Abstract

Terahertz imaging has been previously shown to be capable of distinguishing normal breast tissue from its cancerous form, indicating its applicability to breast conserving surgery. The heterogeneous composition of breast tissue is among the main challenges to progressing this potential research towards a practical application. In this paper, two concentration analysis methods are proposed for analyzing phantoms mimicking breast tissue. The dielectric properties and the double Debye parameters were used to determine the phantom composition. The first method is wholly based on the conventional effective medium theory while the second one combines this theoretical model with empirical polynomial models. Through assessing the accuracy of these methods, their potential for application to quantifying breast tissue pathology was confirmed.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2017 (1)

2015 (3)

L. A. Torre, F. Bray, R. L. Siegel, J. Ferlay, J. Lortet-Tieulent, and A. Jemal, “Global cancer statistics, 2012,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 65(2), 87–108 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. C. Bowman, M. El-Shenawee, and L. K. Campbell, “Terahertz Imaging of Excised Breast Tumor Tissue on Paraffin Sections,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 63(5), 2088–2097 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. C. Truong, H. D. Tuan, A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, and H. T. Nguyen, “A dielectric model of human breast tissue in terahertz regime,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 62(2), 699–707 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

M. C. Pike and C. L. Pearce, “Mammographic density, MRI background parenchymal enhancement and breast cancer risk,” Ann. Oncol. 24(S8), i37 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

A. J. Fitzgerald, S. Pinder, A. D. Purushotham, P. O’Kelly, P. C. Ashworth, and V. P. Wallace, “Classification of terahertz-pulsed imaging data from excised breast tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(1), 016005 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Sun, and E. Pickwell-Macpherson, “The potential of terahertz imaging for cancer diagnosis: A review of investigations to date,” Quant. Imaging Med. Surg. 2(1), 33–45 (2012).
[PubMed]

S. H. R. Siegel, D. Naishadham, and A. Jemal, “Cancer statistics,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 62, 10–29 (2012).
[PubMed]

2011 (2)

J. Hauke and T. Kossowski, “Comparison of values of Pearson’s and Spearman’s correlation coefficients on the same sets of data,” Quaest. Geogr. 30, 2 (2011).

D. B. Bennett, W. Li, Z. D. Taylor, W. S. Grundfest, and E. R. Brown, “Stratified Media Model for Terahertz Reflectometry of the Skin,” IEEE Sens. J. 11(5), 1253–1262 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

C. B. Reid, E. Pickwell-MacPherson, J. G. Laufer, A. P. Gibson, J. C. Hebden, and V. P. Wallace, “Accuracy and resolution of THz reflection spectroscopy for medical imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(16), 4825–4838 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (5)

N. Boyd, L. Martin, S. Chavez, A. Gunasekara, A. Salleh, O. Melnichouk, M. Yaffe, C. Friedenreich, S. Minkin, and M. Bronskill, “Breast-tissue composition and other risk factors for breast cancer in young women: a cross-sectional study,” Lancet Oncol. 10(6), 569–580 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. G. Pleijhuis, M. Graafland, J. de Vries, J. Bart, J. S. de Jong, and G. M. van Dam, “Obtaining Adequate Surgical Margins in Breast-Conserving Therapy for Patients with Early-Stage Breast Cancer: Current Modalities and Future Directions,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 16(10), 2717–2730 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. C. Ashworth, E. Pickwell-MacPherson, E. Provenzano, S. E. Pinder, A. D. Purushotham, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy of freshly excised human breast cancer,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12444–12454 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. C. Ashworth, E. Pickwell-MacPherson, E. Provenzano, S. E. Pinder, A. D. Purushotham, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy of freshly excised human breast cancer,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12444–12454 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Maik, W. Steffen, J. Christian, and K. Martin, “Modelling heterogeneous dielectric mixtures in the terahertz regime: a quasi-static effective medium theory,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(6), 065415 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

2006 (5)

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz Pulsed Imaging of Human Breast Tumors,” Radiology 239(2), 533–540 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Brooksby, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, S. Srinivasan, C. Kogel, T. D. Tosteson, J. Weaver, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, “Imaging breast adipose and fibroglandular tissue molecular signatures by using hybrid MRI-guided near-infrared spectral tomography,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(23), 8828–8833 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Vaca Chávez, E. Hellstrand, and B. Halle, “Hydrogen exchange and hydration dynamics in gelatin gels,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110(43), 21551–21559 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Xu, K. W. Plaxco, and S. J. Allen, “Probing the collective vibrational dynamics of a protein in liquid water by terahertz absorption spectroscopy,” Protein Sci. 15(5), 1175–1181 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Zhang and S. M. Durbin, “Hydration-Induced Far-Infrared Absorption Increase in Myoglobin,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110(46), 23607–23613 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

M. Lazebnik, E. L. Madsen, G. R. Frank, and S. C. Hagness, “Tissue-mimicking phantom materials for narrowband and ultrawideband microwave applications,” Phys. Med. Biol. 50(18), 4245–4258 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (3)

V. P. Wallace, P. F. Taday, A. J. Fitzgerald, R. M. Woodward, J. Cluff, R. J. Pye, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging and spectroscopy for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications,” Faraday Discuss. 126, 255–263, discussion 303–311 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Fischer, I. Polikarpov, and A. F. Craievich, “Average protein density is a molecular-weight-dependent function,” Protein Sci. 13(10), 2825–2828 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Pickwell, B. E. Cole, A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, and M. Pepper, “Simulation of terahertz pulse propagation in biological systems,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(12), 2190–2192 (2004).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

C. Rønne and S. R. Keiding, “Low frequency spectroscopy of liquid water using THz-time domain spectroscopy,” J. Mol. Liq. 101(1-3), 199–218 (2002).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

