Abstract

Selective treatment of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) by using short-pulse lasers leads to a less destructive treatment for certain retinal diseases in contrast to conventional photocoagulation. The introduction of selective retina therapy (SRT) to clinical routine is still precluded by the challenges to reliably monitor treatment success and to automatically adjust dose within the locally varying therapeutic window. Combining micrometer-scale depth resolving capabilities of optical coherence tomography (OCT) with SRT can yield real-time information on the laser-induced changes within the RPE after a laser pulse or even during treatment with a laser pulse train. In the present study, SRT and OCT were combined to treat ex-vivo porcine eyes demonstrating closed-loop dose-control. We found a reliable correlation of specific signal changes in time resolved OCT images and physiological lesions in the RPE. First experiments, including 23 porcine eyes, prove the feasibility of the novel treatment concept.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2018 (1)

V. Chichagova, D. Hallam, J. Collin, D. Zerti, B. Dorgau, M. Felemban, M. Lako, and D. H. Steel, “Cellular regeneration strategies for macular degeneration: past, present and future,” Eye 32, 946 (2018).

2017 (3)

A. Yasui, M. Yamamoto, K. Hirayama, K. Shiraki, D. Theisen-Kunde, R. Brinkmann, Y. Miura, and T. Kohno, “Retinal sensitivity after selective retina therapy (SRT) on patients with central serous chorioretinopathy,” Graefe’s Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology 255, 243–254 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Bizheva, B. Tan, B. MacLelan, O. Kralj, M. Hajialamdari, D. Hileeto, and L. Sorbara, “Sub-micrometer axial resolution OCT for in-vivo imaging of the cellular structure of healthy and keratoconic human corneas,” Biomedical Optics Express 8, 800–812 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. Kaufmann, C. Burri, P. Arnold, V. M. Koch, C. Meier, B. Považay, and J. Justiz, “Dosimetry control and monitoring of selective retina therapy using optical coherence tomography,” Proc. SPIE 10416, 10416 (2017).

2016 (2)

K. Kurokawa, S. Makita, and Y. Yasuno, “Investigation of thermal effects of photocoagulation on retinal tissue using fine-motion-sensitive dynamic optical coherence tomography,” PloS one 11, e0156761 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. G. Park, J. R. Kim, S. Kang, E. Seifert, D. Theisen-Kunde, R. Brinkmann, and Y.-J. Roh, “Safety and efficacy of selective retina therapy (SRT) for the treatment of diabetic macular edema in Korean patients,” Graefe’s Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology 254, 1703–1713 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

I. Kozak and J. K. Luttrull, “Modern retinal laser therapy,” Saudi Journal of Ophthalmology 29, 137–146 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Framme, A. Walter, L. Berger, P. Prahs, C. Alt, D. Theisen-Kunde, J. Kowal, and R. Brinkmann, “Selective Retina Therapy in Acute and Chronic-Recurrent Central Serous Chorioretinopathy,” Ophthalmologica 234, 177–188 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Steiner, A. Ebneter, L. E. Berger, M. Zinkernagel, B. Považay, C. Meier, J. H. Kowal, C. Framme, R. Brinkmann, S. Wolf, and R. Sznitman, “Time-Resolved Ultra–High Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography for Real-Time Monitoring of Selective Retina TherapyTime-Resolved Ultra–High Resolution OCT During SRT,” Investigative ophthalmology & visual science 56, 6654–6662 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

Y.-G. Park, E. Seifert, Y. J. Roh, D. Theisen-Kunde, S. Kang, and R. Brinkmann, “Tissue response of selective retina therapy by means of a feedback-controlled energy ramping mode,” Clinical & experimental ophthalmology 42, 846–855 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

S. K. Houston, C. C. Wykoff, A. M. Berrocal, D. J. Hess, and T. G. Murray, “Lasers for the treatment of intraocular tumors,” Lasers in Medical Science 28(3), 1025–1034 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

H. H. Müller, L. Ptaszynski, K. Schlott, C. Debbeler, M. Bever, S. Koinzer, R. Birngruber, R. Brinkmann, and G. Hüttmann, “Imaging thermal expansion and retinal tissue changes during photocoagulation by high speed OCT,” Biomedical optics express 3, 1025–1046 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

Y. M. Paulus, A. Jain, H. Nomoto, C. Sramek, R. F. Gariano, D. Andersen, G. Schuele, L.-S. Leung, T. Leng, and D. Palanker, “Selective retinal therapy with microsecond exposures using a continuous line scanning laser,” Retina 31, 380–388 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Muhammad, “Fundus Fluorescein Angiography,” Journal of Postgraduate Medical Institute (Peshawar - Pakistan) 12, 1 (2011).

2010 (3)

J. H. Lock and K. C. S. Fong, “An update on retinal laser therapy,” Clinical and Experimental Optometry 4, 43–51(2010).

C. Klatt, M. Saeger, T. Oppermann, E. Pörksen, F. Treumer, J. Hillenkamp, E. Fritzer, R. Brinkmann, R. Birngruber, and J. Roider, “Selective retina therapy for acute central serous chorioretinopathy,” British Journal of Ophthalmology 95, 83–88 (2010).

J. Roider, S. H. M. Liew, C. Klatt, H. Elsner, E. Poerksen, J. Hillenkamp, R. Brinkmann, and R. Birngruber, “Selective retina therapy (SRT) for clinically significant diabetic macular edema,” Graefe’s Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology 248, 1263–1272 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

C. Framme, A. Walter, P. Prahs, R. Regler, D. Theisen-Kunde, C. Alt, and R. Brinkmann, “Structural changes of the retina after conventional laser photocoagulation and selective retina treatment (SRT) in spectral domain OCT,” Current eye research 34, 568–579 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

C. Framme, A. Walter, P. Prahs, D. Theisen-Kunde, and R. Brinkmann, “Comparison of threshold irradiances and online dosimetry for selective retina treatment (SRT) in patients treated with 200 nanoseconds and 1.7 microseconds laser pulses,” Lasers in surgery and medicine 40, 616–624 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

Q. Mohamed, M. C. Gilles, and W. Ty, “Management of diabetic retinopathy: A systematic review,” JAMA 298, 902–916 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Virgili and A. Bini, “Laser photocoagulation for neovascular age-related macular degeneration,” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2007, CD004763 (2007).
[PubMed]

2006 (1)

R. Brinkmann, J. Roider, and R. Birngruber, “Selective retina therapy (SRT): a review on methods, techniques, preclinical and first clinical results,” Bulletin De La Societe Belge D’Ophtalmologie 302, 51–69 (2006).

2005 (3)

G. Schuele, M. Rumohr, G. Huettmann, and R. Brinkmann, “RPE damage thresholds and mechanisms for laser exposure in the microsecond-to-millisecond time regimen,” Investigative ophthalmology & visual science 46, 714–719 (2005).
[Crossref]

O. Strauss, “The retinal pigment epithelium in visual function,” Physiol. Rev. 85, 845–881 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Schuele, M. Rumohr, G. Huettmann, and R. Brinkmann, “RPE damage thresholds and mechanisms for laser exposure in the microsecond-to-millisecond time regimen,” Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science 46, 714–719 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

C. Framme, G. Schuele, J. Roider, R. Birngruber, and R. Brinkmann, “Influence of pulse duration and pulse number in selective RPE laser treatment,” Lasers in Surgery and Medicine 34, 206–215 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

J. Neumann and R. Brinkmann, “Microbubble dynamics around laser heated microparticles,” Proc. SPIE 5142, 82–87 (2003).

T. A. Ciulla, A. G. Amador, and B. Zinman, “Diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular edema,” Diabetes Care 26, 2653–2664 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

C. Framme, G. Schuele, J. Roider, D. Kracht, R. Birngruber, and R. Brinkmann, “Threshold determinations for selective retinal pigment epithelium damage with repetitive pulsed microsecond laser systems in rabbits,” Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers 33, 400–409 (2002).

C. Framme, R. Brinkmann, R. Birngruber, and J. Roider, “Autofluorescence imaging after selective RPE laser treatment in macular diseases and clinical outcome: a pilot study,” British Journal of Ophthalmology 86, 1099–1106 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

E. Stefánsson, “The therapeutic effects of retinal laser treatment and vitrectomy. A theory based on oxygen and vascular physiology,” Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica 79, 435–440 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

R. Brinkmann, G. Huettmann, J. Roegener, J. Roider, R. Birngruber, and C. Lin, “Origin of retinal pigment epithelium cell damage by pulsed laser irradiance in the nanosecond to microsecond time regimen,” Lasers in Surgery and Medicine 27, 451–464 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Roider, R. Brinkmann, C. Wirbelauer, H. Laqua, and R. Birngruber, “Subthreshold (retinal pigment epithelium) photocoagulation in macular diseases: a pilot study,” British Journal of Ophthalmology 84, 40–47 (2000).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

M. P. S. Group, “Laser photocoagulation for juxtafoveal choroidal neovascularization. Five-year results from randomized clinical trials,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 112, 500–509 (1994).
[Crossref]

1993 (3)

M. P. S. Group, “Laser photocoagulation of subfoveal neovascular lesions of age-related macular degeneration,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 111, 1200–1209 (1993).
[Crossref]

J. Roider, N. Michaud, T. Flotte, and R. Birngruber, “Histology of retinal lesions after continuous irradiation and selective micro-coagulation of the retinal pigment epithelium,” Ophthalmologe 90(3), 274–278 (1993).
[PubMed]

J. Roider, F. Hillenkamp, T. Flotte, and R. Birngruber, “Microphotocoagulation: selective effects of repetitive short laser pulses,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 90, 8643–8647 (1993).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

E. Stefánsson, R. Machemer, E. de Juan, B. W. McCuen, and J. Peterson, “Retinal oxygenation and laser treatment in patients with diabetic retinopathy,” American Journal of Ophthalmology 113(1), 36–38 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1991 (2)

Macular Photocoagulation Study Group, “Laser photocoagulation of subfoveal neovascular lesions in age-related macular degeneration: results of a randomized clinical trial,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 109, 1220–1231 (1991).
[Crossref]

M. P. S. Group, “Argon laser photocoagulation for neovascular maculopathy. Five-year results from randomized clinical trials,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 109, 1109–1114 (1991).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

E. Stefánsson, “Oxygen and diabetic eye disease,” Graefe’s Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology 228(1), 120–123 (1990).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

L. V. Del Priore, B. M. Glaser, H. A. Quigley, and W. R. Green, “Response of pig retinal pigment epithelium to laser photocoagulation in organ culture,” Archives of Ophthalmology 107, 119–122 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

T. E. T. D. R. S. R. Group, “Photocoagulation for diabetic macular edema: Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study report no. 4,” International Ophthalmology Clinics 27, 265–272 (1987).
[Crossref]

1986 (2)

J. E. Grunwald, C. E. Riva, A. J. Brucker, S. H. Sinclair, and B. L. Petrig, “Effect of panretinal photocoagulation on retinal blood flow in proliferative diabetic retinopathy,” Ophthalmology 93(5), 590 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Y. Schmidt and R. D. Peisch, “Melanin concentration in normal human retinal pigment epithelium. Regional variation and age-related reduction,” Investigative ophthalmology & visual science 27, 1063–1067 (1986).

