Abstract

Off-axis digital holography (DH) has great potential in histopathology for its high efficiency and precision. Phase distribution, usually extracted by the angular spectrum (AS) algorithm from a digital hologram, reflects important structural information of biological tissues. However, the complex structure of tissues introduces spectrum aliasing of the hologram, making the AS algorithm hard to realize and accurate phase analysis difficult to conduct. Here, we present a hybrid reconstruction algorithm, combining Fresnel reconstruction in spatial domain with the AS algorithm in frequency domain, to solve aliasing by spatial filtering. Through simulation, we demonstrate the feasibility and superiority of the hybrid algorithm and verified the precision (10−3 rad) of the hybrid algorithm with spectrum aliasing. We extract phase distributions from normal urothelial and bladder cancer tissues by the hybrid algorithm and make quantitative analysis through histogram and standard deviation. The result shows the hybrid algorithm in off-axis DH has great advantage for the high-precision phase extraction of tissues and supplies significant information for cancer diagnosis.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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2017 (1)

2016 (2)

P. Y. Liu, L. K. Chin, W. Ser, H. F. Chen, C. M. Hsieh, C. H. Lee, K. B. Sung, T. C. Ayi, P. H. Yap, B. Liedberg, K. Wang, T. Bourouina, and Y. Leprince-Wang, “Cell refractive index for cell biology and disease diagnosis: past, present and future,” Lab Chip 16(4), 634–644 (2016).
[PubMed]

C. Yan, S.-J. Huang, Z. Miao, Z. Chang, J.-Z. Zeng, and T.-Y. Wang, “3D refractive index measurements of special optical fibers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 31, 65–73 (2016).

2015 (6)

C. V. Santiago-Lona, M. del Socorro Hernandez-Montes, F. M. Santoyo, and S. Silvino, “Non-destructive optical methods for the study of soft tissues,” Proc. SPIE 9660, 966012 (2015).

S. Sridharan, V. Macias, K. Tangella, A. Kajdacsy-Balla, and G. Popescu, “Prediction of prostate cancer recurrence using quantitative phase imaging,” Sci. Rep. 5, 9976 (2015).
[PubMed]

L. Rong, T. Latychevskaia, C. Chen, D. Wang, Z. Yu, X. Zhou, Z. Li, H. Huang, Y. Wang, and Z. Zhou, “Terahertz in-line digital holography of human hepatocellular carcinoma tissue,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8445 (2015).

H. Majeed, M. E. Kandel, K. Han, Z. Luo, V. Macias, K. Tangella, A. Balla, and G. Popescu, “Breast cancer diagnosis using spatial light interference microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(11), 111210 (2015).
[PubMed]

T. A. Al-Saeed, M. Y. Shalaby, and D. A. Khalil, “Study of dual-source Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Eng. 54(10), 104112 (2015).

M. T. Rinehart, H. S. Park, and A. Wax, “Influence of defocus on quantitative analysis of microscopic objects and individual cells with digital holography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(6), 2067–2075 (2015).
[PubMed]

2014 (2)

J. He, C. Liu, S. P. Veetil, and S. Gao, “Resolution improvement in off-axis digital holography using an iterative scheme,” Opt. Eng. 53(8), 083101 (2014).

Y. Sung, N. Lue, B. Hamza, J. Martel, D. Irimia, R. R. Dasari, W. Choi, Z. Yaqoob, and P. So, “Three-dimensional holographic refractive-index measurement of continuously flowing cells in a microfluidic channel,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 1(1), 014002 (2014).
[PubMed]

2013 (2)

2012 (3)

S. M. Solís, Mdel. S. Hernández-Montes, and F. M. Santoyo, “Tympanic membrane contour measurement with two source positions in digital holographic interferometry,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(12), 3203–3210 (2012).
[PubMed]

L. Qiu, V. Turzhitsky, R. Chuttani, D. Pleskow, J. D. Goldsmith, L. Guo, E. Vitkin, I. Itzkan, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, “Spectral Imaging with Scattered Light: From Early Cancer Detection to Cell Biology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(3), 1073–1083 (2012).
[PubMed]

L. Cheng, G. T. MacLennan, and A. Lopez-Beltran, “Histologic grading of urothelial carcinoma: a reappraisal,” Hum. Pathol. 43(12), 2097–2108 (2012).
[PubMed]

2011 (3)

2010 (3)

N. Pavillon, C. Arfire, I. Bergoënd, and C. Depeursinge, “Iterative method for zero-order suppression in off-axis digital holography,” Opt. Express 18(15), 15318–15331 (2010).
[PubMed]

J.-C. Li, Z.-J. Peng, P. Tankam, and P. Picart, “Design of the spatial filter window for digital holographic convolution reconstruction of object beam field,” Opt. Commun. 283(21), 4166–4170 (2010).

E. A. Rakha, J. S. Reis-Filho, F. Baehner, D. J. Dabbs, T. Decker, V. Eusebi, S. B. Fox, S. Ichihara, J. Jacquemier, S. R. Lakhani, J. Palacios, A. L. Richardson, S. J. Schnitt, F. C. Schmitt, P. H. Tan, G. M. Tse, S. Badve, and I. O. Ellis, “Breast cancer prognostic classification in the molecular era: the role of histological grade,” Breast Cancer Res. 12(4), 207 (2010).
[PubMed]

2009 (2)

2008 (2)

M. Testorf and A. W. Lohmann, “Holography in phase space,” Appl. Opt. 47(4), A70–A77 (2008).
[PubMed]

V. Mico, Z. Zalevsky, and J. García, “Common-path phase-shifting digital holographic microscopy: a way to quantitative phase imaging and superresolution,” Opt. Commun. 281(17), 4273–4281 (2008).

2007 (1)

J. W. Kang and C. K. Hong, “Phase-contrast microscopy by in-line phase-shifting digital holography: shape measurement of a titanium pattern with nanometer axial resolution,” Opt. Eng. 46(4), 040506 (2007).

2004 (1)

2000 (1)

1994 (1)

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et al.., “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[PubMed]

1965 (1)

E. N. Leith, J. Upatnieks, and K. A. Haines, “Microscopy by wavefront reconstruction,” JOSA 55(8), 981–986 (1965).

1948 (1)

D. Gabor, “A new microscopic principle,” Nature 161(4098), 777–778 (1948).
[PubMed]

Al-Saeed, T. A.

T. A. Al-Saeed, M. Y. Shalaby, and D. A. Khalil, “Study of dual-source Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Eng. 54(10), 104112 (2015).

Arfire, C.

Ayi, T. C.

P. Y. Liu, L. K. Chin, W. Ser, H. F. Chen, C. M. Hsieh, C. H. Lee, K. B. Sung, T. C. Ayi, P. H. Yap, B. Liedberg, K. Wang, T. Bourouina, and Y. Leprince-Wang, “Cell refractive index for cell biology and disease diagnosis: past, present and future,” Lab Chip 16(4), 634–644 (2016).
[PubMed]

Badizadegan, K.