J. K. Bobo, N. C. Lee, and S. F. Thames, “Findings from 752,081 clinical breast examinations reported to a national screening program from 1995 through 1998,” J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 92(12), 971–976 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

J. T. Kindt and C. A. Schmuttenmaer, “Far-Infrared Dielectric Properties of Polar Liquids Probed by Femtosecond Terahertz Pulse Spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. 100(24), 10373–10379 (1996).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

H. J. Liebe, G. A. Hufford, and T. Manabe, “A model for the complex permittivity of water at frequencies below 1 THz,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 12(7), 659–675 (1991).
[Crossref]

1946 (1)

D. Polder and J. H. van Santeen, “The effective permeability of mixtures of solids,” Physica 12(5), 257–271 (1946).
[Crossref]

1945 (1)

J. A. Osborn, “Demagnetizing Factors of the General Ellipsoid,” Phys. Rev. 67(11-12), 351–357 (1945).
[Crossref]

1935 (1)

D. A. G. Bruggeman, “The calculation of various physical constants of heterogeneous substances. I. The dielectric constants and conductivities of mixtures composed of isotropic substances,” Ann. Phys. 416, 636–791 (1935).
[Crossref]

1906 (1)

J. C. Maxwell Garnett, “Colours in Metal Glasses, in Metallic Films, and in Metallic Solutions. II,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond., A Contain. Pap. Math. Phys. Character 205(387-401), 237–288 (1906).
[Crossref]

Allen, S. J.

J. Xu, K. W. Plaxco, and S. J. Allen, “Probing the collective vibrational dynamics of a protein in liquid water by terahertz absorption spectroscopy,” Protein Sci. 15(5), 1175–1181 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arnone, D. D.

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz Pulsed Imaging of Human Breast Tumors,” Radiology 239(2), 533–540 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. P. Wallace, P. F. Taday, A. J. Fitzgerald, R. M. Woodward, J. Cluff, R. J. Pye, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging and spectroscopy for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications,” Faraday Discuss. 126, 255–263, discussion 303–311 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ashworth, P. C.

Bart, J.

R. G. Pleijhuis, M. Graafland, J. de Vries, J. Bart, J. S. de Jong, and G. M. van Dam, “Obtaining Adequate Surgical Margins in Breast-Conserving Therapy for Patients with Early-Stage Breast Cancer: Current Modalities and Future Directions,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 16(10), 2717–2730 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bennett, D. B.

D. B. Bennett, W. Li, Z. D. Taylor, W. S. Grundfest, and E. R. Brown, “Stratified Media Model for Terahertz Reflectometry of the Skin,” IEEE Sens. J. 11(5), 1253–1262 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bobo, J. K.

J. K. Bobo, N. C. Lee, and S. F. Thames, “Findings from 752,081 clinical breast examinations reported to a national screening program from 1995 through 1998,” J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 92(12), 971–976 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bobrow, L.

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz Pulsed Imaging of Human Breast Tumors,” Radiology 239(2), 533–540 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bowman, T. C.

T. C. Bowman, M. El-Shenawee, and L. K. Campbell, “Terahertz Imaging of Excised Breast Tumor Tissue on Paraffin Sections,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 63(5), 2088–2097 (2015).
[Crossref]

Boyd, N.

N. Boyd, L. Martin, S. Chavez, A. Gunasekara, A. Salleh, O. Melnichouk, M. Yaffe, C. Friedenreich, S. Minkin, and M. Bronskill, “Breast-tissue composition and other risk factors for breast cancer in young women: a cross-sectional study,” Lancet Oncol. 10(6), 569–580 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bray, F.

L. A. Torre, F. Bray, R. L. Siegel, J. Ferlay, J. Lortet-Tieulent, and A. Jemal, “Global cancer statistics, 2012,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 65(2), 87–108 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bronskill, M.

N. Boyd, L. Martin, S. Chavez, A. Gunasekara, A. Salleh, O. Melnichouk, M. Yaffe, C. Friedenreich, S. Minkin, and M. Bronskill, “Breast-tissue composition and other risk factors for breast cancer in young women: a cross-sectional study,” Lancet Oncol. 10(6), 569–580 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brooksby, B.

B. Brooksby, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, S. Srinivasan, C. Kogel, T. D. Tosteson, J. Weaver, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, “Imaging breast adipose and fibroglandular tissue molecular signatures by using hybrid MRI-guided near-infrared spectral tomography,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(23), 8828–8833 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brouwer de Koning, S. G.

Brown, E. R.

D. B. Bennett, W. Li, Z. D. Taylor, W. S. Grundfest, and E. R. Brown, “Stratified Media Model for Terahertz Reflectometry of the Skin,” IEEE Sens. J. 11(5), 1253–1262 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bruggeman, D. A. G.

D. A. G. Bruggeman, “The calculation of various physical constants of heterogeneous substances. I. The dielectric constants and conductivities of mixtures composed of isotropic substances,” Ann. Phys. 416, 636–791 (1935).
[Crossref]

Campbell, L. K.

T. C. Bowman, M. El-Shenawee, and L. K. Campbell, “Terahertz Imaging of Excised Breast Tumor Tissue on Paraffin Sections,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 63(5), 2088–2097 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cariati, M.

Chavez, S.

N. Boyd, L. Martin, S. Chavez, A. Gunasekara, A. Salleh, O. Melnichouk, M. Yaffe, C. Friedenreich, S. Minkin, and M. Bronskill, “Breast-tissue composition and other risk factors for breast cancer in young women: a cross-sectional study,” Lancet Oncol. 10(6), 569–580 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Christian, J.

