Abstract

We demonstrate a high-resolution line field en-face time domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) system using an off-axis holography configuration. Line field en-face OCT produces high speed en-face images at rates of up to 100 Hz. The high frame rate favors good phase stability across the lateral field-of-view which is indispensable for digital adaptive optics (DAO). Human retinal structures are acquired in-vivo with a broadband light source at 840 nm, and line rates of 10 kHz to 100 kHz. Structures of different retinal layers, such as photoreceptors, capillaries, and nerve fibers are visualized with high resolution of 2.8 µm and 5.5 µm in lateral directions. Subaperture based DAO is successfully applied to increase the visibility of cone-photoreceptors and nerve fibers. Furthermore, en-face Doppler OCT maps are generated based on calculating the differential phase shifts between recorded lines.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2017 (2)

2016 (2)

H. Sudkamp, P. Koch, H. Spahr, D. Hillmann, G. Franke, M. Münst, F. Reinholz, R. Birngruber, and G. Hüttmann, “In-vivo retinal imaging with off-axis full-field time-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 41(21), 4987–4990 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Hillmann, H. Spahr, C. Hain, H. Sudkamp, G. Franke, C. Pfäffle, C. Winter, and G. Hüttmann, “Aberration-free volumetric high-speed imaging of in vivo retina,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 35209 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (2)

N. D. Shemonski, F. A. South, Y.-Z. Liu, S. G. Adie, P. S. Carney, and S. A. Boppart, “Computational high-resolution optical imaging of the living human retina,” Nat. Photonics 9(7), 440–443 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Fechtig, B. Grajciar, T. Schmoll, C. Blatter, R. M. Werkmeister, W. Drexler, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Line-field parallel swept source MHz OCT for structural and functional retinal imaging,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(3), 716–735 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (5)

2013 (3)

2012 (1)

2011 (2)

V. J. Srinivasan, D. N. Atochin, H. Radhakrishnan, J. Y. Jiang, S. Ruvinskaya, W. Wu, S. Barry, A. E. Cable, C. Ayata, P. L. Huang, and D. A. Boas, “Optical coherence tomography for the quantitative study of cerebrovascular physiology,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 31(6), 1339–1345 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Baumann, B. Potsaid, M. F. Kraus, J. J. Liu, D. Huang, J. Hornegger, A. E. Cable, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Total retinal blood flow measurement with ultrahigh speed swept source/Fourier domain OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(6), 1539–1552 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

2008 (1)

2007 (5)

2006 (3)

2005 (1)

2004 (2)

2003 (2)

2002 (1)

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

L. Schmetterer and M. Wolzt, “Ocular blood flow and associated functional deviations in diabetic retinopathy,” Diabetologia 42(4), 387–405 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1998 (2)

C. Picart, P. H. Carpentier, S. Brasseur, H. Galliard, and J. M. Piau, “Systemic sclerosis: blood rheometry and laser Doppler imaging of digital cutaneous microcirculation during local cold exposure,” Clin. Hemorheol. Microcirc. 18(1), 47–58 (1998).
[PubMed]

A. G. Podoleanu, G. M. Dobre, and D. A. Jackson, “En-face coherence imaging using galvanometer scanner modulation,” Opt. Lett. 23(3), 147–149 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1997 (2)

J. Liang, D. R. Williams, and D. T. Miller, “Supernormal vision and high-resolution retinal imaging through adaptive optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14(11), 2884–2892 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Schmitt, S. L. Lee, and K. M. Yung, “An optical coherence microscope with enhanced resolving power in thick tissue,” Opt. Commun. 142(4-6), 203–207 (1997).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

1973 (1)

1964 (1)

Adie, S. G.

Aguirre, A. D.

Ahmad, A.

Aoki, G.

Atochin, D. N.

V. J. Srinivasan, D. N. Atochin, H. Radhakrishnan, J. Y. Jiang, S. Ruvinskaya, W. Wu, S. Barry, A. E. Cable, C. Ayata, P. L. Huang, and D. A. Boas, “Optical coherence tomography for the quantitative study of cerebrovascular physiology,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 31(6), 1339–1345 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ayata, C.

