Abstract

We report development of a low-cost smartphone confocal microscope and its first demonstration of in vivo human skin imaging. The smartphone confocal microscope uses a slit aperture and diffraction grating to conduct two-dimensional confocal imaging without using any beam scanning devices. Lateral and axial resolutions of the smartphone confocal microscope were measured as 2 and 5 µm, respectively. In vivo confocal images of human skin revealed characteristic cellular structures, including spinous and basal keratinocytes and papillary dermis. Results suggest that the smartphone confocal microscope has a potential to examine cellular details in vivo and may help disease diagnosis in resource-poor settings, where conducting standard histopathologic analysis is challenging.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2018 (1)

2017 (4)

M. Kühnemund, Q. Wei, E. Darai, Y. Wang, I. Hernández-Neuta, Z. Yang, D. Tseng, A. Ahlford, L. Mathot, T. Sjöblom, A. Ozcan, and M. Nilsson, “Targeted DNA sequencing and in situ mutation analysis using mobile phone microscopy,” Nat. Commun. 8, 13913 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Rajadhyaksha, A. Marghoob, A. Rossi, A. C. Halpern, and K. S. Nehal, “Reflectance confocal microscopy of skin in vivo: From bench to bedside,” Lasers Surg. Med. 49(1), 7–19 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Kang, S. C. Schlachter, R. W. Carruth, M. Kim, T. Wu, N. Tabatabaei, A. R. Soomro, C. N. Grant, M. Rosenberg, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Large-area spectrally encoded confocal endomicroscopy of the human esophagus in vivo,” Lasers Surg. Med. 49(3), 233–239 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Kose, M. Gou, O. Yélamos, M. Cordova, A. M. Rossi, K. S. Nehal, E. S. Flores, O. Camps, J. G. Dy, D. H. Brooks, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Automated video-mosaicking approach for confocal microscopic imaging in vivo: an approach to address challenges in imaging living tissue and extend field of view,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 10759 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (1)

2015 (2)

S. Kurugol, K. Kose, B. Park, J. G. Dy, D. H. Brooks, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Automated delineation of dermal-epidermal junction in reflectance confocal microscopy image stacks of human skin,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 135(3), 710–717 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. L. Damhorst, C. Duarte-Guevara, W. Chen, T. Ghonge, B. T. Cunningham, and R. Bashir, “Smartphone-imaged HIV-1 reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) on a chip from whole blood,” Engineering (Beijing) 1(3), 324–335 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (2)

S. A. Lee and C. Yang, “A smartphone-based chip-scale microscope using ambient illumination,” Lab Chip 14(16), 3056–3063 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Ozcan, “Mobile phones democratize and cultivate next-generation imaging, diagnostics and measurement tools,” Lab Chip 14(17), 3187–3194 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (3)

H. Kirshner, F. Aguet, D. Sage, and M. Unser, “3-D PSF fitting for fluorescence microscopy: implementation and localization application,” J. Microsc. 249(1), 13–25 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Kang, R. V. Martinez, G. M. Whitesides, and G. J. Tearney, “Miniature grating for spectrally-encoded endoscopy,” Lab Chip 13(9), 1810–1816 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Kang, R. W. Carruth, M. Kim, S. C. Schlachter, M. Shishkov, K. Woods, N. Tabatabaei, T. Wu, and G. J. Tearney, “Endoscopic probe optics for spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(10), 1925–1936 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

B. N. Amerson E, H Wabinga, M Wenger, M Bwana, W Muyindike, C Kyakwera, M Laker, E Mbidde, C Yiannoutsos, K Wools-Kaloustian, B Musick, B LeBoit, T McCalmont, B Ruben, P Volberding, T Maurer, J Martin, “Diagnosing Kaposi’s Sarcoma (KS) in East Africa: how accurate are clinicians and pathologists?” Infect. Agent. Cancer 7(Suppl 1), 6 (2012).
[PubMed]

B. N. Amerson E, H Wabinga, M Wenger, M Bwana, W Muyindike, C Kyakwera, M Laker, E Mbidde, C Yiannoutsos, K Wools-Kaloustian, B Musick, B LeBoit, T McCalmont, B Ruben, P Volberding, T Maurer, J Martin, “Diagnosing Kaposi’s Sarcoma (KS) in East Africa: how accurate are clinicians and pathologists?” Infect. Agent. Cancer 7(Suppl 1), 6 (2012).
[PubMed]

B. N. Amerson E, H Wabinga, M Wenger, M Bwana, W Muyindike, C Kyakwera, M Laker, E Mbidde, C Yiannoutsos, K Wools-Kaloustian, B Musick, B LeBoit, T McCalmont, B Ruben, P Volberding, T Maurer, J Martin, “Diagnosing Kaposi’s Sarcoma (KS) in East Africa: how accurate are clinicians and pathologists?” Infect. Agent. Cancer 7(Suppl 1), 6 (2012).
[PubMed]

B. N. Amerson E, H Wabinga, M Wenger, M Bwana, W Muyindike, C Kyakwera, M Laker, E Mbidde, C Yiannoutsos, K Wools-Kaloustian, B Musick, B LeBoit, T McCalmont, B Ruben, P Volberding, T Maurer, J Martin, “Diagnosing Kaposi’s Sarcoma (KS) in East Africa: how accurate are clinicians and pathologists?” Infect. Agent. Cancer 7(Suppl 1), 6 (2012).
[PubMed]

B. N. Amerson E, H Wabinga, M Wenger, M Bwana, W Muyindike, C Kyakwera, M Laker, E Mbidde, C Yiannoutsos, K Wools-Kaloustian, B Musick, B LeBoit, T McCalmont, B Ruben, P Volberding, T Maurer, J Martin, “Diagnosing Kaposi’s Sarcoma (KS) in East Africa: how accurate are clinicians and pathologists?” Infect. Agent. Cancer 7(Suppl 1), 6 (2012).
[PubMed]

B. N. Amerson E, H Wabinga, M Wenger, M Bwana, W Muyindike, C Kyakwera, M Laker, E Mbidde, C Yiannoutsos, K Wools-Kaloustian, B Musick, B LeBoit, T McCalmont, B Ruben, P Volberding, T Maurer, J Martin, “Diagnosing Kaposi’s Sarcoma (KS) in East Africa: how accurate are clinicians and pathologists?” Infect. Agent. Cancer 7(Suppl 1), 6 (2012).
[PubMed]

B. N. Amerson E, H Wabinga, M Wenger, M Bwana, W Muyindike, C Kyakwera, M Laker, E Mbidde, C Yiannoutsos, K Wools-Kaloustian, B Musick, B LeBoit, T McCalmont, B Ruben, P Volberding, T Maurer, J Martin, “Diagnosing Kaposi’s Sarcoma (KS) in East Africa: how accurate are clinicians and pathologists?” Infect. Agent. Cancer 7(Suppl 1), 6 (2012).
[PubMed]

B. N. Amerson E, H Wabinga, M Wenger, M Bwana, W Muyindike, C Kyakwera, M Laker, E Mbidde, C Yiannoutsos, K Wools-Kaloustian, B Musick, B LeBoit, T McCalmont, B Ruben, P Volberding, T Maurer, J Martin, “Diagnosing Kaposi’s Sarcoma (KS) in East Africa: how accurate are clinicians and pathologists?” Infect. Agent. Cancer 7(Suppl 1), 6 (2012).
[PubMed]