1983 (1)

G. H. Bresnick, “Diabetic maculopathy: a critical review highlighting diffuse macular edema,” Ophthalmology 90, 1301–1317 (1983).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1982 (1)

M. B. Landers, E. Stefánsson, and M. L. Wolbarsht, “Panretinal photocoagulation and retinal oxygenation,” Retina 2(3), 167–175 (1982).
[Crossref]

1954 (1)

G. Meyer-Schwickerath, “Light coagulation; a method for treatment and prevention of the retinal detachment,” Albrecht von Graefe’s Archiv fur Ophthalmologie 156, 2–34 (1954).
[Crossref]

Alt, C.

C. Framme, A. Walter, L. Berger, P. Prahs, C. Alt, D. Theisen-Kunde, J. Kowal, and R. Brinkmann, “Selective Retina Therapy in Acute and Chronic-Recurrent Central Serous Chorioretinopathy,” Ophthalmologica 234, 177–188 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Framme, A. Walter, P. Prahs, R. Regler, D. Theisen-Kunde, C. Alt, and R. Brinkmann, “Structural changes of the retina after conventional laser photocoagulation and selective retina treatment (SRT) in spectral domain OCT,” Current eye research 34, 568–579 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Amador, A. G.

T. A. Ciulla, A. G. Amador, and B. Zinman, “Diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular edema,” Diabetes Care 26, 2653–2664 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Andersen, D.

Y. M. Paulus, A. Jain, H. Nomoto, C. Sramek, R. F. Gariano, D. Andersen, G. Schuele, L.-S. Leung, T. Leng, and D. Palanker, “Selective retinal therapy with microsecond exposures using a continuous line scanning laser,” Retina 31, 380–388 (2011).
[Crossref]

Arnold, P.

D. Kaufmann, C. Burri, P. Arnold, V. M. Koch, C. Meier, B. Považay, and J. Justiz, “Dosimetry control and monitoring of selective retina therapy using optical coherence tomography,” Proc. SPIE 10416, 10416 (2017).

Berger, L.

C. Framme, A. Walter, L. Berger, P. Prahs, C. Alt, D. Theisen-Kunde, J. Kowal, and R. Brinkmann, “Selective Retina Therapy in Acute and Chronic-Recurrent Central Serous Chorioretinopathy,” Ophthalmologica 234, 177–188 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Berger, L. E.

P. Steiner, A. Ebneter, L. E. Berger, M. Zinkernagel, B. Považay, C. Meier, J. H. Kowal, C. Framme, R. Brinkmann, S. Wolf, and R. Sznitman, “Time-Resolved Ultra–High Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography for Real-Time Monitoring of Selective Retina TherapyTime-Resolved Ultra–High Resolution OCT During SRT,” Investigative ophthalmology & visual science 56, 6654–6662 (2015).
[Crossref]

Berrocal, A. M.

S. K. Houston, C. C. Wykoff, A. M. Berrocal, D. J. Hess, and T. G. Murray, “Lasers for the treatment of intraocular tumors,” Lasers in Medical Science 28(3), 1025–1034 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bever, M.

H. H. Müller, L. Ptaszynski, K. Schlott, C. Debbeler, M. Bever, S. Koinzer, R. Birngruber, R. Brinkmann, and G. Hüttmann, “Imaging thermal expansion and retinal tissue changes during photocoagulation by high speed OCT,” Biomedical optics express 3, 1025–1046 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bini, A.

G. Virgili and A. Bini, “Laser photocoagulation for neovascular age-related macular degeneration,” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2007, CD004763 (2007).
[PubMed]

Birngruber, R.

H. H. Müller, L. Ptaszynski, K. Schlott, C. Debbeler, M. Bever, S. Koinzer, R. Birngruber, R. Brinkmann, and G. Hüttmann, “Imaging thermal expansion and retinal tissue changes during photocoagulation by high speed OCT,” Biomedical optics express 3, 1025–1046 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Klatt, M. Saeger, T. Oppermann, E. Pörksen, F. Treumer, J. Hillenkamp, E. Fritzer, R. Brinkmann, R. Birngruber, and J. Roider, “Selective retina therapy for acute central serous chorioretinopathy,” British Journal of Ophthalmology 95, 83–88 (2010).

J. Roider, S. H. M. Liew, C. Klatt, H. Elsner, E. Poerksen, J. Hillenkamp, R. Brinkmann, and R. Birngruber, “Selective retina therapy (SRT) for clinically significant diabetic macular edema,” Graefe’s Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology 248, 1263–1272 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. Brinkmann, J. Roider, and R. Birngruber, “Selective retina therapy (SRT): a review on methods, techniques, preclinical and first clinical results,” Bulletin De La Societe Belge D’Ophtalmologie 302, 51–69 (2006).

C. Framme, G. Schuele, J. Roider, R. Birngruber, and R. Brinkmann, “Influence of pulse duration and pulse number in selective RPE laser treatment,” Lasers in Surgery and Medicine 34, 206–215 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Framme, R. Brinkmann, R. Birngruber, and J. Roider, “Autofluorescence imaging after selective RPE laser treatment in macular diseases and clinical outcome: a pilot study,” British Journal of Ophthalmology 86, 1099–1106 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Framme, G. Schuele, J. Roider, D. Kracht, R. Birngruber, and R. Brinkmann, “Threshold determinations for selective retinal pigment epithelium damage with repetitive pulsed microsecond laser systems in rabbits,” Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers 33, 400–409 (2002).

R. Brinkmann, G. Huettmann, J. Roegener, J. Roider, R. Birngruber, and C. Lin, “Origin of retinal pigment epithelium cell damage by pulsed laser irradiance in the nanosecond to microsecond time regimen,” Lasers in Surgery and Medicine 27, 451–464 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Roider, R. Brinkmann, C. Wirbelauer, H. Laqua, and R. Birngruber, “Subthreshold (retinal pigment epithelium) photocoagulation in macular diseases: a pilot study,” British Journal of Ophthalmology 84, 40–47 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. Roider, F. Hillenkamp, T. Flotte, and R. Birngruber, “Microphotocoagulation: selective effects of repetitive short laser pulses,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 90, 8643–8647 (1993).
[Crossref]

J. Roider, N. Michaud, T. Flotte, and R. Birngruber, “Histology of retinal lesions after continuous irradiation and selective micro-coagulation of the retinal pigment epithelium,” Ophthalmologe 90(3), 274–278 (1993).
[PubMed]

V.-P. Gabel, R. Birngruber, and F. Hillenkamp, “Visible and near infrared light absorption in pigment epithelium and choroid,” Proc. 23rd Consilium Ophthalmologicum, (Kyoto) Excerpta Medica pp. 658–662 (1978).

Bizheva, K.

K. Bizheva, B. Tan, B. MacLelan, O. Kralj, M. Hajialamdari, D. Hileeto, and L. Sorbara, “Sub-micrometer axial resolution OCT for in-vivo imaging of the cellular structure of healthy and keratoconic human corneas,” Biomedical Optics Express 8, 800–812 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bresnick, G. H.

G. H. Bresnick, “Diabetic maculopathy: a critical review highlighting diffuse macular edema,” Ophthalmology 90, 1301–1317 (1983).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brinkmann, R.

A. Yasui, M. Yamamoto, K. Hirayama, K. Shiraki, D. Theisen-Kunde, R. Brinkmann, Y. Miura, and T. Kohno, “Retinal sensitivity after selective retina therapy (SRT) on patients with central serous chorioretinopathy,” Graefe’s Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology 255, 243–254 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. G. Park, J. R. Kim, S. Kang, E. Seifert, D. Theisen-Kunde, R. Brinkmann, and Y.-J. Roh, “Safety and efficacy of selective retina therapy (SRT) for the treatment of diabetic macular edema in Korean patients,” Graefe’s Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology 254, 1703–1713 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Framme, A. Walter, L. Berger, P. Prahs, C. Alt, D. Theisen-Kunde, J. Kowal, and R. Brinkmann, “Selective Retina Therapy in Acute and Chronic-Recurrent Central Serous Chorioretinopathy,” Ophthalmologica 234, 177–188 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Steiner, A. Ebneter, L. E. Berger, M. Zinkernagel, B. Považay, C. Meier, J. H. Kowal, C. Framme, R. Brinkmann, S. Wolf, and R. Sznitman, “Time-Resolved Ultra–High Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography for Real-Time Monitoring of Selective Retina TherapyTime-Resolved Ultra–High Resolution OCT During SRT,” Investigative ophthalmology & visual science 56, 6654–6662 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y.-G. Park, E. Seifert, Y. J. Roh, D. Theisen-Kunde, S. Kang, and R. Brinkmann, “Tissue response of selective retina therapy by means of a feedback-controlled energy ramping mode,” Clinical & experimental ophthalmology 42, 846–855 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. H. Müller, L. Ptaszynski, K. Schlott, C. Debbeler, M. Bever, S. Koinzer, R. Birngruber, R. Brinkmann, and G. Hüttmann, “Imaging thermal expansion and retinal tissue changes during photocoagulation by high speed OCT,” Biomedical optics express 3, 1025–1046 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Klatt, M. Saeger, T. Oppermann, E. Pörksen, F. Treumer, J. Hillenkamp, E. Fritzer, R. Brinkmann, R. Birngruber, and J. Roider, “Selective retina therapy for acute central serous chorioretinopathy,” British Journal of Ophthalmology 95, 83–88 (2010).

J. Roider, S. H. M. Liew, C. Klatt, H. Elsner, E. Poerksen, J. Hillenkamp, R. Brinkmann, and R. Birngruber, “Selective retina therapy (SRT) for clinically significant diabetic macular edema,” Graefe’s Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology 248, 1263–1272 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. Framme, A. Walter, P. Prahs, R. Regler, D. Theisen-Kunde, C. Alt, and R. Brinkmann, “Structural changes of the retina after conventional laser photocoagulation and selective retina treatment (SRT) in spectral domain OCT,” Current eye research 34, 568–579 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Framme, A. Walter, P. Prahs, D. Theisen-Kunde, and R. Brinkmann, “Comparison of threshold irradiances and online dosimetry for selective retina treatment (SRT) in patients treated with 200 nanoseconds and 1.7 microseconds laser pulses,” Lasers in surgery and medicine 40, 616–624 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Brinkmann, J. Roider, and R. Birngruber, “Selective retina therapy (SRT): a review on methods, techniques, preclinical and first clinical results,” Bulletin De La Societe Belge D’Ophtalmologie 302, 51–69 (2006).

G. Schuele, M. Rumohr, G. Huettmann, and R. Brinkmann, “RPE damage thresholds and mechanisms for laser exposure in the microsecond-to-millisecond time regimen,” Investigative ophthalmology & visual science 46, 714–719 (2005).
[Crossref]

G. Schuele, M. Rumohr, G. Huettmann, and R. Brinkmann, “RPE damage thresholds and mechanisms for laser exposure in the microsecond-to-millisecond time regimen,” Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science 46, 714–719 (2005).
[Crossref]

C. Framme, G. Schuele, J. Roider, R. Birngruber, and R. Brinkmann, “Influence of pulse duration and pulse number in selective RPE laser treatment,” Lasers in Surgery and Medicine 34, 206–215 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Neumann and R. Brinkmann, “Microbubble dynamics around laser heated microparticles,” Proc. SPIE 5142, 82–87 (2003).

C. Framme, G. Schuele, J. Roider, D. Kracht, R. Birngruber, and R. Brinkmann, “Threshold determinations for selective retinal pigment epithelium damage with repetitive pulsed microsecond laser systems in rabbits,” Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers 33, 400–409 (2002).

