Abstract

Breast feeding provides considerable benefits to the infant and mother. However, a lithium-based psychiatric medication may cause side effects in the child. Using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), trace lithium levels were observed in the breast milk of lactating rats administered with lithium treatment postpartum. Subsequently, the mammary glands of female rats were analyzed using LIBS, energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Key biological elements iron, magnesium, cobalt, calcium, phosphorus, sodium, iodine, potassium, sulfur, chlorine and zinc were observed. Lithium at 1.06 µg/g was measured in the mammary glands of treated subjects, but was below the limit of detection in controls. Lithium also increased iodine content in the glands. Lithium is present in the breast milk and mammary glands of lithium treated female subjects and this is the likely route of entry to breast-fed infants.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2018 (2)

G. G. Arantes de Carvalho, M. B. Bueno Guerra, A. Adame, C. S. Nomura, P. V. Oliveira, H. W. Pereira de Carvalho, D. Santos, L. C. Nunes, and F. J. Krug, “Recent advances in LIBS and XRF for the analysis of plants,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 33(6), 919–944 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. H. C. Manno, F. A. M. Manno, I. Ahmed, R. Ahmed, L. Shu, L. Li, S. Xu, F. Xie, V. W. Li, J. Ho, S. H. Cheng, and C. Lau, “Spectroscopic examination of enamel staining by coffee indicates dentin erosion by sequestration of elements,” Talanta 189, 550–559 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (1)

R. Scott, C. Kendall, N. Stone, and K. Rogers, “Elemental vs. phase composition of breast calcifications,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 136 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (1)

S. Natarajan and H. C. Bajaj, “Recovered materials from spent lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) as adsorbents for dye removal: Equilibrium, kinetics and mechanism,” J. Environ. Chem. Eng. 4(4), 4631–4643 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (4)

S. Rej, K. Shulman, and N. Herrmann, “Long-term effects of lithium on renal function,” Lancet 386(10007), 1943–1944 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Larner, L. N. Woodley, S. Shousha, A. Moyes, E. Humphreys-Williams, S. Strekopytov, A. N. Halliday, M. Rehkämper, and R. C. Coombes, “Zinc isotopic compositions of breast cancer tissue,” Metallomics 7(1), 112–117 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Riesop, A. V. Hirner, P. Rusch, and A. Bankfalvi, “Zinc distribution within breast cancer tissue: A possible marker for histological grading?” J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol. 141(7), 1321–1331 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. J. Andreas, B. Kampmann, and K. Mehring Le-Doare, “Human breast milk: A review on its composition and bioactivity,” Early Hum. Dev. 91(11), 629–635 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (1)

E. Darrouzet, S. Lindenthal, D. Marcellin, J.-L. Pellequer, and T. Pourcher, “The sodium/iodide symporter: state of the art of its molecular characterization,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1838(1), 244–253 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (2)

S. J. Mulware, “Comparative trace elemental analysis in cancerous and noncancerous human tissues using PIXE,” J. Biophys. 2013, 192026 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Lichtinger, R. Gernhäuser, A. Bauer, M. Bendel, L. Canella, M. Graw, R. Krücken, P. Kudejova, E. Mützel, S. Ring, D. Seiler, S. Winkler, K. Zeitelhack, and J. Schöpfer, “Position sensitive measurement of lithium traces in brain tissue with neutrons,” Med. Phys. 40(2), 023501 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (7)

J. Kaiser, K. Novotny, M. Z. Martin, A. Hrdlica, R. Malina, M. Hartl, V. Adam, and W. H. Weinberg, “Trace elemental analysis by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy—Biological applications,” Surf. Sci. Rep. 67(11-12), 233–243 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. L. Bogen, D. Sit, A. Genovese, and K. L. Wisner, “Three cases of lithium exposure and exclusive breastfeeding,” Arch. Women Ment. Health 15(1), 69–72 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. J. Grattan and H. C. Freake, “Zinc and cancer: implications for LIV-1 in breast cancer,” Nutrients 4(7), 648–675 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Kaczmarek, A. Jakubowska, G. Sukiennicki, M. Muszyńska, K. Jaworska-Bieniek, K. Durda, T. Huzarski, P. Serrano-Fernandez, T. Byrski, J. Gronwald, S. Gupta, and J. Lubiński, “Zinc and breast cancer risk,” Hered. Cancer Clin. Pract. 10(S4), A6 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. L. Björklund, M. Vahter, B. Palm, M. Grandér, S. Lignell, and M. Berglund, “Metals and trace element concentrations in breast milk of first time healthy mothers: a biological monitoring study,” Environmental Health 11, 92 (2012).
[Crossref]

W. Wood, “Lithium in pregnancy & lactation—safer than we thought?” Mental Health Clinician 2(1), 8–9 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. W. Hahn and N. Omenetto, “Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS), Part II: review of instrumental and methodological approaches to material analysis and applications to different fields,” Appl. Spectrosc. 66(4), 347–419 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

X. Huang and S. Katz, “Intakes of dietary iron and heme-iron and risk of postmenopausal breast cancer in the National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study,” Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 94(2), 613–614 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