V. J. Srinivasan, D. N. Atochin, H. Radhakrishnan, J. Y. Jiang, S. Ruvinskaya, W. Wu, S. Barry, A. E. Cable, C. Ayata, P. L. Huang, and D. A. Boas, “Optical coherence tomography for the quantitative study of cerebrovascular physiology,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 31(6), 1339–1345 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bajraszewski, T.

Barry, S.

V. J. Srinivasan, D. N. Atochin, H. Radhakrishnan, J. Y. Jiang, S. Ruvinskaya, W. Wu, S. Barry, A. E. Cable, C. Ayata, P. L. Huang, and D. A. Boas, “Optical coherence tomography for the quantitative study of cerebrovascular physiology,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 31(6), 1339–1345 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baumann, B.

Bigelow, C. E.

D. X. Hammer, R. D. Ferguson, T. E. Ustun, C. E. Bigelow, N. V. Iftimia, and R. H. Webb, “Line-scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 041126 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Birngruber, R.

Blatter, C.

Boas, D. A.

V. J. Srinivasan, D. N. Atochin, H. Radhakrishnan, J. Y. Jiang, S. Ruvinskaya, W. Wu, S. Barry, A. E. Cable, C. Ayata, P. L. Huang, and D. A. Boas, “Optical coherence tomography for the quantitative study of cerebrovascular physiology,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 31(6), 1339–1345 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bonesi, M.

Boppart, S. A.

Brasseur, S.

C. Picart, P. H. Carpentier, S. Brasseur, H. Galliard, and J. M. Piau, “Systemic sclerosis: blood rheometry and laser Doppler imaging of digital cutaneous microcirculation during local cold exposure,” Clin. Hemorheol. Microcirc. 18(1), 47–58 (1998).
[PubMed]

Brown, J. M.

Cable, A. E.

V. J. Srinivasan, D. N. Atochin, H. Radhakrishnan, J. Y. Jiang, S. Ruvinskaya, W. Wu, S. Barry, A. E. Cable, C. Ayata, P. L. Huang, and D. A. Boas, “Optical coherence tomography for the quantitative study of cerebrovascular physiology,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 31(6), 1339–1345 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Baumann, B. Potsaid, M. F. Kraus, J. J. Liu, D. Huang, J. Hornegger, A. E. Cable, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Total retinal blood flow measurement with ultrahigh speed swept source/Fourier domain OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(6), 1539–1552 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Campbell, M. C. W.

Carney, P. S.

Carpentier, P. H.

C. Picart, P. H. Carpentier, S. Brasseur, H. Galliard, and J. M. Piau, “Systemic sclerosis: blood rheometry and laser Doppler imaging of digital cutaneous microcirculation during local cold exposure,” Clin. Hemorheol. Microcirc. 18(1), 47–58 (1998).
[PubMed]

Cense, B.

Chang, B. J.

Chen, Y.

Chen, Z.

Coquoz, S.

de Boer, J. F.

De Nicola, S.

S. De Nicola, P. Ferraro, A. Finizio, and G. Pierattini, “correct-image reconstruction in the presence of servere anamorphism by means of digital holography.pdf,” (2001).

Doblhoff-Dier, V.

Dobre, G. M.

Donnelly, W. J.

Dragostinoff, N.

Drexler, W.

Dubois, F.

Duker, J. S.

Endo, T.

Fechtig, D.

Fechtig, D. J.

Fercher, A.

Ferguson, R. D.

D. X. Hammer, R. D. Ferguson, T. E. Ustun, C. E. Bigelow, N. V. Iftimia, and R. H. Webb, “Line-scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 041126 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ferraro, P.

S. De Nicola, P. Ferraro, A. Finizio, and G. Pierattini, “correct-image reconstruction in the presence of servere anamorphism by means of digital holography.pdf,” (2001).

Finizio, A.

S. De Nicola, P. Ferraro, A. Finizio, and G. Pierattini, “correct-image reconstruction in the presence of servere anamorphism by means of digital holography.pdf,” (2001).

Franke, G.