C. Framme, R. Brinkmann, R. Birngruber, and J. Roider, “Autofluorescence imaging after selective RPE laser treatment in macular diseases and clinical outcome: a pilot study,” British Journal of Ophthalmology 86, 1099–1106 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Roider, R. Brinkmann, C. Wirbelauer, H. Laqua, and R. Birngruber, “Subthreshold (retinal pigment epithelium) photocoagulation in macular diseases: a pilot study,” British Journal of Ophthalmology 84, 40–47 (2000).
[Crossref]

R. Brinkmann, G. Huettmann, J. Roegener, J. Roider, R. Birngruber, and C. Lin, “Origin of retinal pigment epithelium cell damage by pulsed laser irradiance in the nanosecond to microsecond time regimen,” Lasers in Surgery and Medicine 27, 451–464 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Neumann and R. Brinkmann, “Nucleation and Dynamics of Bubbles Forming Around Laser Heated Microabsorbers,” Optical Society of America (2005).

E. Seifert, Y.-J. Roh, A. Fritz, Y. G. Park, S. Kang, D. Theisen-Kunde, and R. Brinkmann, “Automatic irradiation control by an optical feedback technique for selective retina treatment (SRT) in a rabbit model,” in “European Conferences on Biomedical Optics,” (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2013), pp. 880303.

Brucker, A. J.

J. E. Grunwald, C. E. Riva, A. J. Brucker, S. H. Sinclair, and B. L. Petrig, “Effect of panretinal photocoagulation on retinal blood flow in proliferative diabetic retinopathy,” Ophthalmology 93(5), 590 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Burri, C.

D. Kaufmann, C. Burri, P. Arnold, V. M. Koch, C. Meier, B. Považay, and J. Justiz, “Dosimetry control and monitoring of selective retina therapy using optical coherence tomography,” Proc. SPIE 10416, 10416 (2017).

Chichagova, V.

V. Chichagova, D. Hallam, J. Collin, D. Zerti, B. Dorgau, M. Felemban, M. Lako, and D. H. Steel, “Cellular regeneration strategies for macular degeneration: past, present and future,” Eye 32, 946 (2018).

Ciulla, T. A.

T. A. Ciulla, A. G. Amador, and B. Zinman, “Diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular edema,” Diabetes Care 26, 2653–2664 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Collin, J.

V. Chichagova, D. Hallam, J. Collin, D. Zerti, B. Dorgau, M. Felemban, M. Lako, and D. H. Steel, “Cellular regeneration strategies for macular degeneration: past, present and future,” Eye 32, 946 (2018).

Crosson, J. N.

J. N. Crosson, L. Mason, and J. O. Mason, “The role of focal laser in the anti–vascular endothelial growth factor era,” Ophthalmology and eye diseases9, 1179172117738240 (2017).
[Crossref]

de Juan, E.

E. Stefánsson, R. Machemer, E. de Juan, B. W. McCuen, and J. Peterson, “Retinal oxygenation and laser treatment in patients with diabetic retinopathy,” American Journal of Ophthalmology 113(1), 36–38 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Debbeler, C.

H. H. Müller, L. Ptaszynski, K. Schlott, C. Debbeler, M. Bever, S. Koinzer, R. Birngruber, R. Brinkmann, and G. Hüttmann, “Imaging thermal expansion and retinal tissue changes during photocoagulation by high speed OCT,” Biomedical optics express 3, 1025–1046 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Del Priore, L. V.

L. V. Del Priore, B. M. Glaser, H. A. Quigley, and W. R. Green, “Response of pig retinal pigment epithelium to laser photocoagulation in organ culture,” Archives of Ophthalmology 107, 119–122 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dorgau, B.

V. Chichagova, D. Hallam, J. Collin, D. Zerti, B. Dorgau, M. Felemban, M. Lako, and D. H. Steel, “Cellular regeneration strategies for macular degeneration: past, present and future,” Eye 32, 946 (2018).

Drexler, W.

W. Drexler and J. G. Fujimoto, Optical Coherence Tomography: Technology and Applications (Springer Science & Business Media, 2008).
[Crossref]

Ebneter, A.

P. Steiner, A. Ebneter, L. E. Berger, M. Zinkernagel, B. Považay, C. Meier, J. H. Kowal, C. Framme, R. Brinkmann, S. Wolf, and R. Sznitman, “Time-Resolved Ultra–High Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography for Real-Time Monitoring of Selective Retina TherapyTime-Resolved Ultra–High Resolution OCT During SRT,” Investigative ophthalmology & visual science 56, 6654–6662 (2015).
[Crossref]

Elsner, H.

J. Roider, S. H. M. Liew, C. Klatt, H. Elsner, E. Poerksen, J. Hillenkamp, R. Brinkmann, and R. Birngruber, “Selective retina therapy (SRT) for clinically significant diabetic macular edema,” Graefe’s Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology 248, 1263–1272 (2010).
[Crossref]

Felemban, M.

V. Chichagova, D. Hallam, J. Collin, D. Zerti, B. Dorgau, M. Felemban, M. Lako, and D. H. Steel, “Cellular regeneration strategies for macular degeneration: past, present and future,” Eye 32, 946 (2018).

Flotte, T.

J. Roider, F. Hillenkamp, T. Flotte, and R. Birngruber, “Microphotocoagulation: selective effects of repetitive short laser pulses,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 90, 8643–8647 (1993).
[Crossref]

J. Roider, N. Michaud, T. Flotte, and R. Birngruber, “Histology of retinal lesions after continuous irradiation and selective micro-coagulation of the retinal pigment epithelium,” Ophthalmologe 90(3), 274–278 (1993).
[PubMed]

Fong, K. C. S.

J. H. Lock and K. C. S. Fong, “An update on retinal laser therapy,” Clinical and Experimental Optometry 4, 43–51(2010).

Framme, C.

C. Framme, A. Walter, L. Berger, P. Prahs, C. Alt, D. Theisen-Kunde, J. Kowal, and R. Brinkmann, “Selective Retina Therapy in Acute and Chronic-Recurrent Central Serous Chorioretinopathy,” Ophthalmologica 234, 177–188 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Steiner, A. Ebneter, L. E. Berger, M. Zinkernagel, B. Považay, C. Meier, J. H. Kowal, C. Framme, R. Brinkmann, S. Wolf, and R. Sznitman, “Time-Resolved Ultra–High Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography for Real-Time Monitoring of Selective Retina TherapyTime-Resolved Ultra–High Resolution OCT During SRT,” Investigative ophthalmology & visual science 56, 6654–6662 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Framme, A. Walter, P. Prahs, R. Regler, D. Theisen-Kunde, C. Alt, and R. Brinkmann, “Structural changes of the retina after conventional laser photocoagulation and selective retina treatment (SRT) in spectral domain OCT,” Current eye research 34, 568–579 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Framme, A. Walter, P. Prahs, D. Theisen-Kunde, and R. Brinkmann, “Comparison of threshold irradiances and online dosimetry for selective retina treatment (SRT) in patients treated with 200 nanoseconds and 1.7 microseconds laser pulses,” Lasers in surgery and medicine 40, 616–624 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Framme, G. Schuele, J. Roider, R. Birngruber, and R. Brinkmann, “Influence of pulse duration and pulse number in selective RPE laser treatment,” Lasers in Surgery and Medicine 34, 206–215 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Framme, G. Schuele, J. Roider, D. Kracht, R. Birngruber, and R. Brinkmann, “Threshold determinations for selective retinal pigment epithelium damage with repetitive pulsed microsecond laser systems in rabbits,” Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers 33, 400–409 (2002).

C. Framme, R. Brinkmann, R. Birngruber, and J. Roider, “Autofluorescence imaging after selective RPE laser treatment in macular diseases and clinical outcome: a pilot study,” British Journal of Ophthalmology 86, 1099–1106 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fritz, A.

E. Seifert, Y.-J. Roh, A. Fritz, Y. G. Park, S. Kang, D. Theisen-Kunde, and R. Brinkmann, “Automatic irradiation control by an optical feedback technique for selective retina treatment (SRT) in a rabbit model,” in “European Conferences on Biomedical Optics,” (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2013), pp. 880303.

Fritzer, E.

C. Klatt, M. Saeger, T. Oppermann, E. Pörksen, F. Treumer, J. Hillenkamp, E. Fritzer, R. Brinkmann, R. Birngruber, and J. Roider, “Selective retina therapy for acute central serous chorioretinopathy,” British Journal of Ophthalmology 95, 83–88 (2010).

Fujimoto, J. G.

W. Drexler and J. G. Fujimoto, Optical Coherence Tomography: Technology and Applications (Springer Science & Business Media, 2008).
[Crossref]

Gabel, V.-P.

V.-P. Gabel, R. Birngruber, and F. Hillenkamp, “Visible and near infrared light absorption in pigment epithelium and choroid,” Proc. 23rd Consilium Ophthalmologicum, (Kyoto) Excerpta Medica pp. 658–662 (1978).

Gariano, R. F.

Y. M. Paulus, A. Jain, H. Nomoto, C. Sramek, R. F. Gariano, D. Andersen, G. Schuele, L.-S. Leung, T. Leng, and D. Palanker, “Selective retinal therapy with microsecond exposures using a continuous line scanning laser,” Retina 31, 380–388 (2011).
[Crossref]

Gilles, M. C.

Q. Mohamed, M. C. Gilles, and W. Ty, “Management of diabetic retinopathy: A systematic review,” JAMA 298, 902–916 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Glaser, B. M.

L. V. Del Priore, B. M. Glaser, H. A. Quigley, and W. R. Green, “Response of pig retinal pigment epithelium to laser photocoagulation in organ culture,” Archives of Ophthalmology 107, 119–122 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Green, W. R.

L. V. Del Priore, B. M. Glaser, H. A. Quigley, and W. R. Green, “Response of pig retinal pigment epithelium to laser photocoagulation in organ culture,” Archives of Ophthalmology 107, 119–122 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Group, M. P. S.

M. P. S. Group, “Laser photocoagulation of subfoveal neovascular lesions of age-related macular degeneration,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 111, 1200–1209 (1993).
[Crossref]

Grunwald, J. E.

J. E. Grunwald, C. E. Riva, A. J. Brucker, S. H. Sinclair, and B. L. Petrig, “Effect of panretinal photocoagulation on retinal blood flow in proliferative diabetic retinopathy,” Ophthalmology 93(5), 590 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hajialamdari, M.

K. Bizheva, B. Tan, B. MacLelan, O. Kralj, M. Hajialamdari, D. Hileeto, and L. Sorbara, “Sub-micrometer axial resolution OCT for in-vivo imaging of the cellular structure of healthy and keratoconic human corneas,” Biomedical Optics Express 8, 800–812 (2017).
[Crossref]

Hallam, D.

V. Chichagova, D. Hallam, J. Collin, D. Zerti, B. Dorgau, M. Felemban, M. Lako, and D. H. Steel, “Cellular regeneration strategies for macular degeneration: past, present and future,” Eye 32, 946 (2018).

Hess, D. J.

S. K. Houston, C. C. Wykoff, A. M. Berrocal, D. J. Hess, and T. G. Murray, “Lasers for the treatment of intraocular tumors,” Lasers in Medical Science 28(3), 1025–1034 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hileeto, D.

K. Bizheva, B. Tan, B. MacLelan, O. Kralj, M. Hajialamdari, D. Hileeto, and L. Sorbara, “Sub-micrometer axial resolution OCT for in-vivo imaging of the cellular structure of healthy and keratoconic human corneas,” Biomedical Optics Express 8, 800–812 (2017).
[Crossref]

Hillenkamp, F.