C. Paton, T. R. Barnes, A. Shingleton-Smith, R. H. McAllister-Williams, J. Kirkbride, P. B. Jones, S. McIntyre, and POMH-UK project team, “Lithium in bipolar and other affective disorders: prescribing practice in the UK,” J. Psychopharmacol. (Oxford) 24(12), 1739–1746 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

R. Fernandez-Gonzalez, I. Illa-Bochaca, B. E. Welm, M. C. Fleisch, Z. Werb, C. Ortiz-de-Solorzano, and M. H. Barcellos-Hoff, “Mapping mammary gland architecture using multi-scale in situ analysis,” Integr. Biol. 1(1), 80–89 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

X. Huang, “Does iron have a role in breast cancer?” Lancet Oncol. 9(8), 803–807 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. M. Abdulrazzaq, N. Osman, N. Nagelkerke, M. Kosanovic, and A. Adem, “Trace element composition of plasma and breast milk of well-nourished women,” J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng 43(3), 329–334 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

A. C. Viguera, D. J. Newport, J. Ritchie, Z. Stowe, T. Whitfield, J. Mogielnicki, R. J. Baldessarini, A. Zurick, and L. S. Cohen, “Lithium in breast milk and nursing infants: clinical implications,” Am. J. Psychiatry 164(2), 342–345 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Lönnerdal, “Trace element transport in the mammary gland,” Annu. Rev. Nutr. 27(1), 165–177 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

A. Bocchetta and A. Loviselli, “Lithium treatment and thyroid abnormalities,” Clin. Pract. Epidemol Ment. Health 2(1), 23 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. J. N. Raju, P. Sarita, M. R. Kumar, G. A. V. R. Murty, B. S. Reddy, S. Lakshminarayana, V. Vijayan, P. V. B. R. Lakshmi, S. Gavarasana, and S. B. Reddy, “Trace elemental correlation study in malignant and normal breast tissue by PIXE technique,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 247(2), 361–367 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

D. J. Newport, A. C. Viguera, A. J. Beach, J. C. Ritchie, L. S. Cohen, and Z. N. Stowe, “Lithium Placental Passage and Obstetrical Outcome: Implications for Clinical Management During Late Pregnancy,” Am. J. Psychiatry 162(11), 2162–2170 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

J. L. Mathew, “Effect of maternal antibiotics on breast feeding infants,” Postgrad. Med. J. 80(942), 196–200 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

P. P. A. Smyth, “The thyroid, iodine and breast cancer,” Breast Cancer Res. 5(5), 235–238 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (4)

L. A. R. Hanson and M. Korotkova, “The role of breastfeeding in prevention of neonatal infection: host defence of the neonate,” Semin. Neonatol. 7(4), 275–281 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. H. Oddy, “The impact of breastmilk on infant and child health,” Breastfeeding Review 10, 5–18 (2002).

R. W. Kupka, W. A. Nolen, R. M. Post, S. L. McElroy, L. L. Altshuler, K. D. Denicoff, M. A. Frye, P. E. Keck, G. S. Leverich, A. J. Rush, T. Suppes, C. Pollio, and H. A. Drexhage, “High rate of autoimmune thyroiditis in bipolar disorder: lack of association with lithium exposure,” Biol. Psychiatry 51(4), 305–311 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Ubuka, “Assay methods and biological roles of labile sulfur in animal tissues,” J. Chromatogr. B Analyt. Technol. Biomed. Life Sci. 781(1-2), 227–249 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

P. J. Martens, “The effect of breastfeeding education on adolescent beliefs and attitudes: a randomized school intervention in the Canadian Ojibwa community of Sagkeeng,” J. Hum. Lact. 17(3), 245–255 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (4)

V. Speirs, “Comparative rat and human mammary histopathology,” Breast Cancer Res. 2(1), 66678 (2000).
[Crossref]

L. Jorhem, J. Engman, B.-M. Arvidsson, B. Åsman, C. Åstrand, K. O. Gjerstad, J. Haugsnes, V. Heldal, K. Holm, A. M. Jensen, M. Johansson, L. Jonsson, H. Liukkonen-Lilja, E. Niemi, C. Thorn, K. Utterström, E.-R. Venäläinen, and T. Waaler, “Determination of lead, cadmium, zinc, copper, and iron in foods by atomic absorption spectrometry after microwave digestion: NMKL 1 collaborative study,” J. AOAC Int.  83, 1189–2003 (2000).

J.-Y. Cho, R. Léveillé, R. Kao, B. Rousset, A. F. Parlow, W. E. Burak, E. L. Mazzaferri, and S. M. Jhiang, “Hormonal regulation of radioiodide uptake activity and Na+/I- Symporter expression in mammary glands,” J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 85(8), 2936–2943 (2000).
[PubMed]

U. H. Tazebay, I. L. Wapnir, O. Levy, O. Dohan, L. S. Zuckier, Q. H. Zhao, H. F. Deng, P. S. Amenta, S. Fineberg, R. G. Pestell, and N. Carrasco, “The mammary gland iodide transporter is expressed during lactation and in breast cancer,” Nat. Med. 6(8), 871–878 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (2)