D. Hillmann, H. Spahr, C. Hain, H. Sudkamp, G. Franke, C. Pfäffle, C. Winter, and G. Hüttmann, “Aberration-free volumetric high-speed imaging of in vivo retina,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 35209 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Sudkamp, P. Koch, H. Spahr, D. Hillmann, G. Franke, M. Münst, F. Reinholz, R. Birngruber, and G. Hüttmann, “In-vivo retinal imaging with off-axis full-field time-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 41(21), 4987–4990 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

Galliard, H.

C. Picart, P. H. Carpentier, S. Brasseur, H. Galliard, and J. M. Piau, “Systemic sclerosis: blood rheometry and laser Doppler imaging of digital cutaneous microcirculation during local cold exposure,” Clin. Hemorheol. Microcirc. 18(1), 47–58 (1998).
[PubMed]

Gao, W.

Garhöfer, G.

Ginner, L.

Götzinger, E.

Grajciar, B.

Gröschl, M.

Hain, C.

D. Hillmann, H. Spahr, C. Hain, H. Sudkamp, G. Franke, C. Pfäffle, C. Winter, and G. Hüttmann, “Aberration-free volumetric high-speed imaging of in vivo retina,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 35209 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hammer, D. X.

D. X. Hammer, R. D. Ferguson, T. E. Ustun, C. E. Bigelow, N. V. Iftimia, and R. H. Webb, “Line-scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 041126 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hebert, T. J.

Hillmann, D.

D. Hillmann, H. Spahr, C. Hain, H. Sudkamp, G. Franke, C. Pfäffle, C. Winter, and G. Hüttmann, “Aberration-free volumetric high-speed imaging of in vivo retina,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 35209 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Sudkamp, P. Koch, H. Spahr, D. Hillmann, G. Franke, M. Münst, F. Reinholz, R. Birngruber, and G. Hüttmann, “In-vivo retinal imaging with off-axis full-field time-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 41(21), 4987–4990 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hitzenberger, C. K.

Hornegger, J.

Huang, D.

Huang, P. L.

V. J. Srinivasan, D. N. Atochin, H. Radhakrishnan, J. Y. Jiang, S. Ruvinskaya, W. Wu, S. Barry, A. E. Cable, C. Ayata, P. L. Huang, and D. A. Boas, “Optical coherence tomography for the quantitative study of cerebrovascular physiology,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 31(6), 1339–1345 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, S.-W.

Hüttmann, G.

D. Hillmann, H. Spahr, C. Hain, H. Sudkamp, G. Franke, C. Pfäffle, C. Winter, and G. Hüttmann, “Aberration-free volumetric high-speed imaging of in vivo retina,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 35209 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Sudkamp, P. Koch, H. Spahr, D. Hillmann, G. Franke, M. Münst, F. Reinholz, R. Birngruber, and G. Hüttmann, “In-vivo retinal imaging with off-axis full-field time-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 41(21), 4987–4990 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Iftimia, N. V.

D. X. Hammer, R. D. Ferguson, T. E. Ustun, C. E. Bigelow, N. V. Iftimia, and R. H. Webb, “Line-scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 041126 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Itoh, M.

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V. J. Srinivasan, D. N. Atochin, H. Radhakrishnan, J. Y. Jiang, S. Ruvinskaya, W. Wu, S. Barry, A. E. Cable, C. Ayata, P. L. Huang, and D. A. Boas, “Optical coherence tomography for the quantitative study of cerebrovascular physiology,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 31(6), 1339–1345 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jonnal, R. S.

Karamata, B.

Kocaoglu, O. P.

Koch, P.

Kolbitsch, C.

T. Schmoll, C. Kolbitsch, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Ultra-high-speed volumetric tomography of human retinal blood flow,” Opt. Express 17(5), 4166–4176 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Kolbitsch, T. Schmoll, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Histogram-based filtering for quantitative 3D retinal angiography,” J. Biophotonics 2(6-7), 416–425 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Koperda, E.

Kraus, M. F.

Kumar, A.

Lambelet, P.

Lasser, T.

Laubscher, M.

