Abstract

Noninvasive, direct measurement of local muscle blood flow in humans remains limited. Diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) is an emerging technique to measure regional blood flow at the microvascular level. In order to better understand the strengths and limitations of this novel technique, we performed a validation study by comparing muscle blood flow changes measured with DCS and Doppler ultrasound during exercise. Nine subjects were measured (all males, 27.4 ± 2.9 years of age) for a rhythmic handgrip exercise at 20% and 50% of individual maximum voluntary contraction (MVC), followed by a post-exercise recovery. The results from DCS and Doppler ultrasound were highly correlated (R = 0.99 ± 0.02). DCS was more reliable and less susceptible to motion artifact.

© 2017 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. N. Munk, B. Symons, Y. Shang, R. Cheng, and G. Yu, “Noninvasively measuring the hemodynamic effects of massage on skeletal muscle: A novel hybrid near-infrared diffuse optical instrument,” J. Bodyw. Mov. Ther. 16(1), 22–28 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  27. D. A. Boas, S. Sakadžić, J. Selb, P. Farzam, M. A. Franceschini, and S. A. Carp, “Establishing the diffuse correlation spectroscopy signal relationship with blood flow,” Neurophotonics 3(3), 031412 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (1)

D. A. Boas, S. Sakadžić, J. Selb, P. Farzam, M. A. Franceschini, and S. A. Carp, “Establishing the diffuse correlation spectroscopy signal relationship with blood flow,” Neurophotonics 3(3), 031412 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (4)

B. Henry, M. Zhao, Y. Shang, T. Uhl, D. T. Thomas, E. S. Xenos, S. P. Saha, and G. Yu, “Hybrid diffuse optical techniques for continuous hemodynamic measurement in gastrocnemius during plantar flexion exercise,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(12), 125006 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Bi, J. Dong, C. L. Poh, and K. Lee, “Optical methods for blood perfusion measurement-theoretical comparison among four different modalities,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 32(5), 860–866 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. H. Thijssen, T. H. Schreuder, S. W. Newcomer, M. H. Laughlin, M. T. Hopman, and D. J. Green, “Impact of 2-weeks continuous increase in retrograde shear stress on brachial artery vasomotor function in young and older men,” J. Am. Heart Assoc. 4(10), e001968 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Iwamoto, K. Katayama, and K. Ishida, “Exercise intensity modulates brachial artery retrograde blood flow and shear rate during leg cycling in hypoxia,” Physiol. Rep. 3(6), e12423 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (2)

T. H. Schreuder, D. J. Green, M. T. Hopman, and D. H. Thijssen, “Acute impact of retrograde shear rate on brachial and superficial femoral artery flow-mediated dilation in humans,” Physiol. Rep. 2(1), e00193 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. N. Kim, B. L. Edlow, T. Durduran, S. Frangos, R. C. Mesquita, J. M. Levine, J. H. Greenberg, A. G. Yodh, and J. A. Detre, “Continuous optical monitoring of cerebral hemodynamics during head-of-bed manipulation in brain-injured adults,” Neurocrit. Care 20(3), 443–453 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

T. E. Ryan, W. M. Southern, M. A. Reynolds, and K. K. McCully, “A cross-validation of near-infrared spectroscopy measurements of skeletal muscle oxidative capacity with phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Physiol. 115(12), 1757–1766 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (5)

M. Venturelli, F. Schena, and R. S. Richardson, “The role of exercise capacity in the health and longevity of centenarians,” Maturitas 73(2), 115–120 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Dong, R. Bi, J. H. Ho, P. S. Thong, K. C. Soo, and K. Lee, “Diffuse correlation spectroscopy with a fast Fourier transform-based software autocorrelator,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(9), 097004 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Shang, K. Gurley, B. Symons, D. Long, R. Srikuea, L. J. Crofford, C. A. Peterson, and G. Yu, “Noninvasive optical characterization of muscle blood flow, oxygenation, and metabolism in women with fibromyalgia,” Arthritis Res. Ther. 14(6), R236 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Munk, B. Symons, Y. Shang, R. Cheng, and G. Yu, “Noninvasively measuring the hemodynamic effects of massage on skeletal muscle: A novel hybrid near-infrared diffuse optical instrument,” J. Bodyw. Mov. Ther. 16(1), 22–28 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Gurley, Y. Shang, and G. Yu, “Noninvasive optical quantification of absolute blood flow, blood oxygenation, and oxygen consumption rate in exercising skeletal muscle,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(7), 075010 (2012).
[PubMed]

2011 (2)

Y. Shang, L. Chen, M. Toborek, and G. Yu, “Diffuse optical monitoring of repeated cerebral ischemia in mice,” Opt. Express 19(21), 20301–20315 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. T. Aspenes, T. I. Nilsen, E. A. Skaug, G. F. Bertheussen, Ø. Ellingsen, L. Vatten, and U. Wisløff, “Peak oxygen uptake and cardiovascular risk factors in 4631 healthy women and men,” Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 43(8), 1465–1473 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

M. D. Herr, C. S. Hogeman, D. W. Koch, A. Krishnan, A. Momen, and U. A. Leuenberger, “A real-time device for converting Doppler ultrasound audio signals into fluid flow velocity,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 298(5), H1626–H1632 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Durduran, R. Choe, W. B. Baker, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optics for tissue monitoring and tomography,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 73(7), 076701 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

American College of Sports Medicine W. J. Chodzko-Zajko, D. N. Proctor, M. A. F. Singh, C. T. Minson, C. R. Nigg, G. J. Salem, and J. S. Skinner, “Exercise and physical activity for older adults,” Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 41(7), 1510–1530 (2009).
[PubMed]

C. Zhou, S. A. Eucker, T. Durduran, G. Yu, J. Ralston, S. H. Friess, R. N. Ichord, S. S. Margulies, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical monitoring of hemodynamic changes in piglet brain with closed head injury,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 034015 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

D. P. Casey, T. B. Curry, and M. J. Joyner, “Measuring muscle blood flow: a key link between systemic and regional metabolism,” Curr. Opin. Clin. Nutr. Metab. Care 11(5), 580–586 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

2005 (1)

G. Yu, T. Durduran, G. Lech, C. Zhou, B. Chance, E. R. Mohler, and A. G. Yodh, “Time-dependent blood flow and oxygenation in human skeletal muscles measured with noninvasive near-infrared diffuse optical spectroscopies,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(2), 024027 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

D. H. Paterson, D. Govindasamy, M. Vidmar, D. A. Cunningham, and J. J. Koval, “Longitudinal study of determinants of dependence in an elderly population,” J. Am. Geriatr. Soc. 52(10), 1632–1638 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

S. N. Blair, H. W. Kohl, C. E. Barlow, R. S. Paffenbarger, L. W. Gibbons, and C. A. Macera, “Changes in physical fitness and all-cause mortality. A prospective study of healthy and unhealthy men,” JAMA 273(14), 1093–1098 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

S. N. Blair, H. W. Kohl, R. S. Paffenbarger, D. G. Clark, K. H. Cooper, and L. W. Gibbons, “Physical fitness and all-cause mortality. A prospective study of healthy men and women,” JAMA 262(17), 2395–2401 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1972 (1)

A. Keys, F. Fidanza, M. J. Karvonen, N. Kimura, and H. L. Taylor, “Indices of relative weight and obesity,” J. Chronic Dis. 25(6), 329–343 (1972).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aspenes, S. T.

