. P. Wright, and N. Stone, “The use of Raman spectroscopy to identify and characterize transitional cell carcinoma in vitro,” BJU Int. 93(9), 1232–1236 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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L. Kittigul, P. Pitakarnjanakul, D. Sujirarat, and K. Siripanichgon, “The differences of clinical manifestations and laboratory findings in children and adults with dengue virus infection,” J. Clin. Virol. 39(2), 76–81 (2007).
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S. Kalayanarooj, S. Nimmanitya, S. Suntayakorn, D. W. Vaughn, A. Nisalak, S. Green, V. Chansiriwongs, A. Roth-man, and F. A. Ennis, “Can doctors make an accurate diagnosis of dengue infections at an early stage?” Dengue Bull. 23, 1–9 (1999).

Tanig, C. Z.

C. C. Carlos, K. Oishi, M. T. Cinco, C. A. Mapua, S. Inoue, D. J. Cruz, M. A. Pancho, C. Z. Tanig, R. R. Matias, K. Morita, F. F. Natividad, A. Igarashi, and T. Nagatake, “Comparison of clinical features and hematologic abnormalities between dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever among children in the Philippines,” Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 73(2), 435–440 (2005).
[PubMed]

Tieu, N. T.

T. L. Nguyen, T. H. Nguyen, and N. T. Tieu, “The impact of dengue haemorrhagic fever on liver function,” Res. Virol. 148(4), 273–277 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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P. Crow, J. S. Uff, J. A. Farmer, M. P. Wright, and N. Stone, “The use of Raman spectroscopy to identify and characterize transitional cell carcinoma in vitro,” BJU Int. 93(9), 1232–1236 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ullah, R.

S. Khan, R. Ullah, M. Saleem, M. Bilal, R. Rashid, I. Khan, A. Mahmood, and M. Nawaz, “Raman spectroscopic analysis of dengue virus infection in human blood sera,” J. Opt. 127, 2086–2088 (2016).

S. Khan, R. Ullah, A. Khan, N. Wahab, M. Bilal, and M. Ahmed, “Analysis of dengue infection based on Raman spectroscopy and support vector machine (SVM),” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(6), 2249–2256 (2016).
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Valdes, L.

M. G. Guzmán, G. Kouri, J. Bravo, L. Valdes, S. Vazquez, and S. B. Halstead, “Effect of age on outcome of secondary dengue 2 infections,” Int. J. Infect. Dis. 6(2), 118–124 (2002).
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G. van Hall, “Lactate kinetics in human tissues at rest and during exercise,” Acta Physiol. (Oxf.) 199(4), 499–508 (2010).
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D. H. Libraty, P. R. Young, D. Pickering, T. P. Endy, S. Kalayanarooj, S. Green, D. W. Vaughn, A. Nisalak, F. A. Ennis, and A. L. Rothman, “High circulating levels of the dengue virus nonstructural protein NS1 early in dengue illness correlate with the development of dengue hemorrhagic fever,” J. Infect. Dis. 186(8), 1165–1168 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Kalayanarooj, S. Nimmanitya, S. Suntayakorn, D. W. Vaughn, A. Nisalak, S. Green, V. Chansiriwongs, A. Roth-man, and F. A. Ennis, “Can doctors make an accurate diagnosis of dengue infections at an early stage?” Dengue Bull. 23, 1–9 (1999).

Vazquez, S.

M. G. Guzmán, G. Kouri, J. Bravo, L. Valdes, S. Vazquez, and S. B. Halstead, “Effect of age on outcome of secondary dengue 2 infections,” Int. J. Infect. Dis. 6(2), 118–124 (2002).
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Vázquez, S.

R. W. Peeling, H. Artsob, J. L. Pelegrino, P. Buchy, M. J. Cardosa, S. Devi, D. A. Enria, J. Farrar, D. J. Gubler, M. G. Guzman, S. B. Halstead, E. Hunsperger, S. Kliks, H. S. Margolis, C. M. Nathanson, V. C. Nguyen, N. Rizzo, S. Vázquez, and S. Yoksan, “Evaluation of diagnostic tests: dengue,” Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 8(12Suppl), S30–S37 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vibulvattanakit, S.

S. Sawasdivorn, S. Vibulvattanakit, M. Sasavatpakdee, and S. Iamsirithavorn, “Efficacy of clinical diagnosis of dengue fever in paediatric age groups as determined by the WHO case definition 1997 in Thailand,” Dengue Bull. 25, 56–64 (2001).

Villaverde, A. B.

S. Pilotto, M. T. Pacheco, L. Silveira, A. B. Villaverde, and R. A. Zângaro, “Analysis of near-infrared Raman spectroscopy as a new technique for a transcutaneous non-invasive diagnosis of blood components,” Lasers Med. Sci. 16(1), 2–9 (2001).
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T. H. Nguyen, H. Y. Lei, T. L. Nguyen, Y. S. Lin, K. J. Huang, B. L. Le, C. F. Lin, T. M. Yeh, Q. H. Do, T. Q. Vu, L. C. Chen, J. H. Huang, T. M. Lam, C. C. Liu, and S. B. Halstead, “Dengue hemorrhagic fever in infants: a study of clinical and cytokine profiles,” J. Infect. Dis. 189(2), 221–232 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wahab, N.

Wright, M. P.

P. Crow, J. S. Uff, J. A. Farmer, M. P. Wright, and N. Stone, “The use of Raman spectroscopy to identify and characterize transitional cell carcinoma in vitro,” BJU Int. 93(9), 1232–1236 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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T. H. Nguyen, H. Y. Lei, T. L. Nguyen, Y. S. Lin, K. J. Huang, B. L. Le, C. F. Lin, T. M. Yeh, Q. H. Do, T. Q. Vu, L. C. Chen, J. H. Huang, T. M. Lam, C. C. Liu, and S. B. Halstead, “Dengue hemorrhagic fever in infants: a study of clinical and cytokine profiles,” J. Infect. Dis. 189(2), 221–232 (2004).
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Yoksan, S.

R. W. Peeling, H. Artsob, J. L. Pelegrino, P. Buchy, M. J. Cardosa, S. Devi, D. A. Enria, J. Farrar, D. J. Gubler, M. G. Guzman, S. B. Halstead, E. Hunsperger, S. Kliks, H. S. Margolis, C. M. Nathanson, V. C. Nguyen, N. Rizzo, S. Vázquez, and S. Yoksan, “Evaluation of diagnostic tests: dengue,” Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 8(12Suppl), S30–S37 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Young, P. R.

D. H. Libraty, P. R. Young, D. Pickering, T. P. Endy, S. Kalayanarooj, S. Green, D. W. Vaughn, A. Nisalak, F. A. Ennis, and A. L. Rothman, “High circulating levels of the dengue virus nonstructural protein NS1 early in dengue illness correlate with the development of dengue hemorrhagic fever,” J. Infect. Dis. 186(8), 1165–1168 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zângaro, R. A.

S. Pilotto, M. T. Pacheco, L. Silveira, A. B. Villaverde, and R. A. Zângaro, “Analysis of near-infrared Raman spectroscopy as a new technique for a transcutaneous non-invasive diagnosis of blood components,” Lasers Med. Sci. 16(1), 2–9 (2001).
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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Sketch of experiment setup.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Vector normalized mean Raman spectra of healthy and dengue infected sera (upper) along with the mean difference between the normal and infected samples (lower).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Vector normalized Raman spectra of lactic acid solution.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Vector normalized mean Raman spectra of healthy blood sera (green), dengue infected (red), low and high concentration of lactic acid solution added to healthy sera (blue) and (magenta) respectiviely.

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