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J. M. Schmitt, S. L. Lee, and K. M. Yung, “An optical coherence microscope with enhanced resolving power in thick tissue,” Opt. Commun. 142(4-6), 203–207 (1997).
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A. Kumar, L. M. Wurster, M. Salas, L. Ginner, W. Drexler, and R. A. Leitgeb, “In-vivo digital wavefront sensing using swept source OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(7), 3369–3382 (2017).
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L. Ginner, A. Kumar, D. Fechtig, L. M. Wurster, M. Salas, M. Pircher, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Noniterative digital aberration correction for cellular resolution retinal optical coherence tomography in vivo,” Optica 4(8), 924 (2017).
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D. J. Fechtig, B. Grajciar, T. Schmoll, C. Blatter, R. M. Werkmeister, W. Drexler, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Line-field parallel swept source MHz OCT for structural and functional retinal imaging,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(3), 716–735 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Kumar, W. Drexler, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Numerical focusing methods for full field OCT: a comparison based on a common signal model,” Opt. Express 22(13), 16061–16078 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Fechtig, T. Schmoll, B. Grajciar, W. Drexler, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Line-field parallel swept source interferometric imaging at up to 1 MHz,” Opt. Lett. 39(18), 5333–5336 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Doblhoff-Dier, L. Schmetterer, W. Vilser, G. Garhöfer, M. Gröschl, R. A. Leitgeb, and R. M. Werkmeister, “Measurement of the total retinal blood flow using dual beam Fourier-domain Doppler optical coherence tomography with orthogonal detection planes,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(2), 630–642 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Blatter, S. Coquoz, B. Grajciar, A. S. G. Singh, M. Bonesi, R. M. Werkmeister, L. Schmetterer, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Dove prism based rotating dual beam bidirectional Doppler OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(7), 1188–1203 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Blatter, B. Grajciar, L. Schmetterer, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Angle independent flow assessment with bidirectional Doppler optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 38(21), 4433–4436 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Kumar, W. Drexler, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Subaperture correlation based digital adaptive optics for full field optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 21(9), 10850–10866 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Schmoll, C. Kolbitsch, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Ultra-high-speed volumetric tomography of human retinal blood flow,” Opt. Express 17(5), 4166–4176 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Kolbitsch, T. Schmoll, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Histogram-based filtering for quantitative 3D retinal angiography,” J. Biophotonics 2(6-7), 416–425 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Werkmeister, N. Dragostinoff, M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, C. K. Hitzenberger, R. A. Leitgeb, and L. Schmetterer, “Bidirectional Doppler Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography for measurement of absolute flow velocities in human retinal vessels,” Opt. Lett. 33, 2967 (2008).

Leith, E. N.

Liang, J.

Liu, J. J.

Liu, Y.-Z.

Lo, P.-W.

Makita, S.

Miller, D. T.

Milner, T. E.

Münst, M.

Nakamura, Y.

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Pfäffle, C.

D. Hillmann, H. Spahr, C. Hain, H. Sudkamp, G. Franke, C. Pfäffle, C. Winter, and G. Hüttmann, “Aberration-free volumetric high-speed imaging of in vivo retina,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 35209 (2016).
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Piau, J. M.

C. Picart, P. H. Carpentier, S. Brasseur, H. Galliard, and J. M. Piau, “Systemic sclerosis: blood rheometry and laser Doppler imaging of digital cutaneous microcirculation during local cold exposure,” Clin. Hemorheol. Microcirc. 18(1), 47–58 (1998).
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V. J. Srinivasan, D. N. Atochin, H. Radhakrishnan, J. Y. Jiang, S. Ruvinskaya, W. Wu, S. Barry, A. E. Cable, C. Ayata, P. L. Huang, and D. A. Boas, “Optical coherence tomography for the quantitative study of cerebrovascular physiology,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 31(6), 1339–1345 (2011).
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Romero-Borja, F.

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V. J. Srinivasan, D. N. Atochin, H. Radhakrishnan, J. Y. Jiang, S. Ruvinskaya, W. Wu, S. Barry, A. E. Cable, C. Ayata, P. L. Huang, and D. A. Boas, “Optical coherence tomography for the quantitative study of cerebrovascular physiology,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 31(6), 1339–1345 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Salas, M.

Salathé, R. P.

Sando, Y.