S. T. Aspenes, T. I. Nilsen, E. A. Skaug, G. F. Bertheussen, Ø. Ellingsen, L. Vatten, and U. Wisløff, “Peak oxygen uptake and cardiovascular risk factors in 4631 healthy women and men,” Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 43(8), 1465–1473 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baker, W. B.

T. Durduran, R. Choe, W. B. Baker, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optics for tissue monitoring and tomography,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 73(7), 076701 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barlow, C. E.

S. N. Blair, H. W. Kohl, C. E. Barlow, R. S. Paffenbarger, L. W. Gibbons, and C. A. Macera, “Changes in physical fitness and all-cause mortality. A prospective study of healthy and unhealthy men,” JAMA 273(14), 1093–1098 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bertheussen, G. F.

S. T. Aspenes, T. I. Nilsen, E. A. Skaug, G. F. Bertheussen, Ø. Ellingsen, L. Vatten, and U. Wisløff, “Peak oxygen uptake and cardiovascular risk factors in 4631 healthy women and men,” Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 43(8), 1465–1473 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bi, R.

R. Bi, J. Dong, C. L. Poh, and K. Lee, “Optical methods for blood perfusion measurement-theoretical comparison among four different modalities,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 32(5), 860–866 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Dong, R. Bi, J. H. Ho, P. S. Thong, K. C. Soo, and K. Lee, “Diffuse correlation spectroscopy with a fast Fourier transform-based software autocorrelator,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(9), 097004 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Blair, S. N.

S. N. Blair, H. W. Kohl, C. E. Barlow, R. S. Paffenbarger, L. W. Gibbons, and C. A. Macera, “Changes in physical fitness and all-cause mortality. A prospective study of healthy and unhealthy men,” JAMA 273(14), 1093–1098 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. N. Blair, H. W. Kohl, R. S. Paffenbarger, D. G. Clark, K. H. Cooper, and L. W. Gibbons, “Physical fitness and all-cause mortality. A prospective study of healthy men and women,” JAMA 262(17), 2395–2401 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boas, D. A.

D. A. Boas, S. Sakadžić, J. Selb, P. Farzam, M. A. Franceschini, and S. A. Carp, “Establishing the diffuse correlation spectroscopy signal relationship with blood flow,” Neurophotonics 3(3), 031412 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carp, S. A.

D. A. Boas, S. Sakadžić, J. Selb, P. Farzam, M. A. Franceschini, and S. A. Carp, “Establishing the diffuse correlation spectroscopy signal relationship with blood flow,” Neurophotonics 3(3), 031412 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Casey, D. P.

D. P. Casey, T. B. Curry, and M. J. Joyner, “Measuring muscle blood flow: a key link between systemic and regional metabolism,” Curr. Opin. Clin. Nutr. Metab. Care 11(5), 580–586 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chance, B.

G. Yu, T. Durduran, G. Lech, C. Zhou, B. Chance, E. R. Mohler, and A. G. Yodh, “Time-dependent blood flow and oxygenation in human skeletal muscles measured with noninvasive near-infrared diffuse optical spectroscopies,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(2), 024027 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, L.

Cheng, R.

N. Munk, B. Symons, Y. Shang, R. Cheng, and G. Yu, “Noninvasively measuring the hemodynamic effects of massage on skeletal muscle: A novel hybrid near-infrared diffuse optical instrument,” J. Bodyw. Mov. Ther. 16(1), 22–28 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chodzko-Zajko, W. J.

American College of Sports Medicine W. J. Chodzko-Zajko, D. N. Proctor, M. A. F. Singh, C. T. Minson, C. R. Nigg, G. J. Salem, and J. S. Skinner, “Exercise and physical activity for older adults,” Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 41(7), 1510–1530 (2009).
[PubMed]

Choe, R.

T. Durduran, R. Choe, W. B. Baker, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optics for tissue monitoring and tomography,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 73(7), 076701 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Clark, D. G.

S. N. Blair, H. W. Kohl, R. S. Paffenbarger, D. G. Clark, K. H. Cooper, and L. W. Gibbons, “Physical fitness and all-cause mortality. A prospective study of healthy men and women,” JAMA 262(17), 2395–2401 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cooper, K. H.

S. N. Blair, H. W. Kohl, R. S. Paffenbarger, D. G. Clark, K. H. Cooper, and L. W. Gibbons, “Physical fitness and all-cause mortality. A prospective study of healthy men and women,” JAMA 262(17), 2395–2401 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Crofford, L. J.

Y. Shang, K. Gurley, B. Symons, D. Long, R. Srikuea, L. J. Crofford, C. A. Peterson, and G. Yu, “Noninvasive optical characterization of muscle blood flow, oxygenation, and metabolism in women with fibromyalgia,” Arthritis Res. Ther. 14(6), R236 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cunningham, D. A.

D. H. Paterson, D. Govindasamy, M. Vidmar, D. A. Cunningham, and J. J. Koval, “Longitudinal study of determinants of dependence in an elderly population,” J. Am. Geriatr. Soc. 52(10), 1632–1638 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Curry, T. B.

D. P. Casey, T. B. Curry, and M. J. Joyner, “Measuring muscle blood flow: a key link between systemic and regional metabolism,” Curr. Opin. Clin. Nutr. Metab. Care 11(5), 580–586 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Detre, J. A.

M. N. Kim, B. L. Edlow, T. Durduran, S. Frangos, R. C. Mesquita, J. M. Levine, J. H. Greenberg, A. G. Yodh, and J. A. Detre, “Continuous optical monitoring of cerebral hemodynamics during head-of-bed manipulation in brain-injured adults,” Neurocrit. Care 20(3), 443–453 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Yu, T. F. Floyd, T. Durduran, C. Zhou, J. Wang, J. A. Detre, and A. G. Yodh, “Validation of diffuse correlation spectroscopy for muscle blood flow with concurrent arterial spin labeled perfusion MRI,” Opt. Express 15(3), 1064–1075 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dong, J.