J. Roider, F. Hillenkamp, T. Flotte, and R. Birngruber, “Microphotocoagulation: selective effects of repetitive short laser pulses,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 90, 8643–8647 (1993).
[Crossref]

V.-P. Gabel, R. Birngruber, and F. Hillenkamp, “Visible and near infrared light absorption in pigment epithelium and choroid,” Proc. 23rd Consilium Ophthalmologicum, (Kyoto) Excerpta Medica pp. 658–662 (1978).

Hillenkamp, J.

J. Roider, S. H. M. Liew, C. Klatt, H. Elsner, E. Poerksen, J. Hillenkamp, R. Brinkmann, and R. Birngruber, “Selective retina therapy (SRT) for clinically significant diabetic macular edema,” Graefe’s Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology 248, 1263–1272 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. Klatt, M. Saeger, T. Oppermann, E. Pörksen, F. Treumer, J. Hillenkamp, E. Fritzer, R. Brinkmann, R. Birngruber, and J. Roider, “Selective retina therapy for acute central serous chorioretinopathy,” British Journal of Ophthalmology 95, 83–88 (2010).

Hirayama, K.

A. Yasui, M. Yamamoto, K. Hirayama, K. Shiraki, D. Theisen-Kunde, R. Brinkmann, Y. Miura, and T. Kohno, “Retinal sensitivity after selective retina therapy (SRT) on patients with central serous chorioretinopathy,” Graefe’s Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology 255, 243–254 (2017).
[Crossref]

Houston, S. K.

S. K. Houston, C. C. Wykoff, A. M. Berrocal, D. J. Hess, and T. G. Murray, “Lasers for the treatment of intraocular tumors,” Lasers in Medical Science 28(3), 1025–1034 (2013).
[Crossref]

Huettmann, G.

G. Schuele, M. Rumohr, G. Huettmann, and R. Brinkmann, “RPE damage thresholds and mechanisms for laser exposure in the microsecond-to-millisecond time regimen,” Investigative ophthalmology & visual science 46, 714–719 (2005).
[Crossref]

G. Schuele, M. Rumohr, G. Huettmann, and R. Brinkmann, “RPE damage thresholds and mechanisms for laser exposure in the microsecond-to-millisecond time regimen,” Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science 46, 714–719 (2005).
[Crossref]

R. Brinkmann, G. Huettmann, J. Roegener, J. Roider, R. Birngruber, and C. Lin, “Origin of retinal pigment epithelium cell damage by pulsed laser irradiance in the nanosecond to microsecond time regimen,” Lasers in Surgery and Medicine 27, 451–464 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hüttmann, G.

H. H. Müller, L. Ptaszynski, K. Schlott, C. Debbeler, M. Bever, S. Koinzer, R. Birngruber, R. Brinkmann, and G. Hüttmann, “Imaging thermal expansion and retinal tissue changes during photocoagulation by high speed OCT,” Biomedical optics express 3, 1025–1046 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jain, A.

Y. M. Paulus, A. Jain, H. Nomoto, C. Sramek, R. F. Gariano, D. Andersen, G. Schuele, L.-S. Leung, T. Leng, and D. Palanker, “Selective retinal therapy with microsecond exposures using a continuous line scanning laser,” Retina 31, 380–388 (2011).
[Crossref]

Justiz, J.

D. Kaufmann, C. Burri, P. Arnold, V. M. Koch, C. Meier, B. Považay, and J. Justiz, “Dosimetry control and monitoring of selective retina therapy using optical coherence tomography,” Proc. SPIE 10416, 10416 (2017).

Kang, S.

Y. G. Park, J. R. Kim, S. Kang, E. Seifert, D. Theisen-Kunde, R. Brinkmann, and Y.-J. Roh, “Safety and efficacy of selective retina therapy (SRT) for the treatment of diabetic macular edema in Korean patients,” Graefe’s Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology 254, 1703–1713 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y.-G. Park, E. Seifert, Y. J. Roh, D. Theisen-Kunde, S. Kang, and R. Brinkmann, “Tissue response of selective retina therapy by means of a feedback-controlled energy ramping mode,” Clinical & experimental ophthalmology 42, 846–855 (2014).
[Crossref]

E. Seifert, Y.-J. Roh, A. Fritz, Y. G. Park, S. Kang, D. Theisen-Kunde, and R. Brinkmann, “Automatic irradiation control by an optical feedback technique for selective retina treatment (SRT) in a rabbit model,” in “European Conferences on Biomedical Optics,” (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2013), pp. 880303.

Kaufmann, D.

D. Kaufmann, C. Burri, P. Arnold, V. M. Koch, C. Meier, B. Považay, and J. Justiz, “Dosimetry control and monitoring of selective retina therapy using optical coherence tomography,” Proc. SPIE 10416, 10416 (2017).

Kim, J. R.

Y. G. Park, J. R. Kim, S. Kang, E. Seifert, D. Theisen-Kunde, R. Brinkmann, and Y.-J. Roh, “Safety and efficacy of selective retina therapy (SRT) for the treatment of diabetic macular edema in Korean patients,” Graefe’s Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology 254, 1703–1713 (2016).
[Crossref]

Klatt, C.

J. Roider, S. H. M. Liew, C. Klatt, H. Elsner, E. Poerksen, J. Hillenkamp, R. Brinkmann, and R. Birngruber, “Selective retina therapy (SRT) for clinically significant diabetic macular edema,” Graefe’s Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology 248, 1263–1272 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. Klatt, M. Saeger, T. Oppermann, E. Pörksen, F. Treumer, J. Hillenkamp, E. Fritzer, R. Brinkmann, R. Birngruber, and J. Roider, “Selective retina therapy for acute central serous chorioretinopathy,” British Journal of Ophthalmology 95, 83–88 (2010).

Koch, V. M.

D. Kaufmann, C. Burri, P. Arnold, V. M. Koch, C. Meier, B. Považay, and J. Justiz, “Dosimetry control and monitoring of selective retina therapy using optical coherence tomography,” Proc. SPIE 10416, 10416 (2017).

Kohno, T.

A. Yasui, M. Yamamoto, K. Hirayama, K. Shiraki, D. Theisen-Kunde, R. Brinkmann, Y. Miura, and T. Kohno, “Retinal sensitivity after selective retina therapy (SRT) on patients with central serous chorioretinopathy,” Graefe’s Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology 255, 243–254 (2017).
[Crossref]

Koinzer, S.

H. H. Müller, L. Ptaszynski, K. Schlott, C. Debbeler, M. Bever, S. Koinzer, R. Birngruber, R. Brinkmann, and G. Hüttmann, “Imaging thermal expansion and retinal tissue changes during photocoagulation by high speed OCT,” Biomedical optics express 3, 1025–1046 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kowal, J.

C. Framme, A. Walter, L. Berger, P. Prahs, C. Alt, D. Theisen-Kunde, J. Kowal, and R. Brinkmann, “Selective Retina Therapy in Acute and Chronic-Recurrent Central Serous Chorioretinopathy,” Ophthalmologica 234, 177–188 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kowal, J. H.

P. Steiner, A. Ebneter, L. E. Berger, M. Zinkernagel, B. Považay, C. Meier, J. H. Kowal, C. Framme, R. Brinkmann, S. Wolf, and R. Sznitman, “Time-Resolved Ultra–High Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography for Real-Time Monitoring of Selective Retina TherapyTime-Resolved Ultra–High Resolution OCT During SRT,” Investigative ophthalmology & visual science 56, 6654–6662 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kozak, I.

I. Kozak and J. K. Luttrull, “Modern retinal laser therapy,” Saudi Journal of Ophthalmology 29, 137–146 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kracht, D.

C. Framme, G. Schuele, J. Roider, D. Kracht, R. Birngruber, and R. Brinkmann, “Threshold determinations for selective retinal pigment epithelium damage with repetitive pulsed microsecond laser systems in rabbits,” Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers 33, 400–409 (2002).

Kralj, O.

K. Bizheva, B. Tan, B. MacLelan, O. Kralj, M. Hajialamdari, D. Hileeto, and L. Sorbara, “Sub-micrometer axial resolution OCT for in-vivo imaging of the cellular structure of healthy and keratoconic human corneas,” Biomedical Optics Express 8, 800–812 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kurokawa, K.

K. Kurokawa, S. Makita, and Y. Yasuno, “Investigation of thermal effects of photocoagulation on retinal tissue using fine-motion-sensitive dynamic optical coherence tomography,” PloS one 11, e0156761 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lako, M.

V. Chichagova, D. Hallam, J. Collin, D. Zerti, B. Dorgau, M. Felemban, M. Lako, and D. H. Steel, “Cellular regeneration strategies for macular degeneration: past, present and future,” Eye 32, 946 (2018).

Landers, M. B.

M. B. Landers, E. Stefánsson, and M. L. Wolbarsht, “Panretinal photocoagulation and retinal oxygenation,” Retina 2(3), 167–175 (1982).
[Crossref]

Laqua, H.

J. Roider, R. Brinkmann, C. Wirbelauer, H. Laqua, and R. Birngruber, “Subthreshold (retinal pigment epithelium) photocoagulation in macular diseases: a pilot study,” British Journal of Ophthalmology 84, 40–47 (2000).
[Crossref]

Leng, T.

Y. M. Paulus, A. Jain, H. Nomoto, C. Sramek, R. F. Gariano, D. Andersen, G. Schuele, L.-S. Leung, T. Leng, and D. Palanker, “Selective retinal therapy with microsecond exposures using a continuous line scanning laser,” Retina 31, 380–388 (2011).
[Crossref]

Leung, L.-S.

Y. M. Paulus, A. Jain, H. Nomoto, C. Sramek, R. F. Gariano, D. Andersen, G. Schuele, L.-S. Leung, T. Leng, and D. Palanker, “Selective retinal therapy with microsecond exposures using a continuous line scanning laser,” Retina 31, 380–388 (2011).
[Crossref]

Liew, S. H. M.

J. Roider, S. H. M. Liew, C. Klatt, H. Elsner, E. Poerksen, J. Hillenkamp, R. Brinkmann, and R. Birngruber, “Selective retina therapy (SRT) for clinically significant diabetic macular edema,” Graefe’s Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology 248, 1263–1272 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lin, C.

R. Brinkmann, G. Huettmann, J. Roegener, J. Roider, R. Birngruber, and C. Lin, “Origin of retinal pigment epithelium cell damage by pulsed laser irradiance in the nanosecond to microsecond time regimen,” Lasers in Surgery and Medicine 27, 451–464 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lock, J. H.

J. H. Lock and K. C. S. Fong, “An update on retinal laser therapy,” Clinical and Experimental Optometry 4, 43–51(2010).

Luttrull, J. K.

I. Kozak and J. K. Luttrull, “Modern retinal laser therapy,” Saudi Journal of Ophthalmology 29, 137–146 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Machemer, R.

E. Stefánsson, R. Machemer, E. de Juan, B. W. McCuen, and J. Peterson, “Retinal oxygenation and laser treatment in patients with diabetic retinopathy,” American Journal of Ophthalmology 113(1), 36–38 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

MacLelan, B.

K. Bizheva, B. Tan, B. MacLelan, O. Kralj, M. Hajialamdari, D. Hileeto, and L. Sorbara, “Sub-micrometer axial resolution OCT for in-vivo imaging of the cellular structure of healthy and keratoconic human corneas,” Biomedical Optics Express 8, 800–812 (2017).
[Crossref]

Makita, S.

