Abstract

To improve optic disc boundary detection and peripapillary retinal layer segmentation, we propose an automated approach for structural and angiographic optical coherence tomography. The algorithm was performed on radial cross-sectional B-scans. The disc boundary was detected by searching for the position of Bruch’s membrane opening, and retinal layer boundaries were detected using a dynamic programming-based graph search algorithm on each B-scan without the disc region. A comparison of the disc boundary using our method with that determined by manual delineation showed good accuracy, with an average Dice similarity coefficient ≥0.90 in healthy eyes and eyes with diabetic retinopathy and glaucoma. The layer segmentation accuracy in the same cases was on average less than one pixel (3.13 μm).

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (4)

S. S. Gao, Y. Jia, M. Zhang, J. P. Su, G. Liu, T. S. Hwang, S. T. Bailey, and D. Huang, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(9), OCT27–OCT36 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Zhang, T. S. Hwang, C. Dongye, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Automated Quantification of Nonperfusion in Three Retinal Plexuses Using Projection-Resolved Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Diabetic Retinopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(13), 5101–5106 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. S. Hwang, M. Zhang, K. Bhavsar, X. Zhang, J. P. Campbell, P. Lin, S. T. Bailey, C. J. Flaxel, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Visualization of 3 Distinct Retinal Plexuses by Projection-Resolved Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Diabetic Retinopathy,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 134(12), 1411–1419 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Zhang, T. S. Hwang, J. P. Campbell, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Projection-resolved optical coherence tomographic angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(3), 816–828 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (4)

L. Liu, Y. Jia, H. L. Takusagawa, A. D. Pechauer, B. Edmunds, L. Lombardi, E. Davis, J. C. Morrison, and D. Huang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography of the peripapillary retina in glaucoma,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 133(9), 1045–1052 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. S. Gao, G. Liu, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Optimization of the split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography algorithm on a spectral optical coherence tomography system,” Opt. Lett. 40(10), 2305–2308 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Zhang, J. Wang, A. D. Pechauer, T. S. Hwang, S. S. Gao, L. Liu, L. Liu, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Advanced image processing for optical coherence tomographic angiography of macular diseases,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(12), 4661–4675 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. Miri, M. D. Abràmoff, K. Lee, M. Niemeijer, J. K. Wang, Y. H. Kwon, and M. K. Garvin, “Multimodal Segmentation of Optic Disc and Cup From SD-OCT and Color Fundus Photographs Using a Machine-Learning Graph-Based Approach,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 34(9), 1854–1866 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (3)

2013 (1)

P. V. Le, O. Tan, V. Chopra, B. A. Francis, O. Ragab, R. Varma, and D. Huang, “Regional correlation among ganglion cell complex, nerve fiber layer, and visual field loss in glaucoma,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(6), 4287–4295 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

A. S. Reis, N. O’Leary, H. Yang, G. P. Sharpe, M. T. Nicolela, C. F. Burgoyne, and B. C. Chauhan, “Influence of clinically invisible, but optical coherence tomography detected, optic disc margin anatomy on neuroretinal rim evaluation,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(4), 1852–1860 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, O. Tan, J. Tokayer, B. Potsaid, Y. Wang, J. J. Liu, M. F. Kraus, H. Subhash, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Hornegger, and D. Huang, “Split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography with optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4710–4725 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

L. An, T. T. Shen, and R. K. Wang, “Using ultrahigh sensitive optical microangiography to achieve comprehensive depth resolved microvasculature mapping for human retina,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(10), 106013 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

Q. Yang, C. A. Reisman, Z. Wang, Y. Fukuma, M. Hangai, N. Yoshimura, A. Tomidokoro, M. Araie, A. S. Raza, D. C. Hood, and K. Chan, “Automated layer segmentation of macular OCT images using dual-scale gradient information,” Opt. Express 18(20), 21293–21307 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Lee, M. Niemeijer, M. K. Garvin, Y. H. Kwon, M. Sonka, and M. D. Abramoff, “Segmentation of the optic disc in 3-D OCT scans of the optic nerve head,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 29(1), 159–168 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

O. Tan, V. Chopra, A. T. Lu, J. S. Schuman, H. Ishikawa, G. Wollstein, R. Varma, and D. Huang, “Detection of macular ganglion cell loss in glaucoma by Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 116(12), 2305–2314 (2009).

2008 (1)

M. K. Garvin, M. D. Abramoff, R. Kardon, S. R. Russell, X. Wu, and M. Sonka, “Intraretinal layer segmentation of macular optical coherence tomography images using optimal 3-D graph search,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 27(10), 1495–1505 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

Abramoff, M. D.

K. Lee, M. Niemeijer, M. K. Garvin, Y. H. Kwon, M. Sonka, and M. D. Abramoff, “Segmentation of the optic disc in 3-D OCT scans of the optic nerve head,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 29(1), 159–168 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. K. Garvin, M. D. Abramoff, R. Kardon, S. R. Russell, X. Wu, and M. Sonka, “Intraretinal layer segmentation of macular optical coherence tomography images using optimal 3-D graph search,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 27(10), 1495–1505 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Abràmoff, M. D.

M. S. Miri, M. D. Abràmoff, K. Lee, M. Niemeijer, J. K. Wang, Y. H. Kwon, and M. K. Garvin, “Multimodal Segmentation of Optic Disc and Cup From SD-OCT and Color Fundus Photographs Using a Machine-Learning Graph-Based Approach,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 34(9), 1854–1866 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

An, L.

L. An, T. T. Shen, and R. K. Wang, “Using ultrahigh sensitive optical microangiography to achieve comprehensive depth resolved microvasculature mapping for human retina,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(10), 106013 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Araie, M.