B. N. Amerson E, H Wabinga, M Wenger, M Bwana, W Muyindike, C Kyakwera, M Laker, E Mbidde, C Yiannoutsos, K Wools-Kaloustian, B Musick, B LeBoit, T McCalmont, B Ruben, P Volberding, T Maurer, J Martin, “Diagnosing Kaposi’s Sarcoma (KS) in East Africa: how accurate are clinicians and pathologists?” Infect. Agent. Cancer 7(Suppl 1), 6 (2012).
[PubMed]

B. N. Amerson E, H Wabinga, M Wenger, M Bwana, W Muyindike, C Kyakwera, M Laker, E Mbidde, C Yiannoutsos, K Wools-Kaloustian, B Musick, B LeBoit, T McCalmont, B Ruben, P Volberding, T Maurer, J Martin, “Diagnosing Kaposi’s Sarcoma (KS) in East Africa: how accurate are clinicians and pathologists?” Infect. Agent. Cancer 7(Suppl 1), 6 (2012).
[PubMed]

B. N. Amerson E, H Wabinga, M Wenger, M Bwana, W Muyindike, C Kyakwera, M Laker, E Mbidde, C Yiannoutsos, K Wools-Kaloustian, B Musick, B LeBoit, T McCalmont, B Ruben, P Volberding, T Maurer, J Martin, “Diagnosing Kaposi’s Sarcoma (KS) in East Africa: how accurate are clinicians and pathologists?” Infect. Agent. Cancer 7(Suppl 1), 6 (2012).
[PubMed]

B. N. Amerson E, H Wabinga, M Wenger, M Bwana, W Muyindike, C Kyakwera, M Laker, E Mbidde, C Yiannoutsos, K Wools-Kaloustian, B Musick, B LeBoit, T McCalmont, B Ruben, P Volberding, T Maurer, J Martin, “Diagnosing Kaposi’s Sarcoma (KS) in East Africa: how accurate are clinicians and pathologists?” Infect. Agent. Cancer 7(Suppl 1), 6 (2012).
[PubMed]

B. N. Amerson E, H Wabinga, M Wenger, M Bwana, W Muyindike, C Kyakwera, M Laker, E Mbidde, C Yiannoutsos, K Wools-Kaloustian, B Musick, B LeBoit, T McCalmont, B Ruben, P Volberding, T Maurer, J Martin, “Diagnosing Kaposi’s Sarcoma (KS) in East Africa: how accurate are clinicians and pathologists?” Infect. Agent. Cancer 7(Suppl 1), 6 (2012).
[PubMed]

B. N. Amerson E, H Wabinga, M Wenger, M Bwana, W Muyindike, C Kyakwera, M Laker, E Mbidde, C Yiannoutsos, K Wools-Kaloustian, B Musick, B LeBoit, T McCalmont, B Ruben, P Volberding, T Maurer, J Martin, “Diagnosing Kaposi’s Sarcoma (KS) in East Africa: how accurate are clinicians and pathologists?” Infect. Agent. Cancer 7(Suppl 1), 6 (2012).
[PubMed]

B. N. Amerson E, H Wabinga, M Wenger, M Bwana, W Muyindike, C Kyakwera, M Laker, E Mbidde, C Yiannoutsos, K Wools-Kaloustian, B Musick, B LeBoit, T McCalmont, B Ruben, P Volberding, T Maurer, J Martin, “Diagnosing Kaposi’s Sarcoma (KS) in East Africa: how accurate are clinicians and pathologists?” Infect. Agent. Cancer 7(Suppl 1), 6 (2012).
[PubMed]

B. N. Amerson E, H Wabinga, M Wenger, M Bwana, W Muyindike, C Kyakwera, M Laker, E Mbidde, C Yiannoutsos, K Wools-Kaloustian, B Musick, B LeBoit, T McCalmont, B Ruben, P Volberding, T Maurer, J Martin, “Diagnosing Kaposi’s Sarcoma (KS) in East Africa: how accurate are clinicians and pathologists?” Infect. Agent. Cancer 7(Suppl 1), 6 (2012).
[PubMed]

2009 (1)

P. Guitera, G. Pellacani, C. Longo, S. Seidenari, M. Avramidis, and S. W. Menzies, “In vivo reflectance confocal microscopy enhances secondary evaluation of melanocytic lesions,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 129(1), 131–138 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

2006 (2)

J. Kim, D. Kang, and D. Gweon, “Spectrally encoded slit confocal microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 31(11), 1687–1689 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Argenziano, S. Puig, I. Zalaudek, F. Sera, R. Corona, M. Alsina, F. Barbato, C. Carrera, G. Ferrara, A. Guilabert, D. Massi, J. A. Moreno-Romero, C. Muñoz-Santos, G. Petrillo, S. Segura, H. P. Soyer, R. Zanchini, and J. Malvehy, “Dermoscopy improves accuracy of primary care physicians to triage lesions suggestive of skin cancer,” J. Clin. Oncol. 24(12), 1877–1882 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

1999 (1)

1998 (1)

Aguet, F.

H. Kirshner, F. Aguet, D. Sage, and M. Unser, “3-D PSF fitting for fluorescence microscopy: implementation and localization application,” J. Microsc. 249(1), 13–25 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ahlford, A.

M. Kühnemund, Q. Wei, E. Darai, Y. Wang, I. Hernández-Neuta, Z. Yang, D. Tseng, A. Ahlford, L. Mathot, T. Sjöblom, A. Ozcan, and M. Nilsson, “Targeted DNA sequencing and in situ mutation analysis using mobile phone microscopy,” Nat. Commun. 8, 13913 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alsina, M.

G. Argenziano, S. Puig, I. Zalaudek, F. Sera, R. Corona, M. Alsina, F. Barbato, C. Carrera, G. Ferrara, A. Guilabert, D. Massi, J. A. Moreno-Romero, C. Muñoz-Santos, G. Petrillo, S. Segura, H. P. Soyer, R. Zanchini, and J. Malvehy, “Dermoscopy improves accuracy of primary care physicians to triage lesions suggestive of skin cancer,” J. Clin. Oncol. 24(12), 1877–1882 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anderson, R. R.

Argenziano, G.

G. Argenziano, S. Puig, I. Zalaudek, F. Sera, R. Corona, M. Alsina, F. Barbato, C. Carrera, G. Ferrara, A. Guilabert, D. Massi, J. A. Moreno-Romero, C. Muñoz-Santos, G. Petrillo, S. Segura, H. P. Soyer, R. Zanchini, and J. Malvehy, “Dermoscopy improves accuracy of primary care physicians to triage lesions suggestive of skin cancer,” J. Clin. Oncol. 24(12), 1877–1882 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Avramidis, M.

P. Guitera, G. Pellacani, C. Longo, S. Seidenari, M. Avramidis, and S. W. Menzies, “In vivo reflectance confocal microscopy enhances secondary evaluation of melanocytic lesions,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 129(1), 131–138 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barbato, F.

G. Argenziano, S. Puig, I. Zalaudek, F. Sera, R. Corona, M. Alsina, F. Barbato, C. Carrera, G. Ferrara, A. Guilabert, D. Massi, J. A. Moreno-Romero, C. Muñoz-Santos, G. Petrillo, S. Segura, H. P. Soyer, R. Zanchini, and J. Malvehy, “Dermoscopy improves accuracy of primary care physicians to triage lesions suggestive of skin cancer,” J. Clin. Oncol. 24(12), 1877–1882 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bashir, R.