K. Kurokawa, S. Makita, and Y. Yasuno, “Investigation of thermal effects of photocoagulation on retinal tissue using fine-motion-sensitive dynamic optical coherence tomography,” PloS one 11, e0156761 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Marmor, M. F.

M. F. Marmor and T. Wolfensberger, “The retinal pigment epithelium,” Function and Disease (Oxford,1998) pp. 103–134.

Mason, J. O.

J. N. Crosson, L. Mason, and J. O. Mason, “The role of focal laser in the anti–vascular endothelial growth factor era,” Ophthalmology and eye diseases9, 1179172117738240 (2017).
[Crossref]

Mason, L.

J. N. Crosson, L. Mason, and J. O. Mason, “The role of focal laser in the anti–vascular endothelial growth factor era,” Ophthalmology and eye diseases9, 1179172117738240 (2017).
[Crossref]

McCuen, B. W.

E. Stefánsson, R. Machemer, E. de Juan, B. W. McCuen, and J. Peterson, “Retinal oxygenation and laser treatment in patients with diabetic retinopathy,” American Journal of Ophthalmology 113(1), 36–38 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Meier, C.

D. Kaufmann, C. Burri, P. Arnold, V. M. Koch, C. Meier, B. Považay, and J. Justiz, “Dosimetry control and monitoring of selective retina therapy using optical coherence tomography,” Proc. SPIE 10416, 10416 (2017).

P. Steiner, A. Ebneter, L. E. Berger, M. Zinkernagel, B. Považay, C. Meier, J. H. Kowal, C. Framme, R. Brinkmann, S. Wolf, and R. Sznitman, “Time-Resolved Ultra–High Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography for Real-Time Monitoring of Selective Retina TherapyTime-Resolved Ultra–High Resolution OCT During SRT,” Investigative ophthalmology & visual science 56, 6654–6662 (2015).
[Crossref]

Meyer-Schwickerath, G.

G. Meyer-Schwickerath, “Light coagulation; a method for treatment and prevention of the retinal detachment,” Albrecht von Graefe’s Archiv fur Ophthalmologie 156, 2–34 (1954).
[Crossref]

Michaud, N.

J. Roider, N. Michaud, T. Flotte, and R. Birngruber, “Histology of retinal lesions after continuous irradiation and selective micro-coagulation of the retinal pigment epithelium,” Ophthalmologe 90(3), 274–278 (1993).
[PubMed]

Miura, Y.

A. Yasui, M. Yamamoto, K. Hirayama, K. Shiraki, D. Theisen-Kunde, R. Brinkmann, Y. Miura, and T. Kohno, “Retinal sensitivity after selective retina therapy (SRT) on patients with central serous chorioretinopathy,” Graefe’s Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology 255, 243–254 (2017).
[Crossref]

Mohamed, Q.

Q. Mohamed, M. C. Gilles, and W. Ty, “Management of diabetic retinopathy: A systematic review,” JAMA 298, 902–916 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Muhammad, S.

S. Muhammad, “Fundus Fluorescein Angiography,” Journal of Postgraduate Medical Institute (Peshawar - Pakistan) 12, 1 (2011).

Müller, H. H.

H. H. Müller, L. Ptaszynski, K. Schlott, C. Debbeler, M. Bever, S. Koinzer, R. Birngruber, R. Brinkmann, and G. Hüttmann, “Imaging thermal expansion and retinal tissue changes during photocoagulation by high speed OCT,” Biomedical optics express 3, 1025–1046 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Murray, T. G.

S. K. Houston, C. C. Wykoff, A. M. Berrocal, D. J. Hess, and T. G. Murray, “Lasers for the treatment of intraocular tumors,” Lasers in Medical Science 28(3), 1025–1034 (2013).
[Crossref]

Neumann, J.

J. Neumann and R. Brinkmann, “Microbubble dynamics around laser heated microparticles,” Proc. SPIE 5142, 82–87 (2003).

J. Neumann and R. Brinkmann, “Nucleation and Dynamics of Bubbles Forming Around Laser Heated Microabsorbers,” Optical Society of America (2005).

Nomoto, H.

Y. M. Paulus, A. Jain, H. Nomoto, C. Sramek, R. F. Gariano, D. Andersen, G. Schuele, L.-S. Leung, T. Leng, and D. Palanker, “Selective retinal therapy with microsecond exposures using a continuous line scanning laser,” Retina 31, 380–388 (2011).
[Crossref]

Oppermann, T.

C. Klatt, M. Saeger, T. Oppermann, E. Pörksen, F. Treumer, J. Hillenkamp, E. Fritzer, R. Brinkmann, R. Birngruber, and J. Roider, “Selective retina therapy for acute central serous chorioretinopathy,” British Journal of Ophthalmology 95, 83–88 (2010).

Palanker, D.

Y. M. Paulus, A. Jain, H. Nomoto, C. Sramek, R. F. Gariano, D. Andersen, G. Schuele, L.-S. Leung, T. Leng, and D. Palanker, “Selective retinal therapy with microsecond exposures using a continuous line scanning laser,” Retina 31, 380–388 (2011).
[Crossref]

Park, Y. G.

Y. G. Park, J. R. Kim, S. Kang, E. Seifert, D. Theisen-Kunde, R. Brinkmann, and Y.-J. Roh, “Safety and efficacy of selective retina therapy (SRT) for the treatment of diabetic macular edema in Korean patients,” Graefe’s Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology 254, 1703–1713 (2016).
[Crossref]

E. Seifert, Y.-J. Roh, A. Fritz, Y. G. Park, S. Kang, D. Theisen-Kunde, and R. Brinkmann, “Automatic irradiation control by an optical feedback technique for selective retina treatment (SRT) in a rabbit model,” in “European Conferences on Biomedical Optics,” (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2013), pp. 880303.

Park, Y.-G.

Y.-G. Park, E. Seifert, Y. J. Roh, D. Theisen-Kunde, S. Kang, and R. Brinkmann, “Tissue response of selective retina therapy by means of a feedback-controlled energy ramping mode,” Clinical & experimental ophthalmology 42, 846–855 (2014).
[Crossref]

Paulus, Y. M.

Y. M. Paulus, A. Jain, H. Nomoto, C. Sramek, R. F. Gariano, D. Andersen, G. Schuele, L.-S. Leung, T. Leng, and D. Palanker, “Selective retinal therapy with microsecond exposures using a continuous line scanning laser,” Retina 31, 380–388 (2011).
[Crossref]

Peisch, R. D.

S. Y. Schmidt and R. D. Peisch, “Melanin concentration in normal human retinal pigment epithelium. Regional variation and age-related reduction,” Investigative ophthalmology & visual science 27, 1063–1067 (1986).

Peterson, J.

E. Stefánsson, R. Machemer, E. de Juan, B. W. McCuen, and J. Peterson, “Retinal oxygenation and laser treatment in patients with diabetic retinopathy,” American Journal of Ophthalmology 113(1), 36–38 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Petrig, B. L.

J. E. Grunwald, C. E. Riva, A. J. Brucker, S. H. Sinclair, and B. L. Petrig, “Effect of panretinal photocoagulation on retinal blood flow in proliferative diabetic retinopathy,” Ophthalmology 93(5), 590 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Poerksen, E.

J. Roider, S. H. M. Liew, C. Klatt, H. Elsner, E. Poerksen, J. Hillenkamp, R. Brinkmann, and R. Birngruber, “Selective retina therapy (SRT) for clinically significant diabetic macular edema,” Graefe’s Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology 248, 1263–1272 (2010).
[Crossref]

Pörksen, E.

C. Klatt, M. Saeger, T. Oppermann, E. Pörksen, F. Treumer, J. Hillenkamp, E. Fritzer, R. Brinkmann, R. Birngruber, and J. Roider, “Selective retina therapy for acute central serous chorioretinopathy,” British Journal of Ophthalmology 95, 83–88 (2010).

Považay, B.

D. Kaufmann, C. Burri, P. Arnold, V. M. Koch, C. Meier, B. Považay, and J. Justiz, “Dosimetry control and monitoring of selective retina therapy using optical coherence tomography,” Proc. SPIE 10416, 10416 (2017).

P. Steiner, A. Ebneter, L. E. Berger, M. Zinkernagel, B. Považay, C. Meier, J. H. Kowal, C. Framme, R. Brinkmann, S. Wolf, and R. Sznitman, “Time-Resolved Ultra–High Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography for Real-Time Monitoring of Selective Retina TherapyTime-Resolved Ultra–High Resolution OCT During SRT,” Investigative ophthalmology & visual science 56, 6654–6662 (2015).
[Crossref]

Prahs, P.

C. Framme, A. Walter, L. Berger, P. Prahs, C. Alt, D. Theisen-Kunde, J. Kowal, and R. Brinkmann, “Selective Retina Therapy in Acute and Chronic-Recurrent Central Serous Chorioretinopathy,” Ophthalmologica 234, 177–188 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Framme, A. Walter, P. Prahs, R. Regler, D. Theisen-Kunde, C. Alt, and R. Brinkmann, “Structural changes of the retina after conventional laser photocoagulation and selective retina treatment (SRT) in spectral domain OCT,” Current eye research 34, 568–579 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Framme, A. Walter, P. Prahs, D. Theisen-Kunde, and R. Brinkmann, “Comparison of threshold irradiances and online dosimetry for selective retina treatment (SRT) in patients treated with 200 nanoseconds and 1.7 microseconds laser pulses,” Lasers in surgery and medicine 40, 616–624 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ptaszynski, L.

H. H. Müller, L. Ptaszynski, K. Schlott, C. Debbeler, M. Bever, S. Koinzer, R. Birngruber, R. Brinkmann, and G. Hüttmann, “Imaging thermal expansion and retinal tissue changes during photocoagulation by high speed OCT,” Biomedical optics express 3, 1025–1046 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Quigley, H. A.

L. V. Del Priore, B. M. Glaser, H. A. Quigley, and W. R. Green, “Response of pig retinal pigment epithelium to laser photocoagulation in organ culture,” Archives of Ophthalmology 107, 119–122 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Regler, R.

C. Framme, A. Walter, P. Prahs, R. Regler, D. Theisen-Kunde, C. Alt, and R. Brinkmann, “Structural changes of the retina after conventional laser photocoagulation and selective retina treatment (SRT) in spectral domain OCT,” Current eye research 34, 568–579 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Riva, C. E.

J. E. Grunwald, C. E. Riva, A. J. Brucker, S. H. Sinclair, and B. L. Petrig, “Effect of panretinal photocoagulation on retinal blood flow in proliferative diabetic retinopathy,” Ophthalmology 93(5), 590 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Roegener, J.

R. Brinkmann, G. Huettmann, J. Roegener, J. Roider, R. Birngruber, and C. Lin, “Origin of retinal pigment epithelium cell damage by pulsed laser irradiance in the nanosecond to microsecond time regimen,” Lasers in Surgery and Medicine 27, 451–464 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Roh, Y. J.

Y.-G. Park, E. Seifert, Y. J. Roh, D. Theisen-Kunde, S. Kang, and R. Brinkmann, “Tissue response of selective retina therapy by means of a feedback-controlled energy ramping mode,” Clinical & experimental ophthalmology 42, 846–855 (2014).
[Crossref]

Roh, Y.-J.