Armour, R. L.

Y. Jia, E. Wei, X. Wang, X. Zhang, J. C. Morrison, M. Parikh, L. H. Lombardi, D. M. Gattey, R. L. Armour, B. Edmunds, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Optic Disc Perfusion in Glaucoma,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1322–1332 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arshavsky, V. Y.

Bailey, S. T.

S. S. Gao, Y. Jia, M. Zhang, J. P. Su, G. Liu, T. S. Hwang, S. T. Bailey, and D. Huang, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(9), OCT27–OCT36 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. S. Hwang, M. Zhang, K. Bhavsar, X. Zhang, J. P. Campbell, P. Lin, S. T. Bailey, C. J. Flaxel, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Visualization of 3 Distinct Retinal Plexuses by Projection-Resolved Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Diabetic Retinopathy,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 134(12), 1411–1419 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Zhang, T. S. Hwang, J. P. Campbell, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Projection-resolved optical coherence tomographic angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(3), 816–828 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Zhang, J. Wang, A. D. Pechauer, T. S. Hwang, S. S. Gao, L. Liu, L. Liu, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Advanced image processing for optical coherence tomographic angiography of macular diseases,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(12), 4661–4675 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. P. Campbell, M. Zhang, T. S. Hwang, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, and Y. Jia, “Detailed Vascular Anatomy of the Human Retina by Projection-Resolved Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography,” Nature Science Report. in press.

Barrett, W.

E. Mortensen and W. Barrett, “Intelligent scissors for image composition,” in Proceedings of the 22nd annual conference on Computer graphics and interactive techniques(ACM, 1995), pp. 191–198.

Bhavsar, K.

T. S. Hwang, M. Zhang, K. Bhavsar, X. Zhang, J. P. Campbell, P. Lin, S. T. Bailey, C. J. Flaxel, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Visualization of 3 Distinct Retinal Plexuses by Projection-Resolved Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Diabetic Retinopathy,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 134(12), 1411–1419 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Branchini, L.

Budai, A.

Burgoyne, C. F.

A. S. Reis, N. O’Leary, H. Yang, G. P. Sharpe, M. T. Nicolela, C. F. Burgoyne, and B. C. Chauhan, “Influence of clinically invisible, but optical coherence tomography detected, optic disc margin anatomy on neuroretinal rim evaluation,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(4), 1852–1860 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Campbell, J. P.

T. S. Hwang, M. Zhang, K. Bhavsar, X. Zhang, J. P. Campbell, P. Lin, S. T. Bailey, C. J. Flaxel, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Visualization of 3 Distinct Retinal Plexuses by Projection-Resolved Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Diabetic Retinopathy,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 134(12), 1411–1419 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Zhang, T. S. Hwang, J. P. Campbell, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Projection-resolved optical coherence tomographic angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(3), 816–828 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. P. Campbell, M. Zhang, T. S. Hwang, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, and Y. Jia, “Detailed Vascular Anatomy of the Human Retina by Projection-Resolved Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography,” Nature Science Report. in press.

Chan, K.

Chauhan, B. C.

A. S. Reis, N. O’Leary, H. Yang, G. P. Sharpe, M. T. Nicolela, C. F. Burgoyne, and B. C. Chauhan, “Influence of clinically invisible, but optical coherence tomography detected, optic disc margin anatomy on neuroretinal rim evaluation,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(4), 1852–1860 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, C. L.

Chopra, V.

P. V. Le, O. Tan, V. Chopra, B. A. Francis, O. Ragab, R. Varma, and D. Huang, “Regional correlation among ganglion cell complex, nerve fiber layer, and visual field loss in glaucoma,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(6), 4287–4295 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Tan, V. Chopra, A. T. Lu, J. S. Schuman, H. Ishikawa, G. Wollstein, R. Varma, and D. Huang, “Detection of macular ganglion cell loss in glaucoma by Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 116(12), 2305–2314 (2009).

Davis, E.

L. Liu, Y. Jia, H. L. Takusagawa, A. D. Pechauer, B. Edmunds, L. Lombardi, E. Davis, J. C. Morrison, and D. Huang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography of the peripapillary retina in glaucoma,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 133(9), 1045–1052 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dongye, C.

M. Zhang, T. S. Hwang, C. Dongye, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Automated Quantification of Nonperfusion in Three Retinal Plexuses Using Projection-Resolved Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Diabetic Retinopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(13), 5101–5106 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Duker, J. S.

Edmunds, B.

L. Liu, Y. Jia, H. L. Takusagawa, A. D. Pechauer, B. Edmunds, L. Lombardi, E. Davis, J. C. Morrison, and D. Huang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography of the peripapillary retina in glaucoma,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 133(9), 1045–1052 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, E. Wei, X. Wang, X. Zhang, J. C. Morrison, M. Parikh, L. H. Lombardi, D. M. Gattey, R. L. Armour, B. Edmunds, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Optic Disc Perfusion in Glaucoma,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1322–1332 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Farsiu, S.

Flaxel, C. J.

T. S. Hwang, M. Zhang, K. Bhavsar, X. Zhang, J. P. Campbell, P. Lin, S. T. Bailey, C. J. Flaxel, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Visualization of 3 Distinct Retinal Plexuses by Projection-Resolved Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Diabetic Retinopathy,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 134(12), 1411–1419 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Francis, B. A.

P. V. Le, O. Tan, V. Chopra, B. A. Francis, O. Ragab, R. Varma, and D. Huang, “Regional correlation among ganglion cell complex, nerve fiber layer, and visual field loss in glaucoma,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(6), 4287–4295 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

Fukuma, Y.