G. L. Damhorst, C. Duarte-Guevara, W. Chen, T. Ghonge, B. T. Cunningham, and R. Bashir, “Smartphone-imaged HIV-1 reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) on a chip from whole blood,” Engineering (Beijing) 1(3), 324–335 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bouma, B. E.

Brooks, D. H.

K. Kose, M. Gou, O. Yélamos, M. Cordova, A. M. Rossi, K. S. Nehal, E. S. Flores, O. Camps, J. G. Dy, D. H. Brooks, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Automated video-mosaicking approach for confocal microscopic imaging in vivo: an approach to address challenges in imaging living tissue and extend field of view,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 10759 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Kurugol, K. Kose, B. Park, J. G. Dy, D. H. Brooks, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Automated delineation of dermal-epidermal junction in reflectance confocal microscopy image stacks of human skin,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 135(3), 710–717 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brown, W. J.

Bwana,

B. N. Amerson E, H Wabinga, M Wenger, M Bwana, W Muyindike, C Kyakwera, M Laker, E Mbidde, C Yiannoutsos, K Wools-Kaloustian, B Musick, B LeBoit, T McCalmont, B Ruben, P Volberding, T Maurer, J Martin, “Diagnosing Kaposi’s Sarcoma (KS) in East Africa: how accurate are clinicians and pathologists?” Infect. Agent. Cancer 7(Suppl 1), 6 (2012).
[PubMed]

Camps, O.

K. Kose, M. Gou, O. Yélamos, M. Cordova, A. M. Rossi, K. S. Nehal, E. S. Flores, O. Camps, J. G. Dy, D. H. Brooks, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Automated video-mosaicking approach for confocal microscopic imaging in vivo: an approach to address challenges in imaging living tissue and extend field of view,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 10759 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carrera, C.

G. Argenziano, S. Puig, I. Zalaudek, F. Sera, R. Corona, M. Alsina, F. Barbato, C. Carrera, G. Ferrara, A. Guilabert, D. Massi, J. A. Moreno-Romero, C. Muñoz-Santos, G. Petrillo, S. Segura, H. P. Soyer, R. Zanchini, and J. Malvehy, “Dermoscopy improves accuracy of primary care physicians to triage lesions suggestive of skin cancer,” J. Clin. Oncol. 24(12), 1877–1882 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carruth, R. W.

D. Kang, S. C. Schlachter, R. W. Carruth, M. Kim, T. Wu, N. Tabatabaei, A. R. Soomro, C. N. Grant, M. Rosenberg, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Large-area spectrally encoded confocal endomicroscopy of the human esophagus in vivo,” Lasers Surg. Med. 49(3), 233–239 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Kang, R. W. Carruth, M. Kim, S. C. Schlachter, M. Shishkov, K. Woods, N. Tabatabaei, T. Wu, and G. J. Tearney, “Endoscopic probe optics for spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(10), 1925–1936 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, W.

G. L. Damhorst, C. Duarte-Guevara, W. Chen, T. Ghonge, B. T. Cunningham, and R. Bashir, “Smartphone-imaged HIV-1 reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) on a chip from whole blood,” Engineering (Beijing) 1(3), 324–335 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cordova, M.

K. Kose, M. Gou, O. Yélamos, M. Cordova, A. M. Rossi, K. S. Nehal, E. S. Flores, O. Camps, J. G. Dy, D. H. Brooks, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Automated video-mosaicking approach for confocal microscopic imaging in vivo: an approach to address challenges in imaging living tissue and extend field of view,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 10759 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Corona, R.

G. Argenziano, S. Puig, I. Zalaudek, F. Sera, R. Corona, M. Alsina, F. Barbato, C. Carrera, G. Ferrara, A. Guilabert, D. Massi, J. A. Moreno-Romero, C. Muñoz-Santos, G. Petrillo, S. Segura, H. P. Soyer, R. Zanchini, and J. Malvehy, “Dermoscopy improves accuracy of primary care physicians to triage lesions suggestive of skin cancer,” J. Clin. Oncol. 24(12), 1877–1882 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cox, B.

Crose, M.

Cunningham, B. T.

G. L. Damhorst, C. Duarte-Guevara, W. Chen, T. Ghonge, B. T. Cunningham, and R. Bashir, “Smartphone-imaged HIV-1 reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) on a chip from whole blood,” Engineering (Beijing) 1(3), 324–335 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Damhorst, G. L.

G. L. Damhorst, C. Duarte-Guevara, W. Chen, T. Ghonge, B. T. Cunningham, and R. Bashir, “Smartphone-imaged HIV-1 reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) on a chip from whole blood,” Engineering (Beijing) 1(3), 324–335 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Darai, E.

M. Kühnemund, Q. Wei, E. Darai, Y. Wang, I. Hernández-Neuta, Z. Yang, D. Tseng, A. Ahlford, L. Mathot, T. Sjöblom, A. Ozcan, and M. Nilsson, “Targeted DNA sequencing and in situ mutation analysis using mobile phone microscopy,” Nat. Commun. 8, 13913 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Descour, M. R.

DiMarzio, C. A.

Duarte-Guevara, C.

G. L. Damhorst, C. Duarte-Guevara, W. Chen, T. Ghonge, B. T. Cunningham, and R. Bashir, “Smartphone-imaged HIV-1 reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) on a chip from whole blood,” Engineering (Beijing) 1(3), 324–335 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dwyer, P. J.

Dy, J. G.

K. Kose, M. Gou, O. Yélamos, M. Cordova, A. M. Rossi, K. S. Nehal, E. S. Flores, O. Camps, J. G. Dy, D. H. Brooks, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Automated video-mosaicking approach for confocal microscopic imaging in vivo: an approach to address challenges in imaging living tissue and extend field of view,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 10759 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Kurugol, K. Kose, B. Park, J. G. Dy, D. H. Brooks, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Automated delineation of dermal-epidermal junction in reflectance confocal microscopy image stacks of human skin,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 135(3), 710–717 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eldridge, W. J.

Ferrara, G.

G. Argenziano, S. Puig, I. Zalaudek, F. Sera, R. Corona, M. Alsina, F. Barbato, C. Carrera, G. Ferrara, A. Guilabert, D. Massi, J. A. Moreno-Romero, C. Muñoz-Santos, G. Petrillo, S. Segura, H. P. Soyer, R. Zanchini, and J. Malvehy, “Dermoscopy improves accuracy of primary care physicians to triage lesions suggestive of skin cancer,” J. Clin. Oncol. 24(12), 1877–1882 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Flores, E. S.

K. Kose, M. Gou, O. Yélamos, M. Cordova, A. M. Rossi, K. S. Nehal, E. S. Flores, O. Camps, J. G. Dy, D. H. Brooks, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Automated video-mosaicking approach for confocal microscopic imaging in vivo: an approach to address challenges in imaging living tissue and extend field of view,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 10759 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fu, L.

Ghonge, T.

G. L. Damhorst, C. Duarte-Guevara, W. Chen, T. Ghonge, B. T. Cunningham, and R. Bashir, “Smartphone-imaged HIV-1 reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) on a chip from whole blood,” Engineering (Beijing) 1(3), 324–335 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gou, M.