R. Bi, J. Dong, C. L. Poh, and K. Lee, “Optical methods for blood perfusion measurement-theoretical comparison among four different modalities,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 32(5), 860–866 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Dong, R. Bi, J. H. Ho, P. S. Thong, K. C. Soo, and K. Lee, “Diffuse correlation spectroscopy with a fast Fourier transform-based software autocorrelator,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(9), 097004 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Durduran, T.

M. N. Kim, B. L. Edlow, T. Durduran, S. Frangos, R. C. Mesquita, J. M. Levine, J. H. Greenberg, A. G. Yodh, and J. A. Detre, “Continuous optical monitoring of cerebral hemodynamics during head-of-bed manipulation in brain-injured adults,” Neurocrit. Care 20(3), 443–453 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Durduran, R. Choe, W. B. Baker, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optics for tissue monitoring and tomography,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 73(7), 076701 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Zhou, S. A. Eucker, T. Durduran, G. Yu, J. Ralston, S. H. Friess, R. N. Ichord, S. S. Margulies, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical monitoring of hemodynamic changes in piglet brain with closed head injury,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 034015 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Yu, T. F. Floyd, T. Durduran, C. Zhou, J. Wang, J. A. Detre, and A. G. Yodh, “Validation of diffuse correlation spectroscopy for muscle blood flow with concurrent arterial spin labeled perfusion MRI,” Opt. Express 15(3), 1064–1075 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Yu, T. Durduran, G. Lech, C. Zhou, B. Chance, E. R. Mohler, and A. G. Yodh, “Time-dependent blood flow and oxygenation in human skeletal muscles measured with noninvasive near-infrared diffuse optical spectroscopies,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(2), 024027 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Edlow, B. L.

M. N. Kim, B. L. Edlow, T. Durduran, S. Frangos, R. C. Mesquita, J. M. Levine, J. H. Greenberg, A. G. Yodh, and J. A. Detre, “Continuous optical monitoring of cerebral hemodynamics during head-of-bed manipulation in brain-injured adults,” Neurocrit. Care 20(3), 443–453 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ellingsen, Ø.

S. T. Aspenes, T. I. Nilsen, E. A. Skaug, G. F. Bertheussen, Ø. Ellingsen, L. Vatten, and U. Wisløff, “Peak oxygen uptake and cardiovascular risk factors in 4631 healthy women and men,” Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 43(8), 1465–1473 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eucker, S. A.

C. Zhou, S. A. Eucker, T. Durduran, G. Yu, J. Ralston, S. H. Friess, R. N. Ichord, S. S. Margulies, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical monitoring of hemodynamic changes in piglet brain with closed head injury,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 034015 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Farzam, P.

D. A. Boas, S. Sakadžić, J. Selb, P. Farzam, M. A. Franceschini, and S. A. Carp, “Establishing the diffuse correlation spectroscopy signal relationship with blood flow,” Neurophotonics 3(3), 031412 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fidanza, F.

A. Keys, F. Fidanza, M. J. Karvonen, N. Kimura, and H. L. Taylor, “Indices of relative weight and obesity,” J. Chronic Dis. 25(6), 329–343 (1972).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Floyd, T. F.

Franceschini, M. A.

D. A. Boas, S. Sakadžić, J. Selb, P. Farzam, M. A. Franceschini, and S. A. Carp, “Establishing the diffuse correlation spectroscopy signal relationship with blood flow,” Neurophotonics 3(3), 031412 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Frangos, S.

M. N. Kim, B. L. Edlow, T. Durduran, S. Frangos, R. C. Mesquita, J. M. Levine, J. H. Greenberg, A. G. Yodh, and J. A. Detre, “Continuous optical monitoring of cerebral hemodynamics during head-of-bed manipulation in brain-injured adults,” Neurocrit. Care 20(3), 443–453 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Friess, S. H.

C. Zhou, S. A. Eucker, T. Durduran, G. Yu, J. Ralston, S. H. Friess, R. N. Ichord, S. S. Margulies, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical monitoring of hemodynamic changes in piglet brain with closed head injury,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 034015 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gibbons, L. W.

S. N. Blair, H. W. Kohl, C. E. Barlow, R. S. Paffenbarger, L. W. Gibbons, and C. A. Macera, “Changes in physical fitness and all-cause mortality. A prospective study of healthy and unhealthy men,” JAMA 273(14), 1093–1098 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. N. Blair, H. W. Kohl, R. S. Paffenbarger, D. G. Clark, K. H. Cooper, and L. W. Gibbons, “Physical fitness and all-cause mortality. A prospective study of healthy men and women,” JAMA 262(17), 2395–2401 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Govindasamy, D.

D. H. Paterson, D. Govindasamy, M. Vidmar, D. A. Cunningham, and J. J. Koval, “Longitudinal study of determinants of dependence in an elderly population,” J. Am. Geriatr. Soc. 52(10), 1632–1638 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Green, D. J.

D. H. Thijssen, T. H. Schreuder, S. W. Newcomer, M. H. Laughlin, M. T. Hopman, and D. J. Green, “Impact of 2-weeks continuous increase in retrograde shear stress on brachial artery vasomotor function in young and older men,” J. Am. Heart Assoc. 4(10), e001968 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. H. Schreuder, D. J. Green, M. T. Hopman, and D. H. Thijssen, “Acute impact of retrograde shear rate on brachial and superficial femoral artery flow-mediated dilation in humans,” Physiol. Rep. 2(1), e00193 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Greenberg, J. H.

M. N. Kim, B. L. Edlow, T. Durduran, S. Frangos, R. C. Mesquita, J. M. Levine, J. H. Greenberg, A. G. Yodh, and J. A. Detre, “Continuous optical monitoring of cerebral hemodynamics during head-of-bed manipulation in brain-injured adults,” Neurocrit. Care 20(3), 443–453 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gurley, K.

K. Gurley, Y. Shang, and G. Yu, “Noninvasive optical quantification of absolute blood flow, blood oxygenation, and oxygen consumption rate in exercising skeletal muscle,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(7), 075010 (2012).
[PubMed]

Y. Shang, K. Gurley, B. Symons, D. Long, R. Srikuea, L. J. Crofford, C. A. Peterson, and G. Yu, “Noninvasive optical characterization of muscle blood flow, oxygenation, and metabolism in women with fibromyalgia,” Arthritis Res. Ther. 14(6), R236 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Henry, B.

B. Henry, M. Zhao, Y. Shang, T. Uhl, D. T. Thomas, E. S. Xenos, S. P. Saha, and G. Yu, “Hybrid diffuse optical techniques for continuous hemodynamic measurement in gastrocnemius during plantar flexion exercise,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(12), 125006 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Herr, M. D.

