Abstract

Corneal degenerative conditions such as keratoconus (KC) cause progressive damage to the anterior corneal tissue and eventually severely compromise visual acuity. The ability to visualize corneal tissue damage in-vivo at cellular or sub-cellular level at different stages of development of KC and other corneal diseases, can aid the early diagnostics as well as the development of more effective treatment approaches for various corneal pathologies, including keratoconus. Here, we present the optical design of an optical coherence tomography system that can achieve 0.95 µm axial resolution in biological tissue and provide test results for the system’s spatial resolution and sensitivity. Corneal images acquired in-vivo with this system from healthy and keratoconic human subjects reveal the cellular and sub-cellular structure of the corneal epithelium, as well as the normal and abnormal structure of the Bowman’s membrane and the anterior corneal stroma.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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2016 (1)

K. Bizheva, L. Haines, E. Mason, B. MacLellan, B. Tan, D. Hileeto, and L. Sorbara, “In Vivo Imaging and Morphometry of the Human Pre-Descemet’s Layer and Endothelium With Ultrahigh-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(6), 2782–2787 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (3)

2014 (1)

2013 (2)

R. M. Werkmeister, A. Alex, S. Kaya, A. Unterhuber, B. Hofer, J. Riedl, M. Bronhagl, M. Vietauer, D. Schmidl, T. Schmoll, G. Garhöfer, W. Drexler, R. A. Leitgeb, M. Groeschl, and L. Schmetterer, “Measurement of Tear Film Thickness Using Ultrahigh-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(8), 5578–5583 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Werkmeister, A. Alex, S. Kaya, A. Unterhuber, B. Hofer, J. Riedl, M. Bronhagl, M. Vietauer, D. Schmidl, T. Schmoll, G. Garhöfer, W. Drexler, R. A. Leitgeb, M. Groeschl, and L. Schmetterer, “Measurement of Tear Film Thickness Using Ultrahigh-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(8), 5578–5583 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

R. Yadav, R. Kottaiyan, K. Ahmad, and G. Yoon, “Epithelium and Bowman’s layer thickness and light scatter in keratoconic cornea evaluated using ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(11), 116010 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

2010 (1)

N. Hutchings, T. L. Simpson, C. Hyun, A. A. Moayed, S. Hariri, L. Sorbara, and K. Bizheva, “Swelling of the human cornea revealed by high-speed, ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(9), 4579–4584 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

2003 (2)

2002 (2)

1998 (2)

1997 (1)

R. B. Mandell, “Contemporary management of keratoconus,” Int. Contact Lens Clin. 24(2), 43–58 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

A. F. Fercher, “Optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 1(2), 157–173 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1984 (1)

J. H. Krachmer, R. S. Feder, and M. W. Belin, “Keratoconus and related noninflammatory corneal thinning disorders,” Surv. Ophthalmol. 28(4), 293–322 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ahmad, K.

R. Yadav, R. Kottaiyan, K. Ahmad, and G. Yoon, “Epithelium and Bowman’s layer thickness and light scatter in keratoconic cornea evaluated using ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(11), 116010 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alex, A.

R. M. Werkmeister, A. Alex, S. Kaya, A. Unterhuber, B. Hofer, J. Riedl, M. Bronhagl, M. Vietauer, D. Schmidl, T. Schmoll, G. Garhöfer, W. Drexler, R. A. Leitgeb, M. Groeschl, and L. Schmetterer, “Measurement of Tear Film Thickness Using Ultrahigh-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(8), 5578–5583 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Werkmeister, A. Alex, S. Kaya, A. Unterhuber, B. Hofer, J. Riedl, M. Bronhagl, M. Vietauer, D. Schmidl, T. Schmoll, G. Garhöfer, W. Drexler, R. A. Leitgeb, M. Groeschl, and L. Schmetterer, “Measurement of Tear Film Thickness Using Ultrahigh-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(8), 5578–5583 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Apolonski, A.

Aquavella, J. V.

Beaurepaire, E.

Belin, M. W.

J. H. Krachmer, R. S. Feder, and M. W. Belin, “Keratoconus and related noninflammatory corneal thinning disorders,” Surv. Ophthalmol. 28(4), 293–322 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bizheva, K.