Badve, S.

E. A. Rakha, J. S. Reis-Filho, F. Baehner, D. J. Dabbs, T. Decker, V. Eusebi, S. B. Fox, S. Ichihara, J. Jacquemier, S. R. Lakhani, J. Palacios, A. L. Richardson, S. J. Schnitt, F. C. Schmitt, P. H. Tan, G. M. Tse, S. Badve, and I. O. Ellis, “Breast cancer prognostic classification in the molecular era: the role of histological grade,” Breast Cancer Res. 12(4), 207 (2010).
[PubMed]

Baehner, F.

E. A. Rakha, J. S. Reis-Filho, F. Baehner, D. J. Dabbs, T. Decker, V. Eusebi, S. B. Fox, S. Ichihara, J. Jacquemier, S. R. Lakhani, J. Palacios, A. L. Richardson, S. J. Schnitt, F. C. Schmitt, P. H. Tan, G. M. Tse, S. Badve, and I. O. Ellis, “Breast cancer prognostic classification in the molecular era: the role of histological grade,” Breast Cancer Res. 12(4), 207 (2010).
[PubMed]

Balla, A.

H. Majeed, M. E. Kandel, K. Han, Z. Luo, V. Macias, K. Tangella, A. Balla, and G. Popescu, “Breast cancer diagnosis using spatial light interference microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(11), 111210 (2015).
[PubMed]

Z. Wang, K. Tangella, A. Balla, and G. Popescu, “Tissue refractive index as marker of disease,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(11), 116017 (2011).
[PubMed]

Bergoënd, I.

Bourouina, T.

P. Y. Liu, L. K. Chin, W. Ser, H. F. Chen, C. M. Hsieh, C. H. Lee, K. B. Sung, T. C. Ayi, P. H. Yap, B. Liedberg, K. Wang, T. Bourouina, and Y. Leprince-Wang, “Cell refractive index for cell biology and disease diagnosis: past, present and future,” Lab Chip 16(4), 634–644 (2016).
[PubMed]

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et al.., “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[PubMed]

Chang, Z.

C. Yan, S.-J. Huang, Z. Miao, Z. Chang, J.-Z. Zeng, and T.-Y. Wang, “3D refractive index measurements of special optical fibers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 31, 65–73 (2016).

Chegal, W.

Chen, C.

L. Rong, T. Latychevskaia, C. Chen, D. Wang, Z. Yu, X. Zhou, Z. Li, H. Huang, Y. Wang, and Z. Zhou, “Terahertz in-line digital holography of human hepatocellular carcinoma tissue,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8445 (2015).

Chen, H. F.

P. Y. Liu, L. K. Chin, W. Ser, H. F. Chen, C. M. Hsieh, C. H. Lee, K. B. Sung, T. C. Ayi, P. H. Yap, B. Liedberg, K. Wang, T. Bourouina, and Y. Leprince-Wang, “Cell refractive index for cell biology and disease diagnosis: past, present and future,” Lab Chip 16(4), 634–644 (2016).
[PubMed]

Cheng, L.

L. Cheng, G. T. MacLennan, and A. Lopez-Beltran, “Histologic grading of urothelial carcinoma: a reappraisal,” Hum. Pathol. 43(12), 2097–2108 (2012).
[PubMed]

Chin, L. K.

P. Y. Liu, L. K. Chin, W. Ser, H. F. Chen, C. M. Hsieh, C. H. Lee, K. B. Sung, T. C. Ayi, P. H. Yap, B. Liedberg, K. Wang, T. Bourouina, and Y. Leprince-Wang, “Cell refractive index for cell biology and disease diagnosis: past, present and future,” Lab Chip 16(4), 634–644 (2016).
[PubMed]

Choi, W.

Y. Sung, N. Lue, B. Hamza, J. Martel, D. Irimia, R. R. Dasari, W. Choi, Z. Yaqoob, and P. So, “Three-dimensional holographic refractive-index measurement of continuously flowing cells in a microfluidic channel,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 1(1), 014002 (2014).
[PubMed]

Chuttani, R.

L. Qiu, V. Turzhitsky, R. Chuttani, D. Pleskow, J. D. Goldsmith, L. Guo, E. Vitkin, I. Itzkan, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, “Spectral Imaging with Scattered Light: From Early Cancer Detection to Cell Biology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(3), 1073–1083 (2012).
[PubMed]

Cuche, E.

Dabbs, D. J.

E. A. Rakha, J. S. Reis-Filho, F. Baehner, D. J. Dabbs, T. Decker, V. Eusebi, S. B. Fox, S. Ichihara, J. Jacquemier, S. R. Lakhani, J. Palacios, A. L. Richardson, S. J. Schnitt, F. C. Schmitt, P. H. Tan, G. M. Tse, S. Badve, and I. O. Ellis, “Breast cancer prognostic classification in the molecular era: the role of histological grade,” Breast Cancer Res. 12(4), 207 (2010).
[PubMed]

Dasari, R. R.

Y. Sung, N. Lue, B. Hamza, J. Martel, D. Irimia, R. R. Dasari, W. Choi, Z. Yaqoob, and P. So, “Three-dimensional holographic refractive-index measurement of continuously flowing cells in a microfluidic channel,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 1(1), 014002 (2014).
[PubMed]

H. Iwai, C. Fang-Yen, G. Popescu, A. Wax, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Quantitative phase imaging using actively stabilized phase-shifting low-coherence interferometry,” Opt. Lett. 29(20), 2399–2401 (2004).
[PubMed]

Decker, T.

E. A. Rakha, J. S. Reis-Filho, F. Baehner, D. J. Dabbs, T. Decker, V. Eusebi, S. B. Fox, S. Ichihara, J. Jacquemier, S. R. Lakhani, J. Palacios, A. L. Richardson, S. J. Schnitt, F. C. Schmitt, P. H. Tan, G. M. Tse, S. Badve, and I. O. Ellis, “Breast cancer prognostic classification in the molecular era: the role of histological grade,” Breast Cancer Res. 12(4), 207 (2010).
[PubMed]

del Socorro Hernandez-Montes, M.

C. V. Santiago-Lona, M. del Socorro Hernandez-Montes, F. M. Santoyo, and S. Silvino, “Non-destructive optical methods for the study of soft tissues,” Proc. SPIE 9660, 966012 (2015).

Deng, L.

Depeursinge, C.

Ding, H.

Ellis, I. O.

E. A. Rakha, J. S. Reis-Filho, F. Baehner, D. J. Dabbs, T. Decker, V. Eusebi, S. B. Fox, S. Ichihara, J. Jacquemier, S. R. Lakhani, J. Palacios, A. L. Richardson, S. J. Schnitt, F. C. Schmitt, P. H. Tan, G. M. Tse, S. Badve, and I. O. Ellis, “Breast cancer prognostic classification in the molecular era: the role of histological grade,” Breast Cancer Res. 12(4), 207 (2010).
[PubMed]

Eusebi, V.