Gao, S. S.

Garvin, M. K.

M. S. Miri, M. D. Abràmoff, K. Lee, M. Niemeijer, J. K. Wang, Y. H. Kwon, and M. K. Garvin, “Multimodal Segmentation of Optic Disc and Cup From SD-OCT and Color Fundus Photographs Using a Machine-Learning Graph-Based Approach,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 34(9), 1854–1866 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Lee, M. Niemeijer, M. K. Garvin, Y. H. Kwon, M. Sonka, and M. D. Abramoff, “Segmentation of the optic disc in 3-D OCT scans of the optic nerve head,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 29(1), 159–168 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. K. Garvin, M. D. Abramoff, R. Kardon, S. R. Russell, X. Wu, and M. Sonka, “Intraretinal layer segmentation of macular optical coherence tomography images using optimal 3-D graph search,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 27(10), 1495–1505 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gattey, D. M.

Y. Jia, E. Wei, X. Wang, X. Zhang, J. C. Morrison, M. Parikh, L. H. Lombardi, D. M. Gattey, R. L. Armour, B. Edmunds, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Optic Disc Perfusion in Glaucoma,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1322–1332 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hangai, M.

Heflin, S. J.

Hong, Y.

Hood, D. C.

Hornegger, J.

Huang, D.

M. Zhang, T. S. Hwang, C. Dongye, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Automated Quantification of Nonperfusion in Three Retinal Plexuses Using Projection-Resolved Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Diabetic Retinopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(13), 5101–5106 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. S. Gao, Y. Jia, M. Zhang, J. P. Su, G. Liu, T. S. Hwang, S. T. Bailey, and D. Huang, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(9), OCT27–OCT36 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. S. Hwang, M. Zhang, K. Bhavsar, X. Zhang, J. P. Campbell, P. Lin, S. T. Bailey, C. J. Flaxel, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Visualization of 3 Distinct Retinal Plexuses by Projection-Resolved Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Diabetic Retinopathy,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 134(12), 1411–1419 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Zhang, T. S. Hwang, J. P. Campbell, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Projection-resolved optical coherence tomographic angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(3), 816–828 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. S. Gao, G. Liu, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Optimization of the split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography algorithm on a spectral optical coherence tomography system,” Opt. Lett. 40(10), 2305–2308 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Liu, Y. Jia, H. L. Takusagawa, A. D. Pechauer, B. Edmunds, L. Lombardi, E. Davis, J. C. Morrison, and D. Huang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography of the peripapillary retina in glaucoma,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 133(9), 1045–1052 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Zhang, J. Wang, A. D. Pechauer, T. S. Hwang, S. S. Gao, L. Liu, L. Liu, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Advanced image processing for optical coherence tomographic angiography of macular diseases,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(12), 4661–4675 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, E. Wei, X. Wang, X. Zhang, J. C. Morrison, M. Parikh, L. H. Lombardi, D. M. Gattey, R. L. Armour, B. Edmunds, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Optic Disc Perfusion in Glaucoma,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1322–1332 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. V. Le, O. Tan, V. Chopra, B. A. Francis, O. Ragab, R. Varma, and D. Huang, “Regional correlation among ganglion cell complex, nerve fiber layer, and visual field loss in glaucoma,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(6), 4287–4295 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, O. Tan, J. Tokayer, B. Potsaid, Y. Wang, J. J. Liu, M. F. Kraus, H. Subhash, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Hornegger, and D. Huang, “Split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography with optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4710–4725 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Tan, V. Chopra, A. T. Lu, J. S. Schuman, H. Ishikawa, G. Wollstein, R. Varma, and D. Huang, “Detection of macular ganglion cell loss in glaucoma by Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 116(12), 2305–2314 (2009).

Hwang, T. S.

S. S. Gao, Y. Jia, M. Zhang, J. P. Su, G. Liu, T. S. Hwang, S. T. Bailey, and D. Huang, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(9), OCT27–OCT36 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Zhang, T. S. Hwang, C. Dongye, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Automated Quantification of Nonperfusion in Three Retinal Plexuses Using Projection-Resolved Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Diabetic Retinopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(13), 5101–5106 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. S. Hwang, M. Zhang, K. Bhavsar, X. Zhang, J. P. Campbell, P. Lin, S. T. Bailey, C. J. Flaxel, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Visualization of 3 Distinct Retinal Plexuses by Projection-Resolved Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Diabetic Retinopathy,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 134(12), 1411–1419 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Zhang, T. S. Hwang, J. P. Campbell, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Projection-resolved optical coherence tomographic angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(3), 816–828 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Zhang, J. Wang, A. D. Pechauer, T. S. Hwang, S. S. Gao, L. Liu, L. Liu, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Advanced image processing for optical coherence tomographic angiography of macular diseases,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(12), 4661–4675 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. P. Campbell, M. Zhang, T. S. Hwang, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, and Y. Jia, “Detailed Vascular Anatomy of the Human Retina by Projection-Resolved Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography,” Nature Science Report. in press.

Ishikawa, H.

M. F. Kraus, J. J. Liu, J. Schottenhamml, C. L. Chen, A. Budai, L. Branchini, T. Ko, H. Ishikawa, G. Wollstein, J. Schuman, J. S. Duker, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. Hornegger, “Quantitative 3D-OCT motion correction with tilt and illumination correction, robust similarity measure and regularization,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(8), 2591–2613 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Tan, V. Chopra, A. T. Lu, J. S. Schuman, H. Ishikawa, G. Wollstein, R. Varma, and D. Huang, “Detection of macular ganglion cell loss in glaucoma by Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 116(12), 2305–2314 (2009).