K. Kose, M. Gou, O. Yélamos, M. Cordova, A. M. Rossi, K. S. Nehal, E. S. Flores, O. Camps, J. G. Dy, D. H. Brooks, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Automated video-mosaicking approach for confocal microscopic imaging in vivo: an approach to address challenges in imaging living tissue and extend field of view,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 10759 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grant, C. N.

D. Kang, S. C. Schlachter, R. W. Carruth, M. Kim, T. Wu, N. Tabatabaei, A. R. Soomro, C. N. Grant, M. Rosenberg, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Large-area spectrally encoded confocal endomicroscopy of the human esophagus in vivo,” Lasers Surg. Med. 49(3), 233–239 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guilabert, A.

G. Argenziano, S. Puig, I. Zalaudek, F. Sera, R. Corona, M. Alsina, F. Barbato, C. Carrera, G. Ferrara, A. Guilabert, D. Massi, J. A. Moreno-Romero, C. Muñoz-Santos, G. Petrillo, S. Segura, H. P. Soyer, R. Zanchini, and J. Malvehy, “Dermoscopy improves accuracy of primary care physicians to triage lesions suggestive of skin cancer,” J. Clin. Oncol. 24(12), 1877–1882 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guitera, P.

P. Guitera, G. Pellacani, C. Longo, S. Seidenari, M. Avramidis, and S. W. Menzies, “In vivo reflectance confocal microscopy enhances secondary evaluation of melanocytic lesions,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 129(1), 131–138 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gweon, D.

Halpern, A. C.

M. Rajadhyaksha, A. Marghoob, A. Rossi, A. C. Halpern, and K. S. Nehal, “Reflectance confocal microscopy of skin in vivo: From bench to bedside,” Lasers Surg. Med. 49(1), 7–19 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hernández-Neuta, I.

M. Kühnemund, Q. Wei, E. Darai, Y. Wang, I. Hernández-Neuta, Z. Yang, D. Tseng, A. Ahlford, L. Mathot, T. Sjöblom, A. Ozcan, and M. Nilsson, “Targeted DNA sequencing and in situ mutation analysis using mobile phone microscopy,” Nat. Commun. 8, 13913 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kang, D.

D. Kang, S. C. Schlachter, R. W. Carruth, M. Kim, T. Wu, N. Tabatabaei, A. R. Soomro, C. N. Grant, M. Rosenberg, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Large-area spectrally encoded confocal endomicroscopy of the human esophagus in vivo,” Lasers Surg. Med. 49(3), 233–239 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Kang, R. W. Carruth, M. Kim, S. C. Schlachter, M. Shishkov, K. Woods, N. Tabatabaei, T. Wu, and G. J. Tearney, “Endoscopic probe optics for spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(10), 1925–1936 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Kang, R. V. Martinez, G. M. Whitesides, and G. J. Tearney, “Miniature grating for spectrally-encoded endoscopy,” Lab Chip 13(9), 1810–1816 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Kim, D. Kang, and D. Gweon, “Spectrally encoded slit confocal microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 31(11), 1687–1689 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, J.

Kim, M.

D. Kang, S. C. Schlachter, R. W. Carruth, M. Kim, T. Wu, N. Tabatabaei, A. R. Soomro, C. N. Grant, M. Rosenberg, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Large-area spectrally encoded confocal endomicroscopy of the human esophagus in vivo,” Lasers Surg. Med. 49(3), 233–239 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Kang, R. W. Carruth, M. Kim, S. C. Schlachter, M. Shishkov, K. Woods, N. Tabatabaei, T. Wu, and G. J. Tearney, “Endoscopic probe optics for spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(10), 1925–1936 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, S.

Kirshner, H.

H. Kirshner, F. Aguet, D. Sage, and M. Unser, “3-D PSF fitting for fluorescence microscopy: implementation and localization application,” J. Microsc. 249(1), 13–25 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kose, K.

K. Kose, M. Gou, O. Yélamos, M. Cordova, A. M. Rossi, K. S. Nehal, E. S. Flores, O. Camps, J. G. Dy, D. H. Brooks, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Automated video-mosaicking approach for confocal microscopic imaging in vivo: an approach to address challenges in imaging living tissue and extend field of view,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 10759 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Kurugol, K. Kose, B. Park, J. G. Dy, D. H. Brooks, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Automated delineation of dermal-epidermal junction in reflectance confocal microscopy image stacks of human skin,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 135(3), 710–717 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kühnemund, M.

M. Kühnemund, Q. Wei, E. Darai, Y. Wang, I. Hernández-Neuta, Z. Yang, D. Tseng, A. Ahlford, L. Mathot, T. Sjöblom, A. Ozcan, and M. Nilsson, “Targeted DNA sequencing and in situ mutation analysis using mobile phone microscopy,” Nat. Commun. 8, 13913 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kurugol, S.

S. Kurugol, K. Kose, B. Park, J. G. Dy, D. H. Brooks, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Automated delineation of dermal-epidermal junction in reflectance confocal microscopy image stacks of human skin,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 135(3), 710–717 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kyakwera,

B. N. Amerson E, H Wabinga, M Wenger, M Bwana, W Muyindike, C Kyakwera, M Laker, E Mbidde, C Yiannoutsos, K Wools-Kaloustian, B Musick, B LeBoit, T McCalmont, B Ruben, P Volberding, T Maurer, J Martin, “Diagnosing Kaposi’s Sarcoma (KS) in East Africa: how accurate are clinicians and pathologists?” Infect. Agent. Cancer 7(Suppl 1), 6 (2012).
[PubMed]

Laker,

B. N. Amerson E, H Wabinga, M Wenger, M Bwana, W Muyindike, C Kyakwera, M Laker, E Mbidde, C Yiannoutsos, K Wools-Kaloustian, B Musick, B LeBoit, T McCalmont, B Ruben, P Volberding, T Maurer, J Martin, “Diagnosing Kaposi’s Sarcoma (KS) in East Africa: how accurate are clinicians and pathologists?” Infect. Agent. Cancer 7(Suppl 1), 6 (2012).
[PubMed]

LeBoit,

B. N. Amerson E, H Wabinga, M Wenger, M Bwana, W Muyindike, C Kyakwera, M Laker, E Mbidde, C Yiannoutsos, K Wools-Kaloustian, B Musick, B LeBoit, T McCalmont, B Ruben, P Volberding, T Maurer, J Martin, “Diagnosing Kaposi’s Sarcoma (KS) in East Africa: how accurate are clinicians and pathologists?” Infect. Agent. Cancer 7(Suppl 1), 6 (2012).
[PubMed]

Lee, S. A.

S. A. Lee and C. Yang, “A smartphone-based chip-scale microscope using ambient illumination,” Lab Chip 14(16), 3056–3063 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liang, C.

Liu, Q.

Longo, C.

P. Guitera, G. Pellacani, C. Longo, S. Seidenari, M. Avramidis, and S. W. Menzies, “In vivo reflectance confocal microscopy enhances secondary evaluation of melanocytic lesions,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 129(1), 131–138 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Malvehy, J.

G. Argenziano, S. Puig, I. Zalaudek, F. Sera, R. Corona, M. Alsina, F. Barbato, C. Carrera, G. Ferrara, A. Guilabert, D. Massi, J. A. Moreno-Romero, C. Muñoz-Santos, G. Petrillo, S. Segura, H. P. Soyer, R. Zanchini, and J. Malvehy, “Dermoscopy improves accuracy of primary care physicians to triage lesions suggestive of skin cancer,” J. Clin. Oncol. 24(12), 1877–1882 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Marghoob, A.