Blanchot, L.

Boccara, A. C.

Bouma, B.

Bouma, B. E.

L. Liu, J. A. Gardecki, S. K. Nadkarni, J. D. Toussaint, Y. Yagi, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Imaging the subcellular structure of human coronary atherosclerosis using micro-optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med. 17(8), 1010–1014 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bronhagl, M.

R. M. Werkmeister, A. Alex, S. Kaya, A. Unterhuber, B. Hofer, J. Riedl, M. Bronhagl, M. Vietauer, D. Schmidl, T. Schmoll, G. Garhöfer, W. Drexler, R. A. Leitgeb, M. Groeschl, and L. Schmetterer, “Measurement of Tear Film Thickness Using Ultrahigh-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(8), 5578–5583 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Werkmeister, A. Alex, S. Kaya, A. Unterhuber, B. Hofer, J. Riedl, M. Bronhagl, M. Vietauer, D. Schmidl, T. Schmoll, G. Garhöfer, W. Drexler, R. A. Leitgeb, M. Groeschl, and L. Schmetterer, “Measurement of Tear Film Thickness Using Ultrahigh-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(8), 5578–5583 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Canavesi, C.

Cense, B.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, T.

Cheung, C. S.

Chu, Y. J.

Cui, D.

de Boer, J.

Ding, S.

Drexler, W.

R. M. Werkmeister, A. Alex, S. Kaya, A. Unterhuber, B. Hofer, J. Riedl, M. Bronhagl, M. Vietauer, D. Schmidl, T. Schmoll, G. Garhöfer, W. Drexler, R. A. Leitgeb, M. Groeschl, and L. Schmetterer, “Measurement of Tear Film Thickness Using Ultrahigh-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(8), 5578–5583 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Werkmeister, A. Alex, S. Kaya, A. Unterhuber, B. Hofer, J. Riedl, M. Bronhagl, M. Vietauer, D. Schmidl, T. Schmoll, G. Garhöfer, W. Drexler, R. A. Leitgeb, M. Groeschl, and L. Schmetterer, “Measurement of Tear Film Thickness Using Ultrahigh-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(8), 5578–5583 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Bizheva, B. Považay, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, W. Drexler, M. Mei, R. Holzwarth, T. Hoelzenbein, V. Wacheck, and H. Pehamberger, “Compact, broad-bandwidth fiber laser for sub-2-microm axial resolution optical coherence tomography in the 1300-nm wavelength region,” Opt. Lett. 28(9), 707–709 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Povazay, K. Bizheva, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, A. Apolonski, W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, P. S. Russell, M. Vetterlein, and E. Scherzer, “Submicrometer axial resolution optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 27(20), 1800–1802 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dubois, A.

Feder, R. S.

J. H. Krachmer, R. S. Feder, and M. W. Belin, “Keratoconus and related noninflammatory corneal thinning disorders,” Surv. Ophthalmol. 28(4), 293–322 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fercher, A. F.

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gain, P.

Gardecki, J. A.

L. Liu, J. A. Gardecki, S. K. Nadkarni, J. D. Toussaint, Y. Yagi, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Imaging the subcellular structure of human coronary atherosclerosis using micro-optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med. 17(8), 1010–1014 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Garhöfer, G.

R. M. Werkmeister, A. Alex, S. Kaya, A. Unterhuber, B. Hofer, J. Riedl, M. Bronhagl, M. Vietauer, D. Schmidl, T. Schmoll, G. Garhöfer, W. Drexler, R. A. Leitgeb, M. Groeschl, and L. Schmetterer, “Measurement of Tear Film Thickness Using Ultrahigh-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(8), 5578–5583 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Werkmeister, A. Alex, S. Kaya, A. Unterhuber, B. Hofer, J. Riedl, M. Bronhagl, M. Vietauer, D. Schmidl, T. Schmoll, G. Garhöfer, W. Drexler, R. A. Leitgeb, M. Groeschl, and L. Schmetterer, “Measurement of Tear Film Thickness Using Ultrahigh-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(8), 5578–5583 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Groeschl, M.