H. Funahashi, T. Imai, Y. Tanaka, K. Tsukamura, Y. Hayakawa, T. Kikumori, T. Mase, T. Itoh, M. Nishikawa, H. Hayashi, A. Shibata, Y. Hibi, M. Takahashi, and T. Narita, “Wakame seaweed suppresses the proliferation of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)-anthracene-induced mammary tumors in rats,” Jpn. J. Cancer Res. 90(9), 922–927 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. D. Cardiff and S. R. Wellings, “The comparative pathology of human and mouse mammary glands,” J. Mammary Gland Biol. Neoplasia 4(1), 105–122 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

T. K. Creson, P. J. Monaco, E. M. Rasch, A. H. Hagardorn, and K. E. Ferslew, “Capillary ion analysis of lithium concentrations in biological fluids and tissues of Poecilia (teleost),” Electrophoresis 19(16-17), 3018–3021 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

R.-P. Huang, Y. Fan, I. de Belle, C. Niemeyer, M. M. Gottardis, D. Mercola, and E. D. Adamson, “Decreased Egr-1 expression in human, mouse and rat mammary cells and tissues correlates with tumor formation,” Int. J. Cancer 72(1), 102–109 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

J. Russo and I. H. Russo, “Experimentally induced mammary tumors in rats,” Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 39(1), 7–20 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

W. V. Welshons, K. S. Engler, J. A. Taylor, L. H. Grady, and E. M. Curran, “Lithium-stimulated proliferation and alteration of phosphoinositide metabolites in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells,” J. Cell. Physiol. 165(1), 134–144 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1994 (2)

R. A. Merendino, G. Mancuso, F. Tomasello, D. Gazzara, V. Cusumano, S. Chillemi, P. Spadaro, and M. Mesiti, “Effects of lithium carbonate on cytokine production in patients affected by breast cancer,” J. Biol. Regul. Homeost. Agents 8(3), 88–91 (1994).
[PubMed]

C. J. Bates and A. Prentice, “Breast milk as a source of vitamins, essential minerals and trace elements,” Pharmacol. Ther. 62(1-2), 193–220 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

G. Rylance and N. Plant, “Drugs and breast milk,” Practitioner 235(1506), 692–694 (1991).
[PubMed]

1990 (1)

P. W. Howie, J. S. Forsyth, S. A. Ogston, A. Clark, and C. D. Florey, “Protective effect of breast feeding against infection,” BMJ 300(6716), 11–16 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

B. M. Galkin, S. A. Feig, A. S. Patchefsky, and H. D. Muir, “Elemental analysis of breast calcifications,” Recent Results Cancer Res. 105, 89–94 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1978 (1)

J. H. Lazarus and H. L. Muston, “The effect of lithium on the iodide concentrating mechanism in mouse salivary gland,” Acta Pharmacol. Toxicol. (Copenh.) 43(1), 55–58 (1978).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Abdulrazzaq, Y. M.

Y. M. Abdulrazzaq, N. Osman, N. Nagelkerke, M. Kosanovic, and A. Adem, “Trace element composition of plasma and breast milk of well-nourished women,” J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng 43(3), 329–334 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adam, V.

J. Kaiser, K. Novotny, M. Z. Martin, A. Hrdlica, R. Malina, M. Hartl, V. Adam, and W. H. Weinberg, “Trace elemental analysis by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy—Biological applications,” Surf. Sci. Rep. 67(11-12), 233–243 (2012).
[Crossref]

Adame, A.

G. G. Arantes de Carvalho, M. B. Bueno Guerra, A. Adame, C. S. Nomura, P. V. Oliveira, H. W. Pereira de Carvalho, D. Santos, L. C. Nunes, and F. J. Krug, “Recent advances in LIBS and XRF for the analysis of plants,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 33(6), 919–944 (2018).
[Crossref]

Adamson, E. D.

R.-P. Huang, Y. Fan, I. de Belle, C. Niemeyer, M. M. Gottardis, D. Mercola, and E. D. Adamson, “Decreased Egr-1 expression in human, mouse and rat mammary cells and tissues correlates with tumor formation,” Int. J. Cancer 72(1), 102–109 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adem, A.

Y. M. Abdulrazzaq, N. Osman, N. Nagelkerke, M. Kosanovic, and A. Adem, “Trace element composition of plasma and breast milk of well-nourished women,” J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng 43(3), 329–334 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ahmed, I.

S. H. C. Manno, F. A. M. Manno, I. Ahmed, R. Ahmed, L. Shu, L. Li, S. Xu, F. Xie, V. W. Li, J. Ho, S. H. Cheng, and C. Lau, “Spectroscopic examination of enamel staining by coffee indicates dentin erosion by sequestration of elements,” Talanta 189, 550–559 (2018).
[Crossref]

Ahmed, R.

S. H. C. Manno, F. A. M. Manno, I. Ahmed, R. Ahmed, L. Shu, L. Li, S. Xu, F. Xie, V. W. Li, J. Ho, S. H. Cheng, and C. Lau, “Spectroscopic examination of enamel staining by coffee indicates dentin erosion by sequestration of elements,” Talanta 189, 550–559 (2018).
[Crossref]

Altshuler, L. L.

R. W. Kupka, W. A. Nolen, R. M. Post, S. L. McElroy, L. L. Altshuler, K. D. Denicoff, M. A. Frye, P. E. Keck, G. S. Leverich, A. J. Rush, T. Suppes, C. Pollio, and H. A. Drexhage, “High rate of autoimmune thyroiditis in bipolar disorder: lack of association with lithium exposure,” Biol. Psychiatry 51(4), 305–311 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Amenta, P. S.