E. A. Rakha, J. S. Reis-Filho, F. Baehner, D. J. Dabbs, T. Decker, V. Eusebi, S. B. Fox, S. Ichihara, J. Jacquemier, S. R. Lakhani, J. Palacios, A. L. Richardson, S. J. Schnitt, F. C. Schmitt, P. H. Tan, G. M. Tse, S. Badve, and I. O. Ellis, “Breast cancer prognostic classification in the molecular era: the role of histological grade,” Breast Cancer Res. 12(4), 207 (2010).
[PubMed]

Fang-Yen, C.

Feld, M. S.

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et al.., “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[PubMed]

Fox, S. B.

E. A. Rakha, J. S. Reis-Filho, F. Baehner, D. J. Dabbs, T. Decker, V. Eusebi, S. B. Fox, S. Ichihara, J. Jacquemier, S. R. Lakhani, J. Palacios, A. L. Richardson, S. J. Schnitt, F. C. Schmitt, P. H. Tan, G. M. Tse, S. Badve, and I. O. Ellis, “Breast cancer prognostic classification in the molecular era: the role of histological grade,” Breast Cancer Res. 12(4), 207 (2010).
[PubMed]

Gabor, D.

D. Gabor, “A new microscopic principle,” Nature 161(4098), 777–778 (1948).
[PubMed]

Gao, S.

J. He, C. Liu, S. P. Veetil, and S. Gao, “Resolution improvement in off-axis digital holography using an iterative scheme,” Opt. Eng. 53(8), 083101 (2014).

García, J.

V. Mico, Z. Zalevsky, and J. García, “Common-path phase-shifting digital holographic microscopy: a way to quantitative phase imaging and superresolution,” Opt. Commun. 281(17), 4273–4281 (2008).

Ge, Q.

Gillette, M. U.

Goldsmith, J. D.

L. Qiu, V. Turzhitsky, R. Chuttani, D. Pleskow, J. D. Goldsmith, L. Guo, E. Vitkin, I. Itzkan, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, “Spectral Imaging with Scattered Light: From Early Cancer Detection to Cell Biology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(3), 1073–1083 (2012).
[PubMed]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et al.., “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[PubMed]

Guo, L.

L. Qiu, V. Turzhitsky, R. Chuttani, D. Pleskow, J. D. Goldsmith, L. Guo, E. Vitkin, I. Itzkan, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, “Spectral Imaging with Scattered Light: From Early Cancer Detection to Cell Biology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(3), 1073–1083 (2012).
[PubMed]

Haines, K. A.

E. N. Leith, J. Upatnieks, and K. A. Haines, “Microscopy by wavefront reconstruction,” JOSA 55(8), 981–986 (1965).

Hamza, B.

Y. Sung, N. Lue, B. Hamza, J. Martel, D. Irimia, R. R. Dasari, W. Choi, Z. Yaqoob, and P. So, “Three-dimensional holographic refractive-index measurement of continuously flowing cells in a microfluidic channel,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 1(1), 014002 (2014).
[PubMed]

Han, K.

H. Majeed, M. E. Kandel, K. Han, Z. Luo, V. Macias, K. Tangella, A. Balla, and G. Popescu, “Breast cancer diagnosis using spatial light interference microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(11), 111210 (2015).
[PubMed]

Hanlon, E. B.

L. Qiu, V. Turzhitsky, R. Chuttani, D. Pleskow, J. D. Goldsmith, L. Guo, E. Vitkin, I. Itzkan, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, “Spectral Imaging with Scattered Light: From Early Cancer Detection to Cell Biology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(3), 1073–1083 (2012).
[PubMed]

He, J.

J. He, C. Liu, S. P. Veetil, and S. Gao, “Resolution improvement in off-axis digital holography using an iterative scheme,” Opt. Eng. 53(8), 083101 (2014).

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et al.., “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[PubMed]

Hernández-Montes, Mdel. S.

Hong, C. K.

J. W. Kang and C. K. Hong, “Phase-contrast microscopy by in-line phase-shifting digital holography: shape measurement of a titanium pattern with nanometer axial resolution,” Opt. Eng. 46(4), 040506 (2007).

Hsieh, C. M.

P. Y. Liu, L. K. Chin, W. Ser, H. F. Chen, C. M. Hsieh, C. H. Lee, K. B. Sung, T. C. Ayi, P. H. Yap, B. Liedberg, K. Wang, T. Bourouina, and Y. Leprince-Wang, “Cell refractive index for cell biology and disease diagnosis: past, present and future,” Lab Chip 16(4), 634–644 (2016).
[PubMed]

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et al.., “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[PubMed]

Huang, H.

L. Rong, T. Latychevskaia, C. Chen, D. Wang, Z. Yu, X. Zhou, Z. Li, H. Huang, Y. Wang, and Z. Zhou, “Terahertz in-line digital holography of human hepatocellular carcinoma tissue,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8445 (2015).

Huang, S.-J.

C. Yan, S.-J. Huang, Z. Miao, Z. Chang, J.-Z. Zeng, and T.-Y. Wang, “3D refractive index measurements of special optical fibers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 31, 65–73 (2016).

Ichihara, S.

E. A. Rakha, J. S. Reis-Filho, F. Baehner, D. J. Dabbs, T. Decker, V. Eusebi, S. B. Fox, S. Ichihara, J. Jacquemier, S. R. Lakhani, J. Palacios, A. L. Richardson, S. J. Schnitt, F. C. Schmitt, P. H. Tan, G. M. Tse, S. Badve, and I. O. Ellis, “Breast cancer prognostic classification in the molecular era: the role of histological grade,” Breast Cancer Res. 12(4), 207 (2010).
[PubMed]

Irimia, D.

Y. Sung, N. Lue, B. Hamza, J. Martel, D. Irimia, R. R. Dasari, W. Choi, Z. Yaqoob, and P. So, “Three-dimensional holographic refractive-index measurement of continuously flowing cells in a microfluidic channel,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 1(1), 014002 (2014).
[PubMed]

Itzkan, I.

L. Qiu, V. Turzhitsky, R. Chuttani, D. Pleskow, J. D. Goldsmith, L. Guo, E. Vitkin, I. Itzkan, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, “Spectral Imaging with Scattered Light: From Early Cancer Detection to Cell Biology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(3), 1073–1083 (2012).
[PubMed]

Iwai, H.

Jacquemier, J.

E. A. Rakha, J. S. Reis-Filho, F. Baehner, D. J. Dabbs, T. Decker, V. Eusebi, S. B. Fox, S. Ichihara, J. Jacquemier, S. R. Lakhani, J. Palacios, A. L. Richardson, S. J. Schnitt, F. C. Schmitt, P. H. Tan, G. M. Tse, S. Badve, and I. O. Ellis, “Breast cancer prognostic classification in the molecular era: the role of histological grade,” Breast Cancer Res. 12(4), 207 (2010).
[PubMed]

Jin, M.