Y. G. Park, J. R. Kim, S. Kang, E. Seifert, D. Theisen-Kunde, R. Brinkmann, and Y.-J. Roh, “Safety and efficacy of selective retina therapy (SRT) for the treatment of diabetic macular edema in Korean patients,” Graefe’s Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology 254, 1703–1713 (2016).
[Crossref]

E. Seifert, Y.-J. Roh, A. Fritz, Y. G. Park, S. Kang, D. Theisen-Kunde, and R. Brinkmann, “Automatic irradiation control by an optical feedback technique for selective retina treatment (SRT) in a rabbit model,” in “European Conferences on Biomedical Optics,” (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2013), pp. 880303.

Roider, J.

C. Klatt, M. Saeger, T. Oppermann, E. Pörksen, F. Treumer, J. Hillenkamp, E. Fritzer, R. Brinkmann, R. Birngruber, and J. Roider, “Selective retina therapy for acute central serous chorioretinopathy,” British Journal of Ophthalmology 95, 83–88 (2010).

J. Roider, S. H. M. Liew, C. Klatt, H. Elsner, E. Poerksen, J. Hillenkamp, R. Brinkmann, and R. Birngruber, “Selective retina therapy (SRT) for clinically significant diabetic macular edema,” Graefe’s Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology 248, 1263–1272 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. Brinkmann, J. Roider, and R. Birngruber, “Selective retina therapy (SRT): a review on methods, techniques, preclinical and first clinical results,” Bulletin De La Societe Belge D’Ophtalmologie 302, 51–69 (2006).

C. Framme, G. Schuele, J. Roider, R. Birngruber, and R. Brinkmann, “Influence of pulse duration and pulse number in selective RPE laser treatment,” Lasers in Surgery and Medicine 34, 206–215 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Framme, R. Brinkmann, R. Birngruber, and J. Roider, “Autofluorescence imaging after selective RPE laser treatment in macular diseases and clinical outcome: a pilot study,” British Journal of Ophthalmology 86, 1099–1106 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Framme, G. Schuele, J. Roider, D. Kracht, R. Birngruber, and R. Brinkmann, “Threshold determinations for selective retinal pigment epithelium damage with repetitive pulsed microsecond laser systems in rabbits,” Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers 33, 400–409 (2002).

R. Brinkmann, G. Huettmann, J. Roegener, J. Roider, R. Birngruber, and C. Lin, “Origin of retinal pigment epithelium cell damage by pulsed laser irradiance in the nanosecond to microsecond time regimen,” Lasers in Surgery and Medicine 27, 451–464 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Roider, R. Brinkmann, C. Wirbelauer, H. Laqua, and R. Birngruber, “Subthreshold (retinal pigment epithelium) photocoagulation in macular diseases: a pilot study,” British Journal of Ophthalmology 84, 40–47 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. Roider, F. Hillenkamp, T. Flotte, and R. Birngruber, “Microphotocoagulation: selective effects of repetitive short laser pulses,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 90, 8643–8647 (1993).
[Crossref]

J. Roider, N. Michaud, T. Flotte, and R. Birngruber, “Histology of retinal lesions after continuous irradiation and selective micro-coagulation of the retinal pigment epithelium,” Ophthalmologe 90(3), 274–278 (1993).
[PubMed]

Rumohr, M.

G. Schuele, M. Rumohr, G. Huettmann, and R. Brinkmann, “RPE damage thresholds and mechanisms for laser exposure in the microsecond-to-millisecond time regimen,” Investigative ophthalmology & visual science 46, 714–719 (2005).
[Crossref]

G. Schuele, M. Rumohr, G. Huettmann, and R. Brinkmann, “RPE damage thresholds and mechanisms for laser exposure in the microsecond-to-millisecond time regimen,” Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science 46, 714–719 (2005).
[Crossref]

Saeger, M.

C. Klatt, M. Saeger, T. Oppermann, E. Pörksen, F. Treumer, J. Hillenkamp, E. Fritzer, R. Brinkmann, R. Birngruber, and J. Roider, “Selective retina therapy for acute central serous chorioretinopathy,” British Journal of Ophthalmology 95, 83–88 (2010).

Schlott, K.

H. H. Müller, L. Ptaszynski, K. Schlott, C. Debbeler, M. Bever, S. Koinzer, R. Birngruber, R. Brinkmann, and G. Hüttmann, “Imaging thermal expansion and retinal tissue changes during photocoagulation by high speed OCT,” Biomedical optics express 3, 1025–1046 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schmidt, S. Y.

S. Y. Schmidt and R. D. Peisch, “Melanin concentration in normal human retinal pigment epithelium. Regional variation and age-related reduction,” Investigative ophthalmology & visual science 27, 1063–1067 (1986).

Schuele, G.

Y. M. Paulus, A. Jain, H. Nomoto, C. Sramek, R. F. Gariano, D. Andersen, G. Schuele, L.-S. Leung, T. Leng, and D. Palanker, “Selective retinal therapy with microsecond exposures using a continuous line scanning laser,” Retina 31, 380–388 (2011).
[Crossref]

G. Schuele, M. Rumohr, G. Huettmann, and R. Brinkmann, “RPE damage thresholds and mechanisms for laser exposure in the microsecond-to-millisecond time regimen,” Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science 46, 714–719 (2005).
[Crossref]

G. Schuele, M. Rumohr, G. Huettmann, and R. Brinkmann, “RPE damage thresholds and mechanisms for laser exposure in the microsecond-to-millisecond time regimen,” Investigative ophthalmology & visual science 46, 714–719 (2005).
[Crossref]

C. Framme, G. Schuele, J. Roider, R. Birngruber, and R. Brinkmann, “Influence of pulse duration and pulse number in selective RPE laser treatment,” Lasers in Surgery and Medicine 34, 206–215 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Framme, G. Schuele, J. Roider, D. Kracht, R. Birngruber, and R. Brinkmann, “Threshold determinations for selective retinal pigment epithelium damage with repetitive pulsed microsecond laser systems in rabbits,” Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers 33, 400–409 (2002).

Seifert, E.

Y. G. Park, J. R. Kim, S. Kang, E. Seifert, D. Theisen-Kunde, R. Brinkmann, and Y.-J. Roh, “Safety and efficacy of selective retina therapy (SRT) for the treatment of diabetic macular edema in Korean patients,” Graefe’s Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology 254, 1703–1713 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y.-G. Park, E. Seifert, Y. J. Roh, D. Theisen-Kunde, S. Kang, and R. Brinkmann, “Tissue response of selective retina therapy by means of a feedback-controlled energy ramping mode,” Clinical & experimental ophthalmology 42, 846–855 (2014).
[Crossref]

E. Seifert, Y.-J. Roh, A. Fritz, Y. G. Park, S. Kang, D. Theisen-Kunde, and R. Brinkmann, “Automatic irradiation control by an optical feedback technique for selective retina treatment (SRT) in a rabbit model,” in “European Conferences on Biomedical Optics,” (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2013), pp. 880303.

Shiraki, K.

A. Yasui, M. Yamamoto, K. Hirayama, K. Shiraki, D. Theisen-Kunde, R. Brinkmann, Y. Miura, and T. Kohno, “Retinal sensitivity after selective retina therapy (SRT) on patients with central serous chorioretinopathy,” Graefe’s Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology 255, 243–254 (2017).
[Crossref]

Sinclair, S. H.

J. E. Grunwald, C. E. Riva, A. J. Brucker, S. H. Sinclair, and B. L. Petrig, “Effect of panretinal photocoagulation on retinal blood flow in proliferative diabetic retinopathy,” Ophthalmology 93(5), 590 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sorbara, L.

K. Bizheva, B. Tan, B. MacLelan, O. Kralj, M. Hajialamdari, D. Hileeto, and L. Sorbara, “Sub-micrometer axial resolution OCT for in-vivo imaging of the cellular structure of healthy and keratoconic human corneas,” Biomedical Optics Express 8, 800–812 (2017).
[Crossref]

Sramek, C.

Y. M. Paulus, A. Jain, H. Nomoto, C. Sramek, R. F. Gariano, D. Andersen, G. Schuele, L.-S. Leung, T. Leng, and D. Palanker, “Selective retinal therapy with microsecond exposures using a continuous line scanning laser,” Retina 31, 380–388 (2011).
[Crossref]

Steel, D. H.

V. Chichagova, D. Hallam, J. Collin, D. Zerti, B. Dorgau, M. Felemban, M. Lako, and D. H. Steel, “Cellular regeneration strategies for macular degeneration: past, present and future,” Eye 32, 946 (2018).

Stefánsson, E.

E. Stefánsson, “The therapeutic effects of retinal laser treatment and vitrectomy. A theory based on oxygen and vascular physiology,” Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica 79, 435–440 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Stefánsson, R. Machemer, E. de Juan, B. W. McCuen, and J. Peterson, “Retinal oxygenation and laser treatment in patients with diabetic retinopathy,” American Journal of Ophthalmology 113(1), 36–38 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Stefánsson, “Oxygen and diabetic eye disease,” Graefe’s Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology 228(1), 120–123 (1990).
[Crossref]

M. B. Landers, E. Stefánsson, and M. L. Wolbarsht, “Panretinal photocoagulation and retinal oxygenation,” Retina 2(3), 167–175 (1982).
[Crossref]

Steiner, P.

P. Steiner, A. Ebneter, L. E. Berger, M. Zinkernagel, B. Považay, C. Meier, J. H. Kowal, C. Framme, R. Brinkmann, S. Wolf, and R. Sznitman, “Time-Resolved Ultra–High Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography for Real-Time Monitoring of Selective Retina TherapyTime-Resolved Ultra–High Resolution OCT During SRT,” Investigative ophthalmology & visual science 56, 6654–6662 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Steiner, “Ultra-high Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography Retinal Tissue Monitoring for Dosimetry Control during Selective Retina Therapy Laser Treatment,” Ph.D. thesis, Graduate School for Cellular and Biomedical Sciences University of Bern (2015).

Strauss, O.

O. Strauss, “The retinal pigment epithelium in visual function,” Physiol. Rev. 85, 845–881 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sznitman, R.

P. Steiner, A. Ebneter, L. E. Berger, M. Zinkernagel, B. Považay, C. Meier, J. H. Kowal, C. Framme, R. Brinkmann, S. Wolf, and R. Sznitman, “Time-Resolved Ultra–High Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography for Real-Time Monitoring of Selective Retina TherapyTime-Resolved Ultra–High Resolution OCT During SRT,” Investigative ophthalmology & visual science 56, 6654–6662 (2015).
[Crossref]

Tan, B.

K. Bizheva, B. Tan, B. MacLelan, O. Kralj, M. Hajialamdari, D. Hileeto, and L. Sorbara, “Sub-micrometer axial resolution OCT for in-vivo imaging of the cellular structure of healthy and keratoconic human corneas,” Biomedical Optics Express 8, 800–812 (2017).
[Crossref]

Theisen-Kunde, D.