S. Maik, W. Steffen, J. Christian, and K. Martin, “Modelling heterogeneous dielectric mixtures in the terahertz regime: a quasi-static effective medium theory,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(6), 065415 (2009).
[Crossref]

Cluff, J.

V. P. Wallace, P. F. Taday, A. J. Fitzgerald, R. M. Woodward, J. Cluff, R. J. Pye, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging and spectroscopy for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications,” Faraday Discuss. 126, 255–263, discussion 303–311 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cole, B. E.

E. Pickwell, B. E. Cole, A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, and M. Pepper, “Simulation of terahertz pulse propagation in biological systems,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(12), 2190–2192 (2004).
[Crossref]

Craievich, A. F.

H. Fischer, I. Polikarpov, and A. F. Craievich, “Average protein density is a molecular-weight-dependent function,” Protein Sci. 13(10), 2825–2828 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

de Jong, J. S.

R. G. Pleijhuis, M. Graafland, J. de Vries, J. Bart, J. S. de Jong, and G. M. van Dam, “Obtaining Adequate Surgical Margins in Breast-Conserving Therapy for Patients with Early-Stage Breast Cancer: Current Modalities and Future Directions,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 16(10), 2717–2730 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

de Vries, J.

R. G. Pleijhuis, M. Graafland, J. de Vries, J. Bart, J. S. de Jong, and G. M. van Dam, “Obtaining Adequate Surgical Margins in Breast-Conserving Therapy for Patients with Early-Stage Breast Cancer: Current Modalities and Future Directions,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 16(10), 2717–2730 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dehghani, H.

B. Brooksby, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, S. Srinivasan, C. Kogel, T. D. Tosteson, J. Weaver, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, “Imaging breast adipose and fibroglandular tissue molecular signatures by using hybrid MRI-guided near-infrared spectral tomography,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(23), 8828–8833 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Durbin, S. M.

C. Zhang and S. M. Durbin, “Hydration-Induced Far-Infrared Absorption Increase in Myoglobin,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110(46), 23607–23613 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

El-Shenawee, M.

T. C. Bowman, M. El-Shenawee, and L. K. Campbell, “Terahertz Imaging of Excised Breast Tumor Tissue on Paraffin Sections,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 63(5), 2088–2097 (2015).
[Crossref]

Fan, S.

C. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Sun, and E. Pickwell-Macpherson, “The potential of terahertz imaging for cancer diagnosis: A review of investigations to date,” Quant. Imaging Med. Surg. 2(1), 33–45 (2012).
[PubMed]

Ferlay, J.

L. A. Torre, F. Bray, R. L. Siegel, J. Ferlay, J. Lortet-Tieulent, and A. Jemal, “Global cancer statistics, 2012,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 65(2), 87–108 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fischer, H.

H. Fischer, I. Polikarpov, and A. F. Craievich, “Average protein density is a molecular-weight-dependent function,” Protein Sci. 13(10), 2825–2828 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fitzgerald, A. J.

M. R. Grootendorst, A. J. Fitzgerald, S. G. Brouwer de Koning, A. Santaolalla, A. Portieri, M. Van Hemelrijck, M. R. Young, J. Owen, M. Cariati, M. Pepper, V. P. Wallace, S. E. Pinder, and A. Purushotham, “Use of a handheld terahertz pulsed imaging device to differentiate benign and malignant breast tissue,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(6), 2932–2945 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. C. Truong, H. D. Tuan, A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, and H. T. Nguyen, “A dielectric model of human breast tissue in terahertz regime,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 62(2), 699–707 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. J. Fitzgerald, S. Pinder, A. D. Purushotham, P. O’Kelly, P. C. Ashworth, and V. P. Wallace, “Classification of terahertz-pulsed imaging data from excised breast tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(1), 016005 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz Pulsed Imaging of Human Breast Tumors,” Radiology 239(2), 533–540 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. P. Wallace, P. F. Taday, A. J. Fitzgerald, R. M. Woodward, J. Cluff, R. J. Pye, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging and spectroscopy for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications,” Faraday Discuss. 126, 255–263, discussion 303–311 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Pickwell, B. E. Cole, A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, and M. Pepper, “Simulation of terahertz pulse propagation in biological systems,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(12), 2190–2192 (2004).
[Crossref]

Frank, G. R.

M. Lazebnik, E. L. Madsen, G. R. Frank, and S. C. Hagness, “Tissue-mimicking phantom materials for narrowband and ultrawideband microwave applications,” Phys. Med. Biol. 50(18), 4245–4258 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Friedenreich, C.

N. Boyd, L. Martin, S. Chavez, A. Gunasekara, A. Salleh, O. Melnichouk, M. Yaffe, C. Friedenreich, S. Minkin, and M. Bronskill, “Breast-tissue composition and other risk factors for breast cancer in young women: a cross-sectional study,” Lancet Oncol. 10(6), 569–580 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gibson, A. P.

C. B. Reid, E. Pickwell-MacPherson, J. G. Laufer, A. P. Gibson, J. C. Hebden, and V. P. Wallace, “Accuracy and resolution of THz reflection spectroscopy for medical imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(16), 4825–4838 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Graafland, M.

R. G. Pleijhuis, M. Graafland, J. de Vries, J. Bart, J. S. de Jong, and G. M. van Dam, “Obtaining Adequate Surgical Margins in Breast-Conserving Therapy for Patients with Early-Stage Breast Cancer: Current Modalities and Future Directions,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 16(10), 2717–2730 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grootendorst, M. R.

Grundfest, W. S.

D. B. Bennett, W. Li, Z. D. Taylor, W. S. Grundfest, and E. R. Brown, “Stratified Media Model for Terahertz Reflectometry of the Skin,” IEEE Sens. J. 11(5), 1253–1262 (2011).
[Crossref]

Gunasekara, A.