U. H. Tazebay, I. L. Wapnir, O. Levy, O. Dohan, L. S. Zuckier, Q. H. Zhao, H. F. Deng, P. S. Amenta, S. Fineberg, R. G. Pestell, and N. Carrasco, “The mammary gland iodide transporter is expressed during lactation and in breast cancer,” Nat. Med. 6(8), 871–878 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Andreas, N. J.

N. J. Andreas, B. Kampmann, and K. Mehring Le-Doare, “Human breast milk: A review on its composition and bioactivity,” Early Hum. Dev. 91(11), 629–635 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arantes de Carvalho, G. G.

G. G. Arantes de Carvalho, M. B. Bueno Guerra, A. Adame, C. S. Nomura, P. V. Oliveira, H. W. Pereira de Carvalho, D. Santos, L. C. Nunes, and F. J. Krug, “Recent advances in LIBS and XRF for the analysis of plants,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 33(6), 919–944 (2018).
[Crossref]

Arvidsson, B.-M.

L. Jorhem, J. Engman, B.-M. Arvidsson, B. Åsman, C. Åstrand, K. O. Gjerstad, J. Haugsnes, V. Heldal, K. Holm, A. M. Jensen, M. Johansson, L. Jonsson, H. Liukkonen-Lilja, E. Niemi, C. Thorn, K. Utterström, E.-R. Venäläinen, and T. Waaler, “Determination of lead, cadmium, zinc, copper, and iron in foods by atomic absorption spectrometry after microwave digestion: NMKL 1 collaborative study,” J. AOAC Int.  83, 1189–2003 (2000).

Åsman, B.

L. Jorhem, J. Engman, B.-M. Arvidsson, B. Åsman, C. Åstrand, K. O. Gjerstad, J. Haugsnes, V. Heldal, K. Holm, A. M. Jensen, M. Johansson, L. Jonsson, H. Liukkonen-Lilja, E. Niemi, C. Thorn, K. Utterström, E.-R. Venäläinen, and T. Waaler, “Determination of lead, cadmium, zinc, copper, and iron in foods by atomic absorption spectrometry after microwave digestion: NMKL 1 collaborative study,” J. AOAC Int.  83, 1189–2003 (2000).

Åstrand, C.

L. Jorhem, J. Engman, B.-M. Arvidsson, B. Åsman, C. Åstrand, K. O. Gjerstad, J. Haugsnes, V. Heldal, K. Holm, A. M. Jensen, M. Johansson, L. Jonsson, H. Liukkonen-Lilja, E. Niemi, C. Thorn, K. Utterström, E.-R. Venäläinen, and T. Waaler, “Determination of lead, cadmium, zinc, copper, and iron in foods by atomic absorption spectrometry after microwave digestion: NMKL 1 collaborative study,” J. AOAC Int.  83, 1189–2003 (2000).

Bajaj, H. C.

S. Natarajan and H. C. Bajaj, “Recovered materials from spent lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) as adsorbents for dye removal: Equilibrium, kinetics and mechanism,” J. Environ. Chem. Eng. 4(4), 4631–4643 (2016).
[Crossref]

Baldessarini, R. J.

A. C. Viguera, D. J. Newport, J. Ritchie, Z. Stowe, T. Whitfield, J. Mogielnicki, R. J. Baldessarini, A. Zurick, and L. S. Cohen, “Lithium in breast milk and nursing infants: clinical implications,” Am. J. Psychiatry 164(2), 342–345 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bankfalvi, A.

D. Riesop, A. V. Hirner, P. Rusch, and A. Bankfalvi, “Zinc distribution within breast cancer tissue: A possible marker for histological grading?” J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol. 141(7), 1321–1331 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barcellos-Hoff, M. H.

R. Fernandez-Gonzalez, I. Illa-Bochaca, B. E. Welm, M. C. Fleisch, Z. Werb, C. Ortiz-de-Solorzano, and M. H. Barcellos-Hoff, “Mapping mammary gland architecture using multi-scale in situ analysis,” Integr. Biol. 1(1), 80–89 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barnes, T. R.

C. Paton, T. R. Barnes, A. Shingleton-Smith, R. H. McAllister-Williams, J. Kirkbride, P. B. Jones, S. McIntyre, and POMH-UK project team, “Lithium in bipolar and other affective disorders: prescribing practice in the UK,” J. Psychopharmacol. (Oxford) 24(12), 1739–1746 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bates, C. J.

C. J. Bates and A. Prentice, “Breast milk as a source of vitamins, essential minerals and trace elements,” Pharmacol. Ther. 62(1-2), 193–220 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bauer, A.

J. Lichtinger, R. Gernhäuser, A. Bauer, M. Bendel, L. Canella, M. Graw, R. Krücken, P. Kudejova, E. Mützel, S. Ring, D. Seiler, S. Winkler, K. Zeitelhack, and J. Schöpfer, “Position sensitive measurement of lithium traces in brain tissue with neutrons,” Med. Phys. 40(2), 023501 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beach, A. J.