M. D. Herr, C. S. Hogeman, D. W. Koch, A. Krishnan, A. Momen, and U. A. Leuenberger, “A real-time device for converting Doppler ultrasound audio signals into fluid flow velocity,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 298(5), H1626–H1632 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ho, J. H.

J. Dong, R. Bi, J. H. Ho, P. S. Thong, K. C. Soo, and K. Lee, “Diffuse correlation spectroscopy with a fast Fourier transform-based software autocorrelator,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(9), 097004 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hogeman, C. S.

M. D. Herr, C. S. Hogeman, D. W. Koch, A. Krishnan, A. Momen, and U. A. Leuenberger, “A real-time device for converting Doppler ultrasound audio signals into fluid flow velocity,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 298(5), H1626–H1632 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hopman, M. T.

D. H. Thijssen, T. H. Schreuder, S. W. Newcomer, M. H. Laughlin, M. T. Hopman, and D. J. Green, “Impact of 2-weeks continuous increase in retrograde shear stress on brachial artery vasomotor function in young and older men,” J. Am. Heart Assoc. 4(10), e001968 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. H. Schreuder, D. J. Green, M. T. Hopman, and D. H. Thijssen, “Acute impact of retrograde shear rate on brachial and superficial femoral artery flow-mediated dilation in humans,” Physiol. Rep. 2(1), e00193 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ichord, R. N.

C. Zhou, S. A. Eucker, T. Durduran, G. Yu, J. Ralston, S. H. Friess, R. N. Ichord, S. S. Margulies, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical monitoring of hemodynamic changes in piglet brain with closed head injury,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 034015 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ishida, K.

E. Iwamoto, K. Katayama, and K. Ishida, “Exercise intensity modulates brachial artery retrograde blood flow and shear rate during leg cycling in hypoxia,” Physiol. Rep. 3(6), e12423 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Iwamoto, E.

E. Iwamoto, K. Katayama, and K. Ishida, “Exercise intensity modulates brachial artery retrograde blood flow and shear rate during leg cycling in hypoxia,” Physiol. Rep. 3(6), e12423 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Joyner, M. J.

D. P. Casey, T. B. Curry, and M. J. Joyner, “Measuring muscle blood flow: a key link between systemic and regional metabolism,” Curr. Opin. Clin. Nutr. Metab. Care 11(5), 580–586 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Karvonen, M. J.

A. Keys, F. Fidanza, M. J. Karvonen, N. Kimura, and H. L. Taylor, “Indices of relative weight and obesity,” J. Chronic Dis. 25(6), 329–343 (1972).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Katayama, K.

E. Iwamoto, K. Katayama, and K. Ishida, “Exercise intensity modulates brachial artery retrograde blood flow and shear rate during leg cycling in hypoxia,” Physiol. Rep. 3(6), e12423 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Keys, A.

A. Keys, F. Fidanza, M. J. Karvonen, N. Kimura, and H. L. Taylor, “Indices of relative weight and obesity,” J. Chronic Dis. 25(6), 329–343 (1972).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, M. N.

M. N. Kim, B. L. Edlow, T. Durduran, S. Frangos, R. C. Mesquita, J. M. Levine, J. H. Greenberg, A. G. Yodh, and J. A. Detre, “Continuous optical monitoring of cerebral hemodynamics during head-of-bed manipulation in brain-injured adults,” Neurocrit. Care 20(3), 443–453 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kimura, N.

A. Keys, F. Fidanza, M. J. Karvonen, N. Kimura, and H. L. Taylor, “Indices of relative weight and obesity,” J. Chronic Dis. 25(6), 329–343 (1972).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Koch, D. W.

M. D. Herr, C. S. Hogeman, D. W. Koch, A. Krishnan, A. Momen, and U. A. Leuenberger, “A real-time device for converting Doppler ultrasound audio signals into fluid flow velocity,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 298(5), H1626–H1632 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kohl, H. W.

S. N. Blair, H. W. Kohl, C. E. Barlow, R. S. Paffenbarger, L. W. Gibbons, and C. A. Macera, “Changes in physical fitness and all-cause mortality. A prospective study of healthy and unhealthy men,” JAMA 273(14), 1093–1098 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. N. Blair, H. W. Kohl, R. S. Paffenbarger, D. G. Clark, K. H. Cooper, and L. W. Gibbons, “Physical fitness and all-cause mortality. A prospective study of healthy men and women,” JAMA 262(17), 2395–2401 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Koval, J. J.

D. H. Paterson, D. Govindasamy, M. Vidmar, D. A. Cunningham, and J. J. Koval, “Longitudinal study of determinants of dependence in an elderly population,” J. Am. Geriatr. Soc. 52(10), 1632–1638 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Krishnan, A.

M. D. Herr, C. S. Hogeman, D. W. Koch, A. Krishnan, A. Momen, and U. A. Leuenberger, “A real-time device for converting Doppler ultrasound audio signals into fluid flow velocity,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 298(5), H1626–H1632 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Laughlin, M. H.

D. H. Thijssen, T. H. Schreuder, S. W. Newcomer, M. H. Laughlin, M. T. Hopman, and D. J. Green, “Impact of 2-weeks continuous increase in retrograde shear stress on brachial artery vasomotor function in young and older men,” J. Am. Heart Assoc. 4(10), e001968 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lech, G.

G. Yu, T. Durduran, G. Lech, C. Zhou, B. Chance, E. R. Mohler, and A. G. Yodh, “Time-dependent blood flow and oxygenation in human skeletal muscles measured with noninvasive near-infrared diffuse optical spectroscopies,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(2), 024027 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, K.

R. Bi, J. Dong, C. L. Poh, and K. Lee, “Optical methods for blood perfusion measurement-theoretical comparison among four different modalities,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 32(5), 860–866 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Dong, R. Bi, J. H. Ho, P. S. Thong, K. C. Soo, and K. Lee, “Diffuse correlation spectroscopy with a fast Fourier transform-based software autocorrelator,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(9), 097004 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leuenberger, U. A.

M. D. Herr, C. S. Hogeman, D. W. Koch, A. Krishnan, A. Momen, and U. A. Leuenberger, “A real-time device for converting Doppler ultrasound audio signals into fluid flow velocity,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 298(5), H1626–H1632 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Levine, J. M.

M. N. Kim, B. L. Edlow, T. Durduran, S. Frangos, R. C. Mesquita, J. M. Levine, J. H. Greenberg, A. G. Yodh, and J. A. Detre, “Continuous optical monitoring of cerebral hemodynamics during head-of-bed manipulation in brain-injured adults,” Neurocrit. Care 20(3), 443–453 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Long, D.

Y. Shang, K. Gurley, B. Symons, D. Long, R. Srikuea, L. J. Crofford, C. A. Peterson, and G. Yu, “Noninvasive optical characterization of muscle blood flow, oxygenation, and metabolism in women with fibromyalgia,” Arthritis Res. Ther. 14(6), R236 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Macera, C. A.