Izatt, J. A.

Jia, Y.

M. Zhang, T. S. Hwang, C. Dongye, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Automated Quantification of Nonperfusion in Three Retinal Plexuses Using Projection-Resolved Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Diabetic Retinopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(13), 5101–5106 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. S. Gao, Y. Jia, M. Zhang, J. P. Su, G. Liu, T. S. Hwang, S. T. Bailey, and D. Huang, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(9), OCT27–OCT36 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. S. Hwang, M. Zhang, K. Bhavsar, X. Zhang, J. P. Campbell, P. Lin, S. T. Bailey, C. J. Flaxel, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Visualization of 3 Distinct Retinal Plexuses by Projection-Resolved Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Diabetic Retinopathy,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 134(12), 1411–1419 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Zhang, T. S. Hwang, J. P. Campbell, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Projection-resolved optical coherence tomographic angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(3), 816–828 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. S. Gao, G. Liu, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Optimization of the split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography algorithm on a spectral optical coherence tomography system,” Opt. Lett. 40(10), 2305–2308 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Liu, Y. Jia, H. L. Takusagawa, A. D. Pechauer, B. Edmunds, L. Lombardi, E. Davis, J. C. Morrison, and D. Huang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography of the peripapillary retina in glaucoma,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 133(9), 1045–1052 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Zhang, J. Wang, A. D. Pechauer, T. S. Hwang, S. S. Gao, L. Liu, L. Liu, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Advanced image processing for optical coherence tomographic angiography of macular diseases,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(12), 4661–4675 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, E. Wei, X. Wang, X. Zhang, J. C. Morrison, M. Parikh, L. H. Lombardi, D. M. Gattey, R. L. Armour, B. Edmunds, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Optic Disc Perfusion in Glaucoma,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1322–1332 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, O. Tan, J. Tokayer, B. Potsaid, Y. Wang, J. J. Liu, M. F. Kraus, H. Subhash, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Hornegger, and D. Huang, “Split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography with optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4710–4725 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. P. Campbell, M. Zhang, T. S. Hwang, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, and Y. Jia, “Detailed Vascular Anatomy of the Human Retina by Projection-Resolved Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography,” Nature Science Report. in press.

Kardon, R.

M. K. Garvin, M. D. Abramoff, R. Kardon, S. R. Russell, X. Wu, and M. Sonka, “Intraretinal layer segmentation of macular optical coherence tomography images using optimal 3-D graph search,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 27(10), 1495–1505 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ko, T.

Kraus, M. F.

Kwon, Y. H.

M. S. Miri, M. D. Abràmoff, K. Lee, M. Niemeijer, J. K. Wang, Y. H. Kwon, and M. K. Garvin, “Multimodal Segmentation of Optic Disc and Cup From SD-OCT and Color Fundus Photographs Using a Machine-Learning Graph-Based Approach,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 34(9), 1854–1866 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Lee, M. Niemeijer, M. K. Garvin, Y. H. Kwon, M. Sonka, and M. D. Abramoff, “Segmentation of the optic disc in 3-D OCT scans of the optic nerve head,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 29(1), 159–168 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lauer, A. K.

T. S. Hwang, M. Zhang, K. Bhavsar, X. Zhang, J. P. Campbell, P. Lin, S. T. Bailey, C. J. Flaxel, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Visualization of 3 Distinct Retinal Plexuses by Projection-Resolved Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Diabetic Retinopathy,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 134(12), 1411–1419 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Le, P. V.

P. V. Le, O. Tan, V. Chopra, B. A. Francis, O. Ragab, R. Varma, and D. Huang, “Regional correlation among ganglion cell complex, nerve fiber layer, and visual field loss in glaucoma,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(6), 4287–4295 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, K.

M. S. Miri, M. D. Abràmoff, K. Lee, M. Niemeijer, J. K. Wang, Y. H. Kwon, and M. K. Garvin, “Multimodal Segmentation of Optic Disc and Cup From SD-OCT and Color Fundus Photographs Using a Machine-Learning Graph-Based Approach,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 34(9), 1854–1866 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Lee, M. Niemeijer, M. K. Garvin, Y. H. Kwon, M. Sonka, and M. D. Abramoff, “Segmentation of the optic disc in 3-D OCT scans of the optic nerve head,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 29(1), 159–168 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, P.

T. S. Hwang, M. Zhang, K. Bhavsar, X. Zhang, J. P. Campbell, P. Lin, S. T. Bailey, C. J. Flaxel, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Visualization of 3 Distinct Retinal Plexuses by Projection-Resolved Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Diabetic Retinopathy,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 134(12), 1411–1419 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, G.

S. S. Gao, Y. Jia, M. Zhang, J. P. Su, G. Liu, T. S. Hwang, S. T. Bailey, and D. Huang, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(9), OCT27–OCT36 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. S. Gao, G. Liu, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Optimization of the split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography algorithm on a spectral optical coherence tomography system,” Opt. Lett. 40(10), 2305–2308 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, J. J.

Liu, L.

Lombardi, L.

L. Liu, Y. Jia, H. L. Takusagawa, A. D. Pechauer, B. Edmunds, L. Lombardi, E. Davis, J. C. Morrison, and D. Huang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography of the peripapillary retina in glaucoma,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 133(9), 1045–1052 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lombardi, L. H.

Y. Jia, E. Wei, X. Wang, X. Zhang, J. C. Morrison, M. Parikh, L. H. Lombardi, D. M. Gattey, R. L. Armour, B. Edmunds, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Optic Disc Perfusion in Glaucoma,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1322–1332 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lu, A. T.