D. J. Newport, A. C. Viguera, A. J. Beach, J. C. Ritchie, L. S. Cohen, and Z. N. Stowe, “Lithium Placental Passage and Obstetrical Outcome: Implications for Clinical Management During Late Pregnancy,” Am. J. Psychiatry 162(11), 2162–2170 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bendel, M.

J. Lichtinger, R. Gernhäuser, A. Bauer, M. Bendel, L. Canella, M. Graw, R. Krücken, P. Kudejova, E. Mützel, S. Ring, D. Seiler, S. Winkler, K. Zeitelhack, and J. Schöpfer, “Position sensitive measurement of lithium traces in brain tissue with neutrons,” Med. Phys. 40(2), 023501 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Berglund, M.

K. L. Björklund, M. Vahter, B. Palm, M. Grandér, S. Lignell, and M. Berglund, “Metals and trace element concentrations in breast milk of first time healthy mothers: a biological monitoring study,” Environmental Health 11, 92 (2012).
[Crossref]

Björklund, K. L.

K. L. Björklund, M. Vahter, B. Palm, M. Grandér, S. Lignell, and M. Berglund, “Metals and trace element concentrations in breast milk of first time healthy mothers: a biological monitoring study,” Environmental Health 11, 92 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bocchetta, A.

A. Bocchetta and A. Loviselli, “Lithium treatment and thyroid abnormalities,” Clin. Pract. Epidemol Ment. Health 2(1), 23 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bogen, D. L.

D. L. Bogen, D. Sit, A. Genovese, and K. L. Wisner, “Three cases of lithium exposure and exclusive breastfeeding,” Arch. Women Ment. Health 15(1), 69–72 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bueno Guerra, M. B.

G. G. Arantes de Carvalho, M. B. Bueno Guerra, A. Adame, C. S. Nomura, P. V. Oliveira, H. W. Pereira de Carvalho, D. Santos, L. C. Nunes, and F. J. Krug, “Recent advances in LIBS and XRF for the analysis of plants,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 33(6), 919–944 (2018).
[Crossref]

Burak, W. E.

J.-Y. Cho, R. Léveillé, R. Kao, B. Rousset, A. F. Parlow, W. E. Burak, E. L. Mazzaferri, and S. M. Jhiang, “Hormonal regulation of radioiodide uptake activity and Na+/I- Symporter expression in mammary glands,” J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 85(8), 2936–2943 (2000).
[PubMed]

Byrski, T.

K. Kaczmarek, A. Jakubowska, G. Sukiennicki, M. Muszyńska, K. Jaworska-Bieniek, K. Durda, T. Huzarski, P. Serrano-Fernandez, T. Byrski, J. Gronwald, S. Gupta, and J. Lubiński, “Zinc and breast cancer risk,” Hered. Cancer Clin. Pract. 10(S4), A6 (2012).
[Crossref]

Canella, L.

J. Lichtinger, R. Gernhäuser, A. Bauer, M. Bendel, L. Canella, M. Graw, R. Krücken, P. Kudejova, E. Mützel, S. Ring, D. Seiler, S. Winkler, K. Zeitelhack, and J. Schöpfer, “Position sensitive measurement of lithium traces in brain tissue with neutrons,” Med. Phys. 40(2), 023501 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cardiff, R. D.

R. D. Cardiff and S. R. Wellings, “The comparative pathology of human and mouse mammary glands,” J. Mammary Gland Biol. Neoplasia 4(1), 105–122 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carrasco, N.

U. H. Tazebay, I. L. Wapnir, O. Levy, O. Dohan, L. S. Zuckier, Q. H. Zhao, H. F. Deng, P. S. Amenta, S. Fineberg, R. G. Pestell, and N. Carrasco, “The mammary gland iodide transporter is expressed during lactation and in breast cancer,” Nat. Med. 6(8), 871–878 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheng, S. H.

S. H. C. Manno, F. A. M. Manno, I. Ahmed, R. Ahmed, L. Shu, L. Li, S. Xu, F. Xie, V. W. Li, J. Ho, S. H. Cheng, and C. Lau, “Spectroscopic examination of enamel staining by coffee indicates dentin erosion by sequestration of elements,” Talanta 189, 550–559 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chillemi, S.

R. A. Merendino, G. Mancuso, F. Tomasello, D. Gazzara, V. Cusumano, S. Chillemi, P. Spadaro, and M. Mesiti, “Effects of lithium carbonate on cytokine production in patients affected by breast cancer,” J. Biol. Regul. Homeost. Agents 8(3), 88–91 (1994).
[PubMed]

Cho, J.-Y.

J.-Y. Cho, R. Léveillé, R. Kao, B. Rousset, A. F. Parlow, W. E. Burak, E. L. Mazzaferri, and S. M. Jhiang, “Hormonal regulation of radioiodide uptake activity and Na+/I- Symporter expression in mammary glands,” J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 85(8), 2936–2943 (2000).
[PubMed]

Clark, A.

P. W. Howie, J. S. Forsyth, S. A. Ogston, A. Clark, and C. D. Florey, “Protective effect of breast feeding against infection,” BMJ 300(6716), 11–16 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cohen, L. S.