N. Boyd, L. Martin, S. Chavez, A. Gunasekara, A. Salleh, O. Melnichouk, M. Yaffe, C. Friedenreich, S. Minkin, and M. Bronskill, “Breast-tissue composition and other risk factors for breast cancer in young women: a cross-sectional study,” Lancet Oncol. 10(6), 569–580 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hagness, S. C.

M. Lazebnik, E. L. Madsen, G. R. Frank, and S. C. Hagness, “Tissue-mimicking phantom materials for narrowband and ultrawideband microwave applications,” Phys. Med. Biol. 50(18), 4245–4258 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Halle, B.

F. Vaca Chávez, E. Hellstrand, and B. Halle, “Hydrogen exchange and hydration dynamics in gelatin gels,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110(43), 21551–21559 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hauke, J.

J. Hauke and T. Kossowski, “Comparison of values of Pearson’s and Spearman’s correlation coefficients on the same sets of data,” Quaest. Geogr. 30, 2 (2011).

Hebden, J. C.

C. B. Reid, E. Pickwell-MacPherson, J. G. Laufer, A. P. Gibson, J. C. Hebden, and V. P. Wallace, “Accuracy and resolution of THz reflection spectroscopy for medical imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(16), 4825–4838 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hellstrand, E.

F. Vaca Chávez, E. Hellstrand, and B. Halle, “Hydrogen exchange and hydration dynamics in gelatin gels,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110(43), 21551–21559 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hufford, G. A.

H. J. Liebe, G. A. Hufford, and T. Manabe, “A model for the complex permittivity of water at frequencies below 1 THz,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 12(7), 659–675 (1991).
[Crossref]

Jemal, A.

L. A. Torre, F. Bray, R. L. Siegel, J. Ferlay, J. Lortet-Tieulent, and A. Jemal, “Global cancer statistics, 2012,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 65(2), 87–108 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. H. R. Siegel, D. Naishadham, and A. Jemal, “Cancer statistics,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 62, 10–29 (2012).
[PubMed]

Jepsen, P. U.

Jiang, S.

B. Brooksby, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, S. Srinivasan, C. Kogel, T. D. Tosteson, J. Weaver, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, “Imaging breast adipose and fibroglandular tissue molecular signatures by using hybrid MRI-guided near-infrared spectral tomography,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(23), 8828–8833 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jimenez-Linan, M.

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz Pulsed Imaging of Human Breast Tumors,” Radiology 239(2), 533–540 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Keiding, S. R.

C. Rønne and S. R. Keiding, “Low frequency spectroscopy of liquid water using THz-time domain spectroscopy,” J. Mol. Liq. 101(1-3), 199–218 (2002).
[Crossref]

Kindt, J. T.

J. T. Kindt and C. A. Schmuttenmaer, “Far-Infrared Dielectric Properties of Polar Liquids Probed by Femtosecond Terahertz Pulse Spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. 100(24), 10373–10379 (1996).
[Crossref]

Kogel, C.

B. Brooksby, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, S. Srinivasan, C. Kogel, T. D. Tosteson, J. Weaver, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, “Imaging breast adipose and fibroglandular tissue molecular signatures by using hybrid MRI-guided near-infrared spectral tomography,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(23), 8828–8833 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kossowski, T.

J. Hauke and T. Kossowski, “Comparison of values of Pearson’s and Spearman’s correlation coefficients on the same sets of data,” Quaest. Geogr. 30, 2 (2011).

Laufer, J. G.

C. B. Reid, E. Pickwell-MacPherson, J. G. Laufer, A. P. Gibson, J. C. Hebden, and V. P. Wallace, “Accuracy and resolution of THz reflection spectroscopy for medical imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(16), 4825–4838 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lazebnik, M.

M. Lazebnik, E. L. Madsen, G. R. Frank, and S. C. Hagness, “Tissue-mimicking phantom materials for narrowband and ultrawideband microwave applications,” Phys. Med. Biol. 50(18), 4245–4258 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, N. C.

J. K. Bobo, N. C. Lee, and S. F. Thames, “Findings from 752,081 clinical breast examinations reported to a national screening program from 1995 through 1998,” J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 92(12), 971–976 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, W.

D. B. Bennett, W. Li, Z. D. Taylor, W. S. Grundfest, and E. R. Brown, “Stratified Media Model for Terahertz Reflectometry of the Skin,” IEEE Sens. J. 11(5), 1253–1262 (2011).
[Crossref]

Liebe, H. J.

H. J. Liebe, G. A. Hufford, and T. Manabe, “A model for the complex permittivity of water at frequencies below 1 THz,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 12(7), 659–675 (1991).
[Crossref]

Lortet-Tieulent, J.

L. A. Torre, F. Bray, R. L. Siegel, J. Ferlay, J. Lortet-Tieulent, and A. Jemal, “Global cancer statistics, 2012,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 65(2), 87–108 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Madsen, E. L.

M. Lazebnik, E. L. Madsen, G. R. Frank, and S. C. Hagness, “Tissue-mimicking phantom materials for narrowband and ultrawideband microwave applications,” Phys. Med. Biol. 50(18), 4245–4258 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maik, S.

S. Maik, W. Steffen, J. Christian, and K. Martin, “Modelling heterogeneous dielectric mixtures in the terahertz regime: a quasi-static effective medium theory,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(6), 065415 (2009).
[Crossref]

Manabe, T.

H. J. Liebe, G. A. Hufford, and T. Manabe, “A model for the complex permittivity of water at frequencies below 1 THz,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 12(7), 659–675 (1991).
[Crossref]

Martin, K.

S. Maik, W. Steffen, J. Christian, and K. Martin, “Modelling heterogeneous dielectric mixtures in the terahertz regime: a quasi-static effective medium theory,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(6), 065415 (2009).
[Crossref]

Martin, L.