R. M. Werkmeister, A. Alex, S. Kaya, A. Unterhuber, B. Hofer, J. Riedl, M. Bronhagl, M. Vietauer, D. Schmidl, T. Schmoll, G. Garhöfer, W. Drexler, R. A. Leitgeb, M. Groeschl, and L. Schmetterer, “Measurement of Tear Film Thickness Using Ultrahigh-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(8), 5578–5583 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Werkmeister, A. Alex, S. Kaya, A. Unterhuber, B. Hofer, J. Riedl, M. Bronhagl, M. Vietauer, D. Schmidl, T. Schmoll, G. Garhöfer, W. Drexler, R. A. Leitgeb, M. Groeschl, and L. Schmetterer, “Measurement of Tear Film Thickness Using Ultrahigh-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(8), 5578–5583 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gu, J.

Haines, L.

K. Bizheva, L. Haines, E. Mason, B. MacLellan, B. Tan, D. Hileeto, and L. Sorbara, “In Vivo Imaging and Morphometry of the Human Pre-Descemet’s Layer and Endothelium With Ultrahigh-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(6), 2782–2787 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hariri, S.

N. Hutchings, T. L. Simpson, C. Hyun, A. A. Moayed, S. Hariri, L. Sorbara, and K. Bizheva, “Swelling of the human cornea revealed by high-speed, ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(9), 4579–4584 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

He, Z.

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hermann, B.

Hileeto, D.

K. Bizheva, L. Haines, E. Mason, B. MacLellan, B. Tan, D. Hileeto, and L. Sorbara, “In Vivo Imaging and Morphometry of the Human Pre-Descemet’s Layer and Endothelium With Ultrahigh-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(6), 2782–2787 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hindman, H. B.

Hoelzenbein, T.

Hofer, B.

R. M. Werkmeister, A. Alex, S. Kaya, A. Unterhuber, B. Hofer, J. Riedl, M. Bronhagl, M. Vietauer, D. Schmidl, T. Schmoll, G. Garhöfer, W. Drexler, R. A. Leitgeb, M. Groeschl, and L. Schmetterer, “Measurement of Tear Film Thickness Using Ultrahigh-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(8), 5578–5583 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Werkmeister, A. Alex, S. Kaya, A. Unterhuber, B. Hofer, J. Riedl, M. Bronhagl, M. Vietauer, D. Schmidl, T. Schmoll, G. Garhöfer, W. Drexler, R. A. Leitgeb, M. Groeschl, and L. Schmetterer, “Measurement of Tear Film Thickness Using Ultrahigh-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(8), 5578–5583 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Holzwarth, R.

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hutchings, N.

N. Hutchings, T. L. Simpson, C. Hyun, A. A. Moayed, S. Hariri, L. Sorbara, and K. Bizheva, “Swelling of the human cornea revealed by high-speed, ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(9), 4579–4584 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hyun, C.

N. Hutchings, T. L. Simpson, C. Hyun, A. A. Moayed, S. Hariri, L. Sorbara, and K. Bizheva, “Swelling of the human cornea revealed by high-speed, ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(9), 4579–4584 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Karimi, A. H.

Kaya, S.

R. M. Werkmeister, A. Alex, S. Kaya, A. Unterhuber, B. Hofer, J. Riedl, M. Bronhagl, M. Vietauer, D. Schmidl, T. Schmoll, G. Garhöfer, W. Drexler, R. A. Leitgeb, M. Groeschl, and L. Schmetterer, “Measurement of Tear Film Thickness Using Ultrahigh-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(8), 5578–5583 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Werkmeister, A. Alex, S. Kaya, A. Unterhuber, B. Hofer, J. Riedl, M. Bronhagl, M. Vietauer, D. Schmidl, T. Schmoll, G. Garhöfer, W. Drexler, R. A. Leitgeb, M. Groeschl, and L. Schmetterer, “Measurement of Tear Film Thickness Using Ultrahigh-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(8), 5578–5583 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Knight, J. C.

Kottaiyan, R.

R. Yadav, R. Kottaiyan, K. Ahmad, and G. Yoon, “Epithelium and Bowman’s layer thickness and light scatter in keratoconic cornea evaluated using ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(11), 116010 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Krachmer, J. H.