A. Yasui, M. Yamamoto, K. Hirayama, K. Shiraki, D. Theisen-Kunde, R. Brinkmann, Y. Miura, and T. Kohno, “Retinal sensitivity after selective retina therapy (SRT) on patients with central serous chorioretinopathy,” Graefe’s Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology 255, 243–254 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. G. Park, J. R. Kim, S. Kang, E. Seifert, D. Theisen-Kunde, R. Brinkmann, and Y.-J. Roh, “Safety and efficacy of selective retina therapy (SRT) for the treatment of diabetic macular edema in Korean patients,” Graefe’s Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology 254, 1703–1713 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Framme, A. Walter, L. Berger, P. Prahs, C. Alt, D. Theisen-Kunde, J. Kowal, and R. Brinkmann, “Selective Retina Therapy in Acute and Chronic-Recurrent Central Serous Chorioretinopathy,” Ophthalmologica 234, 177–188 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y.-G. Park, E. Seifert, Y. J. Roh, D. Theisen-Kunde, S. Kang, and R. Brinkmann, “Tissue response of selective retina therapy by means of a feedback-controlled energy ramping mode,” Clinical & experimental ophthalmology 42, 846–855 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Framme, A. Walter, P. Prahs, R. Regler, D. Theisen-Kunde, C. Alt, and R. Brinkmann, “Structural changes of the retina after conventional laser photocoagulation and selective retina treatment (SRT) in spectral domain OCT,” Current eye research 34, 568–579 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Framme, A. Walter, P. Prahs, D. Theisen-Kunde, and R. Brinkmann, “Comparison of threshold irradiances and online dosimetry for selective retina treatment (SRT) in patients treated with 200 nanoseconds and 1.7 microseconds laser pulses,” Lasers in surgery and medicine 40, 616–624 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Seifert, Y.-J. Roh, A. Fritz, Y. G. Park, S. Kang, D. Theisen-Kunde, and R. Brinkmann, “Automatic irradiation control by an optical feedback technique for selective retina treatment (SRT) in a rabbit model,” in “European Conferences on Biomedical Optics,” (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2013), pp. 880303.

Treumer, F.

C. Klatt, M. Saeger, T. Oppermann, E. Pörksen, F. Treumer, J. Hillenkamp, E. Fritzer, R. Brinkmann, R. Birngruber, and J. Roider, “Selective retina therapy for acute central serous chorioretinopathy,” British Journal of Ophthalmology 95, 83–88 (2010).

Ty, W.

Q. Mohamed, M. C. Gilles, and W. Ty, “Management of diabetic retinopathy: A systematic review,” JAMA 298, 902–916 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Virgili, G.

G. Virgili and A. Bini, “Laser photocoagulation for neovascular age-related macular degeneration,” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2007, CD004763 (2007).
[PubMed]

Walter, A.

C. Framme, A. Walter, L. Berger, P. Prahs, C. Alt, D. Theisen-Kunde, J. Kowal, and R. Brinkmann, “Selective Retina Therapy in Acute and Chronic-Recurrent Central Serous Chorioretinopathy,” Ophthalmologica 234, 177–188 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Framme, A. Walter, P. Prahs, R. Regler, D. Theisen-Kunde, C. Alt, and R. Brinkmann, “Structural changes of the retina after conventional laser photocoagulation and selective retina treatment (SRT) in spectral domain OCT,” Current eye research 34, 568–579 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Framme, A. Walter, P. Prahs, D. Theisen-Kunde, and R. Brinkmann, “Comparison of threshold irradiances and online dosimetry for selective retina treatment (SRT) in patients treated with 200 nanoseconds and 1.7 microseconds laser pulses,” Lasers in surgery and medicine 40, 616–624 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wirbelauer, C.

J. Roider, R. Brinkmann, C. Wirbelauer, H. Laqua, and R. Birngruber, “Subthreshold (retinal pigment epithelium) photocoagulation in macular diseases: a pilot study,” British Journal of Ophthalmology 84, 40–47 (2000).
[Crossref]

Wolbarsht, M. L.

M. B. Landers, E. Stefánsson, and M. L. Wolbarsht, “Panretinal photocoagulation and retinal oxygenation,” Retina 2(3), 167–175 (1982).
[Crossref]

Wolf, S.

P. Steiner, A. Ebneter, L. E. Berger, M. Zinkernagel, B. Považay, C. Meier, J. H. Kowal, C. Framme, R. Brinkmann, S. Wolf, and R. Sznitman, “Time-Resolved Ultra–High Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography for Real-Time Monitoring of Selective Retina TherapyTime-Resolved Ultra–High Resolution OCT During SRT,” Investigative ophthalmology & visual science 56, 6654–6662 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wolfensberger, T.

M. F. Marmor and T. Wolfensberger, “The retinal pigment epithelium,” Function and Disease (Oxford,1998) pp. 103–134.

Wykoff, C. C.

S. K. Houston, C. C. Wykoff, A. M. Berrocal, D. J. Hess, and T. G. Murray, “Lasers for the treatment of intraocular tumors,” Lasers in Medical Science 28(3), 1025–1034 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yamamoto, M.

A. Yasui, M. Yamamoto, K. Hirayama, K. Shiraki, D. Theisen-Kunde, R. Brinkmann, Y. Miura, and T. Kohno, “Retinal sensitivity after selective retina therapy (SRT) on patients with central serous chorioretinopathy,” Graefe’s Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology 255, 243–254 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yasui, A.

A. Yasui, M. Yamamoto, K. Hirayama, K. Shiraki, D. Theisen-Kunde, R. Brinkmann, Y. Miura, and T. Kohno, “Retinal sensitivity after selective retina therapy (SRT) on patients with central serous chorioretinopathy,” Graefe’s Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology 255, 243–254 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yasuno, Y.

K. Kurokawa, S. Makita, and Y. Yasuno, “Investigation of thermal effects of photocoagulation on retinal tissue using fine-motion-sensitive dynamic optical coherence tomography,” PloS one 11, e0156761 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zerti, D.

V. Chichagova, D. Hallam, J. Collin, D. Zerti, B. Dorgau, M. Felemban, M. Lako, and D. H. Steel, “Cellular regeneration strategies for macular degeneration: past, present and future,” Eye 32, 946 (2018).

Zinkernagel, M.

P. Steiner, A. Ebneter, L. E. Berger, M. Zinkernagel, B. Považay, C. Meier, J. H. Kowal, C. Framme, R. Brinkmann, S. Wolf, and R. Sznitman, “Time-Resolved Ultra–High Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography for Real-Time Monitoring of Selective Retina TherapyTime-Resolved Ultra–High Resolution OCT During SRT,” Investigative ophthalmology & visual science 56, 6654–6662 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zinman, B.

T. A. Ciulla, A. G. Amador, and B. Zinman, “Diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular edema,” Diabetes Care 26, 2653–2664 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica (1)

E. Stefánsson, “The therapeutic effects of retinal laser treatment and vitrectomy. A theory based on oxygen and vascular physiology,” Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica 79, 435–440 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Albrecht von Graefe’s Archiv fur Ophthalmologie (1)

G. Meyer-Schwickerath, “Light coagulation; a method for treatment and prevention of the retinal detachment,” Albrecht von Graefe’s Archiv fur Ophthalmologie 156, 2–34 (1954).
[Crossref]

American Journal of Ophthalmology (1)

E. Stefánsson, R. Machemer, E. de Juan, B. W. McCuen, and J. Peterson, “Retinal oxygenation and laser treatment in patients with diabetic retinopathy,” American Journal of Ophthalmology 113(1), 36–38 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arch. Ophthalmol. (4)

Macular Photocoagulation Study Group, “Laser photocoagulation of subfoveal neovascular lesions in age-related macular degeneration: results of a randomized clinical trial,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 109, 1220–1231 (1991).
[Crossref]

M. P. S. Group, “Laser photocoagulation of subfoveal neovascular lesions of age-related macular degeneration,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 111, 1200–1209 (1993).
[Crossref]

M. P. S. Group, “Laser photocoagulation for juxtafoveal choroidal neovascularization. Five-year results from randomized clinical trials,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 112, 500–509 (1994).
[Crossref]

M. P. S. Group, “Argon laser photocoagulation for neovascular maculopathy. Five-year results from randomized clinical trials,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 109, 1109–1114 (1991).
[Crossref]

Archives of Ophthalmology (1)

L. V. Del Priore, B. M. Glaser, H. A. Quigley, and W. R. Green, “Response of pig retinal pigment epithelium to laser photocoagulation in organ culture,” Archives of Ophthalmology 107, 119–122 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biomedical Optics Express (1)

K. Bizheva, B. Tan, B. MacLelan, O. Kralj, M. Hajialamdari, D. Hileeto, and L. Sorbara, “Sub-micrometer axial resolution OCT for in-vivo imaging of the cellular structure of healthy and keratoconic human corneas,” Biomedical Optics Express 8, 800–812 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. H. Müller, L. Ptaszynski, K. Schlott, C. Debbeler, M. Bever, S. Koinzer, R. Birngruber, R. Brinkmann, and G. Hüttmann, “Imaging thermal expansion and retinal tissue changes during photocoagulation by high speed OCT,” Biomedical optics express 3, 1025–1046 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

British Journal of Ophthalmology (3)

J. Roider, R. Brinkmann, C. Wirbelauer, H. Laqua, and R. Birngruber, “Subthreshold (retinal pigment epithelium) photocoagulation in macular diseases: a pilot study,” British Journal of Ophthalmology 84, 40–47 (2000).
[Crossref]

C. Framme, R. Brinkmann, R. Birngruber, and J. Roider, “Autofluorescence imaging after selective RPE laser treatment in macular diseases and clinical outcome: a pilot study,” British Journal of Ophthalmology 86, 1099–1106 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Klatt, M. Saeger, T. Oppermann, E. Pörksen, F. Treumer, J. Hillenkamp, E. Fritzer, R. Brinkmann, R. Birngruber, and J. Roider, “Selective retina therapy for acute central serous chorioretinopathy,” British Journal of Ophthalmology 95, 83–88 (2010).

Bulletin De La Societe Belge D’Ophtalmologie (1)

R. Brinkmann, J. Roider, and R. Birngruber, “Selective retina therapy (SRT): a review on methods, techniques, preclinical and first clinical results,” Bulletin De La Societe Belge D’Ophtalmologie 302, 51–69 (2006).

Clinical & experimental ophthalmology (1)

Y.-G. Park, E. Seifert, Y. J. Roh, D. Theisen-Kunde, S. Kang, and R. Brinkmann, “Tissue response of selective retina therapy by means of a feedback-controlled energy ramping mode,” Clinical & experimental ophthalmology 42, 846–855 (2014).
[Crossref]

Clinical and Experimental Optometry (1)

J. H. Lock and K. C. S. Fong, “An update on retinal laser therapy,” Clinical and Experimental Optometry 4, 43–51(2010).

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (1)

G. Virgili and A. Bini, “Laser photocoagulation for neovascular age-related macular degeneration,” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2007, CD004763 (2007).
[PubMed]

Current eye research (1)

C. Framme, A. Walter, P. Prahs, R. Regler, D. Theisen-Kunde, C. Alt, and R. Brinkmann, “Structural changes of the retina after conventional laser photocoagulation and selective retina treatment (SRT) in spectral domain OCT,” Current eye research 34, 568–579 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Diabetes Care (1)

T. A. Ciulla, A. G. Amador, and B. Zinman, “Diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular edema,” Diabetes Care 26, 2653–2664 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eye (1)

V. Chichagova, D. Hallam, J. Collin, D. Zerti, B. Dorgau, M. Felemban, M. Lako, and D. H. Steel, “Cellular regeneration strategies for macular degeneration: past, present and future,” Eye 32, 946 (2018).