N. Boyd, L. Martin, S. Chavez, A. Gunasekara, A. Salleh, O. Melnichouk, M. Yaffe, C. Friedenreich, S. Minkin, and M. Bronskill, “Breast-tissue composition and other risk factors for breast cancer in young women: a cross-sectional study,” Lancet Oncol. 10(6), 569–580 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maxwell Garnett, J. C.

J. C. Maxwell Garnett, “Colours in Metal Glasses, in Metallic Films, and in Metallic Solutions. II,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond., A Contain. Pap. Math. Phys. Character 205(387-401), 237–288 (1906).
[Crossref]

Melnichouk, O.

N. Boyd, L. Martin, S. Chavez, A. Gunasekara, A. Salleh, O. Melnichouk, M. Yaffe, C. Friedenreich, S. Minkin, and M. Bronskill, “Breast-tissue composition and other risk factors for breast cancer in young women: a cross-sectional study,” Lancet Oncol. 10(6), 569–580 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Merbold, H.

Minkin, S.

N. Boyd, L. Martin, S. Chavez, A. Gunasekara, A. Salleh, O. Melnichouk, M. Yaffe, C. Friedenreich, S. Minkin, and M. Bronskill, “Breast-tissue composition and other risk factors for breast cancer in young women: a cross-sectional study,” Lancet Oncol. 10(6), 569–580 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Møller, U.

Naishadham, D.

S. H. R. Siegel, D. Naishadham, and A. Jemal, “Cancer statistics,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 62, 10–29 (2012).
[PubMed]

Nguyen, H. T.

B. C. Truong, H. D. Tuan, A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, and H. T. Nguyen, “A dielectric model of human breast tissue in terahertz regime,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 62(2), 699–707 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O’Kelly, P.

A. J. Fitzgerald, S. Pinder, A. D. Purushotham, P. O’Kelly, P. C. Ashworth, and V. P. Wallace, “Classification of terahertz-pulsed imaging data from excised breast tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(1), 016005 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Osborn, J. A.

J. A. Osborn, “Demagnetizing Factors of the General Ellipsoid,” Phys. Rev. 67(11-12), 351–357 (1945).
[Crossref]

Owen, J.

Paulsen, K. D.

B. Brooksby, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, S. Srinivasan, C. Kogel, T. D. Tosteson, J. Weaver, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, “Imaging breast adipose and fibroglandular tissue molecular signatures by using hybrid MRI-guided near-infrared spectral tomography,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(23), 8828–8833 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pearce, C. L.

M. C. Pike and C. L. Pearce, “Mammographic density, MRI background parenchymal enhancement and breast cancer risk,” Ann. Oncol. 24(S8), i37 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pepper, M.

Pickwell, E.

E. Pickwell, B. E. Cole, A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, and M. Pepper, “Simulation of terahertz pulse propagation in biological systems,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(12), 2190–2192 (2004).
[Crossref]

Pickwell-Macpherson, E.

C. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Sun, and E. Pickwell-Macpherson, “The potential of terahertz imaging for cancer diagnosis: A review of investigations to date,” Quant. Imaging Med. Surg. 2(1), 33–45 (2012).
[PubMed]

C. B. Reid, E. Pickwell-MacPherson, J. G. Laufer, A. P. Gibson, J. C. Hebden, and V. P. Wallace, “Accuracy and resolution of THz reflection spectroscopy for medical imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(16), 4825–4838 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. C. Ashworth, E. Pickwell-MacPherson, E. Provenzano, S. E. Pinder, A. D. Purushotham, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy of freshly excised human breast cancer,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12444–12454 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. C. Ashworth, E. Pickwell-MacPherson, E. Provenzano, S. E. Pinder, A. D. Purushotham, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy of freshly excised human breast cancer,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12444–12454 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pike, M. C.

M. C. Pike and C. L. Pearce, “Mammographic density, MRI background parenchymal enhancement and breast cancer risk,” Ann. Oncol. 24(S8), i37 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pinder, S.

A. J. Fitzgerald, S. Pinder, A. D. Purushotham, P. O’Kelly, P. C. Ashworth, and V. P. Wallace, “Classification of terahertz-pulsed imaging data from excised breast tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(1), 016005 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pinder, S. E.

Plaxco, K. W.

J. Xu, K. W. Plaxco, and S. J. Allen, “Probing the collective vibrational dynamics of a protein in liquid water by terahertz absorption spectroscopy,” Protein Sci. 15(5), 1175–1181 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pleijhuis, R. G.

R. G. Pleijhuis, M. Graafland, J. de Vries, J. Bart, J. S. de Jong, and G. M. van Dam, “Obtaining Adequate Surgical Margins in Breast-Conserving Therapy for Patients with Early-Stage Breast Cancer: Current Modalities and Future Directions,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 16(10), 2717–2730 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pogue, B. W.

B. Brooksby, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, S. Srinivasan, C. Kogel, T. D. Tosteson, J. Weaver, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, “Imaging breast adipose and fibroglandular tissue molecular signatures by using hybrid MRI-guided near-infrared spectral tomography,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(23), 8828–8833 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Polder, D.

D. Polder and J. H. van Santeen, “The effective permeability of mixtures of solids,” Physica 12(5), 257–271 (1946).
[Crossref]

Polikarpov, I.

H. Fischer, I. Polikarpov, and A. F. Craievich, “Average protein density is a molecular-weight-dependent function,” Protein Sci. 13(10), 2825–2828 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Poplack, S. P.