S. N. Blair, H. W. Kohl, C. E. Barlow, R. S. Paffenbarger, L. W. Gibbons, and C. A. Macera, “Changes in physical fitness and all-cause mortality. A prospective study of healthy and unhealthy men,” JAMA 273(14), 1093–1098 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Margulies, S. S.

C. Zhou, S. A. Eucker, T. Durduran, G. Yu, J. Ralston, S. H. Friess, R. N. Ichord, S. S. Margulies, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical monitoring of hemodynamic changes in piglet brain with closed head injury,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 034015 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McCully, K. K.

T. E. Ryan, W. M. Southern, M. A. Reynolds, and K. K. McCully, “A cross-validation of near-infrared spectroscopy measurements of skeletal muscle oxidative capacity with phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Physiol. 115(12), 1757–1766 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mesquita, R. C.

M. N. Kim, B. L. Edlow, T. Durduran, S. Frangos, R. C. Mesquita, J. M. Levine, J. H. Greenberg, A. G. Yodh, and J. A. Detre, “Continuous optical monitoring of cerebral hemodynamics during head-of-bed manipulation in brain-injured adults,” Neurocrit. Care 20(3), 443–453 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Minson, C. T.

American College of Sports Medicine W. J. Chodzko-Zajko, D. N. Proctor, M. A. F. Singh, C. T. Minson, C. R. Nigg, G. J. Salem, and J. S. Skinner, “Exercise and physical activity for older adults,” Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 41(7), 1510–1530 (2009).
[PubMed]

Mohler, E. R.

G. Yu, T. Durduran, G. Lech, C. Zhou, B. Chance, E. R. Mohler, and A. G. Yodh, “Time-dependent blood flow and oxygenation in human skeletal muscles measured with noninvasive near-infrared diffuse optical spectroscopies,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(2), 024027 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Momen, A.

M. D. Herr, C. S. Hogeman, D. W. Koch, A. Krishnan, A. Momen, and U. A. Leuenberger, “A real-time device for converting Doppler ultrasound audio signals into fluid flow velocity,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 298(5), H1626–H1632 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Munk, N.

N. Munk, B. Symons, Y. Shang, R. Cheng, and G. Yu, “Noninvasively measuring the hemodynamic effects of massage on skeletal muscle: A novel hybrid near-infrared diffuse optical instrument,” J. Bodyw. Mov. Ther. 16(1), 22–28 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Newcomer, S. W.

D. H. Thijssen, T. H. Schreuder, S. W. Newcomer, M. H. Laughlin, M. T. Hopman, and D. J. Green, “Impact of 2-weeks continuous increase in retrograde shear stress on brachial artery vasomotor function in young and older men,” J. Am. Heart Assoc. 4(10), e001968 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nigg, C. R.

American College of Sports Medicine W. J. Chodzko-Zajko, D. N. Proctor, M. A. F. Singh, C. T. Minson, C. R. Nigg, G. J. Salem, and J. S. Skinner, “Exercise and physical activity for older adults,” Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 41(7), 1510–1530 (2009).
[PubMed]

Nilsen, T. I.

S. T. Aspenes, T. I. Nilsen, E. A. Skaug, G. F. Bertheussen, Ø. Ellingsen, L. Vatten, and U. Wisløff, “Peak oxygen uptake and cardiovascular risk factors in 4631 healthy women and men,” Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 43(8), 1465–1473 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Paffenbarger, R. S.

S. N. Blair, H. W. Kohl, C. E. Barlow, R. S. Paffenbarger, L. W. Gibbons, and C. A. Macera, “Changes in physical fitness and all-cause mortality. A prospective study of healthy and unhealthy men,” JAMA 273(14), 1093–1098 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. N. Blair, H. W. Kohl, R. S. Paffenbarger, D. G. Clark, K. H. Cooper, and L. W. Gibbons, “Physical fitness and all-cause mortality. A prospective study of healthy men and women,” JAMA 262(17), 2395–2401 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Paterson, D. H.

D. H. Paterson, D. Govindasamy, M. Vidmar, D. A. Cunningham, and J. J. Koval, “Longitudinal study of determinants of dependence in an elderly population,” J. Am. Geriatr. Soc. 52(10), 1632–1638 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Peterson, C. A.

Y. Shang, K. Gurley, B. Symons, D. Long, R. Srikuea, L. J. Crofford, C. A. Peterson, and G. Yu, “Noninvasive optical characterization of muscle blood flow, oxygenation, and metabolism in women with fibromyalgia,” Arthritis Res. Ther. 14(6), R236 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Poh, C. L.

Proctor, D. N.

American College of Sports Medicine W. J. Chodzko-Zajko, D. N. Proctor, M. A. F. Singh, C. T. Minson, C. R. Nigg, G. J. Salem, and J. S. Skinner, “Exercise and physical activity for older adults,” Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 41(7), 1510–1530 (2009).
[PubMed]

Ralston, J.

C. Zhou, S. A. Eucker, T. Durduran, G. Yu, J. Ralston, S. H. Friess, R. N. Ichord, S. S. Margulies, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical monitoring of hemodynamic changes in piglet brain with closed head injury,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 034015 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reynolds, M. A.

T. E. Ryan, W. M. Southern, M. A. Reynolds, and K. K. McCully, “A cross-validation of near-infrared spectroscopy measurements of skeletal muscle oxidative capacity with phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Physiol. 115(12), 1757–1766 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Richardson, R. S.

M. Venturelli, F. Schena, and R. S. Richardson, “The role of exercise capacity in the health and longevity of centenarians,” Maturitas 73(2), 115–120 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ryan, T. E.

T. E. Ryan, W. M. Southern, M. A. Reynolds, and K. K. McCully, “A cross-validation of near-infrared spectroscopy measurements of skeletal muscle oxidative capacity with phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Physiol. 115(12), 1757–1766 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Saha, S. P.

B. Henry, M. Zhao, Y. Shang, T. Uhl, D. T. Thomas, E. S. Xenos, S. P. Saha, and G. Yu, “Hybrid diffuse optical techniques for continuous hemodynamic measurement in gastrocnemius during plantar flexion exercise,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(12), 125006 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sakadžic, S.

D. A. Boas, S. Sakadžić, J. Selb, P. Farzam, M. A. Franceschini, and S. A. Carp, “Establishing the diffuse correlation spectroscopy signal relationship with blood flow,” Neurophotonics 3(3), 031412 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Salem, G. J.

American College of Sports Medicine W. J. Chodzko-Zajko, D. N. Proctor, M. A. F. Singh, C. T. Minson, C. R. Nigg, G. J. Salem, and J. S. Skinner, “Exercise and physical activity for older adults,” Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 41(7), 1510–1530 (2009).
[PubMed]

Schena, F.