Jüptner, W.

Kajdacsy-Balla, A.

S. Sridharan, V. Macias, K. Tangella, A. Kajdacsy-Balla, and G. Popescu, “Prediction of prostate cancer recurrence using quantitative phase imaging,” Sci. Rep. 5, 9976 (2015).
[PubMed]

Kandel, M. E.

H. Majeed, M. E. Kandel, K. Han, Z. Luo, V. Macias, K. Tangella, A. Balla, and G. Popescu, “Breast cancer diagnosis using spatial light interference microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(11), 111210 (2015).
[PubMed]

Kang, J. W.

J. W. Kang and C. K. Hong, “Phase-contrast microscopy by in-line phase-shifting digital holography: shape measurement of a titanium pattern with nanometer axial resolution,” Opt. Eng. 46(4), 040506 (2007).

Khalil, D. A.

T. A. Al-Saeed, M. Y. Shalaby, and D. A. Khalil, “Study of dual-source Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Eng. 54(10), 104112 (2015).

Kim, D.

Kühn, J.

Lakhani, S. R.

E. A. Rakha, J. S. Reis-Filho, F. Baehner, D. J. Dabbs, T. Decker, V. Eusebi, S. B. Fox, S. Ichihara, J. Jacquemier, S. R. Lakhani, J. Palacios, A. L. Richardson, S. J. Schnitt, F. C. Schmitt, P. H. Tan, G. M. Tse, S. Badve, and I. O. Ellis, “Breast cancer prognostic classification in the molecular era: the role of histological grade,” Breast Cancer Res. 12(4), 207 (2010).
[PubMed]

Larin, K. V.

Latychevskaia, T.

L. Rong, T. Latychevskaia, C. Chen, D. Wang, Z. Yu, X. Zhou, Z. Li, H. Huang, Y. Wang, and Z. Zhou, “Terahertz in-line digital holography of human hepatocellular carcinoma tissue,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8445 (2015).

Lee, C. H.

P. Y. Liu, L. K. Chin, W. Ser, H. F. Chen, C. M. Hsieh, C. H. Lee, K. B. Sung, T. C. Ayi, P. H. Yap, B. Liedberg, K. Wang, T. Bourouina, and Y. Leprince-Wang, “Cell refractive index for cell biology and disease diagnosis: past, present and future,” Lab Chip 16(4), 634–644 (2016).
[PubMed]

Lee, J.

Leith, E. N.

E. N. Leith, J. Upatnieks, and K. A. Haines, “Microscopy by wavefront reconstruction,” JOSA 55(8), 981–986 (1965).

Leprince-Wang, Y.

P. Y. Liu, L. K. Chin, W. Ser, H. F. Chen, C. M. Hsieh, C. H. Lee, K. B. Sung, T. C. Ayi, P. H. Yap, B. Liedberg, K. Wang, T. Bourouina, and Y. Leprince-Wang, “Cell refractive index for cell biology and disease diagnosis: past, present and future,” Lab Chip 16(4), 634–644 (2016).
[PubMed]

Li, J.-C.

J.-C. Li, Z.-J. Peng, P. Tankam, Q.-H. Song, and P. Picart, “Digital holographic reconstruction of a local object field using an adjustable magnification,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 28(6), 1291–1296 (2011).
[PubMed]

J.-C. Li, Z.-J. Peng, P. Tankam, and P. Picart, “Design of the spatial filter window for digital holographic convolution reconstruction of object beam field,” Opt. Commun. 283(21), 4166–4170 (2010).

Li, Z.

L. Rong, T. Latychevskaia, C. Chen, D. Wang, Z. Yu, X. Zhou, Z. Li, H. Huang, Y. Wang, and Z. Zhou, “Terahertz in-line digital holography of human hepatocellular carcinoma tissue,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8445 (2015).

Liedberg, B.

P. Y. Liu, L. K. Chin, W. Ser, H. F. Chen, C. M. Hsieh, C. H. Lee, K. B. Sung, T. C. Ayi, P. H. Yap, B. Liedberg, K. Wang, T. Bourouina, and Y. Leprince-Wang, “Cell refractive index for cell biology and disease diagnosis: past, present and future,” Lab Chip 16(4), 634–644 (2016).
[PubMed]

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et al.., “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[PubMed]

Liu, C.

J. He, C. Liu, S. P. Veetil, and S. Gao, “Resolution improvement in off-axis digital holography using an iterative scheme,” Opt. Eng. 53(8), 083101 (2014).

Liu, P. Y.

P. Y. Liu, L. K. Chin, W. Ser, H. F. Chen, C. M. Hsieh, C. H. Lee, K. B. Sung, T. C. Ayi, P. H. Yap, B. Liedberg, K. Wang, T. Bourouina, and Y. Leprince-Wang, “Cell refractive index for cell biology and disease diagnosis: past, present and future,” Lab Chip 16(4), 634–644 (2016).
[PubMed]

Lohmann, A. W.

Lopez-Beltran, A.

L. Cheng, G. T. MacLennan, and A. Lopez-Beltran, “Histologic grading of urothelial carcinoma: a reappraisal,” Hum. Pathol. 43(12), 2097–2108 (2012).
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Lue, N.

Y. Sung, N. Lue, B. Hamza, J. Martel, D. Irimia, R. R. Dasari, W. Choi, Z. Yaqoob, and P. So, “Three-dimensional holographic refractive-index measurement of continuously flowing cells in a microfluidic channel,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 1(1), 014002 (2014).
[PubMed]

Luo, Z.

H. Majeed, M. E. Kandel, K. Han, Z. Luo, V. Macias, K. Tangella, A. Balla, and G. Popescu, “Breast cancer diagnosis using spatial light interference microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(11), 111210 (2015).
[PubMed]

Ma, Z.

Macias, V.

H. Majeed, M. E. Kandel, K. Han, Z. Luo, V. Macias, K. Tangella, A. Balla, and G. Popescu, “Breast cancer diagnosis using spatial light interference microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(11), 111210 (2015).
[PubMed]

S. Sridharan, V. Macias, K. Tangella, A. Kajdacsy-Balla, and G. Popescu, “Prediction of prostate cancer recurrence using quantitative phase imaging,” Sci. Rep. 5, 9976 (2015).
[PubMed]

MacLennan, G. T.

L. Cheng, G. T. MacLennan, and A. Lopez-Beltran, “Histologic grading of urothelial carcinoma: a reappraisal,” Hum. Pathol. 43(12), 2097–2108 (2012).
[PubMed]

Magnusson, R.

Majeed, H.

H. Majeed, M. E. Kandel, K. Han, Z. Luo, V. Macias, K. Tangella, A. Balla, and G. Popescu, “Breast cancer diagnosis using spatial light interference microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(11), 111210 (2015).
[PubMed]

Marquet, P.

Martel, J.