O. Tan, V. Chopra, A. T. Lu, J. S. Schuman, H. Ishikawa, G. Wollstein, R. Varma, and D. Huang, “Detection of macular ganglion cell loss in glaucoma by Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 116(12), 2305–2314 (2009).

Makita, S.

Miri, M. S.

M. S. Miri, M. D. Abràmoff, K. Lee, M. Niemeijer, J. K. Wang, Y. H. Kwon, and M. K. Garvin, “Multimodal Segmentation of Optic Disc and Cup From SD-OCT and Color Fundus Photographs Using a Machine-Learning Graph-Based Approach,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 34(9), 1854–1866 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Morrison, J. C.

L. Liu, Y. Jia, H. L. Takusagawa, A. D. Pechauer, B. Edmunds, L. Lombardi, E. Davis, J. C. Morrison, and D. Huang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography of the peripapillary retina in glaucoma,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 133(9), 1045–1052 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, E. Wei, X. Wang, X. Zhang, J. C. Morrison, M. Parikh, L. H. Lombardi, D. M. Gattey, R. L. Armour, B. Edmunds, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Optic Disc Perfusion in Glaucoma,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1322–1332 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mortensen, E.

E. Mortensen and W. Barrett, “Intelligent scissors for image composition,” in Proceedings of the 22nd annual conference on Computer graphics and interactive techniques(ACM, 1995), pp. 191–198.

Nicolela, M. T.

A. S. Reis, N. O’Leary, H. Yang, G. P. Sharpe, M. T. Nicolela, C. F. Burgoyne, and B. C. Chauhan, “Influence of clinically invisible, but optical coherence tomography detected, optic disc margin anatomy on neuroretinal rim evaluation,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(4), 1852–1860 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Niemeijer, M.

M. S. Miri, M. D. Abràmoff, K. Lee, M. Niemeijer, J. K. Wang, Y. H. Kwon, and M. K. Garvin, “Multimodal Segmentation of Optic Disc and Cup From SD-OCT and Color Fundus Photographs Using a Machine-Learning Graph-Based Approach,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 34(9), 1854–1866 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Lee, M. Niemeijer, M. K. Garvin, Y. H. Kwon, M. Sonka, and M. D. Abramoff, “Segmentation of the optic disc in 3-D OCT scans of the optic nerve head,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 29(1), 159–168 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O’Leary, N.

A. S. Reis, N. O’Leary, H. Yang, G. P. Sharpe, M. T. Nicolela, C. F. Burgoyne, and B. C. Chauhan, “Influence of clinically invisible, but optical coherence tomography detected, optic disc margin anatomy on neuroretinal rim evaluation,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(4), 1852–1860 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Parikh, M.

Y. Jia, E. Wei, X. Wang, X. Zhang, J. C. Morrison, M. Parikh, L. H. Lombardi, D. M. Gattey, R. L. Armour, B. Edmunds, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Optic Disc Perfusion in Glaucoma,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1322–1332 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pechauer, A. D.

L. Liu, Y. Jia, H. L. Takusagawa, A. D. Pechauer, B. Edmunds, L. Lombardi, E. Davis, J. C. Morrison, and D. Huang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography of the peripapillary retina in glaucoma,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 133(9), 1045–1052 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Zhang, J. Wang, A. D. Pechauer, T. S. Hwang, S. S. Gao, L. Liu, L. Liu, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Advanced image processing for optical coherence tomographic angiography of macular diseases,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(12), 4661–4675 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Potsaid, B.

Ragab, O.

P. V. Le, O. Tan, V. Chopra, B. A. Francis, O. Ragab, R. Varma, and D. Huang, “Regional correlation among ganglion cell complex, nerve fiber layer, and visual field loss in glaucoma,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(6), 4287–4295 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Raza, A. S.

Reis, A. S.

A. S. Reis, N. O’Leary, H. Yang, G. P. Sharpe, M. T. Nicolela, C. F. Burgoyne, and B. C. Chauhan, “Influence of clinically invisible, but optical coherence tomography detected, optic disc margin anatomy on neuroretinal rim evaluation,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(4), 1852–1860 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reisman, C. A.

Russell, S. R.

M. K. Garvin, M. D. Abramoff, R. Kardon, S. R. Russell, X. Wu, and M. Sonka, “Intraretinal layer segmentation of macular optical coherence tomography images using optimal 3-D graph search,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 27(10), 1495–1505 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schottenhamml, J.

Schuman, J.

Schuman, J. S.

O. Tan, V. Chopra, A. T. Lu, J. S. Schuman, H. Ishikawa, G. Wollstein, R. Varma, and D. Huang, “Detection of macular ganglion cell loss in glaucoma by Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 116(12), 2305–2314 (2009).

Sharpe, G. P.

A. S. Reis, N. O’Leary, H. Yang, G. P. Sharpe, M. T. Nicolela, C. F. Burgoyne, and B. C. Chauhan, “Influence of clinically invisible, but optical coherence tomography detected, optic disc margin anatomy on neuroretinal rim evaluation,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(4), 1852–1860 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shen, T. T.

L. An, T. T. Shen, and R. K. Wang, “Using ultrahigh sensitive optical microangiography to achieve comprehensive depth resolved microvasculature mapping for human retina,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(10), 106013 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sonka, M.

K. Lee, M. Niemeijer, M. K. Garvin, Y. H. Kwon, M. Sonka, and M. D. Abramoff, “Segmentation of the optic disc in 3-D OCT scans of the optic nerve head,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 29(1), 159–168 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. K. Garvin, M. D. Abramoff, R. Kardon, S. R. Russell, X. Wu, and M. Sonka, “Intraretinal layer segmentation of macular optical coherence tomography images using optimal 3-D graph search,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 27(10), 1495–1505 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Srinivasan, P. P.