M. Rajadhyaksha, A. Marghoob, A. Rossi, A. C. Halpern, and K. S. Nehal, “Reflectance confocal microscopy of skin in vivo: From bench to bedside,” Lasers Surg. Med. 49(1), 7–19 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Martin,

B. N. Amerson E, H Wabinga, M Wenger, M Bwana, W Muyindike, C Kyakwera, M Laker, E Mbidde, C Yiannoutsos, K Wools-Kaloustian, B Musick, B LeBoit, T McCalmont, B Ruben, P Volberding, T Maurer, J Martin, “Diagnosing Kaposi’s Sarcoma (KS) in East Africa: how accurate are clinicians and pathologists?” Infect. Agent. Cancer 7(Suppl 1), 6 (2012).
[PubMed]

Martinez, R. V.

D. Kang, R. V. Martinez, G. M. Whitesides, and G. J. Tearney, “Miniature grating for spectrally-encoded endoscopy,” Lab Chip 13(9), 1810–1816 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Massi, D.

G. Argenziano, S. Puig, I. Zalaudek, F. Sera, R. Corona, M. Alsina, F. Barbato, C. Carrera, G. Ferrara, A. Guilabert, D. Massi, J. A. Moreno-Romero, C. Muñoz-Santos, G. Petrillo, S. Segura, H. P. Soyer, R. Zanchini, and J. Malvehy, “Dermoscopy improves accuracy of primary care physicians to triage lesions suggestive of skin cancer,” J. Clin. Oncol. 24(12), 1877–1882 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mathot, L.

M. Kühnemund, Q. Wei, E. Darai, Y. Wang, I. Hernández-Neuta, Z. Yang, D. Tseng, A. Ahlford, L. Mathot, T. Sjöblom, A. Ozcan, and M. Nilsson, “Targeted DNA sequencing and in situ mutation analysis using mobile phone microscopy,” Nat. Commun. 8, 13913 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maurer,

B. N. Amerson E, H Wabinga, M Wenger, M Bwana, W Muyindike, C Kyakwera, M Laker, E Mbidde, C Yiannoutsos, K Wools-Kaloustian, B Musick, B LeBoit, T McCalmont, B Ruben, P Volberding, T Maurer, J Martin, “Diagnosing Kaposi’s Sarcoma (KS) in East Africa: how accurate are clinicians and pathologists?” Infect. Agent. Cancer 7(Suppl 1), 6 (2012).
[PubMed]

Mbidde,

B. N. Amerson E, H Wabinga, M Wenger, M Bwana, W Muyindike, C Kyakwera, M Laker, E Mbidde, C Yiannoutsos, K Wools-Kaloustian, B Musick, B LeBoit, T McCalmont, B Ruben, P Volberding, T Maurer, J Martin, “Diagnosing Kaposi’s Sarcoma (KS) in East Africa: how accurate are clinicians and pathologists?” Infect. Agent. Cancer 7(Suppl 1), 6 (2012).
[PubMed]

McCalmont,

B. N. Amerson E, H Wabinga, M Wenger, M Bwana, W Muyindike, C Kyakwera, M Laker, E Mbidde, C Yiannoutsos, K Wools-Kaloustian, B Musick, B LeBoit, T McCalmont, B Ruben, P Volberding, T Maurer, J Martin, “Diagnosing Kaposi’s Sarcoma (KS) in East Africa: how accurate are clinicians and pathologists?” Infect. Agent. Cancer 7(Suppl 1), 6 (2012).
[PubMed]

Menzies, S. W.

P. Guitera, G. Pellacani, C. Longo, S. Seidenari, M. Avramidis, and S. W. Menzies, “In vivo reflectance confocal microscopy enhances secondary evaluation of melanocytic lesions,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 129(1), 131–138 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moreno-Romero, J. A.

G. Argenziano, S. Puig, I. Zalaudek, F. Sera, R. Corona, M. Alsina, F. Barbato, C. Carrera, G. Ferrara, A. Guilabert, D. Massi, J. A. Moreno-Romero, C. Muñoz-Santos, G. Petrillo, S. Segura, H. P. Soyer, R. Zanchini, and J. Malvehy, “Dermoscopy improves accuracy of primary care physicians to triage lesions suggestive of skin cancer,” J. Clin. Oncol. 24(12), 1877–1882 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Muñoz-Santos, C.

G. Argenziano, S. Puig, I. Zalaudek, F. Sera, R. Corona, M. Alsina, F. Barbato, C. Carrera, G. Ferrara, A. Guilabert, D. Massi, J. A. Moreno-Romero, C. Muñoz-Santos, G. Petrillo, S. Segura, H. P. Soyer, R. Zanchini, and J. Malvehy, “Dermoscopy improves accuracy of primary care physicians to triage lesions suggestive of skin cancer,” J. Clin. Oncol. 24(12), 1877–1882 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Musick,

B. N. Amerson E, H Wabinga, M Wenger, M Bwana, W Muyindike, C Kyakwera, M Laker, E Mbidde, C Yiannoutsos, K Wools-Kaloustian, B Musick, B LeBoit, T McCalmont, B Ruben, P Volberding, T Maurer, J Martin, “Diagnosing Kaposi’s Sarcoma (KS) in East Africa: how accurate are clinicians and pathologists?” Infect. Agent. Cancer 7(Suppl 1), 6 (2012).
[PubMed]

Muyindike,

B. N. Amerson E, H Wabinga, M Wenger, M Bwana, W Muyindike, C Kyakwera, M Laker, E Mbidde, C Yiannoutsos, K Wools-Kaloustian, B Musick, B LeBoit, T McCalmont, B Ruben, P Volberding, T Maurer, J Martin, “Diagnosing Kaposi’s Sarcoma (KS) in East Africa: how accurate are clinicians and pathologists?” Infect. Agent. Cancer 7(Suppl 1), 6 (2012).
[PubMed]

Nehal, K. S.

M. Rajadhyaksha, A. Marghoob, A. Rossi, A. C. Halpern, and K. S. Nehal, “Reflectance confocal microscopy of skin in vivo: From bench to bedside,” Lasers Surg. Med. 49(1), 7–19 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Kose, M. Gou, O. Yélamos, M. Cordova, A. M. Rossi, K. S. Nehal, E. S. Flores, O. Camps, J. G. Dy, D. H. Brooks, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Automated video-mosaicking approach for confocal microscopic imaging in vivo: an approach to address challenges in imaging living tissue and extend field of view,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 10759 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nilsson, M.

M. Kühnemund, Q. Wei, E. Darai, Y. Wang, I. Hernández-Neuta, Z. Yang, D. Tseng, A. Ahlford, L. Mathot, T. Sjöblom, A. Ozcan, and M. Nilsson, “Targeted DNA sequencing and in situ mutation analysis using mobile phone microscopy,” Nat. Commun. 8, 13913 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nishioka, N. S.

D. Kang, S. C. Schlachter, R. W. Carruth, M. Kim, T. Wu, N. Tabatabaei, A. R. Soomro, C. N. Grant, M. Rosenberg, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Large-area spectrally encoded confocal endomicroscopy of the human esophagus in vivo,” Lasers Surg. Med. 49(3), 233–239 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ozcan, A.