J. H. Krachmer, “Eye rubbing can cause keratoconus,” Cornea 23(6), 539–540 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. H. Krachmer, R. S. Feder, and M. W. Belin, “Keratoconus and related noninflammatory corneal thinning disorders,” Surv. Ophthalmol. 28(4), 293–322 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kurimura, S.

M. Okano, H. H. Lim, R. Okamoto, N. Nishizawa, S. Kurimura, and S. Takeuchi, “0.54 μm resolution two-photon interference with dispersion cancellation for quantum optical coherence tomography,” Sci. Rep. 5, 18042 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lebec, M.

Lee, K. S.

Leitgeb, R. A.

R. M. Werkmeister, A. Alex, S. Kaya, A. Unterhuber, B. Hofer, J. Riedl, M. Bronhagl, M. Vietauer, D. Schmidl, T. Schmoll, G. Garhöfer, W. Drexler, R. A. Leitgeb, M. Groeschl, and L. Schmetterer, “Measurement of Tear Film Thickness Using Ultrahigh-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(8), 5578–5583 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Werkmeister, A. Alex, S. Kaya, A. Unterhuber, B. Hofer, J. Riedl, M. Bronhagl, M. Vietauer, D. Schmidl, T. Schmoll, G. Garhöfer, W. Drexler, R. A. Leitgeb, M. Groeschl, and L. Schmetterer, “Measurement of Tear Film Thickness Using Ultrahigh-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(8), 5578–5583 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lepine, T.

Liang, H.

Lim, H. H.

M. Okano, H. H. Lim, R. Okamoto, N. Nishizawa, S. Kurimura, and S. Takeuchi, “0.54 μm resolution two-photon interference with dispersion cancellation for quantum optical coherence tomography,” Sci. Rep. 5, 18042 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, L.

D. Cui, X. Liu, J. Zhang, X. Yu, S. Ding, Y. Luo, J. Gu, P. Shum, and L. Liu, “Dual spectrometer system with spectral compounding for 1-μm optical coherence tomography in vivo,” Opt. Lett. 39(23), 6727–6730 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Liu, J. A. Gardecki, S. K. Nadkarni, J. D. Toussaint, Y. Yagi, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Imaging the subcellular structure of human coronary atherosclerosis using micro-optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med. 17(8), 1010–1014 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, X.

Luo, Y.

MacLellan, B.

K. Bizheva, L. Haines, E. Mason, B. MacLellan, B. Tan, D. Hileeto, and L. Sorbara, “In Vivo Imaging and Morphometry of the Human Pre-Descemet’s Layer and Endothelium With Ultrahigh-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(6), 2782–2787 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mandell, R. B.

R. B. Mandell, “Contemporary management of keratoconus,” Int. Contact Lens Clin. 24(2), 43–58 (1997).
[Crossref]

Mason, E.

K. Bizheva, L. Haines, E. Mason, B. MacLellan, B. Tan, D. Hileeto, and L. Sorbara, “In Vivo Imaging and Morphometry of the Human Pre-Descemet’s Layer and Endothelium With Ultrahigh-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(6), 2782–2787 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mei, M.

Moayed, A. A.

N. Hutchings, T. L. Simpson, C. Hyun, A. A. Moayed, S. Hariri, L. Sorbara, and K. Bizheva, “Swelling of the human cornea revealed by high-speed, ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(9), 4579–4584 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nadkarni, S. K.

L. Liu, J. A. Gardecki, S. K. Nadkarni, J. D. Toussaint, Y. Yagi, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Imaging the subcellular structure of human coronary atherosclerosis using micro-optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med. 17(8), 1010–1014 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nassif, N.

Nishizawa, N.

M. Okano, H. H. Lim, R. Okamoto, N. Nishizawa, S. Kurimura, and S. Takeuchi, “0.54 μm resolution two-photon interference with dispersion cancellation for quantum optical coherence tomography,” Sci. Rep. 5, 18042 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Okamoto, R.

M. Okano, H. H. Lim, R. Okamoto, N. Nishizawa, S. Kurimura, and S. Takeuchi, “0.54 μm resolution two-photon interference with dispersion cancellation for quantum optical coherence tomography,” Sci. Rep. 5, 18042 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Okano, M.