Y. Sung, N. Lue, B. Hamza, J. Martel, D. Irimia, R. R. Dasari, W. Choi, Z. Yaqoob, and P. So, “Three-dimensional holographic refractive-index measurement of continuously flowing cells in a microfluidic channel,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 1(1), 014002 (2014).
[PubMed]

Miao, Z.

C. Yan, S.-J. Huang, Z. Miao, Z. Chang, J.-Z. Zeng, and T.-Y. Wang, “3D refractive index measurements of special optical fibers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 31, 65–73 (2016).

Mico, V.

V. Mico, Z. Zalevsky, and J. García, “Common-path phase-shifting digital holographic microscopy: a way to quantitative phase imaging and superresolution,” Opt. Commun. 281(17), 4273–4281 (2008).

Millet, L.

Mir, M.

Palacios, J.

E. A. Rakha, J. S. Reis-Filho, F. Baehner, D. J. Dabbs, T. Decker, V. Eusebi, S. B. Fox, S. Ichihara, J. Jacquemier, S. R. Lakhani, J. Palacios, A. L. Richardson, S. J. Schnitt, F. C. Schmitt, P. H. Tan, G. M. Tse, S. Badve, and I. O. Ellis, “Breast cancer prognostic classification in the molecular era: the role of histological grade,” Breast Cancer Res. 12(4), 207 (2010).
[PubMed]

Park, H. S.

Pavillon, N.

Peng, Z.-J.

J.-C. Li, Z.-J. Peng, P. Tankam, Q.-H. Song, and P. Picart, “Digital holographic reconstruction of a local object field using an adjustable magnification,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 28(6), 1291–1296 (2011).
[PubMed]

J.-C. Li, Z.-J. Peng, P. Tankam, and P. Picart, “Design of the spatial filter window for digital holographic convolution reconstruction of object beam field,” Opt. Commun. 283(21), 4166–4170 (2010).

Perelman, L. T.

L. Qiu, V. Turzhitsky, R. Chuttani, D. Pleskow, J. D. Goldsmith, L. Guo, E. Vitkin, I. Itzkan, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, “Spectral Imaging with Scattered Light: From Early Cancer Detection to Cell Biology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(3), 1073–1083 (2012).
[PubMed]

Picart, P.

J.-C. Li, Z.-J. Peng, P. Tankam, Q.-H. Song, and P. Picart, “Digital holographic reconstruction of a local object field using an adjustable magnification,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 28(6), 1291–1296 (2011).
[PubMed]

J.-C. Li, Z.-J. Peng, P. Tankam, and P. Picart, “Design of the spatial filter window for digital holographic convolution reconstruction of object beam field,” Opt. Commun. 283(21), 4166–4170 (2010).

Pleskow, D.

L. Qiu, V. Turzhitsky, R. Chuttani, D. Pleskow, J. D. Goldsmith, L. Guo, E. Vitkin, I. Itzkan, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, “Spectral Imaging with Scattered Light: From Early Cancer Detection to Cell Biology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(3), 1073–1083 (2012).
[PubMed]

Popescu, G.

H. Majeed, M. E. Kandel, K. Han, Z. Luo, V. Macias, K. Tangella, A. Balla, and G. Popescu, “Breast cancer diagnosis using spatial light interference microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(11), 111210 (2015).
[PubMed]

S. Sridharan, V. Macias, K. Tangella, A. Kajdacsy-Balla, and G. Popescu, “Prediction of prostate cancer recurrence using quantitative phase imaging,” Sci. Rep. 5, 9976 (2015).
[PubMed]

Z. Wang, K. Tangella, A. Balla, and G. Popescu, “Tissue refractive index as marker of disease,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(11), 116017 (2011).
[PubMed]

Z. Wang, L. Millet, M. Mir, H. Ding, S. Unarunotai, J. Rogers, M. U. Gillette, and G. Popescu, “Spatial light interference microscopy (SLIM),” Opt. Express 19(2), 1016–1026 (2011).
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H. Iwai, C. Fang-Yen, G. Popescu, A. Wax, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Quantitative phase imaging using actively stabilized phase-shifting low-coherence interferometry,” Opt. Lett. 29(20), 2399–2401 (2004).
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Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et al.., “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[PubMed]

Qiu, L.

L. Qiu, V. Turzhitsky, R. Chuttani, D. Pleskow, J. D. Goldsmith, L. Guo, E. Vitkin, I. Itzkan, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, “Spectral Imaging with Scattered Light: From Early Cancer Detection to Cell Biology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(3), 1073–1083 (2012).
[PubMed]

Rakha, E. A.

E. A. Rakha, J. S. Reis-Filho, F. Baehner, D. J. Dabbs, T. Decker, V. Eusebi, S. B. Fox, S. Ichihara, J. Jacquemier, S. R. Lakhani, J. Palacios, A. L. Richardson, S. J. Schnitt, F. C. Schmitt, P. H. Tan, G. M. Tse, S. Badve, and I. O. Ellis, “Breast cancer prognostic classification in the molecular era: the role of histological grade,” Breast Cancer Res. 12(4), 207 (2010).
[PubMed]

Reis-Filho, J. S.

E. A. Rakha, J. S. Reis-Filho, F. Baehner, D. J. Dabbs, T. Decker, V. Eusebi, S. B. Fox, S. Ichihara, J. Jacquemier, S. R. Lakhani, J. Palacios, A. L. Richardson, S. J. Schnitt, F. C. Schmitt, P. H. Tan, G. M. Tse, S. Badve, and I. O. Ellis, “Breast cancer prognostic classification in the molecular era: the role of histological grade,” Breast Cancer Res. 12(4), 207 (2010).
[PubMed]

Richardson, A. L.

E. A. Rakha, J. S. Reis-Filho, F. Baehner, D. J. Dabbs, T. Decker, V. Eusebi, S. B. Fox, S. Ichihara, J. Jacquemier, S. R. Lakhani, J. Palacios, A. L. Richardson, S. J. Schnitt, F. C. Schmitt, P. H. Tan, G. M. Tse, S. Badve, and I. O. Ellis, “Breast cancer prognostic classification in the molecular era: the role of histological grade,” Breast Cancer Res. 12(4), 207 (2010).
[PubMed]

Rinehart, M. T.

Rogers, J.

Rong, L.

L. Rong, T. Latychevskaia, C. Chen, D. Wang, Z. Yu, X. Zhou, Z. Li, H. Huang, Y. Wang, and Z. Zhou, “Terahertz in-line digital holography of human hepatocellular carcinoma tissue,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8445 (2015).

Sampson, D. D.

Santiago-Lona, C. V.

C. V. Santiago-Lona, M. del Socorro Hernandez-Montes, F. M. Santoyo, and S. Silvino, “Non-destructive optical methods for the study of soft tissues,” Proc. SPIE 9660, 966012 (2015).

Santoyo, F. M.

C. V. Santiago-Lona, M. del Socorro Hernandez-Montes, F. M. Santoyo, and S. Silvino, “Non-destructive optical methods for the study of soft tissues,” Proc. SPIE 9660, 966012 (2015).