M. Venturelli, F. Schena, and R. S. Richardson, “The role of exercise capacity in the health and longevity of centenarians,” Maturitas 73(2), 115–120 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schreuder, T. H.

D. H. Thijssen, T. H. Schreuder, S. W. Newcomer, M. H. Laughlin, M. T. Hopman, and D. J. Green, “Impact of 2-weeks continuous increase in retrograde shear stress on brachial artery vasomotor function in young and older men,” J. Am. Heart Assoc. 4(10), e001968 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. H. Schreuder, D. J. Green, M. T. Hopman, and D. H. Thijssen, “Acute impact of retrograde shear rate on brachial and superficial femoral artery flow-mediated dilation in humans,” Physiol. Rep. 2(1), e00193 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Selb, J.

D. A. Boas, S. Sakadžić, J. Selb, P. Farzam, M. A. Franceschini, and S. A. Carp, “Establishing the diffuse correlation spectroscopy signal relationship with blood flow,” Neurophotonics 3(3), 031412 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shang, Y.

B. Henry, M. Zhao, Y. Shang, T. Uhl, D. T. Thomas, E. S. Xenos, S. P. Saha, and G. Yu, “Hybrid diffuse optical techniques for continuous hemodynamic measurement in gastrocnemius during plantar flexion exercise,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(12), 125006 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Shang, K. Gurley, B. Symons, D. Long, R. Srikuea, L. J. Crofford, C. A. Peterson, and G. Yu, “Noninvasive optical characterization of muscle blood flow, oxygenation, and metabolism in women with fibromyalgia,” Arthritis Res. Ther. 14(6), R236 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Munk, B. Symons, Y. Shang, R. Cheng, and G. Yu, “Noninvasively measuring the hemodynamic effects of massage on skeletal muscle: A novel hybrid near-infrared diffuse optical instrument,” J. Bodyw. Mov. Ther. 16(1), 22–28 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Gurley, Y. Shang, and G. Yu, “Noninvasive optical quantification of absolute blood flow, blood oxygenation, and oxygen consumption rate in exercising skeletal muscle,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(7), 075010 (2012).
[PubMed]

Y. Shang, L. Chen, M. Toborek, and G. Yu, “Diffuse optical monitoring of repeated cerebral ischemia in mice,” Opt. Express 19(21), 20301–20315 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Singh, M. A. F.

American College of Sports Medicine W. J. Chodzko-Zajko, D. N. Proctor, M. A. F. Singh, C. T. Minson, C. R. Nigg, G. J. Salem, and J. S. Skinner, “Exercise and physical activity for older adults,” Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 41(7), 1510–1530 (2009).
[PubMed]

Skaug, E. A.

S. T. Aspenes, T. I. Nilsen, E. A. Skaug, G. F. Bertheussen, Ø. Ellingsen, L. Vatten, and U. Wisløff, “Peak oxygen uptake and cardiovascular risk factors in 4631 healthy women and men,” Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 43(8), 1465–1473 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Skinner, J. S.

American College of Sports Medicine W. J. Chodzko-Zajko, D. N. Proctor, M. A. F. Singh, C. T. Minson, C. R. Nigg, G. J. Salem, and J. S. Skinner, “Exercise and physical activity for older adults,” Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 41(7), 1510–1530 (2009).
[PubMed]

Soo, K. C.

J. Dong, R. Bi, J. H. Ho, P. S. Thong, K. C. Soo, and K. Lee, “Diffuse correlation spectroscopy with a fast Fourier transform-based software autocorrelator,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(9), 097004 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Southern, W. M.

T. E. Ryan, W. M. Southern, M. A. Reynolds, and K. K. McCully, “A cross-validation of near-infrared spectroscopy measurements of skeletal muscle oxidative capacity with phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Physiol. 115(12), 1757–1766 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Srikuea, R.

Y. Shang, K. Gurley, B. Symons, D. Long, R. Srikuea, L. J. Crofford, C. A. Peterson, and G. Yu, “Noninvasive optical characterization of muscle blood flow, oxygenation, and metabolism in women with fibromyalgia,” Arthritis Res. Ther. 14(6), R236 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Symons, B.

N. Munk, B. Symons, Y. Shang, R. Cheng, and G. Yu, “Noninvasively measuring the hemodynamic effects of massage on skeletal muscle: A novel hybrid near-infrared diffuse optical instrument,” J. Bodyw. Mov. Ther. 16(1), 22–28 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Shang, K. Gurley, B. Symons, D. Long, R. Srikuea, L. J. Crofford, C. A. Peterson, and G. Yu, “Noninvasive optical characterization of muscle blood flow, oxygenation, and metabolism in women with fibromyalgia,” Arthritis Res. Ther. 14(6), R236 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Taylor, H. L.

A. Keys, F. Fidanza, M. J. Karvonen, N. Kimura, and H. L. Taylor, “Indices of relative weight and obesity,” J. Chronic Dis. 25(6), 329–343 (1972).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thijssen, D. H.

D. H. Thijssen, T. H. Schreuder, S. W. Newcomer, M. H. Laughlin, M. T. Hopman, and D. J. Green, “Impact of 2-weeks continuous increase in retrograde shear stress on brachial artery vasomotor function in young and older men,” J. Am. Heart Assoc. 4(10), e001968 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. H. Schreuder, D. J. Green, M. T. Hopman, and D. H. Thijssen, “Acute impact of retrograde shear rate on brachial and superficial femoral artery flow-mediated dilation in humans,” Physiol. Rep. 2(1), e00193 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thomas, D. T.

B. Henry, M. Zhao, Y. Shang, T. Uhl, D. T. Thomas, E. S. Xenos, S. P. Saha, and G. Yu, “Hybrid diffuse optical techniques for continuous hemodynamic measurement in gastrocnemius during plantar flexion exercise,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(12), 125006 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thong, P. S.

J. Dong, R. Bi, J. H. Ho, P. S. Thong, K. C. Soo, and K. Lee, “Diffuse correlation spectroscopy with a fast Fourier transform-based software autocorrelator,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(9), 097004 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Toborek, M.

Uhl, T.

B. Henry, M. Zhao, Y. Shang, T. Uhl, D. T. Thomas, E. S. Xenos, S. P. Saha, and G. Yu, “Hybrid diffuse optical techniques for continuous hemodynamic measurement in gastrocnemius during plantar flexion exercise,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(12), 125006 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vatten, L.

S. T. Aspenes, T. I. Nilsen, E. A. Skaug, G. F. Bertheussen, Ø. Ellingsen, L. Vatten, and U. Wisløff, “Peak oxygen uptake and cardiovascular risk factors in 4631 healthy women and men,” Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 43(8), 1465–1473 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Venturelli, M.