M. Kühnemund, Q. Wei, E. Darai, Y. Wang, I. Hernández-Neuta, Z. Yang, D. Tseng, A. Ahlford, L. Mathot, T. Sjöblom, A. Ozcan, and M. Nilsson, “Targeted DNA sequencing and in situ mutation analysis using mobile phone microscopy,” Nat. Commun. 8, 13913 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Ozcan, “Mobile phones democratize and cultivate next-generation imaging, diagnostics and measurement tools,” Lab Chip 14(17), 3187–3194 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, B.

S. Kurugol, K. Kose, B. Park, J. G. Dy, D. H. Brooks, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Automated delineation of dermal-epidermal junction in reflectance confocal microscopy image stacks of human skin,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 135(3), 710–717 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pellacani, G.

P. Guitera, G. Pellacani, C. Longo, S. Seidenari, M. Avramidis, and S. W. Menzies, “In vivo reflectance confocal microscopy enhances secondary evaluation of melanocytic lesions,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 129(1), 131–138 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Petrillo, G.

G. Argenziano, S. Puig, I. Zalaudek, F. Sera, R. Corona, M. Alsina, F. Barbato, C. Carrera, G. Ferrara, A. Guilabert, D. Massi, J. A. Moreno-Romero, C. Muñoz-Santos, G. Petrillo, S. Segura, H. P. Soyer, R. Zanchini, and J. Malvehy, “Dermoscopy improves accuracy of primary care physicians to triage lesions suggestive of skin cancer,” J. Clin. Oncol. 24(12), 1877–1882 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Puig, S.

G. Argenziano, S. Puig, I. Zalaudek, F. Sera, R. Corona, M. Alsina, F. Barbato, C. Carrera, G. Ferrara, A. Guilabert, D. Massi, J. A. Moreno-Romero, C. Muñoz-Santos, G. Petrillo, S. Segura, H. P. Soyer, R. Zanchini, and J. Malvehy, “Dermoscopy improves accuracy of primary care physicians to triage lesions suggestive of skin cancer,” J. Clin. Oncol. 24(12), 1877–1882 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rajadhyaksha, M.

M. Rajadhyaksha, A. Marghoob, A. Rossi, A. C. Halpern, and K. S. Nehal, “Reflectance confocal microscopy of skin in vivo: From bench to bedside,” Lasers Surg. Med. 49(1), 7–19 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Kose, M. Gou, O. Yélamos, M. Cordova, A. M. Rossi, K. S. Nehal, E. S. Flores, O. Camps, J. G. Dy, D. H. Brooks, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Automated video-mosaicking approach for confocal microscopic imaging in vivo: an approach to address challenges in imaging living tissue and extend field of view,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 10759 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Kurugol, K. Kose, B. Park, J. G. Dy, D. H. Brooks, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Automated delineation of dermal-epidermal junction in reflectance confocal microscopy image stacks of human skin,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 135(3), 710–717 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. J. Dwyer, C. A. DiMarzio, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Confocal theta line-scanning microscope for imaging human tissues,” Appl. Opt. 46(10), 1843–1851 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Rajadhyaksha, R. R. Anderson, and R. H. Webb, “Video-rate confocal scanning laser microscope for imaging human tissues in vivo,” Appl. Opt. 38(10), 2105–2115 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Richards-Kortum, R. R.

Rosenberg, M.

D. Kang, S. C. Schlachter, R. W. Carruth, M. Kim, T. Wu, N. Tabatabaei, A. R. Soomro, C. N. Grant, M. Rosenberg, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Large-area spectrally encoded confocal endomicroscopy of the human esophagus in vivo,” Lasers Surg. Med. 49(3), 233–239 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rossi, A.

M. Rajadhyaksha, A. Marghoob, A. Rossi, A. C. Halpern, and K. S. Nehal, “Reflectance confocal microscopy of skin in vivo: From bench to bedside,” Lasers Surg. Med. 49(1), 7–19 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rossi, A. M.

K. Kose, M. Gou, O. Yélamos, M. Cordova, A. M. Rossi, K. S. Nehal, E. S. Flores, O. Camps, J. G. Dy, D. H. Brooks, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Automated video-mosaicking approach for confocal microscopic imaging in vivo: an approach to address challenges in imaging living tissue and extend field of view,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 10759 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ruben,

B. N. Amerson E, H Wabinga, M Wenger, M Bwana, W Muyindike, C Kyakwera, M Laker, E Mbidde, C Yiannoutsos, K Wools-Kaloustian, B Musick, B LeBoit, T McCalmont, B Ruben, P Volberding, T Maurer, J Martin, “Diagnosing Kaposi’s Sarcoma (KS) in East Africa: how accurate are clinicians and pathologists?” Infect. Agent. Cancer 7(Suppl 1), 6 (2012).
[PubMed]

Sage, D.

H. Kirshner, F. Aguet, D. Sage, and M. Unser, “3-D PSF fitting for fluorescence microscopy: implementation and localization application,” J. Microsc. 249(1), 13–25 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schlachter, S. C.

D. Kang, S. C. Schlachter, R. W. Carruth, M. Kim, T. Wu, N. Tabatabaei, A. R. Soomro, C. N. Grant, M. Rosenberg, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Large-area spectrally encoded confocal endomicroscopy of the human esophagus in vivo,” Lasers Surg. Med. 49(3), 233–239 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Kang, R. W. Carruth, M. Kim, S. C. Schlachter, M. Shishkov, K. Woods, N. Tabatabaei, T. Wu, and G. J. Tearney, “Endoscopic probe optics for spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(10), 1925–1936 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Segura, S.

G. Argenziano, S. Puig, I. Zalaudek, F. Sera, R. Corona, M. Alsina, F. Barbato, C. Carrera, G. Ferrara, A. Guilabert, D. Massi, J. A. Moreno-Romero, C. Muñoz-Santos, G. Petrillo, S. Segura, H. P. Soyer, R. Zanchini, and J. Malvehy, “Dermoscopy improves accuracy of primary care physicians to triage lesions suggestive of skin cancer,” J. Clin. Oncol. 24(12), 1877–1882 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Seidenari, S.

P. Guitera, G. Pellacani, C. Longo, S. Seidenari, M. Avramidis, and S. W. Menzies, “In vivo reflectance confocal microscopy enhances secondary evaluation of melanocytic lesions,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 129(1), 131–138 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sera, F.

G. Argenziano, S. Puig, I. Zalaudek, F. Sera, R. Corona, M. Alsina, F. Barbato, C. Carrera, G. Ferrara, A. Guilabert, D. Massi, J. A. Moreno-Romero, C. Muñoz-Santos, G. Petrillo, S. Segura, H. P. Soyer, R. Zanchini, and J. Malvehy, “Dermoscopy improves accuracy of primary care physicians to triage lesions suggestive of skin cancer,” J. Clin. Oncol. 24(12), 1877–1882 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shishkov, M.

Sjöblom, T.

M. Kühnemund, Q. Wei, E. Darai, Y. Wang, I. Hernández-Neuta, Z. Yang, D. Tseng, A. Ahlford, L. Mathot, T. Sjöblom, A. Ozcan, and M. Nilsson, “Targeted DNA sequencing and in situ mutation analysis using mobile phone microscopy,” Nat. Commun. 8, 13913 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Soomro, A. R.