M. Okano, H. H. Lim, R. Okamoto, N. Nishizawa, S. Kurimura, and S. Takeuchi, “0.54 μm resolution two-photon interference with dispersion cancellation for quantum optical coherence tomography,” Sci. Rep. 5, 18042 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, B.

Pehamberger, H.

Pierce, M.

Povazay, B.

Považay, B.

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rabinowitz, Y. S.

Y. S. Rabinowitz, “The genetics of keratoconus,” Ophthalmol. Clin. North Am. 16(4), 607–620 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. S. Rabinowitz, “Keratoconus,” Surv. Ophthalmol. 42(4), 297–319 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Riedl, J.

R. M. Werkmeister, A. Alex, S. Kaya, A. Unterhuber, B. Hofer, J. Riedl, M. Bronhagl, M. Vietauer, D. Schmidl, T. Schmoll, G. Garhöfer, W. Drexler, R. A. Leitgeb, M. Groeschl, and L. Schmetterer, “Measurement of Tear Film Thickness Using Ultrahigh-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(8), 5578–5583 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Werkmeister, A. Alex, S. Kaya, A. Unterhuber, B. Hofer, J. Riedl, M. Bronhagl, M. Vietauer, D. Schmidl, T. Schmoll, G. Garhöfer, W. Drexler, R. A. Leitgeb, M. Groeschl, and L. Schmetterer, “Measurement of Tear Film Thickness Using Ultrahigh-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(8), 5578–5583 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rolland, J. P.

Russell, P. S.

Saint-Jalmes, H.

Sattmann, H.

Scherzer, E.

Schmetterer, L.

R. M. Werkmeister, A. Alex, S. Kaya, A. Unterhuber, B. Hofer, J. Riedl, M. Bronhagl, M. Vietauer, D. Schmidl, T. Schmoll, G. Garhöfer, W. Drexler, R. A. Leitgeb, M. Groeschl, and L. Schmetterer, “Measurement of Tear Film Thickness Using Ultrahigh-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(8), 5578–5583 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Werkmeister, A. Alex, S. Kaya, A. Unterhuber, B. Hofer, J. Riedl, M. Bronhagl, M. Vietauer, D. Schmidl, T. Schmoll, G. Garhöfer, W. Drexler, R. A. Leitgeb, M. Groeschl, and L. Schmetterer, “Measurement of Tear Film Thickness Using Ultrahigh-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(8), 5578–5583 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schmidl, D.

R. M. Werkmeister, A. Alex, S. Kaya, A. Unterhuber, B. Hofer, J. Riedl, M. Bronhagl, M. Vietauer, D. Schmidl, T. Schmoll, G. Garhöfer, W. Drexler, R. A. Leitgeb, M. Groeschl, and L. Schmetterer, “Measurement of Tear Film Thickness Using Ultrahigh-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(8), 5578–5583 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Werkmeister, A. Alex, S. Kaya, A. Unterhuber, B. Hofer, J. Riedl, M. Bronhagl, M. Vietauer, D. Schmidl, T. Schmoll, G. Garhöfer, W. Drexler, R. A. Leitgeb, M. Groeschl, and L. Schmetterer, “Measurement of Tear Film Thickness Using Ultrahigh-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(8), 5578–5583 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schmoll, T.

R. M. Werkmeister, A. Alex, S. Kaya, A. Unterhuber, B. Hofer, J. Riedl, M. Bronhagl, M. Vietauer, D. Schmidl, T. Schmoll, G. Garhöfer, W. Drexler, R. A. Leitgeb, M. Groeschl, and L. Schmetterer, “Measurement of Tear Film Thickness Using Ultrahigh-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(8), 5578–5583 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Werkmeister, A. Alex, S. Kaya, A. Unterhuber, B. Hofer, J. Riedl, M. Bronhagl, M. Vietauer, D. Schmidl, T. Schmoll, G. Garhöfer, W. Drexler, R. A. Leitgeb, M. Groeschl, and L. Schmetterer, “Measurement of Tear Film Thickness Using Ultrahigh-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(8), 5578–5583 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shum, P.

Simpson, T. L.