M. Venturelli, F. Schena, and R. S. Richardson, “The role of exercise capacity in the health and longevity of centenarians,” Maturitas 73(2), 115–120 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vidmar, M.

D. H. Paterson, D. Govindasamy, M. Vidmar, D. A. Cunningham, and J. J. Koval, “Longitudinal study of determinants of dependence in an elderly population,” J. Am. Geriatr. Soc. 52(10), 1632–1638 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, J.

Wisløff, U.

S. T. Aspenes, T. I. Nilsen, E. A. Skaug, G. F. Bertheussen, Ø. Ellingsen, L. Vatten, and U. Wisløff, “Peak oxygen uptake and cardiovascular risk factors in 4631 healthy women and men,” Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 43(8), 1465–1473 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xenos, E. S.

B. Henry, M. Zhao, Y. Shang, T. Uhl, D. T. Thomas, E. S. Xenos, S. P. Saha, and G. Yu, “Hybrid diffuse optical techniques for continuous hemodynamic measurement in gastrocnemius during plantar flexion exercise,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(12), 125006 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yodh, A. G.

M. N. Kim, B. L. Edlow, T. Durduran, S. Frangos, R. C. Mesquita, J. M. Levine, J. H. Greenberg, A. G. Yodh, and J. A. Detre, “Continuous optical monitoring of cerebral hemodynamics during head-of-bed manipulation in brain-injured adults,” Neurocrit. Care 20(3), 443–453 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Durduran, R. Choe, W. B. Baker, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optics for tissue monitoring and tomography,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 73(7), 076701 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Zhou, S. A. Eucker, T. Durduran, G. Yu, J. Ralston, S. H. Friess, R. N. Ichord, S. S. Margulies, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical monitoring of hemodynamic changes in piglet brain with closed head injury,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 034015 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Yu, T. F. Floyd, T. Durduran, C. Zhou, J. Wang, J. A. Detre, and A. G. Yodh, “Validation of diffuse correlation spectroscopy for muscle blood flow with concurrent arterial spin labeled perfusion MRI,” Opt. Express 15(3), 1064–1075 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Yu, T. Durduran, G. Lech, C. Zhou, B. Chance, E. R. Mohler, and A. G. Yodh, “Time-dependent blood flow and oxygenation in human skeletal muscles measured with noninvasive near-infrared diffuse optical spectroscopies,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(2), 024027 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, G.

B. Henry, M. Zhao, Y. Shang, T. Uhl, D. T. Thomas, E. S. Xenos, S. P. Saha, and G. Yu, “Hybrid diffuse optical techniques for continuous hemodynamic measurement in gastrocnemius during plantar flexion exercise,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(12), 125006 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Shang, K. Gurley, B. Symons, D. Long, R. Srikuea, L. J. Crofford, C. A. Peterson, and G. Yu, “Noninvasive optical characterization of muscle blood flow, oxygenation, and metabolism in women with fibromyalgia,” Arthritis Res. Ther. 14(6), R236 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Munk, B. Symons, Y. Shang, R. Cheng, and G. Yu, “Noninvasively measuring the hemodynamic effects of massage on skeletal muscle: A novel hybrid near-infrared diffuse optical instrument,” J. Bodyw. Mov. Ther. 16(1), 22–28 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Gurley, Y. Shang, and G. Yu, “Noninvasive optical quantification of absolute blood flow, blood oxygenation, and oxygen consumption rate in exercising skeletal muscle,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(7), 075010 (2012).
[PubMed]

Y. Shang, L. Chen, M. Toborek, and G. Yu, “Diffuse optical monitoring of repeated cerebral ischemia in mice,” Opt. Express 19(21), 20301–20315 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Zhou, S. A. Eucker, T. Durduran, G. Yu, J. Ralston, S. H. Friess, R. N. Ichord, S. S. Margulies, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical monitoring of hemodynamic changes in piglet brain with closed head injury,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 034015 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Yu, T. F. Floyd, T. Durduran, C. Zhou, J. Wang, J. A. Detre, and A. G. Yodh, “Validation of diffuse correlation spectroscopy for muscle blood flow with concurrent arterial spin labeled perfusion MRI,” Opt. Express 15(3), 1064–1075 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Yu, T. Durduran, G. Lech, C. Zhou, B. Chance, E. R. Mohler, and A. G. Yodh, “Time-dependent blood flow and oxygenation in human skeletal muscles measured with noninvasive near-infrared diffuse optical spectroscopies,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(2), 024027 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, M.

B. Henry, M. Zhao, Y. Shang, T. Uhl, D. T. Thomas, E. S. Xenos, S. P. Saha, and G. Yu, “Hybrid diffuse optical techniques for continuous hemodynamic measurement in gastrocnemius during plantar flexion exercise,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(12), 125006 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, C.

C. Zhou, S. A. Eucker, T. Durduran, G. Yu, J. Ralston, S. H. Friess, R. N. Ichord, S. S. Margulies, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical monitoring of hemodynamic changes in piglet brain with closed head injury,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 034015 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Yu, T. F. Floyd, T. Durduran, C. Zhou, J. Wang, J. A. Detre, and A. G. Yodh, “Validation of diffuse correlation spectroscopy for muscle blood flow with concurrent arterial spin labeled perfusion MRI,” Opt. Express 15(3), 1064–1075 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Yu, T. Durduran, G. Lech, C. Zhou, B. Chance, E. R. Mohler, and A. G. Yodh, “Time-dependent blood flow and oxygenation in human skeletal muscles measured with noninvasive near-infrared diffuse optical spectroscopies,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(2), 024027 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. (1)

M. D. Herr, C. S. Hogeman, D. W. Koch, A. Krishnan, A. Momen, and U. A. Leuenberger, “A real-time device for converting Doppler ultrasound audio signals into fluid flow velocity,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 298(5), H1626–H1632 (2010).
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Arthritis Res. Ther. (1)

Y. Shang, K. Gurley, B. Symons, D. Long, R. Srikuea, L. J. Crofford, C. A. Peterson, and G. Yu, “Noninvasive optical characterization of muscle blood flow, oxygenation, and metabolism in women with fibromyalgia,” Arthritis Res. Ther. 14(6), R236 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Curr. Opin. Clin. Nutr. Metab. Care (1)

D. P. Casey, T. B. Curry, and M. J. Joyner, “Measuring muscle blood flow: a key link between systemic and regional metabolism,” Curr. Opin. Clin. Nutr. Metab. Care 11(5), 580–586 (2008).
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J. Am. Geriatr. Soc. (1)