A. C. Viguera, D. J. Newport, J. Ritchie, Z. Stowe, T. Whitfield, J. Mogielnicki, R. J. Baldessarini, A. Zurick, and L. S. Cohen, “Lithium in breast milk and nursing infants: clinical implications,” Am. J. Psychiatry 164(2), 342–345 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Newport, A. C. Viguera, A. J. Beach, J. C. Ritchie, L. S. Cohen, and Z. N. Stowe, “Lithium Placental Passage and Obstetrical Outcome: Implications for Clinical Management During Late Pregnancy,” Am. J. Psychiatry 162(11), 2162–2170 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Coombes, R. C.

F. Larner, L. N. Woodley, S. Shousha, A. Moyes, E. Humphreys-Williams, S. Strekopytov, A. N. Halliday, M. Rehkämper, and R. C. Coombes, “Zinc isotopic compositions of breast cancer tissue,” Metallomics 7(1), 112–117 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Creson, T. K.

T. K. Creson, P. J. Monaco, E. M. Rasch, A. H. Hagardorn, and K. E. Ferslew, “Capillary ion analysis of lithium concentrations in biological fluids and tissues of Poecilia (teleost),” Electrophoresis 19(16-17), 3018–3021 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Curran, E. M.

W. V. Welshons, K. S. Engler, J. A. Taylor, L. H. Grady, and E. M. Curran, “Lithium-stimulated proliferation and alteration of phosphoinositide metabolites in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells,” J. Cell. Physiol. 165(1), 134–144 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cusumano, V.

R. A. Merendino, G. Mancuso, F. Tomasello, D. Gazzara, V. Cusumano, S. Chillemi, P. Spadaro, and M. Mesiti, “Effects of lithium carbonate on cytokine production in patients affected by breast cancer,” J. Biol. Regul. Homeost. Agents 8(3), 88–91 (1994).
[PubMed]

Darrouzet, E.

E. Darrouzet, S. Lindenthal, D. Marcellin, J.-L. Pellequer, and T. Pourcher, “The sodium/iodide symporter: state of the art of its molecular characterization,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1838(1), 244–253 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

de Belle, I.

R.-P. Huang, Y. Fan, I. de Belle, C. Niemeyer, M. M. Gottardis, D. Mercola, and E. D. Adamson, “Decreased Egr-1 expression in human, mouse and rat mammary cells and tissues correlates with tumor formation,” Int. J. Cancer 72(1), 102–109 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Deng, H. F.

U. H. Tazebay, I. L. Wapnir, O. Levy, O. Dohan, L. S. Zuckier, Q. H. Zhao, H. F. Deng, P. S. Amenta, S. Fineberg, R. G. Pestell, and N. Carrasco, “The mammary gland iodide transporter is expressed during lactation and in breast cancer,” Nat. Med. 6(8), 871–878 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Denicoff, K. D.

R. W. Kupka, W. A. Nolen, R. M. Post, S. L. McElroy, L. L. Altshuler, K. D. Denicoff, M. A. Frye, P. E. Keck, G. S. Leverich, A. J. Rush, T. Suppes, C. Pollio, and H. A. Drexhage, “High rate of autoimmune thyroiditis in bipolar disorder: lack of association with lithium exposure,” Biol. Psychiatry 51(4), 305–311 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dohan, O.

U. H. Tazebay, I. L. Wapnir, O. Levy, O. Dohan, L. S. Zuckier, Q. H. Zhao, H. F. Deng, P. S. Amenta, S. Fineberg, R. G. Pestell, and N. Carrasco, “The mammary gland iodide transporter is expressed during lactation and in breast cancer,” Nat. Med. 6(8), 871–878 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Drexhage, H. A.

R. W. Kupka, W. A. Nolen, R. M. Post, S. L. McElroy, L. L. Altshuler, K. D. Denicoff, M. A. Frye, P. E. Keck, G. S. Leverich, A. J. Rush, T. Suppes, C. Pollio, and H. A. Drexhage, “High rate of autoimmune thyroiditis in bipolar disorder: lack of association with lithium exposure,” Biol. Psychiatry 51(4), 305–311 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Durda, K.

K. Kaczmarek, A. Jakubowska, G. Sukiennicki, M. Muszyńska, K. Jaworska-Bieniek, K. Durda, T. Huzarski, P. Serrano-Fernandez, T. Byrski, J. Gronwald, S. Gupta, and J. Lubiński, “Zinc and breast cancer risk,” Hered. Cancer Clin. Pract. 10(S4), A6 (2012).
[Crossref]

Engler, K. S.

W. V. Welshons, K. S. Engler, J. A. Taylor, L. H. Grady, and E. M. Curran, “Lithium-stimulated proliferation and alteration of phosphoinositide metabolites in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells,” J. Cell. Physiol. 165(1), 134–144 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Engman, J.

L. Jorhem, J. Engman, B.-M. Arvidsson, B. Åsman, C. Åstrand, K. O. Gjerstad, J. Haugsnes, V. Heldal, K. Holm, A. M. Jensen, M. Johansson, L. Jonsson, H. Liukkonen-Lilja, E. Niemi, C. Thorn, K. Utterström, E.-R. Venäläinen, and T. Waaler, “Determination of lead, cadmium, zinc, copper, and iron in foods by atomic absorption spectrometry after microwave digestion: NMKL 1 collaborative study,” J. AOAC Int.  83, 1189–2003 (2000).