Graefe’s Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology (4)

J. Roider, S. H. M. Liew, C. Klatt, H. Elsner, E. Poerksen, J. Hillenkamp, R. Brinkmann, and R. Birngruber, “Selective retina therapy (SRT) for clinically significant diabetic macular edema,” Graefe’s Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology 248, 1263–1272 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. G. Park, J. R. Kim, S. Kang, E. Seifert, D. Theisen-Kunde, R. Brinkmann, and Y.-J. Roh, “Safety and efficacy of selective retina therapy (SRT) for the treatment of diabetic macular edema in Korean patients,” Graefe’s Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology 254, 1703–1713 (2016).
[Crossref]

E. Stefánsson, “Oxygen and diabetic eye disease,” Graefe’s Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology 228(1), 120–123 (1990).
[Crossref]

A. Yasui, M. Yamamoto, K. Hirayama, K. Shiraki, D. Theisen-Kunde, R. Brinkmann, Y. Miura, and T. Kohno, “Retinal sensitivity after selective retina therapy (SRT) on patients with central serous chorioretinopathy,” Graefe’s Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology 255, 243–254 (2017).
[Crossref]

International Ophthalmology Clinics (1)

T. E. T. D. R. S. R. Group, “Photocoagulation for diabetic macular edema: Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study report no. 4,” International Ophthalmology Clinics 27, 265–272 (1987).
[Crossref]

Investigative ophthalmology & visual science (3)

G. Schuele, M. Rumohr, G. Huettmann, and R. Brinkmann, “RPE damage thresholds and mechanisms for laser exposure in the microsecond-to-millisecond time regimen,” Investigative ophthalmology & visual science 46, 714–719 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. Y. Schmidt and R. D. Peisch, “Melanin concentration in normal human retinal pigment epithelium. Regional variation and age-related reduction,” Investigative ophthalmology & visual science 27, 1063–1067 (1986).

G. Schuele, M. Rumohr, G. Huettmann, and R. Brinkmann, “RPE damage thresholds and mechanisms for laser exposure in the microsecond-to-millisecond time regimen,” Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science 46, 714–719 (2005).
[Crossref]

P. Steiner, A. Ebneter, L. E. Berger, M. Zinkernagel, B. Považay, C. Meier, J. H. Kowal, C. Framme, R. Brinkmann, S. Wolf, and R. Sznitman, “Time-Resolved Ultra–High Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography for Real-Time Monitoring of Selective Retina TherapyTime-Resolved Ultra–High Resolution OCT During SRT,” Investigative ophthalmology & visual science 56, 6654–6662 (2015).
[Crossref]

JAMA (1)

Q. Mohamed, M. C. Gilles, and W. Ty, “Management of diabetic retinopathy: A systematic review,” JAMA 298, 902–916 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Journal of Postgraduate Medical Institute (Peshawar - Pakistan) (1)

S. Muhammad, “Fundus Fluorescein Angiography,” Journal of Postgraduate Medical Institute (Peshawar - Pakistan) 12, 1 (2011).

Lasers in Medical Science (1)

S. K. Houston, C. C. Wykoff, A. M. Berrocal, D. J. Hess, and T. G. Murray, “Lasers for the treatment of intraocular tumors,” Lasers in Medical Science 28(3), 1025–1034 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lasers in Surgery and Medicine (2)

R. Brinkmann, G. Huettmann, J. Roegener, J. Roider, R. Birngruber, and C. Lin, “Origin of retinal pigment epithelium cell damage by pulsed laser irradiance in the nanosecond to microsecond time regimen,” Lasers in Surgery and Medicine 27, 451–464 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Framme, G. Schuele, J. Roider, R. Birngruber, and R. Brinkmann, “Influence of pulse duration and pulse number in selective RPE laser treatment,” Lasers in Surgery and Medicine 34, 206–215 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Framme, A. Walter, P. Prahs, D. Theisen-Kunde, and R. Brinkmann, “Comparison of threshold irradiances and online dosimetry for selective retina treatment (SRT) in patients treated with 200 nanoseconds and 1.7 microseconds laser pulses,” Lasers in surgery and medicine 40, 616–624 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers (1)

C. Framme, G. Schuele, J. Roider, D. Kracht, R. Birngruber, and R. Brinkmann, “Threshold determinations for selective retinal pigment epithelium damage with repetitive pulsed microsecond laser systems in rabbits,” Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers 33, 400–409 (2002).

Ophthalmologe (1)

J. Roider, N. Michaud, T. Flotte, and R. Birngruber, “Histology of retinal lesions after continuous irradiation and selective micro-coagulation of the retinal pigment epithelium,” Ophthalmologe 90(3), 274–278 (1993).
[PubMed]

Ophthalmologica (1)

C. Framme, A. Walter, L. Berger, P. Prahs, C. Alt, D. Theisen-Kunde, J. Kowal, and R. Brinkmann, “Selective Retina Therapy in Acute and Chronic-Recurrent Central Serous Chorioretinopathy,” Ophthalmologica 234, 177–188 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ophthalmology (2)

J. E. Grunwald, C. E. Riva, A. J. Brucker, S. H. Sinclair, and B. L. Petrig, “Effect of panretinal photocoagulation on retinal blood flow in proliferative diabetic retinopathy,” Ophthalmology 93(5), 590 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. H. Bresnick, “Diabetic maculopathy: a critical review highlighting diffuse macular edema,” Ophthalmology 90, 1301–1317 (1983).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Physiol. Rev. (1)

O. Strauss, “The retinal pigment epithelium in visual function,” Physiol. Rev. 85, 845–881 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

PloS one (1)

K. Kurokawa, S. Makita, and Y. Yasuno, “Investigation of thermal effects of photocoagulation on retinal tissue using fine-motion-sensitive dynamic optical coherence tomography,” PloS one 11, e0156761 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (2)

D. Kaufmann, C. Burri, P. Arnold, V. M. Koch, C. Meier, B. Považay, and J. Justiz, “Dosimetry control and monitoring of selective retina therapy using optical coherence tomography,” Proc. SPIE 10416, 10416 (2017).

J. Neumann and R. Brinkmann, “Microbubble dynamics around laser heated microparticles,” Proc. SPIE 5142, 82–87 (2003).

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (1)

J. Roider, F. Hillenkamp, T. Flotte, and R. Birngruber, “Microphotocoagulation: selective effects of repetitive short laser pulses,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 90, 8643–8647 (1993).
[Crossref]

Retina (2)

M. B. Landers, E. Stefánsson, and M. L. Wolbarsht, “Panretinal photocoagulation and retinal oxygenation,” Retina 2(3), 167–175 (1982).
[Crossref]

Y. M. Paulus, A. Jain, H. Nomoto, C. Sramek, R. F. Gariano, D. Andersen, G. Schuele, L.-S. Leung, T. Leng, and D. Palanker, “Selective retinal therapy with microsecond exposures using a continuous line scanning laser,” Retina 31, 380–388 (2011).
[Crossref]

Saudi Journal of Ophthalmology (1)

I. Kozak and J. K. Luttrull, “Modern retinal laser therapy,” Saudi Journal of Ophthalmology 29, 137–146 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (7)

V.-P. Gabel, R. Birngruber, and F. Hillenkamp, “Visible and near infrared light absorption in pigment epithelium and choroid,” Proc. 23rd Consilium Ophthalmologicum, (Kyoto) Excerpta Medica pp. 658–662 (1978).

M. F. Marmor and T. Wolfensberger, “The retinal pigment epithelium,” Function and Disease (Oxford,1998) pp. 103–134.

J. Neumann and R. Brinkmann, “Nucleation and Dynamics of Bubbles Forming Around Laser Heated Microabsorbers,” Optical Society of America (2005).

J. N. Crosson, L. Mason, and J. O. Mason, “The role of focal laser in the anti–vascular endothelial growth factor era,” Ophthalmology and eye diseases9, 1179172117738240 (2017).
[Crossref]

P. Steiner, “Ultra-high Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography Retinal Tissue Monitoring for Dosimetry Control during Selective Retina Therapy Laser Treatment,” Ph.D. thesis, Graduate School for Cellular and Biomedical Sciences University of Bern (2015).

E. Seifert, Y.-J. Roh, A. Fritz, Y. G. Park, S. Kang, D. Theisen-Kunde, and R. Brinkmann, “Automatic irradiation control by an optical feedback technique for selective retina treatment (SRT) in a rabbit model,” in “European Conferences on Biomedical Optics,” (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2013), pp. 880303.

W. Drexler and J. G. Fujimoto, Optical Coherence Tomography: Technology and Applications (Springer Science & Business Media, 2008).
[Crossref]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 In ramp mode the pulse energy increases from pulse to pulse within one pulse train. By adjusting the trigger signal length, the number of pulses and thus the maximum applied energy can be adjusted.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Setup of the combined collinear SRT- and OCT system. BS: Beam splitter, with 75:25 ratio, where 75 % of incident light is conducted into the sample arm. Ref. Arm: Reference arm, in free-space and with the possibility to change polarization via manual fiber polarization controllers. To prevent polarization-caused transmission proprieties changes in the dichroic mirror, identical polarization controllers are inserted into the sample arm. L1 and L2 constitute the delivery optics that enable scanning and positioning of the laser beam within the eye by using the scanhead. Le is the lens of the eye itself. Therapy laser and OCT laser are focused on the retina. Reflected light is separated again by the dichroic mirror. Interfering light (from sample and reference arm) covering the 120 nm bandwidth is expanded by a spectrometer and finally analyzed by a CCD line cam.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Fluorescence microscope image of the scleral sample portion after peeling of the inner retina, viewed from the retinal side. Cells were stained 5 hours post mortem. At sites of treatment (Region a), the typically hexagonal arranged isoprismatic RPE cells disappeared completely and single dead cells can be seen as red dots at lesion borders (Region c). Region b shows healthy living cells.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 a) M-scans from treatments using classic mode (all pulses with the same energy). The red arrow indicates the pulse energy level, which increases from M-scan number 5 to M-scan number 1. In the lowest energy M-scan (number 5) no apparent signal washout is visible while the M-scan with highest pulse energy (number 1) shows distinct signal washouts. b) Top view onto RPE layer under bright field microscope. The applied treatment pattern is visible and allows for easy location of the treatment positions. Strong lesions, such as lesion number 1, relate to strong signal washouts in the corresponding M-scan (M-scan number 1). Weak lesions (e.g., lesion number 4) conversely relate to weak M-scan signal washouts. Spots with no visible lesion in the RPE layer (e.g., spot number 5) correlate to M-scans without any signal washout.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Signal washouts in M-scan caused by treatment in ramp-mode. a) Signal washout (vertical black line) in M-scan induced by one single laser pulse with 54 μJ. b) Signal washout induced by one single laser pulse with pulse energy of 180 μJ. The duration of the signal washout in the upper retinal layers is longer than at the level of the RPE. Additionally, layers in the middle are distorted for a longer time (∼4 ms).
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 This picture illustrates what is defined as false positive and false negative. Although there is no lesion in b) at the position encircled in white, the M-scan in a) shows signal washouts. In contrast, the M-scan in c) did not show any signal washout but the corresponding region, marked with a white circle, in d) shows a clear damage in the RPE cell structure.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Numbering on the horizontal-axis correspond to the laser pulse applied in ramp-mode where the pulse events are indicated by white arrows. Signal washouts in the M-scan were becoming more apparent with each pulse and thus with increasing pulse energy. On the zoomed-out signal washouts, this effect is observable. During automated dose-control, the first signal washout would be detected (in this case it is number 7) and the laser would stop shooting, indicated by the red marker. Pulse 8 to 14 would not be fired.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Visual evaluation by an investigator. Results for the seven classes of different number of laser pulses. All were acquired using the same ramp mode but with different number of pulses.

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Table 2 Evaluation by algorithm. Results showed for the 7 classes with different number of laser pulses. All were acquired using the same ramp mode but with different number of pulses.

Equations (3)

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CTh = X ¯ + σ n × κ
X ¯ = 1 50 n 50 n 1 X
σ n = σ ( { X n 50 , , X n 1 } )

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