S. M. Solís, Mdel. S. Hernández-Montes, and F. M. Santoyo, “Tympanic membrane contour measurement with two source positions in digital holographic interferometry,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(12), 3203–3210 (2012).
[PubMed]

Schmitt, F. C.

E. A. Rakha, J. S. Reis-Filho, F. Baehner, D. J. Dabbs, T. Decker, V. Eusebi, S. B. Fox, S. Ichihara, J. Jacquemier, S. R. Lakhani, J. Palacios, A. L. Richardson, S. J. Schnitt, F. C. Schmitt, P. H. Tan, G. M. Tse, S. Badve, and I. O. Ellis, “Breast cancer prognostic classification in the molecular era: the role of histological grade,” Breast Cancer Res. 12(4), 207 (2010).
[PubMed]

Schnars, U.

Schnitt, S. J.

E. A. Rakha, J. S. Reis-Filho, F. Baehner, D. J. Dabbs, T. Decker, V. Eusebi, S. B. Fox, S. Ichihara, J. Jacquemier, S. R. Lakhani, J. Palacios, A. L. Richardson, S. J. Schnitt, F. C. Schmitt, P. H. Tan, G. M. Tse, S. Badve, and I. O. Ellis, “Breast cancer prognostic classification in the molecular era: the role of histological grade,” Breast Cancer Res. 12(4), 207 (2010).
[PubMed]

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et al.., “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[PubMed]

Seelamantula, C. S.

Ser, W.

P. Y. Liu, L. K. Chin, W. Ser, H. F. Chen, C. M. Hsieh, C. H. Lee, K. B. Sung, T. C. Ayi, P. H. Yap, B. Liedberg, K. Wang, T. Bourouina, and Y. Leprince-Wang, “Cell refractive index for cell biology and disease diagnosis: past, present and future,” Lab Chip 16(4), 634–644 (2016).
[PubMed]

Shaked, N. T.

Shalaby, M. Y.

T. A. Al-Saeed, M. Y. Shalaby, and D. A. Khalil, “Study of dual-source Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Eng. 54(10), 104112 (2015).

Silvino, S.

C. V. Santiago-Lona, M. del Socorro Hernandez-Montes, F. M. Santoyo, and S. Silvino, “Non-destructive optical methods for the study of soft tissues,” Proc. SPIE 9660, 966012 (2015).

So, P.

Y. Sung, N. Lue, B. Hamza, J. Martel, D. Irimia, R. R. Dasari, W. Choi, Z. Yaqoob, and P. So, “Three-dimensional holographic refractive-index measurement of continuously flowing cells in a microfluidic channel,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 1(1), 014002 (2014).
[PubMed]

Solís, S. M.

Song, Q.-H.

Sridharan, S.

S. Sridharan, V. Macias, K. Tangella, A. Kajdacsy-Balla, and G. Popescu, “Prediction of prostate cancer recurrence using quantitative phase imaging,” Sci. Rep. 5, 9976 (2015).
[PubMed]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et al.., “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[PubMed]

Sung, K. B.

P. Y. Liu, L. K. Chin, W. Ser, H. F. Chen, C. M. Hsieh, C. H. Lee, K. B. Sung, T. C. Ayi, P. H. Yap, B. Liedberg, K. Wang, T. Bourouina, and Y. Leprince-Wang, “Cell refractive index for cell biology and disease diagnosis: past, present and future,” Lab Chip 16(4), 634–644 (2016).
[PubMed]

Sung, Y.

Y. Sung, N. Lue, B. Hamza, J. Martel, D. Irimia, R. R. Dasari, W. Choi, Z. Yaqoob, and P. So, “Three-dimensional holographic refractive-index measurement of continuously flowing cells in a microfluidic channel,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 1(1), 014002 (2014).
[PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et al.., “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[PubMed]

Tan, P. H.

E. A. Rakha, J. S. Reis-Filho, F. Baehner, D. J. Dabbs, T. Decker, V. Eusebi, S. B. Fox, S. Ichihara, J. Jacquemier, S. R. Lakhani, J. Palacios, A. L. Richardson, S. J. Schnitt, F. C. Schmitt, P. H. Tan, G. M. Tse, S. Badve, and I. O. Ellis, “Breast cancer prognostic classification in the molecular era: the role of histological grade,” Breast Cancer Res. 12(4), 207 (2010).
[PubMed]

Tangella, K.

S. Sridharan, V. Macias, K. Tangella, A. Kajdacsy-Balla, and G. Popescu, “Prediction of prostate cancer recurrence using quantitative phase imaging,” Sci. Rep. 5, 9976 (2015).
[PubMed]

H. Majeed, M. E. Kandel, K. Han, Z. Luo, V. Macias, K. Tangella, A. Balla, and G. Popescu, “Breast cancer diagnosis using spatial light interference microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(11), 111210 (2015).
[PubMed]

Z. Wang, K. Tangella, A. Balla, and G. Popescu, “Tissue refractive index as marker of disease,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(11), 116017 (2011).
[PubMed]

Tankam, P.

J.-C. Li, Z.-J. Peng, P. Tankam, Q.-H. Song, and P. Picart, “Digital holographic reconstruction of a local object field using an adjustable magnification,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 28(6), 1291–1296 (2011).
[PubMed]

J.-C. Li, Z.-J. Peng, P. Tankam, and P. Picart, “Design of the spatial filter window for digital holographic convolution reconstruction of object beam field,” Opt. Commun. 283(21), 4166–4170 (2010).

Testorf, M.

Tse, G. M.

E. A. Rakha, J. S. Reis-Filho, F. Baehner, D. J. Dabbs, T. Decker, V. Eusebi, S. B. Fox, S. Ichihara, J. Jacquemier, S. R. Lakhani, J. Palacios, A. L. Richardson, S. J. Schnitt, F. C. Schmitt, P. H. Tan, G. M. Tse, S. Badve, and I. O. Ellis, “Breast cancer prognostic classification in the molecular era: the role of histological grade,” Breast Cancer Res. 12(4), 207 (2010).
[PubMed]

Turzhitsky, V.

L. Qiu, V. Turzhitsky, R. Chuttani, D. Pleskow, J. D. Goldsmith, L. Guo, E. Vitkin, I. Itzkan, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, “Spectral Imaging with Scattered Light: From Early Cancer Detection to Cell Biology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(3), 1073–1083 (2012).
[PubMed]

Unarunotai, S.

Unser, M.

Upatnieks, J.

E. N. Leith, J. Upatnieks, and K. A. Haines, “Microscopy by wavefront reconstruction,” JOSA 55(8), 981–986 (1965).

Veetil, S. P.

J. He, C. Liu, S. P. Veetil, and S. Gao, “Resolution improvement in off-axis digital holography using an iterative scheme,” Opt. Eng. 53(8), 083101 (2014).

Vitkin, E.