D. Kang, S. C. Schlachter, R. W. Carruth, M. Kim, T. Wu, N. Tabatabaei, A. R. Soomro, C. N. Grant, M. Rosenberg, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Large-area spectrally encoded confocal endomicroscopy of the human esophagus in vivo,” Lasers Surg. Med. 49(3), 233–239 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Soyer, H. P.

G. Argenziano, S. Puig, I. Zalaudek, F. Sera, R. Corona, M. Alsina, F. Barbato, C. Carrera, G. Ferrara, A. Guilabert, D. Massi, J. A. Moreno-Romero, C. Muñoz-Santos, G. Petrillo, S. Segura, H. P. Soyer, R. Zanchini, and J. Malvehy, “Dermoscopy improves accuracy of primary care physicians to triage lesions suggestive of skin cancer,” J. Clin. Oncol. 24(12), 1877–1882 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sung, K.-B.

Tabatabaei, N.

D. Kang, S. C. Schlachter, R. W. Carruth, M. Kim, T. Wu, N. Tabatabaei, A. R. Soomro, C. N. Grant, M. Rosenberg, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Large-area spectrally encoded confocal endomicroscopy of the human esophagus in vivo,” Lasers Surg. Med. 49(3), 233–239 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Kang, R. W. Carruth, M. Kim, S. C. Schlachter, M. Shishkov, K. Woods, N. Tabatabaei, T. Wu, and G. J. Tearney, “Endoscopic probe optics for spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(10), 1925–1936 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tearney, G. J.

D. Kang, S. C. Schlachter, R. W. Carruth, M. Kim, T. Wu, N. Tabatabaei, A. R. Soomro, C. N. Grant, M. Rosenberg, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Large-area spectrally encoded confocal endomicroscopy of the human esophagus in vivo,” Lasers Surg. Med. 49(3), 233–239 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Kang, R. V. Martinez, G. M. Whitesides, and G. J. Tearney, “Miniature grating for spectrally-encoded endoscopy,” Lab Chip 13(9), 1810–1816 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Kang, R. W. Carruth, M. Kim, S. C. Schlachter, M. Shishkov, K. Woods, N. Tabatabaei, T. Wu, and G. J. Tearney, “Endoscopic probe optics for spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(10), 1925–1936 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, R. H. Webb, and B. E. Bouma, “Spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 23(15), 1152–1154 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tian, G.

Tseng, D.

M. Kühnemund, Q. Wei, E. Darai, Y. Wang, I. Hernández-Neuta, Z. Yang, D. Tseng, A. Ahlford, L. Mathot, T. Sjöblom, A. Ozcan, and M. Nilsson, “Targeted DNA sequencing and in situ mutation analysis using mobile phone microscopy,” Nat. Commun. 8, 13913 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Unser, M.

H. Kirshner, F. Aguet, D. Sage, and M. Unser, “3-D PSF fitting for fluorescence microscopy: implementation and localization application,” J. Microsc. 249(1), 13–25 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Volberding,

B. N. Amerson E, H Wabinga, M Wenger, M Bwana, W Muyindike, C Kyakwera, M Laker, E Mbidde, C Yiannoutsos, K Wools-Kaloustian, B Musick, B LeBoit, T McCalmont, B Ruben, P Volberding, T Maurer, J Martin, “Diagnosing Kaposi’s Sarcoma (KS) in East Africa: how accurate are clinicians and pathologists?” Infect. Agent. Cancer 7(Suppl 1), 6 (2012).
[PubMed]

Wabinga,

B. N. Amerson E, H Wabinga, M Wenger, M Bwana, W Muyindike, C Kyakwera, M Laker, E Mbidde, C Yiannoutsos, K Wools-Kaloustian, B Musick, B LeBoit, T McCalmont, B Ruben, P Volberding, T Maurer, J Martin, “Diagnosing Kaposi’s Sarcoma (KS) in East Africa: how accurate are clinicians and pathologists?” Infect. Agent. Cancer 7(Suppl 1), 6 (2012).
[PubMed]

Wang, J.

Wang, Y.

M. Kühnemund, Q. Wei, E. Darai, Y. Wang, I. Hernández-Neuta, Z. Yang, D. Tseng, A. Ahlford, L. Mathot, T. Sjöblom, A. Ozcan, and M. Nilsson, “Targeted DNA sequencing and in situ mutation analysis using mobile phone microscopy,” Nat. Commun. 8, 13913 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wax, A.

Webb, R. H.

Wei, Q.

M. Kühnemund, Q. Wei, E. Darai, Y. Wang, I. Hernández-Neuta, Z. Yang, D. Tseng, A. Ahlford, L. Mathot, T. Sjöblom, A. Ozcan, and M. Nilsson, “Targeted DNA sequencing and in situ mutation analysis using mobile phone microscopy,” Nat. Commun. 8, 13913 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wenger,

B. N. Amerson E, H Wabinga, M Wenger, M Bwana, W Muyindike, C Kyakwera, M Laker, E Mbidde, C Yiannoutsos, K Wools-Kaloustian, B Musick, B LeBoit, T McCalmont, B Ruben, P Volberding, T Maurer, J Martin, “Diagnosing Kaposi’s Sarcoma (KS) in East Africa: how accurate are clinicians and pathologists?” Infect. Agent. Cancer 7(Suppl 1), 6 (2012).
[PubMed]

Whitesides, G. M.

D. Kang, R. V. Martinez, G. M. Whitesides, and G. J. Tearney, “Miniature grating for spectrally-encoded endoscopy,” Lab Chip 13(9), 1810–1816 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Woods, K.

Wools-Kaloustian,

B. N. Amerson E, H Wabinga, M Wenger, M Bwana, W Muyindike, C Kyakwera, M Laker, E Mbidde, C Yiannoutsos, K Wools-Kaloustian, B Musick, B LeBoit, T McCalmont, B Ruben, P Volberding, T Maurer, J Martin, “Diagnosing Kaposi’s Sarcoma (KS) in East Africa: how accurate are clinicians and pathologists?” Infect. Agent. Cancer 7(Suppl 1), 6 (2012).
[PubMed]

Wu, T.

D. Kang, S. C. Schlachter, R. W. Carruth, M. Kim, T. Wu, N. Tabatabaei, A. R. Soomro, C. N. Grant, M. Rosenberg, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Large-area spectrally encoded confocal endomicroscopy of the human esophagus in vivo,” Lasers Surg. Med. 49(3), 233–239 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Kang, R. W. Carruth, M. Kim, S. C. Schlachter, M. Shishkov, K. Woods, N. Tabatabaei, T. Wu, and G. J. Tearney, “Endoscopic probe optics for spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(10), 1925–1936 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, C.

S. A. Lee and C. Yang, “A smartphone-based chip-scale microscope using ambient illumination,” Lab Chip 14(16), 3056–3063 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, L.

Yang, Z.

M. Kühnemund, Q. Wei, E. Darai, Y. Wang, I. Hernández-Neuta, Z. Yang, D. Tseng, A. Ahlford, L. Mathot, T. Sjöblom, A. Ozcan, and M. Nilsson, “Targeted DNA sequencing and in situ mutation analysis using mobile phone microscopy,” Nat. Commun. 8, 13913 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yélamos, O.