Fan, Y.

R.-P. Huang, Y. Fan, I. de Belle, C. Niemeyer, M. M. Gottardis, D. Mercola, and E. D. Adamson, “Decreased Egr-1 expression in human, mouse and rat mammary cells and tissues correlates with tumor formation,” Int. J. Cancer 72(1), 102–109 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feig, S. A.

B. M. Galkin, S. A. Feig, A. S. Patchefsky, and H. D. Muir, “Elemental analysis of breast calcifications,” Recent Results Cancer Res. 105, 89–94 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fernandez-Gonzalez, R.

R. Fernandez-Gonzalez, I. Illa-Bochaca, B. E. Welm, M. C. Fleisch, Z. Werb, C. Ortiz-de-Solorzano, and M. H. Barcellos-Hoff, “Mapping mammary gland architecture using multi-scale in situ analysis,” Integr. Biol. 1(1), 80–89 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ferslew, K. E.

T. K. Creson, P. J. Monaco, E. M. Rasch, A. H. Hagardorn, and K. E. Ferslew, “Capillary ion analysis of lithium concentrations in biological fluids and tissues of Poecilia (teleost),” Electrophoresis 19(16-17), 3018–3021 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fineberg, S.

U. H. Tazebay, I. L. Wapnir, O. Levy, O. Dohan, L. S. Zuckier, Q. H. Zhao, H. F. Deng, P. S. Amenta, S. Fineberg, R. G. Pestell, and N. Carrasco, “The mammary gland iodide transporter is expressed during lactation and in breast cancer,” Nat. Med. 6(8), 871–878 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fleisch, M. C.

R. Fernandez-Gonzalez, I. Illa-Bochaca, B. E. Welm, M. C. Fleisch, Z. Werb, C. Ortiz-de-Solorzano, and M. H. Barcellos-Hoff, “Mapping mammary gland architecture using multi-scale in situ analysis,” Integr. Biol. 1(1), 80–89 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Florey, C. D.

P. W. Howie, J. S. Forsyth, S. A. Ogston, A. Clark, and C. D. Florey, “Protective effect of breast feeding against infection,” BMJ 300(6716), 11–16 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Forsyth, J. S.

P. W. Howie, J. S. Forsyth, S. A. Ogston, A. Clark, and C. D. Florey, “Protective effect of breast feeding against infection,” BMJ 300(6716), 11–16 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Freake, H. C.

B. J. Grattan and H. C. Freake, “Zinc and cancer: implications for LIV-1 in breast cancer,” Nutrients 4(7), 648–675 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Frye, M. A.

R. W. Kupka, W. A. Nolen, R. M. Post, S. L. McElroy, L. L. Altshuler, K. D. Denicoff, M. A. Frye, P. E. Keck, G. S. Leverich, A. J. Rush, T. Suppes, C. Pollio, and H. A. Drexhage, “High rate of autoimmune thyroiditis in bipolar disorder: lack of association with lithium exposure,” Biol. Psychiatry 51(4), 305–311 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Funahashi, H.

H. Funahashi, T. Imai, Y. Tanaka, K. Tsukamura, Y. Hayakawa, T. Kikumori, T. Mase, T. Itoh, M. Nishikawa, H. Hayashi, A. Shibata, Y. Hibi, M. Takahashi, and T. Narita, “Wakame seaweed suppresses the proliferation of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)-anthracene-induced mammary tumors in rats,” Jpn. J. Cancer Res. 90(9), 922–927 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Galkin, B. M.

B. M. Galkin, S. A. Feig, A. S. Patchefsky, and H. D. Muir, “Elemental analysis of breast calcifications,” Recent Results Cancer Res. 105, 89–94 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gavarasana, S.