Su, J. P.

S. S. Gao, Y. Jia, M. Zhang, J. P. Su, G. Liu, T. S. Hwang, S. T. Bailey, and D. Huang, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(9), OCT27–OCT36 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Subhash, H.

Takusagawa, H. L.

L. Liu, Y. Jia, H. L. Takusagawa, A. D. Pechauer, B. Edmunds, L. Lombardi, E. Davis, J. C. Morrison, and D. Huang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography of the peripapillary retina in glaucoma,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 133(9), 1045–1052 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tan, O.

P. V. Le, O. Tan, V. Chopra, B. A. Francis, O. Ragab, R. Varma, and D. Huang, “Regional correlation among ganglion cell complex, nerve fiber layer, and visual field loss in glaucoma,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(6), 4287–4295 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, O. Tan, J. Tokayer, B. Potsaid, Y. Wang, J. J. Liu, M. F. Kraus, H. Subhash, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Hornegger, and D. Huang, “Split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography with optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4710–4725 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Tan, V. Chopra, A. T. Lu, J. S. Schuman, H. Ishikawa, G. Wollstein, R. Varma, and D. Huang, “Detection of macular ganglion cell loss in glaucoma by Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 116(12), 2305–2314 (2009).

Tokayer, J.

Tomidokoro, A.

Varma, R.

P. V. Le, O. Tan, V. Chopra, B. A. Francis, O. Ragab, R. Varma, and D. Huang, “Regional correlation among ganglion cell complex, nerve fiber layer, and visual field loss in glaucoma,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(6), 4287–4295 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Tan, V. Chopra, A. T. Lu, J. S. Schuman, H. Ishikawa, G. Wollstein, R. Varma, and D. Huang, “Detection of macular ganglion cell loss in glaucoma by Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 116(12), 2305–2314 (2009).

Wang, J.

Wang, J. K.

M. S. Miri, M. D. Abràmoff, K. Lee, M. Niemeijer, J. K. Wang, Y. H. Kwon, and M. K. Garvin, “Multimodal Segmentation of Optic Disc and Cup From SD-OCT and Color Fundus Photographs Using a Machine-Learning Graph-Based Approach,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 34(9), 1854–1866 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, R. K.

L. An, T. T. Shen, and R. K. Wang, “Using ultrahigh sensitive optical microangiography to achieve comprehensive depth resolved microvasculature mapping for human retina,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(10), 106013 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, X.

Y. Jia, E. Wei, X. Wang, X. Zhang, J. C. Morrison, M. Parikh, L. H. Lombardi, D. M. Gattey, R. L. Armour, B. Edmunds, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Optic Disc Perfusion in Glaucoma,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1322–1332 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

Wang, Z.

Wei, E.

Y. Jia, E. Wei, X. Wang, X. Zhang, J. C. Morrison, M. Parikh, L. H. Lombardi, D. M. Gattey, R. L. Armour, B. Edmunds, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Optic Disc Perfusion in Glaucoma,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1322–1332 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wilson, D. J.

M. Zhang, T. S. Hwang, C. Dongye, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Automated Quantification of Nonperfusion in Three Retinal Plexuses Using Projection-Resolved Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Diabetic Retinopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(13), 5101–5106 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. S. Hwang, M. Zhang, K. Bhavsar, X. Zhang, J. P. Campbell, P. Lin, S. T. Bailey, C. J. Flaxel, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Visualization of 3 Distinct Retinal Plexuses by Projection-Resolved Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Diabetic Retinopathy,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 134(12), 1411–1419 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Zhang, T. S. Hwang, J. P. Campbell, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Projection-resolved optical coherence tomographic angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(3), 816–828 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Zhang, J. Wang, A. D. Pechauer, T. S. Hwang, S. S. Gao, L. Liu, L. Liu, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Advanced image processing for optical coherence tomographic angiography of macular diseases,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(12), 4661–4675 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. P. Campbell, M. Zhang, T. S. Hwang, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, and Y. Jia, “Detailed Vascular Anatomy of the Human Retina by Projection-Resolved Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography,” Nature Science Report. in press.

Wollstein, G.

M. F. Kraus, J. J. Liu, J. Schottenhamml, C. L. Chen, A. Budai, L. Branchini, T. Ko, H. Ishikawa, G. Wollstein, J. Schuman, J. S. Duker, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. Hornegger, “Quantitative 3D-OCT motion correction with tilt and illumination correction, robust similarity measure and regularization,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(8), 2591–2613 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Tan, V. Chopra, A. T. Lu, J. S. Schuman, H. Ishikawa, G. Wollstein, R. Varma, and D. Huang, “Detection of macular ganglion cell loss in glaucoma by Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 116(12), 2305–2314 (2009).

Wu, X.

M. K. Garvin, M. D. Abramoff, R. Kardon, S. R. Russell, X. Wu, and M. Sonka, “Intraretinal layer segmentation of macular optical coherence tomography images using optimal 3-D graph search,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 27(10), 1495–1505 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yamanari, M.

Yang, H.

A. S. Reis, N. O’Leary, H. Yang, G. P. Sharpe, M. T. Nicolela, C. F. Burgoyne, and B. C. Chauhan, “Influence of clinically invisible, but optical coherence tomography detected, optic disc margin anatomy on neuroretinal rim evaluation,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(4), 1852–1860 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, Q.

Yasuno, Y.

Yatagai, T.

Yoshimura, N.

Zhang, M.