B. Brooksby, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, S. Srinivasan, C. Kogel, T. D. Tosteson, J. Weaver, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, “Imaging breast adipose and fibroglandular tissue molecular signatures by using hybrid MRI-guided near-infrared spectral tomography,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(23), 8828–8833 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Portieri, A.

Provenzano, E.

Purushotham, A.

Purushotham, A. D.

A. J. Fitzgerald, S. Pinder, A. D. Purushotham, P. O’Kelly, P. C. Ashworth, and V. P. Wallace, “Classification of terahertz-pulsed imaging data from excised breast tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(1), 016005 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. C. Ashworth, E. Pickwell-MacPherson, E. Provenzano, S. E. Pinder, A. D. Purushotham, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy of freshly excised human breast cancer,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12444–12454 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. C. Ashworth, E. Pickwell-MacPherson, E. Provenzano, S. E. Pinder, A. D. Purushotham, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy of freshly excised human breast cancer,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12444–12454 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz Pulsed Imaging of Human Breast Tumors,” Radiology 239(2), 533–540 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pye, R. J.

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz Pulsed Imaging of Human Breast Tumors,” Radiology 239(2), 533–540 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. P. Wallace, P. F. Taday, A. J. Fitzgerald, R. M. Woodward, J. Cluff, R. J. Pye, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging and spectroscopy for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications,” Faraday Discuss. 126, 255–263, discussion 303–311 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reid, C. B.

C. B. Reid, E. Pickwell-MacPherson, J. G. Laufer, A. P. Gibson, J. C. Hebden, and V. P. Wallace, “Accuracy and resolution of THz reflection spectroscopy for medical imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(16), 4825–4838 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rønne, C.

C. Rønne and S. R. Keiding, “Low frequency spectroscopy of liquid water using THz-time domain spectroscopy,” J. Mol. Liq. 101(1-3), 199–218 (2002).
[Crossref]

Salleh, A.

N. Boyd, L. Martin, S. Chavez, A. Gunasekara, A. Salleh, O. Melnichouk, M. Yaffe, C. Friedenreich, S. Minkin, and M. Bronskill, “Breast-tissue composition and other risk factors for breast cancer in young women: a cross-sectional study,” Lancet Oncol. 10(6), 569–580 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Santaolalla, A.

Schmuttenmaer, C. A.

J. T. Kindt and C. A. Schmuttenmaer, “Far-Infrared Dielectric Properties of Polar Liquids Probed by Femtosecond Terahertz Pulse Spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. 100(24), 10373–10379 (1996).
[Crossref]

Siegel, R. L.

L. A. Torre, F. Bray, R. L. Siegel, J. Ferlay, J. Lortet-Tieulent, and A. Jemal, “Global cancer statistics, 2012,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 65(2), 87–108 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Siegel, S. H. R.

S. H. R. Siegel, D. Naishadham, and A. Jemal, “Cancer statistics,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 62, 10–29 (2012).
[PubMed]

Srinivasan, S.

B. Brooksby, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, S. Srinivasan, C. Kogel, T. D. Tosteson, J. Weaver, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, “Imaging breast adipose and fibroglandular tissue molecular signatures by using hybrid MRI-guided near-infrared spectral tomography,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(23), 8828–8833 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Steffen, W.

S. Maik, W. Steffen, J. Christian, and K. Martin, “Modelling heterogeneous dielectric mixtures in the terahertz regime: a quasi-static effective medium theory,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(6), 065415 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sun, Y.

C. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Sun, and E. Pickwell-Macpherson, “The potential of terahertz imaging for cancer diagnosis: A review of investigations to date,” Quant. Imaging Med. Surg. 2(1), 33–45 (2012).
[PubMed]

Taday, P. F.

V. P. Wallace, P. F. Taday, A. J. Fitzgerald, R. M. Woodward, J. Cluff, R. J. Pye, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging and spectroscopy for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications,” Faraday Discuss. 126, 255–263, discussion 303–311 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Taylor, Z. D.

D. B. Bennett, W. Li, Z. D. Taylor, W. S. Grundfest, and E. R. Brown, “Stratified Media Model for Terahertz Reflectometry of the Skin,” IEEE Sens. J. 11(5), 1253–1262 (2011).
[Crossref]

Thames, S. F.

J. K. Bobo, N. C. Lee, and S. F. Thames, “Findings from 752,081 clinical breast examinations reported to a national screening program from 1995 through 1998,” J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 92(12), 971–976 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Torre, L. A.

L. A. Torre, F. Bray, R. L. Siegel, J. Ferlay, J. Lortet-Tieulent, and A. Jemal, “Global cancer statistics, 2012,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 65(2), 87–108 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tosteson, T. D.

B. Brooksby, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, S. Srinivasan, C. Kogel, T. D. Tosteson, J. Weaver, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, “Imaging breast adipose and fibroglandular tissue molecular signatures by using hybrid MRI-guided near-infrared spectral tomography,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(23), 8828–8833 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Truong, B. C.

B. C. Truong, H. D. Tuan, A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, and H. T. Nguyen, “A dielectric model of human breast tissue in terahertz regime,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 62(2), 699–707 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tuan, H. D.

B. C. Truong, H. D. Tuan, A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, and H. T. Nguyen, “A dielectric model of human breast tissue in terahertz regime,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 62(2), 699–707 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vaca Chávez, F.

F. Vaca Chávez, E. Hellstrand, and B. Halle, “Hydrogen exchange and hydration dynamics in gelatin gels,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110(43), 21551–21559 (2006).
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van Dam, G. M.

R. G. Pleijhuis, M. Graafland, J. de Vries, J. Bart, J. S. de Jong, and G. M. van Dam, “Obtaining Adequate Surgical Margins in Breast-Conserving Therapy for Patients with Early-Stage Breast Cancer: Current Modalities and Future Directions,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 16(10), 2717–2730 (2009).
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Van Hemelrijck, M.

van Santeen, J. H.