K. Kose, M. Gou, O. Yélamos, M. Cordova, A. M. Rossi, K. S. Nehal, E. S. Flores, O. Camps, J. G. Dy, D. H. Brooks, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Automated video-mosaicking approach for confocal microscopic imaging in vivo: an approach to address challenges in imaging living tissue and extend field of view,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 10759 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yiannoutsos,

B. N. Amerson E, H Wabinga, M Wenger, M Bwana, W Muyindike, C Kyakwera, M Laker, E Mbidde, C Yiannoutsos, K Wools-Kaloustian, B Musick, B LeBoit, T McCalmont, B Ruben, P Volberding, T Maurer, J Martin, “Diagnosing Kaposi’s Sarcoma (KS) in East Africa: how accurate are clinicians and pathologists?” Infect. Agent. Cancer 7(Suppl 1), 6 (2012).
[PubMed]

Yuan, J.

Zalaudek, I.

G. Argenziano, S. Puig, I. Zalaudek, F. Sera, R. Corona, M. Alsina, F. Barbato, C. Carrera, G. Ferrara, A. Guilabert, D. Massi, J. A. Moreno-Romero, C. Muñoz-Santos, G. Petrillo, S. Segura, H. P. Soyer, R. Zanchini, and J. Malvehy, “Dermoscopy improves accuracy of primary care physicians to triage lesions suggestive of skin cancer,” J. Clin. Oncol. 24(12), 1877–1882 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zanchini, R.

G. Argenziano, S. Puig, I. Zalaudek, F. Sera, R. Corona, M. Alsina, F. Barbato, C. Carrera, G. Ferrara, A. Guilabert, D. Massi, J. A. Moreno-Romero, C. Muñoz-Santos, G. Petrillo, S. Segura, H. P. Soyer, R. Zanchini, and J. Malvehy, “Dermoscopy improves accuracy of primary care physicians to triage lesions suggestive of skin cancer,” J. Clin. Oncol. 24(12), 1877–1882 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Biomed. Opt. Express (2)

Engineering (Beijing) (1)

G. L. Damhorst, C. Duarte-Guevara, W. Chen, T. Ghonge, B. T. Cunningham, and R. Bashir, “Smartphone-imaged HIV-1 reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) on a chip from whole blood,” Engineering (Beijing) 1(3), 324–335 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Infect. Agent. Cancer (1)

B. N. Amerson E, H Wabinga, M Wenger, M Bwana, W Muyindike, C Kyakwera, M Laker, E Mbidde, C Yiannoutsos, K Wools-Kaloustian, B Musick, B LeBoit, T McCalmont, B Ruben, P Volberding, T Maurer, J Martin, “Diagnosing Kaposi’s Sarcoma (KS) in East Africa: how accurate are clinicians and pathologists?” Infect. Agent. Cancer 7(Suppl 1), 6 (2012).
[PubMed]

J. Clin. Oncol. (1)

G. Argenziano, S. Puig, I. Zalaudek, F. Sera, R. Corona, M. Alsina, F. Barbato, C. Carrera, G. Ferrara, A. Guilabert, D. Massi, J. A. Moreno-Romero, C. Muñoz-Santos, G. Petrillo, S. Segura, H. P. Soyer, R. Zanchini, and J. Malvehy, “Dermoscopy improves accuracy of primary care physicians to triage lesions suggestive of skin cancer,” J. Clin. Oncol. 24(12), 1877–1882 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Invest. Dermatol. (2)

P. Guitera, G. Pellacani, C. Longo, S. Seidenari, M. Avramidis, and S. W. Menzies, “In vivo reflectance confocal microscopy enhances secondary evaluation of melanocytic lesions,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 129(1), 131–138 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Kurugol, K. Kose, B. Park, J. G. Dy, D. H. Brooks, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Automated delineation of dermal-epidermal junction in reflectance confocal microscopy image stacks of human skin,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 135(3), 710–717 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Microsc. (1)

H. Kirshner, F. Aguet, D. Sage, and M. Unser, “3-D PSF fitting for fluorescence microscopy: implementation and localization application,” J. Microsc. 249(1), 13–25 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lab Chip (3)

A. Ozcan, “Mobile phones democratize and cultivate next-generation imaging, diagnostics and measurement tools,” Lab Chip 14(17), 3187–3194 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. A. Lee and C. Yang, “A smartphone-based chip-scale microscope using ambient illumination,” Lab Chip 14(16), 3056–3063 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Kang, R. V. Martinez, G. M. Whitesides, and G. J. Tearney, “Miniature grating for spectrally-encoded endoscopy,” Lab Chip 13(9), 1810–1816 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lasers Surg. Med. (2)

M. Rajadhyaksha, A. Marghoob, A. Rossi, A. C. Halpern, and K. S. Nehal, “Reflectance confocal microscopy of skin in vivo: From bench to bedside,” Lasers Surg. Med. 49(1), 7–19 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Kang, S. C. Schlachter, R. W. Carruth, M. Kim, T. Wu, N. Tabatabaei, A. R. Soomro, C. N. Grant, M. Rosenberg, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Large-area spectrally encoded confocal endomicroscopy of the human esophagus in vivo,” Lasers Surg. Med. 49(3), 233–239 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Commun. (1)

M. Kühnemund, Q. Wei, E. Darai, Y. Wang, I. Hernández-Neuta, Z. Yang, D. Tseng, A. Ahlford, L. Mathot, T. Sjöblom, A. Ozcan, and M. Nilsson, “Targeted DNA sequencing and in situ mutation analysis using mobile phone microscopy,” Nat. Commun. 8, 13913 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Sci. Rep. (1)

K. Kose, M. Gou, O. Yélamos, M. Cordova, A. M. Rossi, K. S. Nehal, E. S. Flores, O. Camps, J. G. Dy, D. H. Brooks, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Automated video-mosaicking approach for confocal microscopic imaging in vivo: an approach to address challenges in imaging living tissue and extend field of view,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 10759 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (2)

M. Gu, Principles of three-dimensional imaging in confocal microscopes (World Scientific, 1996).

M. Laker-Oketta, M. Wenger, A. S. Semeere, B. Castelnuovo, A. Kambugu, R. Lukande, F. C. Asirwa, N. Busakhala, N. Buziba, K. Wools-Kaloustian, C. T. Yiannoutsos, M. B. Bwana, W. Muyindike, E. Amerson, E. K. Mbidde, T. Maurer, and J. Martin, “Task-Shifting and Skin Punch for the Histologic Diagnosis of Kaposi’s Sarcoma: A Public Health Soluction to a Public Health Problem,” in 14th International Conference on Malignancies in AIDS and Other Acquired Immunodeficiencies, (National Institute of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA, 2013).

Supplementary Material (1)

NameDescription
» Visualization 1       Smartphone confocal microscopy video of human skin in vivo

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematics of point scanning (A), spectrally-encoded line scanning (B), and smartphone confocal microscope (C).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Simulated smartphone confocal microscope PSF (A) and line profiles of confocal PSF (B).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Photos of the smartphone confocal microscope. A – front view with the cover removed; and B – top view.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Confocal image of USAF resolution target (A) and axial response curve (B).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Confocal images of human skin in vivo taken at imaging depth of 18 µm (A), 29 µm (B), 33 µm (C), and 50 µm (D). arrows – basal cells. Inset magnification = 2.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Confocal images of human skin in vivo obtained from a MP4 video file (A) and a DNG file (B). arrow – basal cells. Inset magnification = 2.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Confocal images of human skin obtained at three distinctive locations (see Visualization 1). A – honeycomb pattern of dark keratinocytes; B – cobblestone pattern of basal cells; and C – capillaries (arrows). Inset magnification = 2.

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