S. S. Gao, Y. Jia, M. Zhang, J. P. Su, G. Liu, T. S. Hwang, S. T. Bailey, and D. Huang, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(9), OCT27–OCT36 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Zhang, T. S. Hwang, C. Dongye, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Automated Quantification of Nonperfusion in Three Retinal Plexuses Using Projection-Resolved Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Diabetic Retinopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(13), 5101–5106 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. S. Hwang, M. Zhang, K. Bhavsar, X. Zhang, J. P. Campbell, P. Lin, S. T. Bailey, C. J. Flaxel, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Visualization of 3 Distinct Retinal Plexuses by Projection-Resolved Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Diabetic Retinopathy,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 134(12), 1411–1419 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Zhang, T. S. Hwang, J. P. Campbell, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Projection-resolved optical coherence tomographic angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(3), 816–828 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Zhang, J. Wang, A. D. Pechauer, T. S. Hwang, S. S. Gao, L. Liu, L. Liu, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Advanced image processing for optical coherence tomographic angiography of macular diseases,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(12), 4661–4675 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. P. Campbell, M. Zhang, T. S. Hwang, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, and Y. Jia, “Detailed Vascular Anatomy of the Human Retina by Projection-Resolved Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography,” Nature Science Report. in press.

Zhang, X.

T. S. Hwang, M. Zhang, K. Bhavsar, X. Zhang, J. P. Campbell, P. Lin, S. T. Bailey, C. J. Flaxel, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Visualization of 3 Distinct Retinal Plexuses by Projection-Resolved Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Diabetic Retinopathy,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 134(12), 1411–1419 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, E. Wei, X. Wang, X. Zhang, J. C. Morrison, M. Parikh, L. H. Lombardi, D. M. Gattey, R. L. Armour, B. Edmunds, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Optic Disc Perfusion in Glaucoma,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1322–1332 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biomed. Opt. Express (4)

IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging (3)

K. Lee, M. Niemeijer, M. K. Garvin, Y. H. Kwon, M. Sonka, and M. D. Abramoff, “Segmentation of the optic disc in 3-D OCT scans of the optic nerve head,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 29(1), 159–168 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. Miri, M. D. Abràmoff, K. Lee, M. Niemeijer, J. K. Wang, Y. H. Kwon, and M. K. Garvin, “Multimodal Segmentation of Optic Disc and Cup From SD-OCT and Color Fundus Photographs Using a Machine-Learning Graph-Based Approach,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 34(9), 1854–1866 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. K. Garvin, M. D. Abramoff, R. Kardon, S. R. Russell, X. Wu, and M. Sonka, “Intraretinal layer segmentation of macular optical coherence tomography images using optimal 3-D graph search,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 27(10), 1495–1505 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (4)

M. Zhang, T. S. Hwang, C. Dongye, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Automated Quantification of Nonperfusion in Three Retinal Plexuses Using Projection-Resolved Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Diabetic Retinopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(13), 5101–5106 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. S. Gao, Y. Jia, M. Zhang, J. P. Su, G. Liu, T. S. Hwang, S. T. Bailey, and D. Huang, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(9), OCT27–OCT36 (2016).
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A. S. Reis, N. O’Leary, H. Yang, G. P. Sharpe, M. T. Nicolela, C. F. Burgoyne, and B. C. Chauhan, “Influence of clinically invisible, but optical coherence tomography detected, optic disc margin anatomy on neuroretinal rim evaluation,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(4), 1852–1860 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. V. Le, O. Tan, V. Chopra, B. A. Francis, O. Ragab, R. Varma, and D. Huang, “Regional correlation among ganglion cell complex, nerve fiber layer, and visual field loss in glaucoma,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(6), 4287–4295 (2013).
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J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

L. An, T. T. Shen, and R. K. Wang, “Using ultrahigh sensitive optical microangiography to achieve comprehensive depth resolved microvasculature mapping for human retina,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(10), 106013 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

JAMA Ophthalmol. (2)

L. Liu, Y. Jia, H. L. Takusagawa, A. D. Pechauer, B. Edmunds, L. Lombardi, E. Davis, J. C. Morrison, and D. Huang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography of the peripapillary retina in glaucoma,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 133(9), 1045–1052 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. S. Hwang, M. Zhang, K. Bhavsar, X. Zhang, J. P. Campbell, P. Lin, S. T. Bailey, C. J. Flaxel, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Visualization of 3 Distinct Retinal Plexuses by Projection-Resolved Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Diabetic Retinopathy,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 134(12), 1411–1419 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ophthalmology (2)

O. Tan, V. Chopra, A. T. Lu, J. S. Schuman, H. Ishikawa, G. Wollstein, R. Varma, and D. Huang, “Detection of macular ganglion cell loss in glaucoma by Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 116(12), 2305–2314 (2009).

Y. Jia, E. Wei, X. Wang, X. Zhang, J. C. Morrison, M. Parikh, L. H. Lombardi, D. M. Gattey, R. L. Armour, B. Edmunds, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Optic Disc Perfusion in Glaucoma,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1322–1332 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (3)