N. Hutchings, T. L. Simpson, C. Hyun, A. A. Moayed, S. Hariri, L. Sorbara, and K. Bizheva, “Swelling of the human cornea revealed by high-speed, ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(9), 4579–4584 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sorbara, L.

K. Bizheva, L. Haines, E. Mason, B. MacLellan, B. Tan, D. Hileeto, and L. Sorbara, “In Vivo Imaging and Morphometry of the Human Pre-Descemet’s Layer and Endothelium With Ultrahigh-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(6), 2782–2787 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Hutchings, T. L. Simpson, C. Hyun, A. A. Moayed, S. Hariri, L. Sorbara, and K. Bizheva, “Swelling of the human cornea revealed by high-speed, ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(9), 4579–4584 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Spring, M.

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Takeuchi, S.

M. Okano, H. H. Lim, R. Okamoto, N. Nishizawa, S. Kurimura, and S. Takeuchi, “0.54 μm resolution two-photon interference with dispersion cancellation for quantum optical coherence tomography,” Sci. Rep. 5, 18042 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tan, B.

K. Bizheva, L. Haines, E. Mason, B. MacLellan, B. Tan, D. Hileeto, and L. Sorbara, “In Vivo Imaging and Morphometry of the Human Pre-Descemet’s Layer and Endothelium With Ultrahigh-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(6), 2782–2787 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tankam, P.

Tearney, G.

Tearney, G. J.

L. Liu, J. A. Gardecki, S. K. Nadkarni, J. D. Toussaint, Y. Yagi, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Imaging the subcellular structure of human coronary atherosclerosis using micro-optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med. 17(8), 1010–1014 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thuret, G.

Topham, D. J.

Toussaint, J. D.

L. Liu, J. A. Gardecki, S. K. Nadkarni, J. D. Toussaint, Y. Yagi, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Imaging the subcellular structure of human coronary atherosclerosis using micro-optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med. 17(8), 1010–1014 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Unterhuber, A.

R. M. Werkmeister, A. Alex, S. Kaya, A. Unterhuber, B. Hofer, J. Riedl, M. Bronhagl, M. Vietauer, D. Schmidl, T. Schmoll, G. Garhöfer, W. Drexler, R. A. Leitgeb, M. Groeschl, and L. Schmetterer, “Measurement of Tear Film Thickness Using Ultrahigh-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(8), 5578–5583 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Werkmeister, A. Alex, S. Kaya, A. Unterhuber, B. Hofer, J. Riedl, M. Bronhagl, M. Vietauer, D. Schmidl, T. Schmoll, G. Garhöfer, W. Drexler, R. A. Leitgeb, M. Groeschl, and L. Schmetterer, “Measurement of Tear Film Thickness Using Ultrahigh-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(8), 5578–5583 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Povazay, K. Bizheva, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, A. Apolonski, W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, P. S. Russell, M. Vetterlein, and E. Scherzer, “Submicrometer axial resolution optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 27(20), 1800–1802 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vabre, L.

Vetterlein, M.

Vietauer, M.

R. M. Werkmeister, A. Alex, S. Kaya, A. Unterhuber, B. Hofer, J. Riedl, M. Bronhagl, M. Vietauer, D. Schmidl, T. Schmoll, G. Garhöfer, W. Drexler, R. A. Leitgeb, M. Groeschl, and L. Schmetterer, “Measurement of Tear Film Thickness Using Ultrahigh-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(8), 5578–5583 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Werkmeister, A. Alex, S. Kaya, A. Unterhuber, B. Hofer, J. Riedl, M. Bronhagl, M. Vietauer, D. Schmidl, T. Schmoll, G. Garhöfer, W. Drexler, R. A. Leitgeb, M. Groeschl, and L. Schmetterer, “Measurement of Tear Film Thickness Using Ultrahigh-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(8), 5578–5583 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wacheck, V.

Wadsworth, W. J.

Werkmeister, R. M.