Sattmann, H.

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Schmetterer, L.

V. Doblhoff-Dier, L. Schmetterer, W. Vilser, G. Garhöfer, M. Gröschl, R. A. Leitgeb, and R. M. Werkmeister, “Measurement of the total retinal blood flow using dual beam Fourier-domain Doppler optical coherence tomography with orthogonal detection planes,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(2), 630–642 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Blatter, S. Coquoz, B. Grajciar, A. S. G. Singh, M. Bonesi, R. M. Werkmeister, L. Schmetterer, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Dove prism based rotating dual beam bidirectional Doppler OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(7), 1188–1203 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Blatter, B. Grajciar, L. Schmetterer, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Angle independent flow assessment with bidirectional Doppler optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 38(21), 4433–4436 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Werkmeister, N. Dragostinoff, M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, C. K. Hitzenberger, R. A. Leitgeb, and L. Schmetterer, “Bidirectional Doppler Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography for measurement of absolute flow velocities in human retinal vessels,” Opt. Lett. 33, 2967 (2008).

R. Leitgeb, L. Schmetterer, W. Drexler, A. Fercher, R. Zawadzki, and T. Bajraszewski, “Real-time assessment of retinal blood flow with ultrafast acquisition by color Doppler Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11(23), 3116–3121 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Schmetterer and M. Wolzt, “Ocular blood flow and associated functional deviations in diabetic retinopathy,” Diabetologia 42(4), 387–405 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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J. M. Schmitt, S. L. Lee, and K. M. Yung, “An optical coherence microscope with enhanced resolving power in thick tissue,” Opt. Commun. 142(4-6), 203–207 (1997).
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[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Hillmann, H. Spahr, C. Hain, H. Sudkamp, G. Franke, C. Pfäffle, C. Winter, and G. Hüttmann, “Aberration-free volumetric high-speed imaging of in vivo retina,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 35209 (2016).
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Srinivasan, V. J.

V. J. Srinivasan, D. N. Atochin, H. Radhakrishnan, J. Y. Jiang, S. Ruvinskaya, W. Wu, S. Barry, A. E. Cable, C. Ayata, P. L. Huang, and D. A. Boas, “Optical coherence tomography for the quantitative study of cerebrovascular physiology,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 31(6), 1339–1345 (2011).
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Sudkamp, H.

D. Hillmann, H. Spahr, C. Hain, H. Sudkamp, G. Franke, C. Pfäffle, C. Winter, and G. Hüttmann, “Aberration-free volumetric high-speed imaging of in vivo retina,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 35209 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Sudkamp, P. Koch, H. Spahr, D. Hillmann, G. Franke, M. Münst, F. Reinholz, R. Birngruber, and G. Hüttmann, “In-vivo retinal imaging with off-axis full-field time-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 41(21), 4987–4990 (2016).
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Williams, D. R.

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D. Hillmann, H. Spahr, C. Hain, H. Sudkamp, G. Franke, C. Pfäffle, C. Winter, and G. Hüttmann, “Aberration-free volumetric high-speed imaging of in vivo retina,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 35209 (2016).
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L. Schmetterer and M. Wolzt, “Ocular blood flow and associated functional deviations in diabetic retinopathy,” Diabetologia 42(4), 387–405 (1999).
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V. J. Srinivasan, D. N. Atochin, H. Radhakrishnan, J. Y. Jiang, S. Ruvinskaya, W. Wu, S. Barry, A. E. Cable, C. Ayata, P. L. Huang, and D. A. Boas, “Optical coherence tomography for the quantitative study of cerebrovascular physiology,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 31(6), 1339–1345 (2011).
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C. Kolbitsch, T. Schmoll, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Histogram-based filtering for quantitative 3D retinal angiography,” J. Biophotonics 2(6-7), 416–425 (2009).
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V. J. Srinivasan, D. N. Atochin, H. Radhakrishnan, J. Y. Jiang, S. Ruvinskaya, W. Wu, S. Barry, A. E. Cable, C. Ayata, P. L. Huang, and D. A. Boas, “Optical coherence tomography for the quantitative study of cerebrovascular physiology,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 31(6), 1339–1345 (2011).
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Supplementary Material (1)