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J. P. Campbell, M. Zhang, T. S. Hwang, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, and Y. Jia, “Detailed Vascular Anatomy of the Human Retina by Projection-Resolved Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography,” Nature Science Report. in press.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Structural OCT of two B-scans showing variation in the appearance of the optic nerve head from a healthy eye depending on position. (A) En face projection of the structural OCT data. The two green lines mark the positions of the corresponding B-scans shown in panels B and C. (B) The segmented B-scan near one edge of the optic disc. (C) The segmented B-scan that passes through the center of the optic disc.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 A flowchart of the optic disc boundary detection and peripapillary retinal layer segmentation process.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Radial B-scan resampling scheme. (A) The en face projection of the structural OCT in polar coordinates. The disc center was manually selected (green point in the center). Three hundred and sixty B-scans were radially resampled from 1° to 360° (red lines). Each B-scan ended at the edge of the scan (blue box). (B) The B-scan when the angle was 1°. (C) The B-scan when the angle was 45°. The green lines in panels B and C mark the boundary of the disc, and the blue lines represent the distance from the boundary to the disc center.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The disc boundary detection process in a scan from a participant with diabetic retinopathy. (A) The en face projection of the volumetric structure. The center of the blue circle is the disc center, and the radius of this circle is the smallest distance from the disc center to the scan boundary. Each B-scan was cropped based on the radius of the blue circle. The green circle is the detected disc boundary. The two red lines correspond to panels B and C. (B) The first B-scan (corresponding to 1°) with the seeded end point of the RPE (green star) and the segmented RPE/BM (red line). The search region for the RPE/BM boundary is marked by the two yellow lines. (C) The B-scan at 45° with the segmented RPE/BM (red line) and detected RPE end point (green star). (D) A graph of the difference values for A-lines in the segmented RPE/BM from panel C. The Bruch’s membrane opening was identified as the point with the largest difference value (green arrow).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The automated layer segmentation results from one radial B-scan, with the disc removed. (A) The gradient map with a scale bar showing light-to-dark intensity transitions. (B) The inverse gradient map with a scale bar showing dark-to-light intensity transitions. (C) The B-scan with the seven segmented boundaries.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Optic disc detection and retinal layer segmentation of an OCTA scan (4.5 × 4.5 × 1.6 mm) from a healthy eye. (A) The en face projection of the volumetric structure with the detected disc boundary (green circle). The intersection between the red and blue lines is the disc center. (B) The x-axis B-scan (blue line in panel A) with the seven segmented boundaries. The disc region is between the two green parallel lines. (C) The segmented y-axis B-scan (red line in panel A) with the seven segmented boundaries. (D) The en face angiogram of the vitreous slab. (E) The radial peripapillary capillary plexus (RPCP) angiogram. (F) The superficial vascular complex (SVC) angiogram based on the automated segmentation results. (G) The intermediate capillary plexus (ICP) angiogram. (H) The deep capillary plexus (DCP) angiogram.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Disc detection and segmentation of an OCTA scan (4.5 × 4.5 × 1.6 mm) of the disc region from an eye with diabetic retinopathy. (A) Fundus photo. (B) The en face projection of the volumetric intensity with the detected disc boundary (green circle). The intersection between the red and blue lines is the disc center. (C) The x-axis B-scan (blue line in panel B) with the seven segmented boundaries. The disc region is between the two green parallel lines. (D) The y-axis B-scan (red line in panel B) with the seven segmented boundaries. The disc region is between the two green parallel lines. (E) The SVC angiogram with nonperfusion areas. Three arrows (green, yellow, and blue) highlight nonperfusion areas that, in deeper layers, do appear perfused. (F) The ICP angiogram. (G) The DCP angiogram.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Disc detection and segmentation of an OCTA scan (4.5 × 4.5 × 1.6 mm) of the disc region from an eye with proliferative diabetic retinopathy. (A) The en face projection of the volumetric intensity with the detected disc boundary (green circle). The intersection between the red and blue lines is the disc center. (B) The x-axis B-scan (blue line in panel A) with the seven segmented boundaries. The disc region is between the two green parallel lines. (C) The y-axis B-scan (red line in panel A) with the seven segmented boundaries. The disc region is between the two green parallel lines. (D) The en face angiogram of the retinal neovascularization present within the vitreous slab. (E) The SVC angiogram. (F) The ICP angiogram. (G) The DCP angiogram.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Disc detection and segmentation of an OCTA scan (4.5 × 4.5 × 1.6 mm) of the disc region from an eye with glaucoma. (A) The en face projection of the volumetric intensity with the detected disc boundary (green circle). The intersection between the red and blue line is the disc center. (B) The x-axis B-scan (blue line in panel A) with the seven segmented boundaries. The disc region is between the two green parallel lines. (C) The y-axis B-scan (red line in panel A) with the seven segmented boundaries. The disc region is between the two green parallel lines. (D) The RPCP showing the loss of capillaries (yellow arrows). (E) The SVC angiogram. (F) The ICP angiogram. (G) The DCP angiogram.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 The layer segmentation result of a radial B-scan with a thick nerve fiber layer (NFL) and large retinal vessels. (A) The en face intensity projection with the disc center and boundary marked in green. The position of the B-scan in panels B and C is marked by the red line. (B) The radial B-scan with a thick NFL and large retinal vessel that reduces the structural OCT signal below. (C) The segmented B-scan with seven boundaries showing some segmentation errors.

Tables (4)

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Table 1 The DSC value of the disc region as identified by the developed method and manual delineation

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Table 2 Segmentation accuracy of our method in different clinical cases

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Table 3 Segmentation accuracy of 3D graph search [21] and comparison with our method

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Table 4 Segmentation accuracy of 2D directional graph search [10] and comparison with our method

Equations (6)

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G o (x,z)=In(x,z)In(x,z1)
G(x,z)= G o (x,z)min( G o ) max( G o )min( G o )
P(x,z)=min(P(x-1,z+d(i))+G(x,z)*w(i)) i=[1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6] d=[2, 1, 0, -1, -2, -3], w=[1.4, 1, 1, 1, 1.4, 1.6]
Diff(i)= j=i i+20 G(j,B(j)) j=i20 i G(j,B(j)) i=21,22,...,L-20
G inverse (x,z)=1G(x,z).
DSC= 2× S am S a + S m

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