L. Qiu, V. Turzhitsky, R. Chuttani, D. Pleskow, J. D. Goldsmith, L. Guo, E. Vitkin, I. Itzkan, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, “Spectral Imaging with Scattered Light: From Early Cancer Detection to Cell Biology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(3), 1073–1083 (2012).
[PubMed]

Wang, D.

L. Rong, T. Latychevskaia, C. Chen, D. Wang, Z. Yu, X. Zhou, Z. Li, H. Huang, Y. Wang, and Z. Zhou, “Terahertz in-line digital holography of human hepatocellular carcinoma tissue,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8445 (2015).

Wang, K.

P. Y. Liu, L. K. Chin, W. Ser, H. F. Chen, C. M. Hsieh, C. H. Lee, K. B. Sung, T. C. Ayi, P. H. Yap, B. Liedberg, K. Wang, T. Bourouina, and Y. Leprince-Wang, “Cell refractive index for cell biology and disease diagnosis: past, present and future,” Lab Chip 16(4), 634–644 (2016).
[PubMed]

Wang, T.-Y.

C. Yan, S.-J. Huang, Z. Miao, Z. Chang, J.-Z. Zeng, and T.-Y. Wang, “3D refractive index measurements of special optical fibers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 31, 65–73 (2016).

Wang, Y.

L. Rong, T. Latychevskaia, C. Chen, D. Wang, Z. Yu, X. Zhou, Z. Li, H. Huang, Y. Wang, and Z. Zhou, “Terahertz in-line digital holography of human hepatocellular carcinoma tissue,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8445 (2015).

Wang, Z.

Z. Wang, K. Tangella, A. Balla, and G. Popescu, “Tissue refractive index as marker of disease,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(11), 116017 (2011).
[PubMed]

Z. Wang, L. Millet, M. Mir, H. Ding, S. Unarunotai, J. Rogers, M. U. Gillette, and G. Popescu, “Spatial light interference microscopy (SLIM),” Opt. Express 19(2), 1016–1026 (2011).
[PubMed]

Wax, A.

Yan, C.

C. Yan, S.-J. Huang, Z. Miao, Z. Chang, J.-Z. Zeng, and T.-Y. Wang, “3D refractive index measurements of special optical fibers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 31, 65–73 (2016).

Yang, Y.

Yap, P. H.

P. Y. Liu, L. K. Chin, W. Ser, H. F. Chen, C. M. Hsieh, C. H. Lee, K. B. Sung, T. C. Ayi, P. H. Yap, B. Liedberg, K. Wang, T. Bourouina, and Y. Leprince-Wang, “Cell refractive index for cell biology and disease diagnosis: past, present and future,” Lab Chip 16(4), 634–644 (2016).
[PubMed]

Yaqoob, Z.

Y. Sung, N. Lue, B. Hamza, J. Martel, D. Irimia, R. R. Dasari, W. Choi, Z. Yaqoob, and P. So, “Three-dimensional holographic refractive-index measurement of continuously flowing cells in a microfluidic channel,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 1(1), 014002 (2014).
[PubMed]

Yu, Z.

L. Rong, T. Latychevskaia, C. Chen, D. Wang, Z. Yu, X. Zhou, Z. Li, H. Huang, Y. Wang, and Z. Zhou, “Terahertz in-line digital holography of human hepatocellular carcinoma tissue,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8445 (2015).

Zalevsky, Z.

V. Mico, Z. Zalevsky, and J. García, “Common-path phase-shifting digital holographic microscopy: a way to quantitative phase imaging and superresolution,” Opt. Commun. 281(17), 4273–4281 (2008).

Zeng, J.-Z.

C. Yan, S.-J. Huang, Z. Miao, Z. Chang, J.-Z. Zeng, and T.-Y. Wang, “3D refractive index measurements of special optical fibers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 31, 65–73 (2016).

Zhai, H.

Zhou, X.

L. Rong, T. Latychevskaia, C. Chen, D. Wang, Z. Yu, X. Zhou, Z. Li, H. Huang, Y. Wang, and Z. Zhou, “Terahertz in-line digital holography of human hepatocellular carcinoma tissue,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8445 (2015).

Zhou, Z.

L. Rong, T. Latychevskaia, C. Chen, D. Wang, Z. Yu, X. Zhou, Z. Li, H. Huang, Y. Wang, and Z. Zhou, “Terahertz in-line digital holography of human hepatocellular carcinoma tissue,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8445 (2015).

Zhu, Y.

Appl. Opt. (4)

Biomed. Opt. Express (3)

Breast Cancer Res. (1)

E. A. Rakha, J. S. Reis-Filho, F. Baehner, D. J. Dabbs, T. Decker, V. Eusebi, S. B. Fox, S. Ichihara, J. Jacquemier, S. R. Lakhani, J. Palacios, A. L. Richardson, S. J. Schnitt, F. C. Schmitt, P. H. Tan, G. M. Tse, S. Badve, and I. O. Ellis, “Breast cancer prognostic classification in the molecular era: the role of histological grade,” Breast Cancer Res. 12(4), 207 (2010).
[PubMed]

Hum. Pathol. (1)

L. Cheng, G. T. MacLennan, and A. Lopez-Beltran, “Histologic grading of urothelial carcinoma: a reappraisal,” Hum. Pathol. 43(12), 2097–2108 (2012).
[PubMed]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

L. Qiu, V. Turzhitsky, R. Chuttani, D. Pleskow, J. D. Goldsmith, L. Guo, E. Vitkin, I. Itzkan, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, “Spectral Imaging with Scattered Light: From Early Cancer Detection to Cell Biology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(3), 1073–1083 (2012).
[PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (2)

Z. Wang, K. Tangella, A. Balla, and G. Popescu, “Tissue refractive index as marker of disease,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(11), 116017 (2011).
[PubMed]

H. Majeed, M. E. Kandel, K. Han, Z. Luo, V. Macias, K. Tangella, A. Balla, and G. Popescu, “Breast cancer diagnosis using spatial light interference microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(11), 111210 (2015).
[PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

JOSA (1)

E. N. Leith, J. Upatnieks, and K. A. Haines, “Microscopy by wavefront reconstruction,” JOSA 55(8), 981–986 (1965).

Lab Chip (1)

P. Y. Liu, L. K. Chin, W. Ser, H. F. Chen, C. M. Hsieh, C. H. Lee, K. B. Sung, T. C. Ayi, P. H. Yap, B. Liedberg, K. Wang, T. Bourouina, and Y. Leprince-Wang, “Cell refractive index for cell biology and disease diagnosis: past, present and future,” Lab Chip 16(4), 634–644 (2016).
[PubMed]

Nature (1)

D. Gabor, “A new microscopic principle,” Nature 161(4098), 777–778 (1948).
[PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (2)

V. Mico, Z. Zalevsky, and J. García, “Common-path phase-shifting digital holographic microscopy: a way to quantitative phase imaging and superresolution,” Opt. Commun. 281(17), 4273–4281 (2008).