R. M. Werkmeister, A. Alex, S. Kaya, A. Unterhuber, B. Hofer, J. Riedl, M. Bronhagl, M. Vietauer, D. Schmidl, T. Schmoll, G. Garhöfer, W. Drexler, R. A. Leitgeb, M. Groeschl, and L. Schmetterer, “Measurement of Tear Film Thickness Using Ultrahigh-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(8), 5578–5583 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Werkmeister, A. Alex, S. Kaya, A. Unterhuber, B. Hofer, J. Riedl, M. Bronhagl, M. Vietauer, D. Schmidl, T. Schmoll, G. Garhöfer, W. Drexler, R. A. Leitgeb, M. Groeschl, and L. Schmetterer, “Measurement of Tear Film Thickness Using Ultrahigh-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(8), 5578–5583 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Won, J.

Wong, A.

Yadav, R.

R. Yadav, R. Kottaiyan, K. Ahmad, and G. Yoon, “Epithelium and Bowman’s layer thickness and light scatter in keratoconic cornea evaluated using ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(11), 116010 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Yadav, K. S. Lee, J. P. Rolland, J. M. Zavislan, J. V. Aquavella, and G. Yoon, “Micrometer axial resolution OCT for corneal imaging,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(11), 3037–3046 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yagi, Y.

L. Liu, J. A. Gardecki, S. K. Nadkarni, J. D. Toussaint, Y. Yagi, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Imaging the subcellular structure of human coronary atherosclerosis using micro-optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med. 17(8), 1010–1014 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yoon, G.

R. Yadav, R. Kottaiyan, K. Ahmad, and G. Yoon, “Epithelium and Bowman’s layer thickness and light scatter in keratoconic cornea evaluated using ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(11), 116010 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Yadav, K. S. Lee, J. P. Rolland, J. M. Zavislan, J. V. Aquavella, and G. Yoon, “Micrometer axial resolution OCT for corneal imaging,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(11), 3037–3046 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, X.

Yun, S. H.

Zavislan, J. M.

Zhang, J.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Biomed. Opt. Express (2)

Cornea (1)

J. H. Krachmer, “Eye rubbing can cause keratoconus,” Cornea 23(6), 539–540 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Int. Contact Lens Clin. (1)

R. B. Mandell, “Contemporary management of keratoconus,” Int. Contact Lens Clin. 24(2), 43–58 (1997).
[Crossref]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (4)

R. M. Werkmeister, A. Alex, S. Kaya, A. Unterhuber, B. Hofer, J. Riedl, M. Bronhagl, M. Vietauer, D. Schmidl, T. Schmoll, G. Garhöfer, W. Drexler, R. A. Leitgeb, M. Groeschl, and L. Schmetterer, “Measurement of Tear Film Thickness Using Ultrahigh-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(8), 5578–5583 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Hutchings, T. L. Simpson, C. Hyun, A. A. Moayed, S. Hariri, L. Sorbara, and K. Bizheva, “Swelling of the human cornea revealed by high-speed, ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(9), 4579–4584 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Werkmeister, A. Alex, S. Kaya, A. Unterhuber, B. Hofer, J. Riedl, M. Bronhagl, M. Vietauer, D. Schmidl, T. Schmoll, G. Garhöfer, W. Drexler, R. A. Leitgeb, M. Groeschl, and L. Schmetterer, “Measurement of Tear Film Thickness Using Ultrahigh-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(8), 5578–5583 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Bizheva, L. Haines, E. Mason, B. MacLellan, B. Tan, D. Hileeto, and L. Sorbara, “In Vivo Imaging and Morphometry of the Human Pre-Descemet’s Layer and Endothelium With Ultrahigh-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(6), 2782–2787 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (2)

R. Yadav, R. Kottaiyan, K. Ahmad, and G. Yoon, “Epithelium and Bowman’s layer thickness and light scatter in keratoconic cornea evaluated using ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(11), 116010 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. F. Fercher, “Optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 1(2), 157–173 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Med. (1)

L. Liu, J. A. Gardecki, S. K. Nadkarni, J. D. Toussaint, Y. Yagi, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Imaging the subcellular structure of human coronary atherosclerosis using micro-optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med. 17(8), 1010–1014 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ophthalmol. Clin. North Am. (1)

Y. S. Rabinowitz, “The genetics of keratoconus,” Ophthalmol. Clin. North Am. 16(4), 607–620 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Sci. Rep. (1)