D. H. Paterson, D. Govindasamy, M. Vidmar, D. A. Cunningham, and J. J. Koval, “Longitudinal study of determinants of dependence in an elderly population,” J. Am. Geriatr. Soc. 52(10), 1632–1638 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Am. Heart Assoc. (1)

D. H. Thijssen, T. H. Schreuder, S. W. Newcomer, M. H. Laughlin, M. T. Hopman, and D. J. Green, “Impact of 2-weeks continuous increase in retrograde shear stress on brachial artery vasomotor function in young and older men,” J. Am. Heart Assoc. 4(10), e001968 (2015).
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T. E. Ryan, W. M. Southern, M. A. Reynolds, and K. K. McCully, “A cross-validation of near-infrared spectroscopy measurements of skeletal muscle oxidative capacity with phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Physiol. 115(12), 1757–1766 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (5)

G. Yu, T. Durduran, G. Lech, C. Zhou, B. Chance, E. R. Mohler, and A. G. Yodh, “Time-dependent blood flow and oxygenation in human skeletal muscles measured with noninvasive near-infrared diffuse optical spectroscopies,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(2), 024027 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Henry, M. Zhao, Y. Shang, T. Uhl, D. T. Thomas, E. S. Xenos, S. P. Saha, and G. Yu, “Hybrid diffuse optical techniques for continuous hemodynamic measurement in gastrocnemius during plantar flexion exercise,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(12), 125006 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Gurley, Y. Shang, and G. Yu, “Noninvasive optical quantification of absolute blood flow, blood oxygenation, and oxygen consumption rate in exercising skeletal muscle,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(7), 075010 (2012).
[PubMed]

J. Dong, R. Bi, J. H. Ho, P. S. Thong, K. C. Soo, and K. Lee, “Diffuse correlation spectroscopy with a fast Fourier transform-based software autocorrelator,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(9), 097004 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Zhou, S. A. Eucker, T. Durduran, G. Yu, J. Ralston, S. H. Friess, R. N. Ichord, S. S. Margulies, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical monitoring of hemodynamic changes in piglet brain with closed head injury,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 034015 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Bodyw. Mov. Ther. (1)

N. Munk, B. Symons, Y. Shang, R. Cheng, and G. Yu, “Noninvasively measuring the hemodynamic effects of massage on skeletal muscle: A novel hybrid near-infrared diffuse optical instrument,” J. Bodyw. Mov. Ther. 16(1), 22–28 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Maturitas (1)

M. Venturelli, F. Schena, and R. S. Richardson, “The role of exercise capacity in the health and longevity of centenarians,” Maturitas 73(2), 115–120 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. (2)

American College of Sports Medicine W. J. Chodzko-Zajko, D. N. Proctor, M. A. F. Singh, C. T. Minson, C. R. Nigg, G. J. Salem, and J. S. Skinner, “Exercise and physical activity for older adults,” Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 41(7), 1510–1530 (2009).
[PubMed]

S. T. Aspenes, T. I. Nilsen, E. A. Skaug, G. F. Bertheussen, Ø. Ellingsen, L. Vatten, and U. Wisløff, “Peak oxygen uptake and cardiovascular risk factors in 4631 healthy women and men,” Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 43(8), 1465–1473 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Neurocrit. Care (1)

M. N. Kim, B. L. Edlow, T. Durduran, S. Frangos, R. C. Mesquita, J. M. Levine, J. H. Greenberg, A. G. Yodh, and J. A. Detre, “Continuous optical monitoring of cerebral hemodynamics during head-of-bed manipulation in brain-injured adults,” Neurocrit. Care 20(3), 443–453 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Neurophotonics (1)

D. A. Boas, S. Sakadžić, J. Selb, P. Farzam, M. A. Franceschini, and S. A. Carp, “Establishing the diffuse correlation spectroscopy signal relationship with blood flow,” Neurophotonics 3(3), 031412 (2016).
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Opt. Express (2)

Physiol. Rep. (2)

E. Iwamoto, K. Katayama, and K. Ishida, “Exercise intensity modulates brachial artery retrograde blood flow and shear rate during leg cycling in hypoxia,” Physiol. Rep. 3(6), e12423 (2015).
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T. H. Schreuder, D. J. Green, M. T. Hopman, and D. H. Thijssen, “Acute impact of retrograde shear rate on brachial and superficial femoral artery flow-mediated dilation in humans,” Physiol. Rep. 2(1), e00193 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

T. Durduran, R. Choe, W. B. Baker, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optics for tissue monitoring and tomography,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 73(7), 076701 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (1)

S. Prahl, “Optical Absorption of Hemoglobin,” http://omlc.org/spectra/hemoglobin/ .

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic of experimental setup. Blood pressure was measured using a servo-controlled finger photoplethysmography on the middle or index finger of the right hand (the non-exercising side). Brachial artery blood flow velocity and diameter were measured on the right upper arm with a duplex ultrasound system. The DCS probe was affixed to the left forearm over the belly of the flexor digitorum profundus.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Paradigm of the handgrip exercise experiment. The experiment consisted of four stages: baseline, rhythmic handgrip exercise at 20% and then 50% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), and post-exercise recovery. Each stage lasted two minutes. During the exercise period, the subject repeatedly griped the dynamometer for two seconds and then released for two seconds.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Raw data of handgrip force (top), arterial blood pressure (middle) and brachial artery blood flow velocity (bottom) from one subject: (a) Real-time data throughout baseline, handgrip exercise at 20% and then 50% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), and post-exercise recovery. (b) Enlarged 4-second data segments in each stage: baseline, 20%-MVC and 50%-MVC handgrip exercise, and recovery.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Changes in mean arterial pressure (mean ± SE, n = 9) through the four experimental stages: baseline, handgrip exercise at 20% and then 50% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), and post-exercise recovery. Differences between every two successive states were examined with paired t-test, and the p-values were corrected with the Bonferroni method for multiple comparisons.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Doppler ultrasound and DCS results at the group level: (a) to (c) Brachial artery blood flow velocity measured with Doppler ultrasound, regional muscle blood flow and optical density measured with DCS (mean ± SE, n = 9). (d) Normalized decay of brachial artery blood flow velocity, regional muscle blood flow and optical density in recovery stage.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Correlations of DCS-derived muscle blood flow with (a) mean arterial blood pressure and (d) brachial artery blood flow during baseline, 20%-MVC and then 50%-MVC handgrip exercise.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Summary of DCS studies on skeletal muscle blood flow

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

G 1 ( r,τ )= 3 μ s ' 4π  [ e K D ( τ ) r 1 r 1 e K D ( τ ) r 2 r 2 ]
g 2 ( τ )= 1+β  | G 1 ( r ,τ ) | 2 I( r ,t) 2
rMBF=  BFI(t) BFI( t 0 ) 100%.
OD= lo g 10 [  I( t ) I( t 0 ) ].

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