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E. Darrouzet, S. Lindenthal, D. Marcellin, J.-L. Pellequer, and T. Pourcher, “The sodium/iodide symporter: state of the art of its molecular characterization,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1838(1), 244–253 (2014).
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T. K. Creson, P. J. Monaco, E. M. Rasch, A. H. Hagardorn, and K. E. Ferslew, “Capillary ion analysis of lithium concentrations in biological fluids and tissues of Poecilia (teleost),” Electrophoresis 19(16-17), 3018–3021 (1998).
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G. J. N. Raju, P. Sarita, M. R. Kumar, G. A. V. R. Murty, B. S. Reddy, S. Lakshminarayana, V. Vijayan, P. V. B. R. Lakshmi, S. Gavarasana, and S. B. Reddy, “Trace elemental correlation study in malignant and normal breast tissue by PIXE technique,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 247(2), 361–367 (2006).
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G. J. N. Raju, P. Sarita, M. R. Kumar, G. A. V. R. Murty, B. S. Reddy, S. Lakshminarayana, V. Vijayan, P. V. B. R. Lakshmi, S. Gavarasana, and S. B. Reddy, “Trace elemental correlation study in malignant and normal breast tissue by PIXE technique,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 247(2), 361–367 (2006).
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F. Larner, L. N. Woodley, S. Shousha, A. Moyes, E. Humphreys-Williams, S. Strekopytov, A. N. Halliday, M. Rehkämper, and R. C. Coombes, “Zinc isotopic compositions of breast cancer tissue,” Metallomics 7(1), 112–117 (2015).
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J. Lichtinger, R. Gernhäuser, A. Bauer, M. Bendel, L. Canella, M. Graw, R. Krücken, P. Kudejova, E. Mützel, S. Ring, D. Seiler, S. Winkler, K. Zeitelhack, and J. Schöpfer, “Position sensitive measurement of lithium traces in brain tissue with neutrons,” Med. Phys. 40(2), 023501 (2013).
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A. C. Viguera, D. J. Newport, J. Ritchie, Z. Stowe, T. Whitfield, J. Mogielnicki, R. J. Baldessarini, A. Zurick, and L. S. Cohen, “Lithium in breast milk and nursing infants: clinical implications,” Am. J. Psychiatry 164(2), 342–345 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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D. J. Newport, A. C. Viguera, A. J. Beach, J. C. Ritchie, L. S. Cohen, and Z. N. Stowe, “Lithium Placental Passage and Obstetrical Outcome: Implications for Clinical Management During Late Pregnancy,” Am. J. Psychiatry 162(11), 2162–2170 (2005).
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J.-Y. Cho, R. Léveillé, R. Kao, B. Rousset, A. F. Parlow, W. E. Burak, E. L. Mazzaferri, and S. M. Jhiang, “Hormonal regulation of radioiodide uptake activity and Na+/I- Symporter expression in mammary glands,” J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 85(8), 2936–2943 (2000).
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Rusch, P.

D. Riesop, A. V. Hirner, P. Rusch, and A. Bankfalvi, “Zinc distribution within breast cancer tissue: A possible marker for histological grading?” J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol. 141(7), 1321–1331 (2015).
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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) The sketch of the female rat chest showing the mammary glands with the embossed nipples. (b) The female rat shaven thorax after the mammary glands were excised. (c) The extracted left and right mammary glands. (d) Collection of breast milk from a lactating rat.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Schematic diagram of the x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) system. The x-ray source and detector are shown. Also, a 3D translation stage and optical camera aid sample positioning relative to the source and detector. (b) Schematic diagram of the laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) setup. The laser and spectrometer are shown. A high power lens focuses laser light on to the sample and an optical fiber cable channels emitted light to the spectrometer.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) LIBS spectra from the breast milk of a control lactating subject (black) and a lithium treated lactating subject (red) expanded about 670 nm. A Li line is observed in treated subjects only at 670.7 nm.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Averaged LIBS spectrum from the six shots fired at the left and right mammary glands of a control subject. (b) Magnesium (Mg) emission lines were observed at 279.6 and 280.3 nm. (c) Cobalt (Co) emission was observed at 388.3 nm. (d) Calcium (Ca) was observed at 393.4, 396.9 and 422.7 nm. (e) Sodium (Na) lines were observed at 589.0 and 589.5 nm. (f) Iodine (I) line was observed at 746.9 nm. (g) Potassium (K) lines were observed at 766.4 and 769.9 nm. Error bars indicate standard deviation of intensities across shots at the respective emission lines.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The XRF spectrum obtained from a control subject averaged across the left and right mammary glands. Peaks corresponding to phosphorus (P), sulfur (S), chlorine (Cl), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), iodine (I), iron (Fe), cobalt (Co) and zinc (Zn) were clearly visible. All emissions above were from the K shell, except for iodine, which came from the L shell.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Group averaged LIBS spectra from the mammary glands of control (N = 5) and 7 day lithium treated subjects (N = 5). (b-h) Spectra expanded about the lithium (Li), Mg, Co, Ca, P, Na, I, and K lines, respectively. The intensities have been normalized by that of the hydrogen line at 656.2 nm. The concentrations of lithium and other elements were affected by lithium intake.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) Group averaged XRF spectra of the mammary glands from control (N = 5) and 7 day lithium treated subjects (N = 5). (b) The zoom in of panel (a) about P, S, Cl, K, Ca, I, Fe, Co and Zn. The spectra were normalized by the quantum scattering lines obtained at around 1637 eV.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 (a) Bar plots showing the mean and standard error of LIBS emission intensities for Mg, Co, Ca, Na, Li, I and K from the mammary glands of control (N = 5) and 7 day lithium treated subjects (N = 5). (b) Bar plots of XRF emission intensities for P, S, Cl, K, Ca, I, Fe, Co and Zn from control and lithium treated subjects. Statistical analysis between groups was performed with one way ANOVA. A post hoc analysis using two tail t-test of equal variance was performed with p-value threshold of 0.05 considered statistically significant. * indicates p<0.05. Cross correlation analysis was also performed to compute the correlation coefficients (cc) between the common elemental emissions from LIBS and XRF.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 (a) Illustration of thyroid and mammary gland and the blood vessels connecting both organs. (b) Model showing hypothesized mechanism for accumulation of iodine in the mammary glands and concurrent reduction of iodine in the thyroid [28]. Excess iodine in the blood due to the presence of lithium causes extra iodine to enter the mammary glands via the sodium iodide symporter (NIS).

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Body weights of the lithium treated subjects and lithium carbonate doses administered. The doses are in milligrams of lithium carbonate per milliliter of water.

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