M. Okano, H. H. Lim, R. Okamoto, N. Nishizawa, S. Kurimura, and S. Takeuchi, “0.54 μm resolution two-photon interference with dispersion cancellation for quantum optical coherence tomography,” Sci. Rep. 5, 18042 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Surv. Ophthalmol. (2)

J. H. Krachmer, R. S. Feder, and M. W. Belin, “Keratoconus and related noninflammatory corneal thinning disorders,” Surv. Ophthalmol. 28(4), 293–322 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. S. Rabinowitz, “Keratoconus,” Surv. Ophthalmol. 42(4), 297–319 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (2)

K. Grieve, M. Paques, A. Dubois, J. Sahel, C. Boccara, and J.-F¸. Le Gargasson, “Ocular Tissue Imaging Using Ultrahigh-Resolution, Full-Field Optical Coherence Tomography”, IOVS, 4126–4131 (2004).
[Crossref]

American National Standards Institute, American National Standard for Safe Use of Lasers. Orlando, FL: The Laser Institute of America, ANSI Z136.1 2007–1 (2007).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic of the OCT system. CCD-camera; CF-custom filter; CL-collimator; DC -dispersion compensation unit;; FC-fiber coupler; FL-focusing lens; L1 and L2-lenses; M-silver mirror; MO-microscope objective; NDF-neutral density filter; PC-polarization controller; TS-translation stage; VHPG-volumetric holographic phase grating; XY-galvanometric scanners.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Sample and reference arm spectra measured at the detection end of the system (A). Theoretical (black) and measured (red) axial PSF from a silver coated mirror in the sample arm (B). Hardware (black line) and software (red line) compensated axial PSF (C). Axial scan from a pellicle with 2 µm physical and 3 µm optical thickness (n = 1.5) (D). Sensitivity roll-off with imaging depth (E).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Cross-sectional images of the healthy human cornea acquired from the anterior end of the cornea (A) in-vivo with the sub-micrometer axial resolution OCT system and (B) from a histological preparation of a postmortem corneal sample. and The images show the cellular structure of the corneal epithelium (EPT), a cross-sectional view of the fibrous structure of the basement (Bowman’s) membrane (BM), keratocytes cells in the anterior stroma (STR) marked with red arrows and thin collagen lamellae, marked with a green arrows in both images.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Cross-sectional OCT images acquired in-vivo from (A) healthy human cornea and (B-C) human cornea at an early stage of KC. Abnormal clusters of corneal epithelial cells are visible in (C, red arrow). A typical histological image of the human cornea with apoptotic epithelial cells marked with the red arrow (D).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Representative cross-sectional OCT images (A-C) acquired in-vivo from the left eye of a subject with moderate KC, acquired inferiorly relative to the corneal apex and (D) a typical histological image of KC cornea. Green arrows in all images mark damaged BM, which appears more highly scattering, while the red arrows in A and B images mark abnormal cellular growth in the corneal epithelium.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Representative cross-sectional OCT images acquired from the left eye (A, B and D) of a subject with advanced KC acquired inferior relative to the corneal apex, and a typical histological image of a human cornea with advanced stage of KC (C). The EPT basal cell layer is marked with red arrows (A-C). Extreme thinning for the corneal EPT is visible in (A), marked with the blue arrow. Excessive localized scarring of the anterior corneal stroma appears as highly reflective (white) regions that are separated from the posterior stroma with low reflective regions (B, green arrows). Keratocytes are still visible in the posterior part of the stroma (D, yellow arrows), which appear not to be affected by scarring. The blue arrow in (D) marks reflections from collagen lamellae arranged in a parallel pattern and separating two regions of stromal scarring.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Representative cross-sectional OCT images of the KC cornea from the right eye of a subject with advanced KC, acquired inferiorly relative to the corneal apex. Images (A) and (B) were acquired with the imaging beam focused on the corneal epithelium and reveal its cellular structure. Yellow arrows mark reflective white spots inside the cells that most likely correspond to cellular nuclei. Images (C) and (D) were acquired with the imaging focusing on the posterior end of the cornea, showing the DM and END layers (blue) arrows. All images show excessive scarring of the stroma (highly reflective regions), alternating with small regions of low reflectivity (red arrows). Green arrows mark the tear film.

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