NameDescription
» Visualization 1       en-face OCT video with 100 Hz frame rate

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a), schematic of the holographic line field time domain OCT system, CL1 and CL2 being the cylindrical lenses to create a line focus; the Galvo-scanner scans along the y dimension and L1 to L5 being achromatic lenses. G1 is a holographic grating introducing the off axis angle for the first diffraction order, which is filter using iris IS1. The angle remains constant during reference arm length tuning LS is the light source and EL the eye length. The illumination and detection beams are marked in black and green dotted lines, for both x and y dimensions. The orange dotted line is the reference path. The ray diagram of the detection can be seen in (b) showing in green the sagittal plane (y, z) and in black the orthogonal tangential plane (x, z) with z being the direction of propagation.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Shows the Fourier transform in the lateral direction x, the cross correlation term (blue dotted box) is shifted with the corresponding modulation frequency, the not interfering part (DC) remains in the center. The red dotted line is the maximum frequency which is provided by the pixel pitch.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a), shows the SLO image of a resolution test target. (b) is the zoom-in of (a), the modulation frequency due to the off axis approach can be seen, this shifts the interference as can be seen in the red dotted lines of the Fourier transform along the parallel dimension of (a) in (c). (d) is the reconstructed en-face OCT image by inverse Fourier transform of the filtered interference terms.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) shows the OCT en-face image of a resolution test target acquired with defocus. (b) is the OCT en-face image after digital refocusing, as can be seen the visibility of single bars clearly increases (c, d) are the intensity plot along the bars indicated by the red arrows in scanning and parallel direction. A clear differentiation can be seen between the 3 bars in the refocused image as in comparison to the original.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) is an SLO image average of 10 frames at the nerve fiber layer, (b) shows the en-face OCT image of the nerve fiber layer. In (c) the photoreceptor layer is clearly visible, whereas in the OCT en-face image (d) only microvasculature can be seen. (e) is the SLO image of the photoreceptors and (f) the OCT en-face image. (g) is a single B-scan acquired close to the fovea, the color bars give the different axial areas of the OCT en-face images. The white scale bar indicates 200 µm.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a), shows an aberrated image of the photoreceptor acquired 7° from the fovea, (a) is the original en-face image average over 5 frames (b) the OCT en-face image over the same frames and (c) the corrected images after DAO. (d, e, f) show the respective Fourier planes with Yellot’s rings well visible in (f). On the right side is the correction phase map and the corresponding Zernike coefficient plot of the phase map. The white scale bar indicates 200 µm.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) the original image shows that the focus was set at the photoreceptor layer, (b) is the OCT en-face image with the coherence gate at the nerve fiber layer. (c) is the refocused image of the nerve fiber layer. The white scale bar indicates 200 µm.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Acquisition with 100 kHz line rate and 100 Hz frame rate, (a, c) being the original images and (b, d) the OCT en-face images, either focused on the photoreceptor layer (b) or the nerve fiber layer (d). (e, f) are OCT en-face images extracted from a time series (Visualization 1). The white scale bar indicates 200 µm.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Shows an en-face Doppler calculation of the vascular flow. (a) is the OCT image with a red green map marking positive or negative flow direction in (b). (c) is the averaged Doppler shift over 20 frames. (d) is the OCT image of the microvasculature, (e) the red green map of either positive or negative flow direction and (f) the averaged Doppler shift with the velocity according to the color bar. The white scale bar indicated 200 µm.

Equations (5)

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S ( x , k ) cos { 2 k Δ z + k x sin ( α ) }
Δ φ ( x , y n ) = arg { [ A ( x , y n ) e i φ ( x , y n ) ] × [ A ( x , y n + 1 ) e i φ ( x , y n + 1 ) ] } , n = 1...... N 1
  Δ φ a v g ( y n ) = arg j = 1 N x [ e i Δ φ ( x j , y n ) ] n = 1..... N 1
I c o r r ( x , y n ) = A ( x , y n ) e i φ ( x , y n ) i = 1 i = n 1 e i Δ φ a v g ( y i ) n = 2.... N 1
v z = λ Δ φ n 4 π τ

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