D. Polder and J. H. van Santeen, “The effective permeability of mixtures of solids,” Physica 12(5), 257–271 (1946).
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M. R. Grootendorst, A. J. Fitzgerald, S. G. Brouwer de Koning, A. Santaolalla, A. Portieri, M. Van Hemelrijck, M. R. Young, J. Owen, M. Cariati, M. Pepper, V. P. Wallace, S. E. Pinder, and A. Purushotham, “Use of a handheld terahertz pulsed imaging device to differentiate benign and malignant breast tissue,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(6), 2932–2945 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. C. Truong, H. D. Tuan, A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, and H. T. Nguyen, “A dielectric model of human breast tissue in terahertz regime,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 62(2), 699–707 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. J. Fitzgerald, S. Pinder, A. D. Purushotham, P. O’Kelly, P. C. Ashworth, and V. P. Wallace, “Classification of terahertz-pulsed imaging data from excised breast tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(1), 016005 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. B. Reid, E. Pickwell-MacPherson, J. G. Laufer, A. P. Gibson, J. C. Hebden, and V. P. Wallace, “Accuracy and resolution of THz reflection spectroscopy for medical imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(16), 4825–4838 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. C. Ashworth, E. Pickwell-MacPherson, E. Provenzano, S. E. Pinder, A. D. Purushotham, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy of freshly excised human breast cancer,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12444–12454 (2009).
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P. C. Ashworth, E. Pickwell-MacPherson, E. Provenzano, S. E. Pinder, A. D. Purushotham, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy of freshly excised human breast cancer,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12444–12454 (2009).
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A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz Pulsed Imaging of Human Breast Tumors,” Radiology 239(2), 533–540 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. P. Wallace, P. F. Taday, A. J. Fitzgerald, R. M. Woodward, J. Cluff, R. J. Pye, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging and spectroscopy for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications,” Faraday Discuss. 126, 255–263, discussion 303–311 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Pickwell, B. E. Cole, A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, and M. Pepper, “Simulation of terahertz pulse propagation in biological systems,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(12), 2190–2192 (2004).
[Crossref]

Weaver, J.

B. Brooksby, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, S. Srinivasan, C. Kogel, T. D. Tosteson, J. Weaver, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, “Imaging breast adipose and fibroglandular tissue molecular signatures by using hybrid MRI-guided near-infrared spectral tomography,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(23), 8828–8833 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Woodward, R. M.

V. P. Wallace, P. F. Taday, A. J. Fitzgerald, R. M. Woodward, J. Cluff, R. J. Pye, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging and spectroscopy for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications,” Faraday Discuss. 126, 255–263, discussion 303–311 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, J.

J. Xu, K. W. Plaxco, and S. J. Allen, “Probing the collective vibrational dynamics of a protein in liquid water by terahertz absorption spectroscopy,” Protein Sci. 15(5), 1175–1181 (2006).
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Yaffe, M.

N. Boyd, L. Martin, S. Chavez, A. Gunasekara, A. Salleh, O. Melnichouk, M. Yaffe, C. Friedenreich, S. Minkin, and M. Bronskill, “Breast-tissue composition and other risk factors for breast cancer in young women: a cross-sectional study,” Lancet Oncol. 10(6), 569–580 (2009).
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Young, M. R.

Yu, C.

C. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Sun, and E. Pickwell-Macpherson, “The potential of terahertz imaging for cancer diagnosis: A review of investigations to date,” Quant. Imaging Med. Surg. 2(1), 33–45 (2012).
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Zhang, C.

C. Zhang and S. M. Durbin, “Hydration-Induced Far-Infrared Absorption Increase in Myoglobin,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110(46), 23607–23613 (2006).
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R. G. Pleijhuis, M. Graafland, J. de Vries, J. Bart, J. S. de Jong, and G. M. van Dam, “Obtaining Adequate Surgical Margins in Breast-Conserving Therapy for Patients with Early-Stage Breast Cancer: Current Modalities and Future Directions,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 16(10), 2717–2730 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

E. Pickwell, B. E. Cole, A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, and M. Pepper, “Simulation of terahertz pulse propagation in biological systems,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(12), 2190–2192 (2004).
[Crossref]

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

CA Cancer J. Clin. (2)

S. H. R. Siegel, D. Naishadham, and A. Jemal, “Cancer statistics,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 62, 10–29 (2012).
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V. P. Wallace, P. F. Taday, A. J. Fitzgerald, R. M. Woodward, J. Cluff, R. J. Pye, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging and spectroscopy for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications,” Faraday Discuss. 126, 255–263, discussion 303–311 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

IEEE Sens. J. (1)

D. B. Bennett, W. Li, Z. D. Taylor, W. S. Grundfest, and E. R. Brown, “Stratified Media Model for Terahertz Reflectometry of the Skin,” IEEE Sens. J. 11(5), 1253–1262 (2011).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. (1)

T. C. Bowman, M. El-Shenawee, and L. K. Campbell, “Terahertz Imaging of Excised Breast Tumor Tissue on Paraffin Sections,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 63(5), 2088–2097 (2015).
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IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. (1)

B. C. Truong, H. D. Tuan, A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, and H. T. Nguyen, “A dielectric model of human breast tissue in terahertz regime,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 62(2), 699–707 (2015).
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Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves (1)