J.-C. Li, Z.-J. Peng, P. Tankam, and P. Picart, “Design of the spatial filter window for digital holographic convolution reconstruction of object beam field,” Opt. Commun. 283(21), 4166–4170 (2010).

Opt. Eng. (3)

J. He, C. Liu, S. P. Veetil, and S. Gao, “Resolution improvement in off-axis digital holography using an iterative scheme,” Opt. Eng. 53(8), 083101 (2014).

T. A. Al-Saeed, M. Y. Shalaby, and D. A. Khalil, “Study of dual-source Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Eng. 54(10), 104112 (2015).

J. W. Kang and C. K. Hong, “Phase-contrast microscopy by in-line phase-shifting digital holography: shape measurement of a titanium pattern with nanometer axial resolution,” Opt. Eng. 46(4), 040506 (2007).

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Fiber Technol. (1)

C. Yan, S.-J. Huang, Z. Miao, Z. Chang, J.-Z. Zeng, and T.-Y. Wang, “3D refractive index measurements of special optical fibers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 31, 65–73 (2016).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. Appl. (1)

Y. Sung, N. Lue, B. Hamza, J. Martel, D. Irimia, R. R. Dasari, W. Choi, Z. Yaqoob, and P. So, “Three-dimensional holographic refractive-index measurement of continuously flowing cells in a microfluidic channel,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 1(1), 014002 (2014).
[PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (1)

C. V. Santiago-Lona, M. del Socorro Hernandez-Montes, F. M. Santoyo, and S. Silvino, “Non-destructive optical methods for the study of soft tissues,” Proc. SPIE 9660, 966012 (2015).

Sci. Rep. (2)

S. Sridharan, V. Macias, K. Tangella, A. Kajdacsy-Balla, and G. Popescu, “Prediction of prostate cancer recurrence using quantitative phase imaging,” Sci. Rep. 5, 9976 (2015).
[PubMed]

L. Rong, T. Latychevskaia, C. Chen, D. Wang, Z. Yu, X. Zhou, Z. Li, H. Huang, Y. Wang, and Z. Zhou, “Terahertz in-line digital holography of human hepatocellular carcinoma tissue,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8445 (2015).

Science (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et al.., “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
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G. Ting-Ting, H. Su-Juan, Y. Cheng, M. Zhuang, and W. Ting-Yun, “Refractive index measurement research for optical fiber based on digital hologram.” ACTA PHYSICA SIN 64(6), 064204 (2015).

L. J. S. Q. G. Jinbin and P. Z. L. Yuli, “Research of Image Plane Filtering Technique in Digital Holographic Wavefront Reconstruction,” ACTA OPTICA SIN 9, 039 (2011).

W. Qu, D. Liu, W. Lu, Z. Hu, and C. Zhijuan, Wang, and L. Liu, “Comparison of the contrast-phase map reconstruction by Fresnel transform method and the angular spectrum backward propagation algorithm in RuO2: LiNbO3 crystal,” in SPIE Optics + Photonics (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2006), 62921D–62921D–8.

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic diagram of optical system.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Basic procedure of hybrid algorithm.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Simulated digital hologram: (a) phase distribution; (b) amplitude distribution; (c) simulated off-axis digital hologram based on (a) and (b).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Spectrum of simulated hologram and object information selection by two algorithm: (a) spectrum of simulated hologram; (b) spectrum of zero-order diffraction; (c) new hologram without spectrum aliasing; (d) spectrum of new hologram; (e) image of Fresnel amplitude reconstruction and spatial filtering; (f) complete object spectrum after back calculation.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Phase distributions: (a) 2D phase distribution extracted by hybrid algorithm; (b) 2D phase distribution extracted by AS algorithm; (c) comparison of phase curves.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Error analysis without spectrum aliasing: (a) hybrid algorithm error value distribution; (b) AS algorithm error value distribution; (c) histogram.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Spectral selection: (a) spectrum of simulated hologram; (b) image of Fresnel amplitude reconstruction and spatial filtering; (c) complete object spectrum after back calculation.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Phase distribution: (a) and (b) 2D phase distributions extracted by AS algorithm; (c) 2D phase distribution extracted by hybrid algorithm; (d) comparison of phase curves.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Error analysis with spectrum aliasing: (a) and (b) error value distributions of AS algorithm1 and AS algorithm2; (c) error value distributions of hybrid algorithm; (d) histogram.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Digital hologram of bladder tissues and spectral selection. (a) digital hologram; (b) spectrum; (c) object image of Fresnel amplitude reconstruction and spatial filtering; (d) spectrum of object image by hybrid algorithm.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 Phase distribution extraction of bladder tissues by two algorithms. (a) and (b) 2D phase distribution extracted from spectrum in yellow and red box in Fig. 10(b) by AS algorithm; (c)2D phase distribution of the spectrum by hybrid algorithm; (d)-(f) 3D display maps of (a)-(c).
Fig. 12
Fig. 12 Comparison between H&E stained image and phase distribution. (a) and (b) stained image and phase distribution of normal urothelial tissue; (c) local zoom (framed in (b)); (d) and (e) stained image and phase distribution of bladder cancer tissue ; (f) local zoom (framed in (e)).
Fig. 13
Fig. 13 Data analysis. (a) phase histograms of 10 regions in Fig. 12(b); (b) phase histograms of 10 regions in Fig. 12(e); (c) standard deviation of normal urothelial and bladder cancer tissues samples.

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I= | O+R | 2 =I(mΔ x 0 ,nΔ y 0 )= | O(mΔ x 0 ,nΔ y 0 )+R(mΔ x 0 ,nΔ y 0 ) | 2 (m=1,,M;n=1,,N)
U=I×C=I×R=( | O | 2 ×R+ | R | 2 ×R )+R R * O+RR O *
arcsin(3Bλ)= θ min θ θ max =arcsin( λ 2Δ x 0 )
Δx=(Δ×z)/(M×Δ x 0 ) ; Δy=(λ×z)/(N×Δ y 0 )
U 0 (kΔx,lΔy)=FFT{ U(mΔ x 0 ,nΔ y 0 )exp[ jπ λz ( (mΔ x 0 ) 2 + (nΔ y 0 ) 2 ) ] } (k,m=1,..., M;l,n=1,...,N)
V(pΔξ,qΔη)=FFT{ FF T 1 [ U of ( kΔx,lΔy ) ]/ exp[ jπ λz ( ( mΔ x 0 ) 2 + ( nΔ y 0 ) 2 ) ] }
U(mΔ x 0 ,nΔ y 0 )=FF T 1 { V( pΔξ,qΔη )×exp[j 2π λ z 1 (λpΔξ) 2 (λqΔη) 2 ] }
Δφ(mΔ x 0 ,nΔ y 0 )=arctan[ImU(mΔ x 0 ,nΔ y 0 )/ReU(mΔ x 0 ,nΔ y 0 )]

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