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A. J. Fitzgerald, S. Pinder, A. D. Purushotham, P. O’Kelly, P. C. Ashworth, and V. P. Wallace, “Classification of terahertz-pulsed imaging data from excised breast tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(1), 016005 (2012).
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C. Rønne and S. R. Keiding, “Low frequency spectroscopy of liquid water using THz-time domain spectroscopy,” J. Mol. Liq. 101(1-3), 199–218 (2002).
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J. K. Bobo, N. C. Lee, and S. F. Thames, “Findings from 752,081 clinical breast examinations reported to a national screening program from 1995 through 1998,” J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 92(12), 971–976 (2000).
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J. Phys. Chem. B (2)

F. Vaca Chávez, E. Hellstrand, and B. Halle, “Hydrogen exchange and hydration dynamics in gelatin gels,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110(43), 21551–21559 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Zhang and S. M. Durbin, “Hydration-Induced Far-Infrared Absorption Increase in Myoglobin,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110(46), 23607–23613 (2006).
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J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (1)

S. Maik, W. Steffen, J. Christian, and K. Martin, “Modelling heterogeneous dielectric mixtures in the terahertz regime: a quasi-static effective medium theory,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(6), 065415 (2009).
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N. Boyd, L. Martin, S. Chavez, A. Gunasekara, A. Salleh, O. Melnichouk, M. Yaffe, C. Friedenreich, S. Minkin, and M. Bronskill, “Breast-tissue composition and other risk factors for breast cancer in young women: a cross-sectional study,” Lancet Oncol. 10(6), 569–580 (2009).
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C. B. Reid, E. Pickwell-MacPherson, J. G. Laufer, A. P. Gibson, J. C. Hebden, and V. P. Wallace, “Accuracy and resolution of THz reflection spectroscopy for medical imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(16), 4825–4838 (2010).
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[Crossref]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

B. Brooksby, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, S. Srinivasan, C. Kogel, T. D. Tosteson, J. Weaver, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, “Imaging breast adipose and fibroglandular tissue molecular signatures by using hybrid MRI-guided near-infrared spectral tomography,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(23), 8828–8833 (2006).
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J. R. Harris, M. E. Lippman, M. Morrow, and C. K. Osborne, Diseases of the Breast, 4 ed. (Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2010).

P. C. Ashworth, P. O’ Kelly, A. D. Purushotham, S. E. Pinder, M. Kontos, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “An intra-operative THz probe for use during the surgical removal of breast tumors,” in 2008 33rd International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter and Terahertz Waves, 2008), 1–3.
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A. Portieri, M. Grootendorst, and T. Fitzgerald, “Intra-operative terahertz probe for detection of breast cancer,” in 2015 8th UK, Europe, China Millimeter Waves and THz Technology Workshop (UCMMT), 2015), 1–2.
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T. Bowman, A. Walter, and M. El-Shenawee, “Margin assessment of three-dimensional breast cancer phantoms using terahertz imaging,” in SPIE BiOS, (SPIE, 2016), 5.

A. Walter, “Development of Breast Tissue Phantoms for Enhanced Terahertz Imaging Utilizing Microdiamond and Nano-Onion Particles,” Electrical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses (University of Ankansas, 2016).

T. Bowman, A. Walter, O. Shenderova, N. Nunn, G. McGuire, and M. El-Shenawee, “A phantom study of terahertz spectroscopy and imaging of micro- and nano-diamonds and nano-onions as contrast agents for breast cancer,” Biomedical Physics & Engineering Express 3(2017).
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T. C. Choy, Effective Medium Theory: Principles and Applications, 2nd ed. (Oxford University Press, 2016).

C. B. Reid, “Spectroscopic Methods for Medical Diagnosis at Terahertz Wavelengths,” Doctoral thesis (University College London, 2009).

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[Crossref]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (i) A phantom is placed on a quartz window; (ii)-(a) Reference measurement; (II)-(b) Sample measurement.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 The measured real and imaginary part of complex permittivities of water and olive oil compared to existing literature values.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The complex dielectric properties permittivities of (a) intralipid samples with increasing oil concentration, (b) gelatin-water emulsion samples with increasing gelatin concentration, (c) three-component phantoms with increasing solute (gelatin/oil) concentration compared to the dielectric properties reported in the literature for breast tissue. The notation w:g:o represents the volume percentage of water, gelatin, and oil, respectively.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Plots show the results of the concentration analysis with EMT method of (a) intralipid emulsions, (b) water-gelatin emulsions, (c) water-gelatin-oil emulsions.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Plots show the results of the concentration analysis with E-EMT method of (a) intralipid emulsions, (b) water-gelatin emulsions, (c) water-gelatin-oil emulsions.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Composition of the ternary phantoms

Tables Icon

Table 2 The table presents the Spearman correlation between the investigated parameters and the volume concentration of each components from the tissue phantoms.

Tables Icon

Table 3 The accuracies of the two proposed analysis methods corresponding to each type of the breast tissue phantoms. Each result is presented by the mean difference (the estimation error) in percentage (%) between the estimated and true concentration values with its standard deviation.

Equations (8)

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ε ^ ( ω ) = ε + ε s ε 2 1 + ω τ 1 + ε 2 ε 1 + ω τ 2 ,
k = 1 K η k ( ε k ε r ε k + ( P k ( 1 ) 1 ε r ) ) = 0
k = 1 K η k ( ε k ε r ε k + 2 ε r ) ) = 0 , w i t h k = 1 K η k = 1.
min ε j n = 1 N | η i ( ε i ε r , n ε i + 2 ε r , n ) ) + η j ( ε j ε r , n ε j + 2 ε r , n ) ) | : ε j 0.
min η k X ε l = 1 L | k = 1 K η k ( ε l , k ε r , l ε l , k + 2 ε r , l ) ) | : η k 0 , k = 1 M η k = 1 ,
C L ( ε ) = n = 0 N L a n ε n
C G ( ε ) = n = 0 N G b n ε n
ε w g = ε w g l ( 1 η L + A 1 η L 2 A ) ,

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